Cognitive Task Analysis for Implicit Knowledge About Visual Representations With Similarity Learning Methods.
Abstract Visual representations are prevalent in STEM instruction. To benefit from visuals, students need representational competencies that enable them to see meaningful information. Most research has focused on explicit conceptual representational competencies, but implicit perceptual competencies might also allow students to efficiently see meaningful information in visuals. Most common methods to assess students' representational competencies rely on verbal explanations or assume explicit attention. However, because perceptual competencies are implicit and not necessarily verbally accessible, these methods are...
Source: Cognitive Science - September 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mason B, Rau MA, Nowak R Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

The Embodied God: Core Intuitions About Person Physicality Coexist and Interfere With Acquired Christian Beliefs About God, the Holy Spirit, and Jesus.
We report on a critical test of these contrasting hypotheses. Prior research found that among adult Christian religious adherents, intuitions about person psychology coexist and interfere with theological conceptualizations of God (e.g., infallibility). Here, we use a sentence verification paradigm where participants are asked to evaluate as true or false statements on which core knowledge intuitions about person physicality and psychology and Christian theology about God are inconsistent (true on one and false on the other) versus consistent (both true or both false). We find, as predicted by the counterintuitiveness hypo...
Source: Cognitive Science - September 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Barlev M, Mermelstein S, Cohen AS, German TC Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Erratum.
Authors: PMID: 31529530 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Cognitive Science)
Source: Cognitive Science - September 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

The Influence of Shared Visual Context on the Successful Emergence of Conventions in a Referential Communication Task.
We present two experiments investigating the importance of the shared context, that is, the amount of knowledge two interlocutors have in common, for the successful emergence and use of novel conventions. Using a referential communication task where black-and-white pictorial symbols are used to convey colors, pairs of participants build shared conventions peculiar to their dyad without experimenter feedback, relying purely on ostensive-inferential communication. Both experiments demonstrate that access to the visual context promotes more successful communication. Importantly, success improves cumulatively, supporting the v...
Source: Cognitive Science - September 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Müller TF, Winters J, Morin O Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

The Analytic Truth and Falsity of Disjunctions.
Abstract Disjunctive inferences are difficult. According to the theory of mental models, it is because of the alternative possibilities to which disjunctions refer. Three experiments corroborated further predictions of the mental model theory. Participants judged that disjunctions, such as Either this year is a leap year or it is a common year are true. Given a disjunction such as Either A or B, they tended to evaluate the four cases in its 'partition': A and B, A and not-B, not-A and B, not-A and not-B, as 'possible' or 'impossible' in ways that bore out the difference between inclusive disjunctions ('or bot...
Source: Cognitive Science - September 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Quelhas AC, Rasga C, Johnson-Laird PN Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Manual Movement in Sign Languages: One Hand Versus Two in Communicating Shapes.
Abstract In sign languages, the task of communicating a shape involves drawing in the air with one moving hand (Method One) or two (Method Two). Since the movement path is iconic, method choice might be based on the shape. In the present studies we aimed to determine whether geometric properties motivate method choice. In a study of 17 deaf signers from six countries, the strongest predictors of method choice were whether the shape has any curved edges (Method One), and whether the shape is symmetrical across the Y-axis (Method Two), where the default was Method One. In a second study of ASL dictionary entries for...
Source: Cognitive Science - September 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ferrara C, Napoli DJ Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Does Conceptual Compositionality Affect Language Complexity? Comment on Lou-Magnuson and Onnis.
PMID: 31446649 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Cognitive Science)
Source: Cognitive Science - August 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Thornton C Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Sticking to the Evidence? A Behavioral and Computational Case Study of Micro-Theory Change in the Domain of Magnetism.
We present 4- and 5-year-olds with two different simplified magnet-learning tasks. Children appropriately constrain their beliefs to two hypotheses following ambiguous but informative evidence. Following a critical intervention, they learn the correct theory. In the second study, children infer the correct number of categories given no information about the possible causal laws. Children's hypotheses in these tasks are explained as rational inferences within a Bayesian computational framework. PMID: 31446650 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Cognitive Science)
Source: Cognitive Science - August 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bonawitz E, Ullman TD, Bridgers S, Gopnik A, Tenenbaum JB Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Gricean Expectations in Online Sentence Comprehension: An ERP Study on the Processing of Scalar Inferences.
Abstract There is substantial support for the general idea that a formalization of comprehenders' expectations about the likely next word in a sentence helps explaining data related to online sentence processing. While much research has focused on syntactic, semantic, and discourse expectations, the present event-related potentials (ERPs) study investigates neurolinguistic correlates of pragmatic expectations, which arise when comprehenders expect a sentence to conform to Gricean Maxims of Conversation. For predicting brain responses associated with pragmatic processing, we introduce a formal model of such Gricean...
Source: Cognitive Science - August 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Augurzky P, Franke M, Ulrich R Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Information Integration in Modulation of Pragmatic Inferences During Online Language Comprehension.
Abstract Upon hearing a scalar adjective in a definite referring expression such as "the big…," listeners typically make anticipatory eye movements to an item in a contrast set, such as a big glass in the context of a smaller glass. Recent studies have suggested that this rapid, contrastive interpretation of scalar adjectives is malleable and calibrated to the speaker's pragmatic competence. In a series of eye-tracking experiments, we explore the nature of the evidence necessary for the modulation of pragmatic inferences in language comprehension, focusing on the complementary roles of top-down in...
Source: Cognitive Science - August 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ryskin R, Kurumada C, Brown-Schmidt S Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

When the Solution Is on the Doorstep: Better Solving Performance, but Diminished Aha! Experience for Chess Experts on the Mutilated Checkerboard Problem.
Abstract Insight problems are difficult because the initially activated knowledge hinders successful solving. The crucial information needed for a solution is often so far removed that gaining access to it through restructuring leads to the subjective experience of "Aha!". Although this assumption is shared by most insight theories, there is little empirical evidence for the connection between the necessity of restructuring an incorrect problem representation and the Aha! experience. Here, we demonstrate a rare case where previous knowledge facilitates the solving of insight problems but reduces the acco...
Source: Cognitive Science - August 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bilalić M, Graf M, Vaci N, Danek AH Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Normative Social Role Concepts in Early Childhood.
Abstract The current studies (N = 255, children ages 4-5 and adults) explore patterns of age-related continuity and change in conceptual representations of social role categories (e.g., "scientist"). In Study 1, young children's judgments of category membership were shaped by both category labels and category-normative traits, and the two were dissociable, indicating that even young children's conceptual representations for some social categories have a "dual character." In Study 2, when labels and traits were contrasted, adults and children based their category-based induction decisi...
Source: Cognitive Science - August 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Foster-Hanson E, Rhodes M Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

The Cognitive Architecture of Perceived Animacy: Intention, Attention, and Memory.
Abstract Human vision supports social perception by efficiently detecting agents and extracting rich information about their actions, goals, and intentions. Here, we explore the cognitive architecture of perceived animacy by constructing Bayesian models that integrate domain-specific hypotheses of social agency with domain-general cognitive constraints on sensory, memory, and attentional processing. Our model posits that perceived animacy combines a bottom-up, feature-based, parallel search for goal-directed movements with a top-down selection process for intent inference. The interaction of these architecturally ...
Source: Cognitive Science - August 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gao T, Baker CL, Tang N, Xu H, Tenenbaum JB Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

How Polysemy Affects Concreteness Ratings: The Case of Metaphor.
Abstract Concreteness ratings are frequently used in a variety of disciplines to operationalize differences between concrete and abstract words and concepts. However, most ratings studies present items in isolation, thereby overlooking the potential polysemy of words. Consequently, ratings for polysemous words may be conflated, causing a threat to the validity of concreteness-ratings studies. This is particularly relevant to metaphorical words, which typically describe something abstract in terms of something more concrete. To investigate whether perceived concreteness ratings differ for metaphorical versus non-me...
Source: Cognitive Science - August 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Reijnierse WG, Burgers C, Bolognesi M, Krennmayr T Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Cognitive Offloading: Structuring the Environment to Improve Children's Working Memory Task Performance.
Abstract Research has shown that adults can engage in cognitive offloading, whereby internal processes are offloaded onto the environment to help task performance. Here, we investigate an application of this approach with children, in particular children with poor working memory. Participants were required to remember and recall sequences of colors by placing colored blocks in the correct serial order. In one condition the blocks were arranged to facilitate cognitive offloading (i.e., grouped by color), whereas in the other condition they were arranged randomly. Across two experiments (total N = 166) the...
Source: Cognitive Science - August 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Berry EDJ, Allen RJ, Mon-Williams M, Waterman AH Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

The Impact of Stimuli Color in Lexical Decision and Semantic Word Categorization Tasks.
in GR Abstract In two experiments, we examined the impact of color on cognitive performance by asking participants to categorize stimuli presented in three different colors: red, green, and gray (baseline). Participants were either asked to categorize the meaning of words as related to the concepts of "go" or "stop" (Experiment 1) or to indicate if a neutral verbal stimulus was a word or not (lexical decision task, Experiment 2). Overall, we observed performance facilitation in response to go stimuli presented in green (vs. red or gray) and performance inhibition in response to go stimuli prese...
Source: Cognitive Science - August 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Garrido MV, Prada M, Simão C, Semin GR Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Audience Design in Multiparty Conversation.
Abstract How do speakers design what they say in order to communicate effectively with groups of addressees who vary in their background knowledge of the topic at hand? Prior findings indicate that when a speaker addresses a pair of listeners with discrepant knowledge, that speakers Aim Low, designing their utterances for the least knowledgeable of the two addressees. Here, we test the hypothesis that speakers will depart from an Aim Low approach in order to efficiently communicate with larger groups of interacting partners. Further, we ask whether the cognitive demands of tracking multiple conversational partners...
Source: Cognitive Science - August 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yoon SO, Brown-Schmidt S Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

The Relational SNARC: Spatial Representation of Nonsymbolic Ratios.
Abstract Recent research in numerical cognition has begun to systematically detail the ability of humans and nonhuman animals to perceive the magnitudes of nonsymbolic ratios. These relationally defined analogs to rational numbers offer new potential insights into the nature of human numerical processing. However, research into their similarities with and connections to symbolic numbers remains in its infancy. The current research aims to further explore these similarities by investigating whether the magnitudes of nonsymbolic ratios are associated with space just as symbolic numbers are. In two experiments, we fo...
Source: Cognitive Science - August 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Meng R, Matthews PG, Toomarian EY Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Statistical Learning of Unfamiliar Sounds as Trajectories Through a Perceptual Similarity Space.
We present experiments in which this hypothesis makes sharply different predictions from hypotheses based on the assumption that sequences are learned over discrete, labeled stimuli. We also present a series of simulation models that encode stimuli as positions in a continuous two-dimensional space, and predict the next location from the current location. Although no model captures all of the data presented here, the results of three critical experiments are more consistent with the view that participants represent trajectories through similarity space rather than sequences of discrete labels under particular conditions. ...
Source: Cognitive Science - August 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang FH, Hutton EA, Zevin JD Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Interaction Promotes the Adaptation of Referential Conventions to the Communicative Context.
Abstract Coordination between speakers in dialogue requires balancing repetition and change, the old and the new. Interlocutors tend to reuse established forms, relying on communicative precedents. Yet linguistic interaction also necessitates adaptation to changing contexts or dynamic tasks, which might favor abandoning existing precedents in favor of better communicative alternatives. We explored this tension using a maze game task in which individual participants and interacting pairs had to describe figures and their positions in one of two possible maze types: a regular maze, in which the grid-like structure o...
Source: Cognitive Science - August 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Castillo L, Smith K, Branigan HP Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

When and Why People Evaluate Negative Reciprocity as More Fair Than Positive Reciprocity.
We report seven studies, conducted with people from the United States, in which participants were asked to evaluate situations involving resource distribution in contexts such as economic games, government, and the workplace. Specifically, we find that equal resource distribution in multilateral interactions is seen as more fair than engaging in reciprocity. We also find that negative reciprocity is seen as more fair than positive reciprocity in these multilateral situations because positive reciprocity is perceived as based in favoritism. We rule out alternative explanations and demonstrate that there are contexts where f...
Source: Cognitive Science - August 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shaw A, Barakzai A, Keysar B Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Staying Together: A Bidirectional Delay-Coupled Approach to Joint Action.
Abstract To understand how individuals adapt to and anticipate each other in joint tasks, we employ a bidirectional delay-coupled dynamical system that allows for mutual adaptation and anticipation. In delay-coupled systems, anticipation is achieved when one system compares its own time-delayed behavior, which implicitly includes past information about the other system's behavior, with the other system's instantaneous behavior. Applied to joint music performance, the model allows each system to adapt its behavior to the dynamics of the other. Model predictions of asynchrony between two simultaneously produced musi...
Source: Cognitive Science - August 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Demos AP, Layeghi H, Wanderley MM, Palmer C Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Object-Label-Order Effect When Learning From an Inconsistent Source.
In this study, we investigate how learners handle such situations. We focus on the setting where a learner receives and processes a sequence of utterances to master associations between objects and their labels, where the source is inconsistent by design: It uses both "correct" and "incorrect" object-label pairings. We hypothesize that depending on the order of presentation, the result of the learning may be different. To this end, we consider two types of symbolic learning procedures: the Object-Label (OL) and the Label-Object (LO) process. In the OL process, the learner is first exposed to the object,...
Source: Cognitive Science - August 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ma T, Komarova NL Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Learning How to Generalize.
Abstract Generalization is a fundamental problem solved by every cognitive system in essentially every domain. Although it is known that how people generalize varies in complex ways depending on the context or domain, it is an open question how people learn the appropriate way to generalize for a new context. To understand this capability, we cast the problem of learning how to generalize as a problem of learning the appropriate hypothesis space for generalization. We propose a normative mathematical framework for learning how to generalize by learning inductive biases for which properties are relevant for general...
Source: Cognitive Science - August 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Austerweil JL, Sanborn S, Griffiths TL Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Excuse Validation: A Cross-cultural Study.
This article has been awarded Open Materials and Open Data badges. All materials and data are publicly accessible via the Open Science Framework at https://osf.io/8juyc/. Learn more about the Open Practices badges from the Center for Open Science: https://osf.io/tvyxz/wiki . PMID: 31446667 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Cognitive Science)
Source: Cognitive Science - August 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Turri J Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Comparison Types in the Semantic Extension of Diidxaz á Body Part Terms.
This study proposes an alternative analysis following a Structure-Mapping Theory approach (Gentner, 1983, inter alia), based on data from Diidxazá (Isthmus Zapotec, Otomanguean) obtained through elicitation and experimental tasks. The data show that structure mapping does not depend on a 1:1 match of attributes; frequency of use shed light on principles that constrain the semantic extension of most BPTs; a core set of six BPTs are extended by abstraction of the set of intersecting axes of the body. The detailed nature of this study enables an analysis of the mental representations underlying the semantic extension o...
Source: Cognitive Science - July 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pérez Báez G Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Speech Planning at Turn Transitions in Dialog Is Associated With Increased Processing Load.
Abstract Speech planning is a sophisticated process. In dialog, it regularly starts in overlap with an incoming turn by a conversation partner. We show that planning spoken responses in overlap with incoming turns is associated with higher processing load than planning in silence. In a dialogic experiment, participants took turns with a confederate describing lists of objects. The confederate's utterances (to which participants responded) were pre-recorded and varied in whether they ended in a verb or an object noun and whether this ending was predictable or not. We found that response planning in overlap with sen...
Source: Cognitive Science - July 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Barthel M, Sauppe S Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Evidential Strength of Intonational Cues and Rational Adaptation to (Un-)Reliable Intonation.
Abstract Intonation plays an integral role in comprehending spoken language. Listeners can rapidly integrate intonational information to predictively map a given pitch accent onto the speaker's likely referential intentions. We use mouse tracking to investigate two questions: (a) how listeners draw predictive inferences based on information from intonation? and (b) how listeners adapt their online interpretation of intonational cues when these are reliable or unreliable? We formulate a novel Bayesian model of rational predictive cue integration and explore predictions derived under a concrete linking hypothesis re...
Source: Cognitive Science - July 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Roettger TB, Franke M Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

The Embodied Penman: Effector-Specific Motor-Language Integration During Handwriting.
ño L, García AM Abstract Several studies have illuminated how processing manual action verbs (MaVs) affects the programming or execution of concurrent hand movements. Here, to circumvent key confounds in extant designs, we conducted the first assessment of motor-language integration during handwriting-a task in which linguistic and motoric processes are co-substantiated. Participants copied MaVs, non-manual action verbs, and non-action verbs as we collected measures of motor programming and motor execution. Programming latencies were similar across conditions, but execution was faster for MaVs than f...
Source: Cognitive Science - July 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Afonso O, Suárez-Coalla P, Cuetos F, Ibáñez A, Sedeño L, García AM Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Self-Priming in Production: Evidence for a Hybrid Model of Syntactic Priming.
Abstract Syntactic priming in language production is the increased likelihood of using a recently encountered syntactic structure. In this paper, we examine two theories of why speakers can be primed: error-driven learning accounts (Bock, Dell, Chang, & Onishi, 2007; Chang, Dell, & Bock, 2006) and activation-based accounts (Pickering & Branigan, 1999; Reitter, Keller, & Moore, 2011). Both theories predict that speakers should be primed by the syntactic choices of others, but only activation-based accounts predict that speakers should be able to prime themselves. Here we test whether speakers can be...
Source: Cognitive Science - July 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jacobs CL, Cho SJ, Watson DG Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

High-Stakes Decision-Making Within Complex Social Environments: A Computational Model of Belief Systems in the Arab Spring.
This study uses qualitative analyses of interview narratives and social media addressing individual decisions to develop a computational model tracing the cognitive decision-making process. The model builds on work by Abelson and Carroll (1965), Schank and Abelson ( a1977), and Axelrod (1976) to systematically trace the inferences connecting beliefs to decisions. The findings show that protest decisions were often based on positive emotions such as pride, hope, courage, and solidarity, triggered by beliefs about successful protest and self-sacrifice. By contrast, decisions to stay at home were triggered by beliefs about sa...
Source: Cognitive Science - July 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dornschneider S Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Interpreting Silent Gesture: Cognitive Biases and Rational Inference in Emerging Language Systems.
Abstract Natural languages make prolific use of conventional constituent-ordering patterns to indicate "who did what to whom," yet the mechanisms through which these regularities arise are not well understood. A series of recent experiments demonstrates that, when prompted to express meanings through silent gesture, people bypass native language conventions, revealing apparent biases underpinning word order usage, based on the semantic properties of the information to be conveyed. We extend the scope of these studies by focusing, experimentally and computationally, on the interpretation of silent gesture...
Source: Cognitive Science - July 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Schouwstra M, de Swart H, Thompson B Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Make-or-Break: Chasing Risky Goals or Settling for Safe Rewards?
We present a formal framework for studying time allocation between these two types of activities, and we explore optimal behavior in both one-shot and dynamic versions of the problem. In the one-shot version, we illustrate striking discontinuities in the optimal time allocation policy as we gradually change the parameters of the decision-making problem. In the dynamic version, we formulate the optimal strategy-defined by a giving-up threshold-which adaptively dictates when people should stop pursuing the make-or-break goal. We then show that this strategy is computationally inaccessible for humans, and we explore...
Source: Cognitive Science - July 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Analytis PP, Wu CM, Gelastopoulos A Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Iranian Herbalists, But Not Cooks, Are Better at Naming Odors Than Laypeople.
In this study, we investigated how expert knowledge and daily experience affect the ability to name odors in a group of experts that has not previously been investigated in this context-Iranian herbalists; also called attars-as well as cooks and laypeople. We assessed naming accuracy and consistency for 16 herb and spice odors, collected judgments of odor perception, and evaluated participants' odor meta-awareness. Participants' responses were overall more consistent and accurate for more frequent and familiar odors. Moreover, attars were more accurate than both cooks and laypeople at naming odors, although cooks did not p...
Source: Cognitive Science - June 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Casillas M, Rafiee A, Majid A Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Parameter Inference for Computational Cognitive Models with Approximate Bayesian Computation.
A, Kaski S Abstract This paper addresses a common challenge with computational cognitive models: identifying parameter values that are both theoretically plausible and generate predictions that match well with empirical data. While computational models can offer deep explanations of cognition, they are computationally complex and often out of reach of traditional parameter fitting methods. Weak methodology may lead to premature rejection of valid models or to acceptance of models that might otherwise be falsified. Mathematically robust fitting methods are, therefore, essential to the progress of computational mod...
Source: Cognitive Science - June 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kangasrääsiö A, Jokinen JPP, Oulasvirta A, Howes A, Kaski S Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Effects of Case and Transitivity on Processing Dependencies: Evidence From Niuean.
Abstract We investigate the processing of wh questions in Niuean, a VSO ergative-absolutive Polynesian language. We use visual-world eye tracking to examine how preference for subject or object dependencies is affected (a) by case marking of the subject (ergative vs. absolutive) and object (absolutive vs. oblique), and (b) by the transitivity of the verb (whether the object is obligatory). We find that Niuean exhibits (a) an effect of case, whereby dependencies of arguments with absolutive case (whether subjects or objects) are preferred over dependencies of arguments with ergative or oblique case, and (b) an effe...
Source: Cognitive Science - June 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tollan R, Massam D, Heller D Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Rationalization and Reflection Differentially Modulate Prior Attitudes Toward the Purity Domain.
Abstract Outside Western, predominantly secular-liberal environments, norms restricting bodily and sexual conduct are widespread. Moralization in the so-called purity domain has been treated as evidence that some putative violations are victimless. However, respondents themselves disagree: They often report that private yet indecent acts incur self-harm, or harm to one's family and the wider community-a result which we replicate in Study 1. We then distinguish two cognitive processes that could generate a link between harmfulness and immorality, and recreate them in Studies 2 and 3: Colombian and British participa...
Source: Cognitive Science - June 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hannikainen IR, Rosas A Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Social Trait Information in Deep Convolutional Neural Networks Trained for Face Identification.
Abstract Faces provide information about a person's identity, as well as their sex, age, and ethnicity. People also infer social and personality traits from the face - judgments that can have important societal and personal consequences. In recent years, deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) have proven adept at representing the identity of a face from images that vary widely in viewpoint, illumination, expression, and appearance. These algorithms are modeled on the primate visual cortex and consist of multiple processing layers of simulated neurons. Here, we examined whether a DCNN trained for face identific...
Source: Cognitive Science - June 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Parde CJ, Hu Y, Castillo C, Sankaranarayanan S, O'Toole AJ Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Affordance Compatibility Effect for Word Learning in Virtual Reality.
Abstract Rich sensorimotor interaction facilitates language learning and is presumed to ground conceptual representations. Yet empirical support for early stages of embodied word learning is currently lacking. Finding evidence that sensorimotor interaction shapes learned linguistic representations would provide crucial support for embodied language theories. We developed a gamified word learning experiment in virtual reality in which participants learned the names of six novel objects by grasping and manipulating objects with either their left or right hand. Participants then completed a word-color match task in w...
Source: Cognitive Science - June 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gordon CL, Shea TM, Noelle DC, Balasubramaniam R Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

When Stronger Knowledge Slows You Down: Semantic Relatedness Predicts Children's Co-Activation of Related Items in a Visual Search Paradigm.
This study provides the first evidence that in children the co-activation of related items depends on their relational strength in semantic memory. Participants (N = 84, age range: 3-9 years) were asked to identify a target (e.g., bone) amid distractors. Children's responses were slowed down by the presence of a related distractor (e.g., puppy) relative to unrelated distractors (e.g., flower)-suggesting that children co-activated related items upon hearing the name of the target. Importantly, the degree of this co-activation was predicted by the strength of the target-distractor relation, such that distracto...
Source: Cognitive Science - June 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Vales C, Fisher AV Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

The Role of Negative Information in Distributional Semantic Learning.
Abstract Distributional models of semantics learn word meanings from contextual co-occurrence patterns across a large sample of natural language. Early models, such as LSA and HAL (Landauer & Dumais, 1997; Lund & Burgess, 1996), counted co-occurrence events; later models, such as BEAGLE (Jones & Mewhort, 2007), replaced counting co-occurrences with vector accumulation. All of these models learned from positive information only: Words that occur together within a context become related to each other. A recent class of distributional models, referred to as neural embedding models, are based on a predicti...
Source: Cognitive Science - May 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Johns BT, Mewhort DJK, Jones MN Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

The Aesthetic Preference for Nature Sounds Depends on Sound Object Recognition.
Abstract People across the world seek out beautiful sounds in nature, such as a babbling brook or a nightingale song, for positive human experiences. However, it is unclear whether this positive aesthetic response is driven by a preference for the perceptual features typical of nature sounds versus a higher-order association of nature with beauty. To test these hypotheses, participants provided aesthetic judgments for nature and urban soundscapes that varied on ease of recognition. Results demonstrated that the aesthetic preference for nature soundscapes was eliminated for the sounds hardest to recognize, and more...
Source: Cognitive Science - May 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Van Hedger SC, Nusbaum HC, Heald SLM, Huang A, Kotabe HP, Berman MG Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Recipient Design in Communicative Pointing.
In this study, we contribute to this debate by studying a simple communicative behavior, communicative pointing, under conditions of successful (error-free) communication. Using an information-theoretic measure, called legibility, we present evidence of recipient design in communicative pointing. The legibility effect is present early in the movement, suggesting that it is an intrinsic part of the communicative plan. Moreover, it is reliable only from the viewpoint of the addressee, suggesting that the motor plan is tuned to the addressee. These findings suggest that recipient design is an intrinsic feature of human commun...
Source: Cognitive Science - May 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Winner T, Selen L, Murillo Oosterwijk A, Verhagen L, Medendorp WP, van Rooij I, Toni I Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Cross-Situational Learning of Phonologically Overlapping Words Across Degrees of Ambiguity.
Abstract Cross-situational word learning (XSWL) tasks present multiple words and candidate referents within a learning trial such that word-referent pairings can be inferred only across trials. Adults encode fine phonological detail when two words and candidate referents are presented in each learning trial (2 × 2 scenario; Escudero, Mulak, & Vlach, ). To test the relationship between XSWL task difficulty and phonological encoding, we examined XSWL of words differing by one vowel or consonant across degrees of within-learning trial ambiguity (1 × 1 to 4 × 4). Wor...
Source: Cognitive Science - May 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mulak KE, Vlach HA, Escudero P Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

On Fodor's First Law of the Nonexistence of Cognitive Science.
Abstract In his enormously influential The Modularity of Mind, Jerry Fodor (1983) proposed that the mind was divided into input modules and central processes. Much subsequent research focused on the modules and whether processes like speech perception or spatial vision are truly modular. Much less attention has been given to Fodor's writing on the central processes, what would today be called higher-level cognition. In "Fodor's First Law of the Nonexistence of Cognitive Science," he argued that central processes are "bad candidates for scientific study" and would resist attempts at empirical an...
Source: Cognitive Science - May 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Murphy GL Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Erratum.
Authors: PMID: 31001880 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Cognitive Science)
Source: Cognitive Science - April 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Teleological Essentialism.
Abstract Placeholder essentialism is the view that there is a causal essence that holds category members together, though we may not know what the essence is. Sometimes the placeholder can be filled in by scientific essences, such as when we acquire scientific knowledge that the atomic weight of gold is 79. We challenge the view that placeholders are elaborated by scientific essences. In our view, if placeholders are elaborated, they are elaborated by Aristotelian essences, a telos. Utilizing the same kind of experiments used by traditional essentialists-involving superficial change (study 1), transformation of in...
Source: Cognitive Science - April 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rose D, Nichols S Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

The Body in Religion: The Spatial Mapping of Valence in Tibetan Practitioners of B ön.
The Body in Religion: The Spatial Mapping of Valence in Tibetan Practitioners of Bön. Cogn Sci. 2019 Apr;43(4):e12728 Authors: Li H, Cao Y Abstract According to the Body-Specificity Hypothesis (BSH), people implicitly associate positive ideas with the side of space on which they are able to act more fluently with their dominant hand. Though this hypothesis has been rigorously tested across a variety of populations and tasks, the studies thus far have only been conducted in linguistic and cultural communities which favor the right over the left. Here, we tested the effect of handedness on implicit...
Source: Cognitive Science - April 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li H, Cao Y Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Is Emotional Magnitude Spatialized? A Further Investigation.
Abstract Accumulating evidence suggests that different magnitudes (e.g., number, size, and duration) are spatialized in the mind according to a common left-right metric, consistent with a generalized system for representing magnitude. A previous study conducted by two of us (Holmes & Lourenco, ) provided evidence that this metric extends to the processing of emotional magnitude, or the intensity of emotion expressed in faces. Recently, however, Pitt and Casasanto () showed that the earlier effects may have been driven by a left-right mapping of mouth size rather than emotional magnitude, and they found no evid...
Source: Cognitive Science - April 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Holmes KJ, Alcat C, Lourenco SF Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research

Noise, Economy, and the Emergence of Information Structure in a Laboratory Language.
Abstract The acceptability of sentences in natural language is constrained not only grammaticality, but also by the relationship between what is being conveyed and such factors as context and the beliefs of interlocutors. In many languages the critical element in a sentence (its focus) must be given grammatical prominence. There are different accounts of the nature of focus marking. Some researchers treat it as the grammatical realization of a potentially arbitrary feature of universal grammar and do not provide an explicit account of its origins; others have argued, however, that focus marking is a (grammaticaliz...
Source: Cognitive Science - February 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Stevens JS, Roberts G Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research