Reductionism in Art and Brain Science: Bridging the Two Cultures
No abstract available (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - December 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Book Review Source Type: research

Muscarinic and Nicotinic Modulation of Memory but not Verbal Problem-solving
Aspects of cognitive flexibility are modulated by the noradrenergic system, which is important in arousal and attention. Acetylcholine also modulates arousal and attention, as well as working memory. Effects of muscarinic and nicotinic antagonism on memory are well established. Our purpose was to test whether muscarinic and nicotinic antagonism affect aspects of cognitive flexibility, specifically verbal problem-solving, as well as memory, given acetylcholine’s role in attention and arousal. Eighteen participants attended three testing sessions. Two hours before testing, participants received either 0.6 mg scopolamin...
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - December 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Letter to the Editor: CBN Welcomes Commentary Regarding Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Pure Alexia: A Combined First-Person Account and Neuropsychological Investigation
Pure alexia is an acquired reading disorder where patients’ ability to read words and text is severely impaired, while their writing is left unaffected. Patients with pure alexia typically recover some reading ability over time, although most never regain their premorbid reading skills. A few studies have reported some behavioral and imaging correlates of such remission; however, little is known about the patients’ experience of their reading impairment. This paper contains a first-person account of pure alexia, describing the first author’s (K.H.) experience of his remission from severe reading problems ...
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - December 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Perspective Source Type: research

Incidence and Symptomatology of Vascular Crossed Aphasia in Bengali
Conclusions: The relatively high incidence of CA in our study suggests that bi-hemispheric language representation may be more prevalent in Bengali speakers than in speakers of other languages. The absence of crossed Wernicke aphasia in our study participants may represent a left-hemispheric advantage for receptive language abilities in Bengali speakers. Further studies are required to clarify whether idiosyncrasies in the Bengali language may be responsible for the differential brain representation of language seen in our study participants. (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - December 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Emotion Recognition in Patients With Parkinson Disease
Conclusions: The PD group showed impaired recognition of angry faces, which may be related to executive dysfunction. However, the PD group did not show any difficulties in recognizing emotions in music. This dissociation indicates that the mechanisms underlying the recognition of emotions in faces and music are partly independent. (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - December 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Differential Effect of Demographics, Processing Speed, and Depression on Cognitive Function in 755 Non-demented Community-dwelling Elderly Individuals
Conclusions: Clinicians should consider participant demographics, underlying slowing of processing speed, and depressive symptoms as potential confounding factors in cognitive measures. Our findings may explain the observed inter- and intra-individual variability in cognitive functions in the elderly population. (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - December 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Degenerative and Vascular Fluent Aphasia: Looking for Differences
Conclusions: Lesion localization is the main factor that determines the characteristics of aphasic deficits. Etiology indirectly acts through a different sensitivity of the brain regions to various pathologies. (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - December 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Inflammation and Cognitive Function in Overweight and Obese Chinese Individuals
Conclusions: Compared to normal-weight Chinese participants, overweight and obese Chinese participants revealed significant differences in their inflammatory cytokines profile; however, the inflammatory cytokine levels did not correlate with the significantly lower cognitive scores observed in the overweight and obese groups. (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - December 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Self-Consciousness and “Split” Brains: The Minds’ I
No abstract available (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Everything in Its Place: First Loves and Last Tales
No abstract available (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Vertical and Radial Attentional Neglect in Corticobasal Syndrome
We report a patient with probable corticobasal syndrome, a major phenotype of CBD, who revealed both lower vertical and proximal radial attentional neglect on line bisection tests. Brain imaging revealed bilateral parietal atrophy with hypometabolism in the bilateral parietal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and premotor cortices. Bilateral impairment in the dorsal attentional network reduces the allocation of spatial attention to lower and proximal space, causing lower vertical and proximal radial attentional neglect. Screening for various types of spatial neglect may be important in tailoring management and rehabilitation strat...
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Changes in Cognitive Performance With Age in Adults With Multiple Sclerosis
Conclusions: Older adults with MS demonstrated significant impairments in cognitive function compared to young and middle-aged adults with MS. Future studies should determine the predictors of cognitive decline in this age cohort. (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Relationship Between mTOR Signaling Activation and Postoperative Neurocognitive Disorder in Aged Rats
Conclusions: Our results indicate that an altered mTOR signaling pathway after a splenectomy causes PND in aged rats, which can be alleviated by rapamycin. (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Relationship Between Cognitive-Behavioral Impairment and Clinical and Functional Parameters in ALS and Reliability of the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen to Assess ALS: Preliminary Findings
Conclusions: We found no relationship between cognitive-behavioral impairment and time since onset of symptoms nor time since ALS diagnosis. Because the ECAS does not correctly reflect the executive function of individuals with ALS, function-specific neuropsychological tests are preferred. Test selection must take into account individuals’ physical characteristics and their consequent ability to respond gesturally or orally. (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Cognitive and Behavioral Changes in Patients Treated With Droxidopa for Neurogenic Orthostatic Hypotension: A Retrospective Review
Conclusions: Droxidopa is designed to act peripherally as a pressor agent but may also exert important central effects. We hypothesize that the cognitive and behavioral manifestations observed in the patients with orthostatic hypotension resulted from an “overdose” of key noradrenergic networks linking orbitofrontal and mesolimbic regions. (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Effects of a Mixed Reality-based Cognitive Training System Compared to a Conventional Computer-assisted Cognitive Training System on Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Pilot Study
Conclusion: An MR-based cognitive training system can be used as a cognitive training tool to improve visuospatial working memory in individuals with MCI. (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Insomnia-related Memory Impairment in Individuals With Very Complex Chronic Pain
Conclusions: Insomnia severity independently predicted memory function in patients with very complex chronic pain, even after controlling for other factors known to impair cognitive function. Insomnia may possibly explain some of the cognitive impairments related to chronic pain; thus, screening for, and treating, sleep disturbances may be a central aspect of chronic pain rehabilitation. (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Psychoeducational Interventions for Adults With Level 3 Autism Spectrum Disorder: A 50-Year Systematic Review
There is face validity to the expectation that adults with level 3 autism spectrum disorder (ASD–3) will benefit from a range of psychoeducational interventions. This paper reviews the empirical evidence supporting the effectiveness of these interventions, many of which are currently used in clinical settings. We reviewed 56 peer-reviewed studies of psychoeducational interventions for adults with ASD–3, written in English and since 1968, that met our criteria. The reviewing team included educators, clinicians, researchers, and a biostatistician. The available literature was limited, and most, if not all, of the...
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

A Case of Capgras Syndrome With Frontotemporal Dementia
Capgras syndrome (CS), also called imposter syndrome, is a rare psychiatric condition that is characterized by the delusion that a family relative or close friend has been replaced by an identical imposter. Here, we describe a 69-year-old man with CS who presented to the Kemal Arikan Psychiatry Clinic with an ongoing belief that his wife had been replaced by an identical imposter. MRI showed selective anterior left temporal lobe atrophy. Quantitative EEG showed bilateral frontal and temporal slowing. Neuropsychological profiling identified a broad range of deficits in the areas of naming, executive function, and long-term ...
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - June 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

“Need to Know” or the Strong Urge to Find Names of Unique Entities in Acquired Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
The two forms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), idiopathic and acquired, have been linked to abnormalities in the fronto-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry, involving the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, and striatum. Accumulating evidence indicates that damage to other brain regions (ie, temporal lobes) is also implicated in the pathogenesis of both types of OCD. In addition, some discrete OCD symptoms have received less attention because of their presumed low occurrence and difficultly of categorization. Among these, one intriguing and potentially severe type of obsessive thinking is the s...
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - June 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Schizophrenia Phenotype Preceding Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia Related to C9orf72 Repeat Expansion
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) shares a constellation of clinical features with primary psychiatric disorders. The discovery of new FTD-related genetic mutations has brought attention to this overlap between bvFTD and psychotic disorders. The case reported here raises the question of whether C9orf72 repeat expansion may be involved in neuropsychiatric syndromes beyond the spectrum of neurodegenerative disease. A 61-year-old woman was referred to our memory clinic for behavioral changes and progressive cognitive decline over the last 3 years. Her medical history was significant for schizophrenia since ag...
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - June 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Implicit Measures of Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge in Individuals With Level 3 Autism
In this study, we investigated whether three implicit measures—eye movement (EM) monitoring, pupillary dilation (PD), and event-related potentials (ERPs)—can be used to reliably estimate vocabulary knowledge in individuals with Level 3 autism. Five adults with Level 3 autism were tested in a repeated-measures design with two tasks. High-frequency ‘known’ words (eg, bus, airplane) and low-frequency ‘unknown’ words (eg, ackee, cherimoya) were presented in a visual world task (during which EM and PD data were collected) and a picture-word congruity task (during which ERP data were collected...
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - June 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Cognitive Profile, Emotional-Behavioral Features, and Parental Stress in Boys With 47,XYY Syndrome
Conclusions: Generally, 47,XYY syndrome is associated with certain cognitive, emotional, and behavioral features. High stress levels have been reported by the mothers of 47,XYY boys who had been diagnosed postnatally because of unexpected developmental delay and/or learning difficulties. The present study highlights the need to better define the neuropsychiatric phenotype of 47,XYY children; namely, the effect of the chromosomal abnormality on their cognitive function and emotional-behavioral (internalizing and externalizing) features. This study could improve prenatal counseling and pediatric surveillance. (Source: Cogn...
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - June 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Structured Cognitive Training Yields Best Results in Healthy Older Adults, and Their ApoE4 State and Baseline Cognitive Level Predict Training Benefits
Conclusions: Our results support the greater effectiveness of structured cognitive training on verbal memory compared with brain jogging and no training. The success of this type of training program may be predicted by sociodemographic, cognitive, and genetic variables. (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - June 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Effects of Left Versus Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Affective Flexibility in Healthy Women: A Pilot Study
Conclusions: These findings suggest that left DLPFC HF rTMS may lead to antidepressant effects by improving the regulation of emotion. (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - June 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

The Disordered Mind: What Unusual Brains Tell Us About Ourselves
No abstract available (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - March 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Book Review Source Type: research

Unfolding the Complex Dynamic Interplay Between Attentional Processes and Anxiety: A Commentary on Ghassemzadeh, Rothbart, and Posner
Theories about the involvement of attention in feelings of fear and anxiety have been debated in philosophical circles since long before the foundation of experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience. In this issue, Ghassemzadeh, Rothbart, and Posner (2019) provide a much-needed historical and conceptual review of the relations between attention and anxiety disorders. Throughout their paper, they argue that insights from the study of brain networks of attention offer a particularly viable prospect for best clarifying the complex relations between attentional processes and anxiety. We fully share this view. Moreover, ...
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - March 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Anxiety and Brain Networks of Attentional Control
Advances in the study of brain networks can be applied to our understanding of anxiety disorders (eg, generalized anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and posttraumatic stress disorders) to enable us to create targeted treatments. These disorders have in common an inability to control thoughts, emotions, and behaviors related to a perceived threat. Here we review animal and human imaging studies that have revealed separate brain networks related to various negative emotions. Research has supported the idea that brain networks of attention serve to control emotion networks as well as the thoughts and behaviors related to them. We...
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - March 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Historical Perspective Source Type: research

Preferential Disruption of Auditory Word Representations in Primary Progressive Aphasia With the Neuropathology of FTLD-TDP Type A
Four patients with primary progressive aphasia displayed a greater deficit in understanding words they heard than words they read, and a further deficiency in naming objects orally rather than in writing. All four had frontotemporal lobar degeneration-transactive response DNA binding protein Type A neuropathology, three determined postmortem and one surmised on the basis of granulin gene (GRN) mutation. These features of language impairment are not characteristic of any currently recognized primary progressive aphasia variant. They can be operationalized as manifestations of dysfunction centered on a putative auditory word...
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - March 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Why Sex Matters: A Cognitive Study of People With Multiple Sclerosis
Conclusions: An analysis of a large, consecutive sample of people with MS demonstrated that sex, independent of demographic, neurologic, or psychiatric factors, is an important determinant in cognitive impairment, with men being more impaired than women on tests of verbal learning and memory. (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - March 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Processing of Local and Global Auditory Deviants in Parkinson Disease: Electrophysiological Evidence for Enhanced Attention Capture
Conclusions: The larger positivity suggests that pwPD are more prone to distraction than healthy controls, probably because dopaminergic medication shifts the stability-flexibility balance toward cognitive flexibility with increased distractibility. (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - March 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Subjective Sleep Quality and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Hemodialysis Patients Waitlisted for Renal Transplant
Conclusions: Poor sleep quality and EDS are quite common among patients receiving HD, but these sleep disturbances often go undiagnosed or untreated. Better awareness and treatment of SDs could improve quality of life for HD patients waitlisted for renal transplant. (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - March 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Cognitive Problems in Parkinson Disease: Perspectives and Priorities of Patients and Care Partners
Conclusions: In view of the array of cognitive impacts of PD, clinicians and researchers must consider both the reporter (patient or CP) and the overall stage of a patient’s cognitive decline when evaluating SCCs. (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - March 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Chronological Effects of Emotional Valence on the Self-selected Retrieval of Autobiographical Memories
Background and Objective: Salience of emotional autobiographical memories may have temporal patterns associated with valence. Recall of negative emotional memories is often important in survival and well-being. Based on the possible survival value of negative memories, we posited that when given an open-ended request to recall either a sad or a happy memory, people are more likely to recall an older sad memory than a happy one. Methods: We asked 20 healthy participants, aged 18–63 years, to freely recall happy and sad emotional memories and estimate the length of time that had passed since the recalled event had...
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - March 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

The Intersection of Physical Function, Cognitive Performance, Aging, and Multiple Sclerosis: A Cross-sectional Comparative Study
Conclusions: Physical function and information processing speed are strongly correlated in older adults with MS. Future research should examine underlying neurobehavioral mechanisms associated with physical and cognitive function as well as behavioral strategies for jointly improving these functions in older adults with MS. (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - March 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

The Roots of Cognitive Neuroscience: Behavioral Neurology and Neuropsychology
No abstract available (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - December 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Book Review Source Type: research

Reflections on Mirror Neurons and Rehabilitation
No abstract available (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - December 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Reprinted Articles Source Type: research

Exploring the Anatomy of Human Emotion and Social Conduct
No abstract available (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - December 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Reprinted Articles Source Type: research

Mental Status Testing of News Events
No abstract available (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - December 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood in Two Adult Patients with a Mild Syndrome
We describe the cognitive-behavioral functioning of two adult patients with a mild form of alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC). AHC is a rare, chronic neurodevelopmental syndrome manifesting in infancy or early childhood, with recurrent hemiplegic or hemidystonic attacks, various nonepileptic paroxysmal events, and cognitive-behavioral impairments, including mental delay of varying degrees. We conducted neurologic and neuroimaging examinations, as well as a neuropsychological assessment, of two men (22 and 30 years old) with mutations in the ATP1A3 gene (p.Leu757Pro and p.Val332Glu) who were experiencing typical AHC ...
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - December 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Executive Dysfunction After Fourth-Ventricle Epidermoid Cyst Resection
Intracranial epidermoid cysts are rare, comprising 0.2% to 1.8% of all primary intracranial expanding lesions, of which (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - December 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Changes in Cognitive Function Scores After Cerebrospinal Fluid Tap Testing in Patients with Suspected Idiopathic Normal-Pressure Hydrocephalus
Conclusions: Performing several reevaluations using each test may enable more accurate assessment of cognitive function in patients with suspected iNPH. Our results highlight the need for long-term follow-up, regardless of the severity of cognitive impairment. (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - December 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

White Matter Microstructure in Illiterate and Low-Literate Elderly Brazilians: Preliminary Findings
Conclusions: Although our results are preliminary because of the sample size, they suggest that low literacy, versus illiteracy, is associated with higher fractional anisotropy values, which are indirect measurements of white matter microstructure. This finding provides insight into a possible mechanism by which literacy, even at low levels, may contribute to cognitive reserve. (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - December 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Language Disorders in Huntington Disease: A Systematic Literature Review
Conclusions: Although people with HD present with language impairment, further studies are needed to identify their functional origin. Clinical studies are also needed to determine the impact of such impairments on an individual’s functional communication in daily living and to chart the progression of the impairments over the course of the disease. (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - December 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Somebody I Used to Know: A Memoir
No abstract available (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - September 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Book Review Source Type: research

Early Diagnosis of Frontotemporal Dementia
No abstract available (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - September 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Reprinted Articles Source Type: research

The Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status
No abstract available (Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology)
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - September 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Reprinted Articles Source Type: research