Underspecification in toddlers' and adults' lexical representations.
Abstract Recent research has shown that toddlers' lexical representations are phonologically detailed, quantitatively much like those of adults. Studies in this article explore whether toddlers' and adults' lexical representations are qualitatively similar. Psycholinguistic claims (Lahiri & Marslen-Wilson, 1991; Lahiri & Reetz, 2002, 2010) based on underspecification (Kiparsky, 1982 et seq.) predict asymmetrical judgments in lexical processing tasks; these have been supported in some psycholinguistic research showing that participants are more sensitive to noncoronal-to-coronal (pop → top) than to...
Source: Cognition - September 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ren J, Cohen Priva U, Morgan JL Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Wearing your heart on your screen: Investigating congruency-effects in autonomic responses and their role in interoceptive processing during biofeedback.
Abstract The experience of one's embodied sense of self is dependent on the integration of signals originating both from within and outwith one's body. During the processing and integration of these signals, the bodily self must maintain a fine balance between stability and malleability. Here we investigate the potential role of autonomic responses in interoceptive processing and their contribution to the stability of the bodily self. Using a biofeedback paradigm, we manipulated the congruency of cardiac signals across two hierarchical levels: (i) the low-level congruency between a visual feedback and participant'...
Source: Cognition - September 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hodossy L, Tsakiris M Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Proactive control of affective distraction: Experience-based but not expectancy-based.
We examined whether such affective disturbances can be controlled explicitly and proactively. Specifically, we studied two different mechanisms to induce proactive control: the experience of frequent affective distraction and cueing of upcoming affective distraction. We predicted that both mechanisms would shield the attentional system from affective disturbance. Participants solved a letter classification task while being exposed to neutral or negative distractor pictures. We varied whether the proportion of negative distractors was low or high and whether cues for the upcoming type of distractor valence were informative ...
Source: Cognition - September 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Schmidts C, Foerster A, Kleinsorge T, Kunde W Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Causal actions enhance perception of continuous body movements.
Abstract Our experience of motion depends not only on spatiotemporal features of stimuli, but also on our recognition of seemingly higher-level properties, as when we see an actor's body movements as goal-directed. Here, we examined how the perception of social causation in human actions guides the perceptual interpolation of motion in the observation of body movements. Natural human-object interactions were recorded for videos in which a person prepared to catch a ball thrown by another person. We manipulated the number of image frames between key postures to yield a short clip with different frame rates, and ask...
Source: Cognition - September 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Peng Y, Ichien N, Lu H Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Increased overt attention to objects in early deaf adults: An eye-tracking study of complex naturalistic scenes.
In this study, we aimed to test whether this key finding extends also to overt attention, using a more ecologically valid experimental context in which complex naturalistic images were presented for 3 s. In Experiment 1 (N = 35), all images contained a single central object superimposed on a congruent naturalistic background (e.g., a tiger in the woods). At the end of the visual exploration phase, an incidental memory task probed the participants' recollection of the seen central objects and image backgrounds. Results showed that hearing controls explored and remembered the image backgrounds more than deaf participan...
Source: Cognition - September 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zeni S, Laudanna I, Baruffaldi F, Heimler B, Melcher D, Pavani F Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Attentional prioritization reconfigures novel instructions into action-oriented task sets.
B, Brass M Abstract An astonishing aspect of human cognitive flexibility concerns the ability to efficiently convert complex symbolic instructions into novel behaviors. In such ability, the rapid transformation of relevant content into action plans is particularly crucial as it allows for reflexive, automatic-like execution of merely instructed task sets. However, little is known about the mechanisms that give rise to this transformation. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that novel instructions held in working memory are reformatted into action-oriented representations when selective attention priorit...
Source: Cognition - September 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: González-García C, Formica S, Liefooghe B, Brass M Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

What comes to mind?
Abstract When solving problems, like making predictions or choices, people often "sample" possibilities into mind. Here, we consider whether there is structure to the kinds of thoughts people sample by default-that is, without an explicit goal. Across three experiments we found that what comes to mind by default are samples from a probability distribution that combines what people think is likely and what they think is good. Experiment 1 found that the first quantities that come to mind for everyday behaviors and events are quantities that combine what is average and ideal. Experiment 2 found, in a manip...
Source: Cognition - September 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Bear A, Bensinger S, Jara-Ettinger J, Knobe J, Cushman F Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Facial responses of adult humans during the anticipation and consumption of touch and food rewards.
i G Abstract Whether cognitive, motivational and hedonic aspects of reward anticipation and consumption can be reliably assessed with explicit and implicit measures, and if different motivational (decision utility) and hedonic (experienced utility) processes get recruited by distinct reward types, remain partly unsolved questions that are relevant for theories of social and non-social decision-making. We investigated these topics using a novel experimental paradigm, including carefully matched social and nonsocial rewards, and by focusing on facial responses. Facial expressions are indeed an often-cited implicit m...
Source: Cognition - September 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Korb S, Massaccesi C, Gartus A, Lundström JN, Rumiati R, Eisenegger C, Silani G Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Dynamics of auditory spatial attention gradients.
We examined the interplay of sustained focus and intermittent shifts in an auditory spatial attention task. Most trials required a choice response from a standard location in virtual space (L-R: -90°, 0°, +90°), but occasionally the location shifted between 45°-180°. Reaction time curves for angular shifts had a quadratic shape, with slowing for small shifts but faster reaction times for larger shifts. The reaction time curves were maintained at faster stimulus rates and usually scaled to fit the range of stimulus locations. However, focus on the right had an attenuated curve, and did not scale to the r...
Source: Cognition - September 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Golob EJ, Mock JR Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Dynamics of visual attention revealed in foraging tasks.
te;nsson Á Abstract Visual search tasks play a key role in theories of visual attention. But single-target search tasks may provide only a snapshot of attentional orienting. Foraging tasks with multiple targets of different types arguably provide a closer analogy to everyday attentional processing. Set-size effects have in the literature formed the basis for inferring how attention operates during visual search. We therefore measured the effects of absolute set-size (constant target-distractor ratio) and relative set-size (constant set-size but target-distractor ratio varies) on foraging patterns during &qu...
Source: Cognition - August 30, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kristjánsson T, Thornton IM, Chetverikov A, Kristjánsson Á Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

The role of language in novel task learning.
Abstract The ability to rapidly acquire novel cognitive skills is a hallmark of human cognition. Theories of skill acquisition assume that this process is reliant on language, but to date this assertion has not been conclusively supported by empirical evidence. In two experiments participants (total N = 68) were required to learn, by trial-and-error, the correct response to sets of five object stimuli. To investigate the contribution of language to this process, participants performed a verbal (articulatory suppression), a non-verbal (foot tapping), or no distractor task during the first or second half of each...
Source: Cognition - August 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: van 't Wout F, Jarrold C Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

An initial accuracy focus prevents illusory truth.
Abstract News stories, advertising campaigns, and political propaganda often repeat misleading claims, increasing their persuasive power. Repeated statements feel easier to process, and thus truer, than new ones. Surprisingly, this illusory truth effect occurs even when claims contradict young adults' stored knowledge (e.g., repeating The fastest land animal is the leopard makes it more believable). In four experiments, we tackled this problem by prompting people to behave like "fact checkers." Focusing on accuracy at exposure (giving initial truth ratings) wiped out the illusion later, but only when par...
Source: Cognition - August 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Brashier NM, Eliseev ED, Marsh EJ Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Left is "good": Observed action affects the association between horizontal space and affective valence.
This study provides further evidence that the effect of alternative motor fluency on space-valence association in the observer is mainly modulated by the connection between the outcomes and space, with body posture also influencing the association. PMID: 31472327 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cognition)
Source: Cognition - August 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Song X, Yi F, Zhang J, Proctor RW Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Evidence for metacognitive bias in perception of voluntary action.
Abstract Studies of metacognition often measure confidence in perceptual decisions. Much less is known about metacognition of action, and specifically about how people estimate the success of their own actions. In the present study, we compare metacognitive abilities between voluntary actions, passive movements matched to those actions, and purely visual signals. Participants reported their confidence in judging whether a brief visual probe appeared ahead or behind of their finger during simple flexion/extension movement. The finger could be moved voluntarily, or could be moved passively by a robot replaying their...
Source: Cognition - August 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Charles L, Chardin C, Haggard P Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Differential benefits of mental training types for attention, compassion, and theory of mind.
r T Abstract Mindfulness- and, more generally, meditation-based interventions increasingly gain popularity, effectively promoting cognitive, affective, and social capacities. It is unclear, however, if different types of practice have the same or specific effects on mental functioning. Here we tested three consecutive three-month training modules aimed at cultivating either attention, socio-affective qualities (such as compassion), or socio-cognitive skills (such as theory of mind), in three training cohorts and a retest control cohort (N = 332). While attentional performance improved most consistently after a...
Source: Cognition - August 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Trautwein FM, Kanske P, Böckler A, Singer T Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

How abstract is syntax? Evidence from structural priming.
Abstract In 1990, Bock and Loebell found that passives (e.g., The 747 was radioed by the airport's control tower) can be primed by intransitive locatives (e.g., The 747 was landing by the airport's control tower). This finding is often taken as strong evidence that structural priming occurs on the basis of a syntactic phrase structure that abstracts across lexical content, including prepositions, and is uninfluenced by the semantic roles of the arguments. However, all of the intransitive locative primes in Bock and Loebell contained the preposition by (by-locatives), just like the passive targets. Therefore, the l...
Source: Cognition - August 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ziegler J, Bencini G, Goldberg A, Snedeker J Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

The role of proactive control on subcomponents of language control: Evidence from trilinguals.
Abstract Language control in bilingual individuals has been the source of thorough study in the last decade. However, the characterization of the subcomponents of this cognitive process remains shallow. In this experiment we tested Chinese, English, and Japanese trilinguals who completed a modified language-switching task. Participants named pictures in one of three conditions: Repeat language, Switch-away from a language (target language undetermined) and Switch-to a particular language (target language determined). Brain activity was recorded by electroencephalogram (EEG) and general proactive control ability wa...
Source: Cognition - August 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu H, Zhang Y, Blanco-Elorrieta E, He Y, Chen B Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Whereof one cannot speak: How language and capture of visual attention interact.
Abstract Our research addresses the important question whether language influences cognition by studying crosslinguistic differences in nonlinguistic visual search tasks. We investigated whether capture of visual attention is mediated by characteristics corresponding to concepts that are differently expressed across different languages. Korean grammatically distinguishes between tight- (kkita) and loose-fit (nehta) containment whereas German collapses them into a single semantic category (in). Although linguistic processing was neither instructed nor necessary to perform the visual search task, we found that Korea...
Source: Cognition - August 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Goller F, Choi S, Hong U, Ansorge U Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Learning reward frequency over reward probability: A tale of two learning rules.
In this study, we examined whether reward learning is driven more by learning the probability of reward provided by each option, or how frequently each option has been rewarded, and assess how well models based on average reward (e.g. the delta model) and models based on cumulative reward (e.g. the decay model) can account for choice preferences. In a binary-outcome choice task, participants selected between pairs of options that had reward probabilities of 0.65 (A) versus 0.35 (B) or 0.75 (C) versus 0.25 (D). Crucially, during training there were twice the number of AB trials as CD trials, such that option A was associate...
Source: Cognition - August 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Don HJ, Otto AR, Cornwall AC, Davis T, Worthy DA Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

A chink in the armor: The influence of training on generalization learning impairments after viewing traumatic stimuli.
Abstract Studies have demonstrated that similarly to individuals with PTSD, non-PTSD individuals with repeated traumatic-exposure display selective impairments in hippocampal-related functions. A central example is their impaired generalization learning. Interestingly, previous findings revealed that the nature of this impairment varied as a function of occupation; while firefighters display impaired generalization of negative context, police crime scene investigators (CSI) display impaired generalization of negative cue. One possible explanation for these discrepancies may relate to the different job requirements...
Source: Cognition - August 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Haim-Nachum S, Levy-Gigi E Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Stepwise versus globally optimal search in children and adults.
Abstract How do children and adults search for information when stepwise-optimal strategies fail to identify the most efficient query? The value of questions is often measured in terms of stepwise information gain (expected reduction of entropy on the next time step) or other stepwise-optimal methods. However, such myopic models are not guaranteed to identify the most efficient sequence of questions, that is, the shortest path to the solution. In two experiments we contrast stepwise methods with globally optimal strategies and study how younger children (around age 8, N = 52), older children (around age 10, N...
Source: Cognition - August 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Meder B, Nelson JD, Jones M, Ruggeri A Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Pragmatic processing: An investigation of the (anti-)presuppositions of determiners using mouse-tracking.
k M Abstract A presupposition is a condition that has to be met in order for a linguistic expression to be appropriate. The definite determiner (as in the banana) triggers the uniqueness-presupposition that there is a uniquely identifiable banana in the relevant discourse context. The indefinite determiner (as in a banana) is similarly associated with anti-uniqueness (that there are several bananas). Application of the Maximize Presupposition principle to the indefinite determiner suggests that this latter effect results indirectly as an anti-presupposition from considering the uniqueness-presupposition of the def...
Source: Cognition - August 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Schneider C, Schonard C, Franke M, Jäger G, Janczyk M Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

When do we punish people who don't?
We presented participants with cases in which an individual fails to punish a transgressor, either as a victim (second party) or as an observer (third party). Across studies, we consistently observed higher-order punishment of non-punishing observers. Higher-order punishment of non-punishing victims, however, was consistently weaker, and sometimes non-existent. These results demonstrate the selective application of higher-order punishment, provide a new perspective on the psychological mechanisms that support it, and provide some clues regarding its function. PMID: 31408816 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cognition)
Source: Cognition - August 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Martin JW, Jordan JJ, Rand DG, Cushman F Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Crying helps, but being sad doesn't: Infants constrain nominal reference online using known verbs, but not known adjectives.
Abstract Speakers can make inferences about the meaning of new words appearing in an utterance based on the lexical semantics of other words that co-occur with them. Previous work has revealed that infants at 19 and 24 months of age can recruit the semantic selectional restrictions of known verbs (e.g., eating) to deduce that a noun appearing in the subject position maps onto an animate referent. We asked whether this ability to capitalize on the semantics of familiar words to identify the referent of a novel noun in subject position extends to adjectives, which also denote properties, and which also have animac...
Source: Cognition - August 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Syrett K, LaTourrette A, Ferguson B, Waxman SR Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Aversion to organs donated by suicide victims: The role of psychological essentialism.
Abstract People are known to be susceptible to psychological essentialism when reasoning about organ transplantation, believing that the mental characteristics of the donor will transfer to the recipient. Because psychological essentialism is exacerbated in negative social contexts (i.e., moral contagion bias), the effect may be especially apparent when people consider the impact of receiving organs from donors who died by stigmatized causes, such as suicide and homicide. In a forced-choice paradigm, participants overwhelmingly ranked a suicide victim as their least preferred donor, with accident victims being the...
Source: Cognition - August 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Balkcom ER, Alogna VK, Curtin ER, Halberstadt JB, Bering JM Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Container size exerts a stronger influence than liquid volume on the perceived weight of objects.
Abstract Many features of an object can influence how we predict and perceive its weight. The current study evaluated the relative contributions of sensory and conceptual processing of object features on weight perception. We employed a novel paradigm to investigate how container size and the amount of liquid inside can influence the perceived weight of bottles and the forces deployed when lifting them. Stimulus pairs always had the same mass but could vary in liquid volume (full vs half-full bottle) or size (large vs small bottle; size-weight illusion (SWI)). In Experiment 1, participants lifted the stimuli via s...
Source: Cognition - August 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Saccone EJ, Goldsmith RM, Buckingham G, Chouinard PA Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Size-invariant but location-specific object-viewpoint adaptation in the absence of awareness.
Abstract Perceiving object viewpoint is important for appropriate action. Here we investigated whether viewpoint information could be represented in the absence of awareness, by measuring viewpoint adaptation aftereffect from visual objects rendered invisible through interocular suppression. Participants adapted to either a visible or an invisible line-drawing cube with unambiguous viewpoint, then viewed an ambiguous Necker cube and reported its perceived viewpoint. In both the visible and invisible adaptation conditions, participants more likely perceived the Necker cube in opposite viewpoint compared to the adap...
Source: Cognition - August 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Cho S, He S Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Reference effects on decision-making elicited by previous rewards.
Abstract Substantial evidence has highlighted reference effects occurring during decision-making, whereby subjective value is not calculated in absolute terms but relative to the distribution of rewards characterizing a context. Among these, within-choice effects are exerted by options simultaneously available during choice. These should be distinguished from between-choice effects, which depend on the distribution of options presented in the past. Influential theories on between-choice effects include Decision-by-Sampling, Expectation-as-Reference and Divisive Normalization. Surprisingly, previous literature has ...
Source: Cognition - August 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Rigoli F Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Finding the "odd one out": Memory color effects and the logic of appearance.
Finding the "odd one out": Memory color effects and the logic of appearance. Cognition. 2019 Aug 02;191:103934 Authors: Valenti JJ, Firestone C Abstract Can what we know change what we see? A line of research stretching back nearly a century suggests that knowing an object's canonical color can alter its visual appearance, such that objectively gray bananas appear to be tinged with yellow, and objectively orange hearts appear redder than they really are. Such "memory color" effects have constituted the strongest and most complete evidence that basic sensory processing can be penetr...
Source: Cognition - August 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Valenti JJ, Firestone C Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Using what's there: Bilinguals adaptively rely on orthographic and color cues to achieve language control.
We examined if bilinguals of two different language combinations can rely on novel and arbitrary cues to facilitate switching between languages in a read-aloud task. Spanish-English (Experiment 1) and Hebrew-English (Experiment 2) bilinguals read aloud mixed-language paragraphs, known to induce language intrusion errors (e.g., saying el instead of the), to test if intrusion rates are affected by: language combination, color-cues, language dominance, and part of speech. For Spanish-English bilinguals, written input is not rich in visual cues to language membership, whereas for Hebrew-English bilinguals rich cues are present...
Source: Cognition - July 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Fadlon J, Li C, Prior A, Gollan TH Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

The Dialogical Entailment Task.
Abstract In this paper, a critical discussion is made of the role of entailments in the so-called New Paradigm of psychology of reasoning based on Bayesian models of rationality (Elqayam & Over, 2013). It is argued that assessments of probabilistic coherence cannot stand on their own, but that they need to be integrated with empirical studies of intuitive entailment judgments. This need is motivated not just by the requirements of probability theory itself, but also by a need to enhance the interdisciplinary integration of the psychology of reasoning with formal semantics in linguistics. The constructive goal ...
Source: Cognition - July 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Skovgaard-Olsen N Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Possibilities as the foundation of reasoning.
We present a psychological theory in which it is the foundation of human reasoning. The theory explains how possibilities have distinct interpretations (deontic, epistemic, and alethic), how people represent them in models, and how these models yield inferences. Key principles are that the semantics of possibilities are the same finitary alternatives underlying probabilities, that speech acts can create obligations inexpressible as probabilities, that compound assertions - conditionals and disjunctions - refer to conjunctions of possibilities holding in default of knowledge to the contrary, and that mental models condense ...
Source: Cognition - July 30, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Johnson-Laird PN, Ragni M Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Tip of the tongue after any language: Reintroducing the notion of blocked retrieval.
Abstract Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states often entail a phenomenological sense that retrieval is blocked, but incomplete activation is more commonly assumed as the underlying mechanism. Bilinguals have more TOTs than monolinguals, and commonly report that one language feels less accessible after immersion in another although evidence for this is minimal. Kreiner and Degani (2015) reported Russian-Hebrew bilinguals had more TOTs for Hebrew words after watching a movie in Russian, and surprisingly, native Hebrew speakers who did not know Russian also had more TOTs. Aiming to replicate this work, 72 Spanish-English bi...
Source: Cognition - July 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Stasenko A, Gollan TH Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Integration to boundary in decisions between numerical sequences.
Abstract Integration-to-boundary is a prominent normative principle used in evidence-based decisions to explain the speed-accuracy trade-off and determine the decision-time. Despite its prominence, however, the decision boundary is not directly observed, but rather is theoretically assumed, and there is still an ongoing debate regarding its form: fixed vs. collapsing. The aim of this study is to show that the integration-to-boundary process extends to decisions between rapid pairs of numerical sequences (2 Hz rate), and to determine the boundary type by directly monitoring the noisy accumulated evidence. In a se...
Source: Cognition - July 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Glickman M, Usher M Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Human body motion captures visual attention and elicits pupillary dilation.
Abstract The social motivation theory proposes that individuals naturally orient their attention to the social world. Research has documented the rewarding value of social stimuli, such as biological motion, to typically developed individuals. Here, we used complementary eye tracking measures to investigate how social motion cues affect attention and arousal. Specifically, we examined whether viewing the human body moving naturally versus mechanically leads to greater attentional engagement and changes in autonomic arousal (as assessed by pupil size measures). Participants completed an attentional disengagement ta...
Source: Cognition - July 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Williams EH, Cristino F, Cross ES Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Crossing to the other side: Language influences children's perception of event components.
This study is among the first to show that language can be used to heighten and weaken children's categorization of "non-native" event components. PMID: 31352223 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cognition)
Source: Cognition - July 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Konishi H, Brezack N, Michnick Golinkoff R, Hirsh-Pasek K Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

The domain-specificity of face matching impairments in 40 cases of developmental prosopagnosia.
Abstract A prevailing debate in the psychological literature concerns the domain-specificity of the face recognition system, where evidence from typical and neurological participants has been interpreted as evidence that faces are "special". Although several studies have investigated the same question in cases of developmental prosopagnosia, the vast majority of this evidence has recently been discounted due to methodological concerns. This leaves an uncomfortable void in the literature, restricting our understanding of the typical and atypical development of the face recognition system. The current stud...
Source: Cognition - July 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Bate S, Bennetts RJ, Tree JJ, Adams A, Murray E Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Bilinguals apply language-specific grain sizes during sentence reading.
This study presents the first characterisation of bilingual decoding style in sentence reading. We discuss our findings in relation to connectionist reading models and models of bilingual visual word recognition. PMID: 31336311 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cognition)
Source: Cognition - July 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Egan C, Oppenheim GM, Saville C, Moll K, Jones MW Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Self-control is linked to interoceptive inference: Craving regulation and the prediction of aversive interoceptive states induced with inspiratory breathing load.
Abstract The interoceptive inference framework suggests that our brain continuously anticipates future states of our body and aims to avoid events that might counteract homeostasis by minimizing prediction errors through active inference; e.g. appropriate actions. If predicted interoceptive models are inaccurate, behavior inconsistent with our long-term homeostatic goals may result; e.g. in failures in self-control. Using a within-subject design including an inspiratory breathing-load task to examine the prediction of aversive interoceptive perturbation and a craving-regulation for palatable foods task, we examine...
Source: Cognition - July 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kruschwitz JD, Kausch A, Brovkin A, Keshmirian A, Paulus MP, Goschke T, Walter H Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Offloading memory leaves us vulnerable to memory manipulation.
Abstract We often offload memory demands onto external artefacts (e.g., smartphones). While this practice allows us to subvert the limitations of our biological memory, storing memories externally exposes them to manipulation. To examine the impact of such manipulation, we report three experiments, two of which were pre-registered. Individuals performed a memory task where they could offload to-be-recalled information to an external store and on a critical trial, we surreptitiously manipulated the information in that store. Results demonstrated that individuals rarely noticed this manipulation. In addition, when i...
Source: Cognition - July 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Risko EF, Kelly MO, Patel P, Gaspar C Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Keep trying!: Parental language predicts infants' persistence.
Abstract Infants' persistence in the face of challenges predicts their learning across domains. In older children, linguistic input is an important predictor of persistence: when children are praised for their efforts, as opposed to fixed traits, they try harder on future endeavors. Yet, little is known about the impact of linguistic input as individual differences in persistence are first emerging, during infancy. Based on a preliminary investigation of the CHILDES database, which revealed that language surrounding persistence is an early-emerging feature of children's language environment, we conducted an observ...
Source: Cognition - July 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lucca K, Horton R, Sommerville JA Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

The effects of high variability training on voice identity learning.
Abstract High variability training has been shown to benefit the learning of new face identities. In three experiments, we investigated whether this is also the case for voice identity learning. In Experiment 1a, we contrasted high variability training sets - which included stimuli extracted from a number of different recording sessions, speaking environments and speaking styles - with low variability stimulus sets that only included a single speaking style (read speech) extracted from one recording session (see Ritchie & Burton, 2017 for faces). Listeners were tested on an old/new recognition task using read ...
Source: Cognition - July 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lavan N, Knight S, Hazan V, McGettigan C Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Tone slips in Cantonese: Evidence for early phonological encoding.
This article examines speech errors in Cantonese with the aim of fleshing out a larger speech production architecture for encoding phonological tone. A corpus was created by extracting 2462 speech errors, including 668 tone errors, from audio recordings of natural conversations. The structure of these errors was then investigated in order to distinguish two contemporary approaches to tone in speech production. In the tonal frames account, tone is encoded like metrical stress, represented in abstract structural frames for a word. Because tone cannot be mis-selected in tonal frames, tone errors are expected to be rare and no...
Source: Cognition - July 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Alderete J, Chan Q, Yeung HH Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

The career of measurement.
Abstract Units as they exist today are highly abstract. Meters, miles, and other modern measures have no obvious basis in tangible phenomena and can be applied broadly across domains. Historical examples suggest, however, that units have not always been so abstract. Here, we examine this issue systematically. We begin by analyzing linear measures in the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) and in an ethnographic database that spans 114 cultures (HRAF). Our survey of both datasets shows, first, that early length units have mostly come from concrete sources-body parts, artifacts, events, and other tangible phenomena-and,...
Source: Cognition - July 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Cooperrider K, Gentner D Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Evolving artificial sign languages in the lab: From improvised gesture to systematic sign.
Abstract Recent work on emerging sign languages provides evidence for how key properties of linguistic systems are created. Here we use laboratory experiments to investigate the contribution of two specific mechanisms-interaction and transmission-to the emergence of a manual communication system in silent gesturers. We show that the combined effects of these mechanisms, rather than either alone, maintain communicative efficiency, and lead to a gradual increase of regularity and systematic structure. The gestures initially produced by participants are unsystematic and resemble pantomime, but come to develop key lan...
Source: Cognition - July 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Motamedi Y, Schouwstra M, Smith K, Culbertson J, Kirby S Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Sensory cue combination in children under 10 years of age.
Abstract Cue combination occurs when two independent noisy perceptual estimates are merged together as a weighted average, creating a unified estimate that is more precise than either single estimate alone. Surprisingly, this effect has not been demonstrated compellingly in children under the age of 10 years, in contrast with the array of other multisensory skills that children show even in infancy. Instead, across a wide variety of studies, precision with both cues is no better than the best single cue - and sometimes worse. Here we provide the first consistent evidence of cue combination in children from 7 to ...
Source: Cognition - July 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Negen J, Chere B, Bird LA, Taylor E, Roome HE, Keenaghan S, Thaler L, Nardini M Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Intuitions about personal identity are rooted in essentialist thinking across development.
Abstract What aspects of a person determine whether they are the same person they were in the past? This is one of the fundamental questions of research on personal identity. To date, this literature has focused on identifying the psychological states (e.g., moral beliefs, memories) that people rely on when making identity judgments. But the notion of personal identity depends on more than just psychological states. Most people also believe that the physical matter that makes up an individual is an important criterion for judging identity; changes to the physical stuff in a person's body, even if they are not acco...
Source: Cognition - July 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Horne Z, Cimpian A Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Not all who ponder count costs: Arithmetic reflection predicts utilitarian tendencies, but logical reflection predicts both deontological and utilitarian tendencies.
Abstract Conventional sacrificial moral dilemmas propose directly causing some harm to prevent greater harm. Theory suggests that accepting such actions (consistent with utilitarian philosophy) involves more reflective reasoning than rejecting such actions (consistent with deontological philosophy). However, past findings do not always replicate, confound different kinds of reflection, and employ conventional sacrificial dilemmas that treat utilitarian and deontological considerations as opposite. In two studies, we examined whether past findings would replicate when employing process dissociation to assess deonto...
Source: Cognition - July 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Byrd N, Conway P Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Infants use knowledge of emotions to augment face perception: Evidence of top-down modulation of perception early in life.
Abstract While top-down modulation is believed to be central to adult perception, the developmental origins of this ability are unclear. Here, we present a direct, behavioral investigation of top-down modulation of perception in infancy using emotional face perception as a test case. We investigated whether 9-month-olds can modulate their face perception based on predictive, auditory emotional cues without any training or familiarization procedure. Infants first heard a 3-second emotional vocal sound (happy/angry) while their gaze was held in the center of the screen. Then, they were presented with a pair of emoti...
Source: Cognition - July 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Xiao NG, Emberson LL Tags: Cognition Source Type: research

Parafoveal processing of phonology and semantics during the reading of Korean sentences.
Abstract The present study sets out to address two fundamental questions in the reading of continuous texts: Whether semantic and phonological information from upcoming words can be accessed during natural reading. In the present study we investigated parafoveal processing during the reading of Korean sentences, manipulating semantic and phonological information from parafoveal preview words. In addition to the first evidence for a semantic preview effect in Korean, we found that Korean readers have stronger and more long-lasting phonological than semantic activation from parafoveal words in second-pass reading. T...
Source: Cognition - July 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Yan M, Wang A, Song H, Kliegl R Tags: Cognition Source Type: research