Factors modulating the effects of waking rest on memory.
Abstract Study results indicate that moments of unoccupied rest immediately after learning serve an essential cognitive function: memory consolidation. However, there also are findings suggesting that waking rest after learning has similar effects on delayed memory performance as an active wake condition, where participants work on a cognitive distractor task. Based on these studies, we highlight several potentially modulating factors of the so-called resting effect. PMID: 31768703 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cognitive Processing)
Source: Cognitive Processing - November 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Martini M, Sachse P Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
A practical primer on processing semantic property norm data.
Abstract Semantic property listing tasks require participants to generate short propositions (e.g., [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) for a specific concept (e.g., DOG). This task is the cornerstone of the creation of semantic property norms which are essential for modeling, stimuli creation, and understanding similarity between concepts. Despite the wide applicability of semantic property norms for a large variety of concepts across different groups of people, the methodological aspects of the property listing task have received less attention, even though the procedure and processing of the data can subs...
Source: Cognitive Processing - November 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Buchanan EM, De Deyne S, Montefinese M Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
The effects of autistic traits and academic degree on visuospatial abilities.
Abstract In the present study, we were interested to investigate how autistic traits (including systemizing and empathy) and academic degree influence individuals' visuospatial abilities. To this end, 352 university students completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), the Empathy Quotient, the Systemizing Quotient (SQ) and visuospatial tests measuring figure disembedding and mental rotation of two-dimensional figures. Engineering-design students (architecture and engineering) were the most accurate in disembedding and mentally rotating figures, followed by students of physical sciences (computer science, chemistr...
Source: Cognitive Processing - November 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Conson M, Senese VP, Baiano C, Zappullo I, Warrier V, UNICAMPSY17 group, Salzano S, Positano M, Baron-Cohen S Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Embodied numerical representations and their association with multi-digit arithmetic performance.
In this study, we pursued the question whether the influence of finger-based representations on arithmetic generalizes to multi-digit arithmetic by investigating the association between the recognition of canonical and non-canonical finger patterns and multi-digit arithmetic in adults. Results indicated that canonical finger-based numerical representations were significantly associated with addition performance only, whereas non-canonical finger-based representations were associated significantly with all four arithmetic operations. We argue that, because non-canonical patterns do not benefit from the iconicity of canonica...
Source: Cognitive Processing - November 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Barrocas R, Roesch S, Dresen V, Moeller K, Pixner S Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Acknowledgment to our Reviewers (2016-2018).
Authors: PMID: 31664576 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cognitive Processing)
Source: Cognitive Processing - October 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Dysfunctional sleep-related cognition and anxiety mediate the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and insomnia symptoms.
This study aimed to determine whether aspects of multidimensional perfectionism were related to increased reporting of insomnia symptoms. In addition, the potential mediating role of dysfunctional sleep-related cognition and anxiety symptoms was examined. Members of the general population (N = 624) completed the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes About Sleep Scale, the Insomnia Severity Index, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. The results showed that perfectionism dimensions, anxiety symptoms, and dysfunctional sleep-related cognition were significantly ...
Source: Cognitive Processing - October 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Akram U, Gardani M, Riemann D, Akram A, Allen SF, Lazuras L, Johann AF Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Medial prefrontal cortex involvement in aesthetic appreciation of paintings: a tDCS study.
In this study, we focused on the contribution of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in mediating aesthetic decisions about paintings. We found that enhancing excitability in this region via anodal tDCS led participants to judge paintings as more beautiful. Although significant, the effects were moderate, possibly due to the neutral affective value of the artworks we used, suggesting that activity in mPFC may be critically dependent on the affective impact of the paintings. PMID: 31637555 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cognitive Processing)
Source: Cognitive Processing - October 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cattaneo Z, Ferrari C, Schiavi S, Alekseichuk I, Antal A, Nadal M Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Investigating the interaction of direct and indirect relation on memory judgments and retrieval.
This study examined the interactive relationship between two measures of association (direct and indirect associations) when predicting relatedness judgments and cued-recall performance. Participants were recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk and were given word pairs of varying relatedness to judge for their semantic, thematic, and associative strength. After completing a distractor task, participants then completed a cued-recall task. First, we sought to expand previous work on judgments of associative memory to include semantic- and thematic-based judgments (judgments of relatedness), while also replicating bias and s...
Source: Cognitive Processing - October 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Maxwell NP, Buchanan EM Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Bridging the theoretical gap between semantic representation models without the pressure of a ranking: some lessons learnt from LSA.
;n JM Abstract In recent years, latent semantic analysis (LSA) has reached a level of maturity at which its presence is ubiquitous in technology as well as in simulation of cognitive processes. In spite of this, in recent years there has been a trend of subjecting LSA to some criticisms, usually because it is compared to other models in very specific tasks and conditions and sometimes without having good knowledge of what the semantic representation of LSA means, and without exploiting all the possibilities of which LSA is capable other than the cosine. This paper provides a critical review to clarify some of the ...
Source: Cognitive Processing - September 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jorge-Botana G, Olmos R, Luzón JM Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Mapping semantic space: property norms and semantic richness.
Abstract In semantic property listing tasks, participants list many features for some concepts and fewer for others. This variability in number of features (NoF) has been used in previous research as a measure of a concept's semantic richness, and such studies have shown that in lexical-semantic tasks responses tend to be facilitated for words with high NoF compared to those for words with low NoF, even when many other relevant factors are controlled (Pexman et al. in Psychon Bull Rev 9:542-549, 2002; Mem Cogn 31:842-855, 2003; Psychon Bull Rev 15:161-167, 2008; Goh et al. in Front Psychol, 2016. https://doi.org/1...
Source: Cognitive Processing - September 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Muraki EJ, Sidhu DM, Pexman PM Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
The influence of theoretical knowledge on similarity judgment.
Abstract The similarity of the features between two entities has been assumed to be the essential factor for distinguishing these two entities across a variety of cognitive acts; however, the mechanism underlying the similarity processing remains unclear. The perceptual-based account suggests that similarity judgment is based on perceptual features between entities, whereas other accounts assume that similarity judgment relies heavily on one's previous knowledge of the entities. In Experiment 1, we explored the influence of theoretical knowledge on similarity judgment when perceptual features conflict with concept...
Source: Cognitive Processing - September 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sun HM, Yin GE Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Rule-based or information-integration category: processing of the self-face.
This study investigated the differences between categorizing the self-face and other faces. Additionally, the study aimed to determine whether self-face categorization is consistent with dual-system categorization, such as in the competition between verbal and implicit systems (COVIS) model, or whether the self-face uses different categorizing methods than those used with other faces. The experiment adopted a dual-task paradigm to examine how participants complete rule-based/information-integration categorization tasks of the self-face/other faces and their method of processing when a numerical Stroop task was introduced. ...
Source: Cognitive Processing - September 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang R, Ma X, Zhou A Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
The speed of perception: the effects of over-speed video training on pitch recognition in collegiate softball players.
Abstract During interceptive motor tasks, experts demonstrate distinct visual search behavior (from novices) that is reflective of information extraction from optimal environmental cues, which subsequently aids anticipatory movements. While some forms of visual training have been employed in sport, over-speed video training is rarely applied to perceptual-cognitive sport contexts. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether over-speed video training can enhance visual information processing and augment visual behavior for a pitch-recognition task. Twelve collegiate softball players were recruited for...
Source: Cognitive Processing - September 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: DeCouto B, Robertson CT, Lewis D, Mann DTY Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Categorical and coordinate spatial task performance in inconsistent-handers versus consistent-right-handers: part II.
Abstract A previous study reported superior categorical and coordinate spatial task performance in inconsistent-versus consistent-right-handers (ICH versus CRH). Propper et al. used a three-dimensional (3D) computer-based task wherein individuals navigated to 21 locations within a realistic cityscape. During testing, participants were queried on their categorical and coordinate spatial knowledge of the map. In that study, the categorical and coordinate tasks may have inadvertently encouraged language coding of learned spatial information, potentially confounding spatial processing with recall ability for language-...
Source: Cognitive Processing - August 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Propper RE, Wolfarth A, Brunye TT, Carlei C, Lall S Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Reaching for the high note: judgments of auditory pitch are affected by kinesthetic position.
Abstract Auditory pitch is represented on a vertical continuum (e.g., high vs. low). In three experiments, we examined whether the kinesthetic experience of moving in a particular direction (e.g., walking up vs. down stairs; reaching up vs. down) would affect judgments of auditory pitch. Participants listened to three tones twice each, once while moving upward and once while moving downward, and estimated the pitch of each tone. In all experiments, participants' judgments of the tones' pitch were biased in the direction of their movement. Moreover, this effect is not due to visibility of the movement or to using a...
Source: Cognitive Processing - August 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hostetter AB, Dandar CM, Shimko G, Grogan C Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
The Bayesian causal inference model benefits from an informed prior to predict proprioceptive drift in the rubber foot illusion.
e P Abstract Bayesian cognitive modeling has become a prominent tool for the cognitive sciences aiming at a deeper understanding of the human mind and applications in cognitive systems, e.g., humanoid or wearable robotics. Such approaches can capture human behavior adequately with a focus on the crossmodal processing of sensory information. The rubber foot illusion is a paradigm in which such integration is relevant. After experimental stimulation, many participants perceive their real limb closer to an artificial replicate than it actually is. A measurable effect of this recalibration on localization is called th...
Source: Cognitive Processing - August 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Schürmann T, Vogt J, Christ O, Beckerle P Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Now you see me, now you don't: detecting sexual objectification through a change blindness paradigm.
Abstract The goal of this work is to provide evidence for the cognitive objectification of sexualized targets via a change blindness paradigm. Since sexual objectification involves a fragmented perception of the target in which individuating features (i.e., the face) have less information potential than sexualized features (i.e., body parts), we hypothesized that changes in faces of sexualized targets would be detected with less accuracy than changes in faces of nonsexualized targets. Conversely, we expected that changes in body parts would be detected with higher accuracy for sexualized than nonsexualized targets...
Source: Cognitive Processing - August 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Andrighetto L, Bracco F, Chiorri C, Masini M, Passarelli M, Piccinno TF Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Hand motor learning in a musical context and prefrontal cortex hemodynamic response: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study.
In this study, we assessed single session changes in the prefrontal hemodynamic signals in response to training a piano chord progression in an ecological experimental setting. We acquired functional near-infrared spectroscopy signals from 15 subjects without any previous experience on playing keyboard instruments. Our findings were that oxygenated hemoglobin changes at orbitofrontal cortex followed an inverted U-shaped curve over task execution, while the subjects' performance presented a steady slope. These results suggest an initial executive function engagement followed by facilitation of motor execution over time. ...
Source: Cognitive Processing - August 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Alves Heinze R, Vanzella P, Zimeo Morais GA, Sato JR Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Improving the accuracy of EEG emotion recognition by combining valence lateralization and ensemble learning with tuning parameters.
This study proposes strategies that concentrate on incorporating emotion lateralization and ensemble learning approach to enhance the accuracy of EEG-based emotion recognition. In this paper, we obtained EEG signals from an EEG-based public emotion dataset with four classes (i.e. happy, sad, angry and relaxed). The EEG signal is acquired from pair asymmetry channels from left and right hemispheres. EEG features were extracted using a hybrid features extraction from three domains, namely time, frequency and wavelet. To demonstrate the lateralization, we performed a set of four experimental scenarios, i.e. without lateraliza...
Source: Cognitive Processing - July 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pane ES, Wibawa AD, Purnomo MH Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Fuzzy emotion: a natural approach to automatic facial expression recognition from psychological perspective using fuzzy system.
Abstract Many studies in automatic facial expression recognitions merely limit their focus on recognizing basic emotions, ignoring the fact that humans show various emotions in their daily life. Moreover, from psychological perspective humans express multiple emotions simultaneously. Up to now, researchers recognize two basic emotions at the same time, called mixed emotions. Nevertheless, the mixed emotion still does not reflect how humans express the emotion naturally. This paper advances the concept of mixed emotion into a generalized fuzzy emotion. Fuzzy emotion captures multiple emotions in a single image usin...
Source: Cognitive Processing - June 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liliana DY, Basaruddin T, Widyanto MR, Oriza IID Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Where did that noise come from? Memory for sound locations is exceedingly eccentric both in front and in rear space.
Abstract Few studies have examined the stability of the representation of the position of sound sources in spatial working memory. The goal of this study was to verify whether the memory of sound position declines as maintenance time increases. In two experiments, we tested the influence of the delay between stimulus and response in a sound localization task. In Experiment 1, blindfolded participants listened to bursts of white noise originating from 16 loudspeakers equally spaced in a 360-degree circular space around the listener in such a way that the nose was aligned to the zero-degree coordinate. Their task wa...
Source: Cognitive Processing - June 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Delogu F, McMurray P Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
An enactive approach to appropriation in the instrumented activity of trail running.
In this study, we assumed that appropriation could be documented at both the phenomenological and behavioral scales and aimed to characterize trail runners' interactions with five carrying systems (i.e., backpacks proposing different ways of carrying water) in an ecological setting. The runners ran a 3-km trail running loop, equipped with inertial sensors to quantify both their vertical oscillations and those of the carrying systems. After the trials, phenomenological data were collected in enactive interviews. Results showed that (1) the runners encountered issues related to the carrying system, whose emergence in their e...
Source: Cognitive Processing - June 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rochat N, Seifert L, Guignard B, Hauw D Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Adults' spatial scaling: evidence from the haptic domain.
g W Abstract The current study investigated adults' spatial-scaling abilities using a haptic localization task. As a first aim, we examined the strategies used to solve this haptic task. Secondly, we explored whether irrelevant visual information influenced adults' spatial-scaling performance. Thirty-two adults were asked to locate targets as presented in maps on a larger or same-sized referent space. Maps varied in size in accordance with different scaling factors (1:4, 1:2, 1:1), whereas the referent space was constant in size throughout the experimental session. The availability of irrelevant, non-informative v...
Source: Cognitive Processing - May 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Szubielska M, Möhring W Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
The social Simon effect in the tactile sensory modality: a negative finding.
This study seeks to investigate whether users activate cognitive representations of their partner's action when they are involved in tactile collaborative tasks. The social Simon effect is a spatial stimulus-response interference induced by the mere presence of a partner in a go/nogo task. It has been extensively studied in the visual and auditory sensory modalities, but never before in the tactile modality. We compared the performances of 28 participants in three tasks: (1) a standard Simon task where participants responded to two different tactile stimuli applied to their fingertips with either their left or right foot, ...
Source: Cognitive Processing - April 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pérusseau-Lambert A, Anastassova M, Boukallel M, Chetouani M, Grynszpan O Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Parents' beliefs in misinformation about vaccines are strengthened by pro-vaccine campaigns.
Abstract The main objective of this study was to determine whether one of the most commonly employed pro-vaccination strategies based on the "myths vs. facts" format can be considered an effective tool to counter vaccines misinformation. Sixty parents were randomly presented with either a control message or a booklet confronting some common myths about vaccines with a number of facts. Beliefs in the autism/vaccines link and in vaccines side effects, along with intention to vaccinate one's child, were evaluated both immediately after the intervention and after a 7-day delay to reveal possible backfire eff...
Source: Cognitive Processing - April 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pluviano S, Watt C, Ragazzini G, Della Sala S Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Effects of attentional behaviours on infant visual preferences and object choice.
Abstract Many developmental studies have examined the effects of joint attention. However, it has been difficult to compare effects of initiating joint attention and responding to joint attention in infants. Here, we compared the effects of initiating joint attention and responding joint attention on object information processing, object preference, and facial preferences in infants. Thirty-seven infants (10 to 12 months of age) were shown stimuli in which a female gazed towards or away from an object. Participants were assigned to initiating joint attention condition or responding joint attention condition. Resul...
Source: Cognitive Processing - April 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ishikawa M, Yoshimura M, Sato H, Itakura S Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Memory for positional movements as a component of the visuospatial working memory.
Abstract Though the Corsi block-tapping task (CBT) is widely used for assessing visuospatial memory, information about what exactly it measures is still debated. We investigated such issue by observing how motor, visual, and spatial secondary tasks affect the performance on three versions of the CBT. Results showed a double dissociation pattern, wherein two motor secondary tasks had larger effects when the CBT was administered by the examiner tapping on the blocks. A spatial secondary task had larger effects when the CBT was administered by automatically illuminating the blocks. Finally, a visual secondary task ha...
Source: Cognitive Processing - April 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sdoia S, Di Nocera F, Ferlazzo F Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Empiricism, sciences, and engineering: cognitive science as a zone of integration.
Abstract An article by Alexandra Kirsch accepted for publication in Cognitive Processing occasioned debate among reviewers about broad methodological issues in cognitive science. One of these issues is the proper place of Popperian falsificationism in the interdisciplinary cluster. Another is the tension between abstract models and theories that apply to wide classes of cognitive systems, and models of more restricted scope intended to predict specifically human patterns of thought and behavior. The lead editorial in a Commentary debate invited by the journal's editors considers these issues from the perspective o...
Source: Cognitive Processing - March 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ross D Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Kirsch's, and everyone's, bind: How to build models for the wild?
Abstract Alexandra Kirsch proposed a general formal model of decision making. She proposed it as a model both of human psychology and of artificial intelligence. As one might expect, and as Don Ross explicated, this is a challenging, albeit fascinating, position to occupy. In this comment, I sketch my own view of the bind and speculate on how to get out of it. In one sentence, my description of the bind is: How to build models for the wild? By models, I mean formal (mathematical, computer-based, precise conceptual) models, and by the wild, I mean "large worlds," which are situations where uncertainty can...
Source: Cognitive Processing - March 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Katsikopoulos K Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Empirical content as a criterion for evaluating models.
Abstract Hypotheses derived from models can be tested in an empirical study: If the model reliably fails to predict behavior, it can be dismissed or modified. Models can also be evaluated before data are collected: More useful models have a high level of empirical content (Popper in Logik der Forschung, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, 1934), i.e., they make precise predictions (degree of precision) for many events (level of universality). I apply these criteria to reflect on some critical aspects of Kirsch's (Cognit Process, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10339-019-00904-3 ) unifying computational model of decision m...
Source: Cognitive Processing - March 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jekel M Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
The role of semantic activation during word recognition in Arabic.
Abstract In the current study, the role of semantic activation in the process of word recognition was investigated among native Arab readers. Twenty-nine typical readers in third grade were tested in reading three lists of pseudowords. Each list consisted of thirty pseudowords (lists A, B and C). Each word in list A was matched with a real meaning, and each participant was trained during eight training sessions to learn the meanings of the pseudowords (the semantic list). For list B, the participants were exposed only to the phonological pronunciation of each word during eight phonological training sessions. List ...
Source: Cognitive Processing - March 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Taha H Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Automating the process of identifying the preferred representational system in Neuro Linguistic Programming using Natural Language Processing.
Abstract Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP) is a methodology used for recognition of human behavioral patterns and modification of the behavior. A significant part of this process is influenced by the theory of representational systems which equates to the five main senses. The preferred representational system of an individual can explain a large part of exhibited behaviors and characteristics. There are different methods to recognize the representational systems, one of which is to investigate the sensory-based words in the used language during the conversation. However, there are difficulties during this proces...
Source: Cognitive Processing - March 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Amirhosseini MH, Kazemian H Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Floating novel object recognition in adult zebrafish: a pilot study.
Abstract The novel object recognition (NOR) tasks can be used to quantify memory function in zebrafish similarly to rodents. The development of zebrafish learning and memory tests provides a means for testing the effects of pharmacological manipulations of memory. Several authors reported on the successful application of different objects in NOR tests placed either at the bottom of test tanks or submerged into the tank water of zebrafish. This pilot study was designed to test the suitability of floating objects in NOR tests using adult zebrafish. Floating objects such as crumpled aluminum balls and pink plastic ho...
Source: Cognitive Processing - February 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Magyary I Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Integrating visuospatial information across distinct experiences.
Abstract In two experiments, we examined whether the presence of stable visual information and the confluence of the viewpoints would cause participants to integrate in a single memory representation spatial locations they encoded at different points in time. Participants studied from the same or from different viewpoints two layouts of objects within a common visually cluttered room. Then, they carried out a series of pointing trials that involved objects from either the same or different layouts. Results showed that participants were faster for within- than between-layout judgments when they had studied the two ...
Source: Cognitive Processing - February 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pantelides SN, Avraamides MN Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
The format of mental imagery: from a critical review to an integrated embodied representation approach.
Abstract The issue of the format of mental imagery is still an open debate. The classical analogue (depictive)-propositional (descriptive) debate has not provided definitive conclusions. Over the years, the debate has shifted within the frame of the embodied cognition approach, which focuses on the interdependence of perception, cognition and action. Although the simulation approach still retains the concept of representation, the more radical line of the embodied cognition approach emphasizes the importance of action and clearly disregards the concept of representation. In particular, the enactive approach focuse...
Source: Cognitive Processing - February 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Palmiero M, Piccardi L, Giancola M, Nori R, D'Amico S, Olivetti Belardinelli M Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Interdisciplinary College 2018-IK 2018: Me, My Self, and I.
Authors: Abstract PMID: 30778706 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cognitive Processing)
Source: Cognitive Processing - February 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Announcing Interdisciplinary College 2019 (IK 2019).
Authors: Abstract PMID: 30756277 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cognitive Processing)
Source: Cognitive Processing - February 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Kindergarten children's event memory: the role of action prediction in remembering.
Abstract In two studies, kindergarteners participated in a series of staged events immediately preceded by pre-event interactions that were designed to identify factors relevant to improving recall. The events were based on preschool science-related activities and the experimental pre-event involved predicting actions to occur during a target event, manipulating types of cues available to support these predictive inferences. Action prediction did improve free recall, and effects may have influenced attentional processes evoked by actions generated and enacted. Although children effectively used outcome cues to pre...
Source: Cognitive Processing - February 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ratner HH, Foley MA, Lesnick CS Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Correction to: Effectiveness of working memory training among children with dyscalculia: evidence for transfer effects on mathematical achievement-a pilot study.
Abstract The following errors require correction in the article. The authors apologize for these errors. PMID: 30734875 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cognitive Processing)
Source: Cognitive Processing - February 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Layes S, Lalonde R, Bouakkaz Y, Rebai M Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Evidence of SQUARC and distance effects in a weight comparison task.
Abstract Stimuli associated with large quantities are typically responded to faster with a right- than a left-side key, whereas stimuli associated with small quantities are typically responded to faster with a left- than a right-side key. This phenomenon is known as the spatial-quantity association of response codes (SQUARC) effect. Here, in two experiments, we explored whether a SQUARC effect can emerge for light versus heavy items. Participants judged whether the weight associated with a central target word, describing an animal (e.g. 'cow'; Experiment 1) or a material (e.g. 'iron'; Experiment 2), was lighter or...
Source: Cognitive Processing - February 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dalmaso M, Vicovaro M Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
A unifying computational model of decision making.
Abstract Decision making has long been of interest as a descriptive phenomenon in psychology and as a generative one in artificial intelligence. Research ranges from general, descriptive models of heuristic decision making to detailed studies of decision parameters. This paper introduces a model that formalizes and integrates several descriptive models so that it can serve both as a framework for psychological models and as an algorithm for computational decision making. We set special focus on the instantiation of this model with respect to aggregating cue values by reviewing some methods from the field of comput...
Source: Cognitive Processing - January 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kirsch A Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Climate change images produce an attentional bias associated with pro-environmental disposition.
Abstract Humans have developed mechanisms to prioritize certain sensory input(s). Emotionally salient stimuli automatically capture observers' attention at the cost of less salient information. This prioritized processing is called attentional bias. Images of climate change have been found to elicit emotional responses. Yet, to date, there is no research assessing the extent to which climate change-relevant images produce an attentional bias. In a sample of college students (N = 39), we found that (1) climate change-related images capture attention and that (2) this attentional bias is related to ind...
Source: Cognitive Processing - January 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Carlson JM, Lehman BR, Thompson JL Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
The choice of intrinsic axis under multi-cue conditions.
Abstract In the course of spatial representation, the choice of intrinsic axis depends on various spatial and non-spatial properties. The main purpose of the current study is to investigate how people choose the intrinsic axis in a virtual reality environment with spatial cues from different categories. Sixty-four participants (32 males and 32 females) each took part in one of two experiments. In each experiment, participants learned a layout comprising seven objects and viewed the scene through a head-mounted display from two perspectives. They then completed partial-scene-recognition tasks. Experiment 1 used obj...
Source: Cognitive Processing - January 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li J, Xie N, Zhao W Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Higher social power increases occupational gender stereotyping in Chinese culture.
Abstract Prior studies have used the perspective of the social function of social power (such as how power affects interpersonal interaction between the powerful and the powerless) to explore how powerful people stereotype powerless people. In the present research, we further explored how high and low levels of social power affect occupational gender stereotyping from the perspective of how social power affects cognitive processing, that is, social categorization. We proposed that higher social power-primed participants, compared to low social power-primed participants, would be more inclined to use category-based...
Source: Cognitive Processing - January 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang X, Li Q, Zuo B Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Emotional real-world scenes impact visual search.
Abstract Research shows that emotional stimuli can capture attention, and this can benefit or impair performance, depending on the characteristics of a task. Additionally, whilst some findings show that attention expands under positive conditions, others show that emotion has no influence on the broadening of attention. The current study investigated whether emotional real-world scenes influence attention in a visual search task. Participants were asked to identify a target letter embedded in the centre or periphery of emotional images. Identification accuracy was lower in positive images compared to neutral image...
Source: Cognitive Processing - December 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bendall RCA, Mohamed A, Thompson C Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
The experience of virtual reality: are individual differences in mental imagery associated with sense of presence?
Abstract The concept of "presence" describes the quality of subjective experience in immersive virtual reality (IVR). Presence refers to a specific state of consciousness: we behave and feel as if we actually were in the virtual world even though we know there is nothing there. In their handbook of Virtual Reality, Burdea and Coiffet (Virtual reality technology, Wiley, New York, 2003) suggested that the experience of presence in IVR would emerge from the combination of three Is: Immersion or capacity to isolate from the external world, Interaction or capacity to naturally exploring the virtual environmen...
Source: Cognitive Processing - December 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Iachini T, Maffei L, Masullo M, Senese VP, Rapuano M, Pascale A, Sorrentino F, Ruggiero G Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
What is a cognitive map? Unravelling its mystery using robots.
Abstract Despite years of research into cognitive mapping, the process remains controversial and little understood. A computational theory of cognitive mapping is needed, but developing it is difficult due to the lack of a clear interpretation of the empirical findings. For example, without knowing what a cognitive map is or how landmarks are defined, how does one develop a computational theory for it? We thus face the conundrum of trying to develop a theory without knowing what is computed. In this paper, we overcome the conundrum by abandoning the idea that the process begins by integrating successive views to f...
Source: Cognitive Processing - December 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yeap WK, Hossain M Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Referential processing during reading: concurrent recordings of eye movements and head motion.
We examined the effects of a change in narrative perspective during reading on eye movements and head motion. Forty-four participants read texts on a digital tablet, and both participants' eye movements and head movements were recorded using eye tracker and motion capture. The results showed longer eye fixation duration, longer reading time and decreasing head motions when perspective changed. Recent studies have supported the dynamic engagement hypothesis suggesting that there is a fluctuation in cognitive engagement reflected by postural movements. Our findings on head movements seem to validate this hypothesis of a bodi...
Source: Cognitive Processing - December 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ballenghein U, Baccino T Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Brain activations associated with scientific reasoning: a literature review.
Abstract Scientifically literate individuals are defined as individuals who are able to apply scientific knowledge and use scientific reasoning skills to solve problems. In recent years, cognitive neuroscience has turned its attention to understanding the brain activation patterns associated with scientific reasoning skills, but this work has not been systematically reviewed for more than a decade. The present study reviews neuroimaging studies related to three types of scientific reasoning tasks: overcoming misconceptions, causal reasoning, and hypothesis generation. These studies indicate converging evidence for...
Source: Cognitive Processing - December 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nenciovici L, Allaire-Duquette G, Masson S Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research
Representations of microgeometric tactile information during object recognition.
Abstract Object recognition through tactile perception involves two elements: the shape of the object (macrogeometric properties) and the material of the object (microgeometric properties). Here we sought to determine the characteristics of microgeometric tactile representations regarding object recognition through tactile perception. Participants were directed to recognize objects with different surface materials using either tactile information or visual information. With a quantitative analysis of the cognitive process regarding object recognition, Experiment 1 confirmed the same eight concepts (composed of rul...
Source: Cognitive Processing - November 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yasaka K, Mori T, Yamaguchi M, Kaba H Tags: Cogn Process Source Type: research