WITHDRAWN: Infant formulas containing hydrolysed protein for prevention of allergic disease and food allergy.
CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence to support short-term or prolonged feeding with a hydrolysed formula compared with exclusive breast feeding for prevention of allergy. Very low-quality evidence indicates that short-term use of an EHF compared with a CMF may prevent infant CMA.In infants at high risk of allergy not exclusively breast fed, very low-quality evidence suggests that prolonged hydrolysed formula feeding compared with CMF feeding reduces infant allergy and infant CMA. Studies have found no difference in childhood allergy and no difference in specific allergy, including infant and childhood asthma, eczema and rhin...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 25, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Osborn DA, Sinn JK, Jones LJ Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Interleukin-2 as an adjunct to antiretroviral therapy for HIV-positive adults.
CONCLUSIONS: There is high certainty evidence that IL-2 in combination with ART increases the CD4 cell count in HIV-positive adults. However, IL-2 does not confer any significant benefit in mortality, there is probably no difference in the incidence of opportunistic infections, and there is probably an increase in grade 3 or 4 adverse effects. Our findings do not support the use of IL-2 as an adjunct to ART in HIV-positive adults. Based on our findings, further trials are not justified. PMID: 28542796 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 25, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Onwumeh J, Okwundu CI, Kredo T Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Recombinant luteinizing hormone (rLH) and recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) for ovarian stimulation in IVF/ICSI cycles.
CONCLUSIONS: We found no clear evidence of a difference between rLH combined with rFSH and rFSH alone in rates of live birth or OHSS. The evidence for these comparisons was of very low-quality for live birth and low quality for OHSS. We found moderate quality evidence that the use of rLH combined with rFSH may lead to more ongoing pregnancies than rFSH alone. There was also moderate-quality evidence suggesting little or no difference between the groups in rates of miscarriage. There was no clear evidence of a difference between the groups in rates of cancellation due to low response or imminent OHSS, but the evidence for t...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 24, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Mochtar MH, Danhof NA, Ayeleke RO, Van der Veen F, van Wely M Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Videolaryngoscopy versus direct laryngoscopy for tracheal intubation in children (excluding neonates).
Abstract BACKGROUND: Direct laryngoscopy is the method currently used for tracheal intubation in children. It occasionally offers unexpectedly poor laryngeal views. Indirect laryngoscopy involves visualizing the vocal cords by means other than obtaining a direct sight, with the potential to improve outcomes. We reviewed the current available literature and performed a meta-analysis to compare direct versus indirect laryngoscopy, or videolaryngoscopy, with regards to efficacy and adverse effects. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of indirect laryngoscopy, or videolaryngoscopy, versus direct laryngoscopy for i...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 24, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Abdelgadir IS, Phillips RS, Singh D, Moncreiff MP, Lumsden JL Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Metabolomics for improving pregnancy outcomes in women undergoing assisted reproductive technologies.
CONCLUSIONS: According to current trials in women undergoing ART, there is insufficient evidence to show that metabolomic assessment of embryos before implantation has any meaningful effect on rates of live birth, ongoing pregnancy, or miscarriage rates. The existing evidence varied from very low to low-quality. Data on adverse events were sparse, so we could not reach conclusions on these. At the moment, there is no evidence to support or refute the use of this technique for subfertile women undergoing ART. Robust evidence is needed from further RCTs, which study the effects on live birth and miscarriage rates for the met...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 23, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Siristatidis CS, Sertedaki E, Vaidakis D Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Computer and mobile technology interventions for self-management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Although our review suggests that interventions aimed at facilitating, supporting, and sustaining self-managment in people with COPD and delivered via smart technology significantly improved HRQoL and levels of activity up to six months compared with interventions given through face-to-face/digital and/or written support, no firm conclusions can be drawn. This improvement may not be sustained over a long duration. The only included study that measured outcomes up to 12 months highlighted the need to ensure sustained engagement with the technology over time. Limited evidence suggests that using computer and mob...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 23, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: McCabe C, McCann M, Brady AM Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Interventions for treating anxiety after stroke.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Approximately 20% of stroke patients experience clinically significant levels of anxiety at some point after stroke. Physicians can treat these patients with antidepressants or other anxiety-reducing drugs, or both, or they can provide psychological therapy. This review looks at available evidence for these interventions. This is an update of the review first published in October 2011. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of pharmaceutical, psychological, complementary, or alternative therapeutic interventions in treating stroke patients with anxiety disorders...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 23, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Knapp P, Campbell Burton CA, Holmes J, Murray J, Gillespie D, Lightbody CE, Watkins CL, Chun HY, Lewis SR Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Coasting (withholding gonadotrophins) for preventing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.
CONCLUSIONS: There was low-quality evidence to suggest that coasting reduced rates of moderate or severe OHSS more than no coasting. There was no evidence to suggest that coasting was more beneficial than other interventions, except that there was very low-quality evidence from a single small study to suggest that using FSH co-trigger at the time of HCG administration may be better at reducing the risk of OHSS than coasting. There were too few data to determine clearly whether there was a difference between the groups for any other outcomes. PMID: 28535578 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 23, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: D'Angelo A, Amso NN, Hassan R Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Celecoxib for osteoarthritis.
CONCLUSIONS: We are highly reserved about results due to pharmaceutical industry involvement and limited data. We were unable to obtain data from three studies, which included 15,539 participants, and classified as awaiting assessment. Current evidence indicates that celecoxib is slightly better than placebo and some tNSAIDs in reducing pain and improving physical function. We are uncertain if harms differ among celecoxib and placebo or tNSAIDs due to risk of bias, low quality evidence for many outcomes, and that some study authors and Pfizer declined to provide data from completed studies with large numbers of participant...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 22, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Puljak L, Marin A, Vrdoljak D, Markotic F, Utrobicic A, Tugwell P Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Morphine for chronic neuropathic pain in adults.
CONCLUSIONS: There was insufficient evidence to support or refute the suggestion that morphine has any efficacy in any neuropathic pain condition. PMID: 28530786 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 22, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Cooper TE, Chen J, Wiffen PJ, Derry S, Carr DB, Aldington D, Cole P, Moore RA Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Nutrition support in hospitalised adults at nutritional risk.
CONCLUSIONS: There is low-quality evidence for the effects of nutrition support on mortality and serious adverse events. Based on the results of our review, it does not appear to lead to a risk ratio reduction of approximately 10% or more in either all-cause mortality or serious adverse events at short-term and long-term follow-up.There is very low-quality evidence for an increase in weight with nutrition support at the end of treatment in hospitalised adults determined to be at nutritional risk. The effects of nutrition support on all remaining outcomes are unclear.Despite the clinically heterogenous population and the hi...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 19, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Feinberg J, Nielsen EE, Korang SK, Halberg Engell K, Nielsen MS, Zhang K, Didriksen M, Lund L, Lindahl N, Hallum S, Liang N, Xiong W, Yang X, Brunsgaard P, Garioud A, Safi S, Lindschou J, Kondrup J, Gluud C, Jakobsen JC Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Vaccines for the common cold.
Abstract BACKGROUND: The common cold is a spontaneously remitting infection of the upper respiratory tract, characterised by a runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing, cough, malaise, sore throat, and fever (usually
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 18, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Simancas-Racines D, Franco JV, Guerra CV, Felix ML, Hidalgo R, Martinez-Zapata MJ Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for analgesia in traumatic corneal abrasions.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the included studies do not provide strong evidence to support the use of topical NSAIDs in traumatic corneal abrasions. This is important, since NSAIDs are associated with a higher cost compared to oral analgesics. None of the trials addressed our primary outcome measure of participant-reported pain intensity reduction of 30% or more or 50% or more at 24 hours. PMID: 28516471 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 18, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Wakai A, Lawrenson JG, Lawrenson AL, Wang Y, Brown MD, Quirke M, Ghandour O, McCormick R, Walsh CD, Amayem A, Lang E, Harrison N Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Nasal decontamination for the prevention of surgical site infection in Staphylococcus aureus carriers.
CONCLUSIONS: There is currently limited rigorous RCT evidence available regarding the clinical effectiveness of nasal decontamination in the prevention of SSI. This limitation is specific to the focused question our review addresses, looking at nasal decontamination as a single intervention in participants undergoing surgery who are known S aureus carriers. We were only able to identify two studies that met the inclusion criteria for this review and one of these was very small and poorly reported. The potential benefits and harms of using decontamination for the prevention of SSI in this group of people remain uncertain. ...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 18, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Liu Z, Norman G, Iheozor-Ejiofor Z, Wong JK, Crosbie EJ, Wilson P Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Micronutrient supplementation in adults with HIV infection.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Micronutrient deficiencies are common among adults living with HIV disease, particularly in low-income settings where the diet may be low in essential vitamins and minerals. Some micronutrients play critical roles in maintenance of the immune system, and routine supplementation could therefore be beneficial. This is an update of a Cochrane Review previously published in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether micronutrient supplements are effective and safe in reducing mortality and HIV-related morbidity of HIV-positive adults (excluding pregnant women). SEARCH METHODS: We performed lite...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 18, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Visser ME, Durao S, Sinclair D, Irlam JH, Siegfried N Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Branched-chain amino acids for people with hepatic encephalopathy.
CONCLUSIONS: In this updated review, we included five additional trials. The analyses showed that BCAA had a beneficial effect on hepatic encephalopathy. We found no effect on mortality, quality of life, or nutritional parameters, but we need additional trials to evaluate these outcomes. Likewise, we need additional randomised clinical trials to determine the effect of BCAA compared with interventions such as non-absorbable disaccharides, rifaximin, or other antibiotics. PMID: 28518283 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 18, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Gluud LL, Dam G, Les I, Marchesini G, Borre M, Aagaard NK, Vilstrup H Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Antiepileptic drugs for the treatment of infants with severe myoclonic epilepsy.
CONCLUSIONS: Data derived from two small RCTs indicate that STP is significantly better than placebo with regards to 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency and seizure freedom. Adverse effects occurred more frequently with STP. Additional adequately powered studies with long-term follow-up should be conducted to unequivocally establish the long-term efficacy and tolerability of STP in the treatment of patients with SMEI. PMID: 28521067 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 18, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Brigo F, Igwe SC, Bragazzi NL Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Drug therapy for symptoms associated with anxiety in adult palliative care patients.
CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of evidence to draw a conclusion about the effectiveness of drug therapy for symptoms of anxiety in adult palliative care patients. To date, we have found no studies that meet the inclusion criteria for this review. We are awaiting further information for two studies which may be included in a future update. Randomised controlled trials which assess management of anxiety as a primary endpoint are required to establish the benefits and harms of drug therapy for the treatment of anxiety in palliative care. PMID: 28521070 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 18, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Salt S, Mulvaney CA, Preston NJ Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Interventions for cutaneous molluscum contagiosum.
CONCLUSIONS: No single intervention has been shown to be convincingly effective in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum. We found moderate-quality evidence that topical 5% imiquimod was no more effective than vehicle in terms of clinical cure, but led to more application site reactions, and high-quality evidence that there was no difference between the treatments in terms of short-term improvement. However, high-quality evidence showed a similar number of general side effects in both groups. As the evidence found did not favour any one treatment, the natural resolution of molluscum contagiosum remains a strong method for...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 17, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: van der Wouden JC, van der Sande R, Kruithof EJ, Sollie A, van Suijlekom-Smit LW, Koning S Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Avoidance versus use of neuromuscular blocking agents for improving conditions during tracheal intubation or direct laryngoscopy in adults and adolescents.
e S, Wetterslev J Abstract BACKGROUND: Tracheal intubation during induction of general anaesthesia is a vital procedure performed to secure a patient's airway. Several studies have identified difficult tracheal intubation (DTI) or failed tracheal intubation as one of the major contributors to anaesthesia-related mortality and morbidity. Use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA) to facilitate tracheal intubation is a widely accepted practice. However, because of adverse effects, NMBA may be undesirable. Cohort studies have indicated that avoiding NMBA is an independent risk factor for difficult and failed trachea...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 17, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Lundstrøm LH, Duez CH, Nørskov AK, Rosenstock CV, Thomsen JL, Møller AM, Strande S, Wetterslev J Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Methadone for neuropathic pain in adults.
CONCLUSIONS: The three studies provide very limited, very low quality evidence of the efficacy and safety of methadone for chronic neuropathic pain, and there were too few data for pooled analysis of efficacy or harm, or to have confidence in the results of the individual studies. No conclusions can be made regarding differences in efficacy or safety between methadone and placebo, other opioids, or other treatments. PMID: 28514508 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 17, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: McNicol ED, Ferguson MC, Schumann R Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Family therapy for autism spectrum disorders.
CONCLUSIONS: Few studies have examined the effectiveness of family therapy for ASD, and none of these are RCTs. Further research studies employing methodologically robust trial designs are needed to establish whether family therapy interventions are clinically beneficial for enhancing communication, strengthening relationships, augmenting coping and reducing mental health morbidity for individuals with ASD and family members. PMID: 28509404 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 16, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Spain D, Sin J, Paliokosta E, Furuta M, Prunty JE, Chalder T, Murphy DG, Happé FG Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Tramadol with or without paracetamol (acetaminophen) for cancer pain.
CONCLUSIONS: There is limited, very low quality, evidence from randomised controlled trials that tramadol produced pain relief in some adults with pain due to cancer and no evidence at all for children. There is very low quality evidence that it is not as effective as morphine. This review does not provide a reliable indication of the likely effect. The likelihood that the effect will be substantially different is very high. The place of tramadol in managing cancer pain and its role as step 2 of the WHO analgesic ladder is unclear. PMID: 28510996 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 16, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Wiffen PJ, Derry S, Moore RA Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Therapeutic ultrasound for venous leg ulcers.
CONCLUSIONS: It is uncertain whether therapeutic ultrasound (either high or low frequency) improves the healing of venous leg ulcers. We rated most of the evidence as low or very low quality due to risk of bias and imprecision. PMID: 28504325 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 15, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Cullum N, Liu Z Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Immunotherapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of moderate quality demonstrates that IFN-α monotherapy increases mortality compared to standard targeted therapies alone, whereas there is no difference if IFN is combined with standard targeted therapies. Evidence of low quality demonstrates that QoL is worse with IFN alone and that severe AEs are increased with IFN alone or in combination. There is low-quality evidence that IFN-α alone increases mortality but moderate-quality evidence on decreased AEs compared to IFN-α plus bevacizumab. Low-quality evidence shows no difference for IFN-α plus bevacizumab compared to sunitinib...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 15, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Unverzagt S, Moldenhauer I, Nothacker M, Roßmeißl D, Hadjinicolaou AV, Peinemann F, Greco F, Seliger B Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Interventions for preventing silent cerebral infarcts in people with sickle cell disease.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified no trials for preventing silent cerebral infarcts in adults, or in children who do not have HbSS SCD.Long-term red blood cell transfusions may reduce the incidence of silent cerebral infarcts in children with abnormal TCD velocities, but may have little or no effect on children with normal TCD velocities. In children who are at higher risk of stroke and have not had previous long-term transfusions, long-term red blood cell transfusions probably reduce the risk of stroke, and other SCD-related complications (acute chest syndrome and painful crises).In children and adolescents at high risk of strok...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 13, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Estcourt LJ, Fortin PM, Hopewell S, Trivella M, Doree C, Abboud MR Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Topical analgesics for acute and chronic pain in adults - an overview of Cochrane Reviews.
CONCLUSIONS: There is good evidence that some formulations of topical diclofenac and ketoprofen are useful in acute pain conditions such as sprains or strains, with low (good) NNT values. There is a strong message that the exact formulation used is critically important in acute conditions, and that might also apply to other pain conditions. In chronic musculoskeletal conditions with assessments over 6 to 12 weeks, topical diclofenac and ketoprofen had limited efficacy in hand and knee osteoarthritis, as did topical high-concentration capsaicin in postherpetic neuralgia. Though NNTs were higher, this still indicates that a ...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 12, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Derry S, Wiffen PJ, Kalso EA, Bell RF, Aldington D, Phillips T, Gaskell H, Moore RA Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Peripheral nerve blocks for hip fractures.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Various nerve blocks with local anaesthetic agents have been used to reduce pain after hip fracture and subsequent surgery. This review was published originally in 1999 and was updated in 2001, 2002, 2009 and 2017. OBJECTIVES: This review focuses on the use of peripheral nerves blocks as preoperative analgesia, as postoperative analgesia or as a supplement to general anaesthesia for hip fracture surgery. We undertook the update to look for new studies and to update the methods to reflect Cochrane standards. SEARCH METHODS: For the updated review, we searched the following databases: ...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 11, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Guay J, Parker MJ, Griffiths R, Kopp S Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Electromechanical-assisted training for walking after stroke.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Electromechanical- and robotic-assisted gait-training devices are used in rehabilitation and might help to improve walking after stroke. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2007. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of automated electromechanical- and robotic-assisted gait-training devices for improving walking after stroke. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 9 August 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 8), MEDLINE in Ovid (1950 to 15 August 2016...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 10, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Mehrholz J, Thomas S, Werner C, Kugler J, Pohl M, Elsner B Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Clonidine for sedation and analgesia for neonates receiving mechanical ventilation.
CONCLUSIONS: At present, evidence is insufficient to show the efficacy and safety of clonidine for sedation and analgesia in term and preterm newborn infants receiving mechanical ventilation. PMID: 28488361 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 10, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Romantsik O, Calevo MG, Norman E, Bruschettini M Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 analogues for prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its associated complications in people at increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
CONCLUSIONS: There is no firm evidence that DPP-4 inhibitors or GLP-1 analogues compared mainly with placebo substantially influence the risk of T2DM and especially its associated complications in people at increased risk for the development of T2DM. Most trials did not investigate patient-important outcomes. PMID: 28489279 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 10, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Hemmingsen B, Sonne DP, Metzendorf MI, Richter B Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Collaborative writing applications in healthcare: effects on professional practice and healthcare outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: While there is a high number of published studies about CWAs, indicating that this is an active field of research, additional studies using rigorous experimental designs are needed to assess their impact and cost-effectiveness on process and patient outcomes. PMID: 28489282 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 10, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Archambault PM, van de Belt TH, Kuziemsky C, Plaisance A, Dupuis A, McGinn CA, Francois R, Gagnon MP, Turgeon AF, Horsley T, Witteman W, Poitras J, Lapointe J, Brand K, Lachaine J, Légaré F Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Partial nephrectomy versus radical nephrectomy for clinical localised renal masses.
CONCLUSIONS: Partial nephrectomy may be associated with a decreased time-to-death of any cause. With regards to surgery-related mortality, cancer-specific survival and time-to-recurrence, partial nephrectomy appears to result in little to no difference. PMID: 28485814 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 9, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Kunath F, Schmidt S, Krabbe LM, Miernik A, Dahm P, Cleves A, Walther M, Kroeger N Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Immunomodulatory treatment other than corticosteroids, immunoglobulin and plasma exchange for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.
CONCLUSIONS: Low-quality evidence from randomised trials does not show significant benefit from azathioprine or interferon beta-1a and moderate-quality evidence from one randomised trial does not show significant benefit from a relatively low dose of methotrexate for the treatment of CIDP. None of the trials was large enough to rule out small or moderate benefit. The evidence from observational studies is insufficient to avoid the need for randomised controlled trials to discover whether these drugs are beneficial. Future trials should have improved designs, more sensitive outcome measures relevant to people with CIDP, and...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 8, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Mahdi-Rogers M, Brassington R, Gunn AA, van Doorn PA, Hughes RA Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Biologics or tofacitinib for people with rheumatoid arthritis naive to methotrexate: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: In MTX-naive RA participants, there was moderate-quality evidence that, compared with MTX alone, biologics with MTX was associated with absolute and relative clinically meaningful benefits in three of the efficacy outcomes (ACR50, HAQ scores, and RA remission rates). A benefit regarding less radiographic progression with biologics with MTX was not evident (low-quality evidence). We found moderate- to low-quality evidence that biologic therapy with MTX was not associated with any higher risk of serious adverse events compared with MTX, but results were inconclusive for withdrawals due to adverse events and canc...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 8, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Singh JA, Hossain A, Mudano AS, Tanjong Ghogomu E, Suarez-Almazor ME, Buchbinder R, Maxwell LJ, Tugwell P, Wells GA Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Three-dimensional saline infusion sonography compared to two-dimensional saline infusion sonography for the diagnosis of focal intracavitary lesions.
CONCLUSIONS: Low-quality evidence suggests that 3D SIS may be very accurate in detecting intracavitary abnormalities. Meta-analysis revealed no statistically significant differences between 2D SIS and 3D SIS. Summary sensitivity and summary specificity are higher for 3D SIS, but margins of improvement are limited because 2D SIS is already very accurate. When the technology and appropriate expertise are available, 3D SIS offers an alternative to 2D SIS. Both 2D SIS and 3D SIS should be considered alternatives to diagnostic hysteroscopy when intracavitary pathology is suspected in subfertile women and in those with abnormal ...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 5, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Nieuwenhuis LL, Hermans FJ, Bij de Vaate AJM, Leeflang MM, Brölmann HA, Hehenkamp WJ, Mol BWJ, Clark TJ, Huirne JA Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Complete versus culprit-only revascularisation in ST elevation myocardial infarction with multi-vessel disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Compared with culprit-only intervention, the complete revascularisation strategy may be superior due to lower proportions of long-term cardiovascular mortality, long-term revascularisation, and long-term non-fatal myocardial infarction, but these findings are based on evidence of very low quality. TSA also supports the need for more RCTs in order to draw stronger conclusions regarding the effects of complete revascularisation on long-term all-cause mortality, long-term cardiovascular mortality, and long-term non-fatal myocardial infarction. PMID: 28470696 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochr...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 4, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Bravo CA, Hirji SA, Bhatt DL, Kataria R, Faxon DP, Ohman EM, Anderson KL, Sidi AI, Sketch MH, Zarich SW, Osho AA, Gluud C, Kelbæk H, Engstrøm T, Høfsten DE, Brennan JM Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Oral calorie supplements for cystic fibrosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Oral calorie supplements do not confer any additional benefit in the nutritional management of moderately malnourished children with cystic fibrosis over and above the use of dietary advice and monitoring alone. While nutritional supplements may be used, they should not be regarded as essential. Further randomised controlled trials are needed to establish the role of short-term oral protein energy supplements in people with cystic fibrosis and acute weight loss and also for the long-term nutritional management of adults with cystic fibrosis or advanced lung disease, or both. PMID: 28470972 [PubMed - as su...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 4, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Smyth RL, Rayner O Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Oscillating devices for airway clearance in people with cystic fibrosis.
CONCLUSIONS: There was no clear evidence that oscillation was a more or less effective intervention overall than other forms of physiotherapy; furthermore there was no evidence that one device is superior to another. The findings from one study showing an increase in frequency of exacerbations requiring antibiotics whilst using an oscillating device compared to positive expiratory pressure may have significant resource implications. More adequately-powered long-term randomised controlled trials are necessary and outcomes measured should include frequency of exacerbations, individual preference, adherence to therapy and gen...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 4, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Morrison L, Innes S Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Laparoscopic surgery for elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.
CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to draw any conclusions about effectiveness and safety of laparoscopic (total and hand-assisted) surgical repair of AAA versus open surgical repair or EVAR, because only one small randomised trial was eligible for inclusion in this review. High-quality randomised controlled trials are needed. PMID: 28471523 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 4, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Robertson L, Nandhra S Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Lifestyle interventions for the treatment of women with gestational diabetes.
CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle interventions are the primary therapeutic strategy for women with GDM. Women receiving lifestyle interventions were less likely to have postnatal depression and were more likely to achieve postpartum weight goals. Exposure to lifestyle interventions was associated with a decreased risk of the baby being born LGA and decreased neonatal adiposity. Long-term maternal and childhood/adulthood outcomes were poorly reported.The value of lifestyle interventions in low-and middle-income countries or for different ethnicities remains unclear. The longer-term benefits or harms of lifestyle interventions remains...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 4, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Brown J, Alwan NA, West J, Brown S, McKinlay CJ, Farrar D, Crowther CA Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Alvimopan for recovery of bowel function after radical cystectomy.
CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing radical cystectomy and urinary diversion, the use of alvimopan administered as part of an enhanced recovery pathway for a limited duration (up to 15 doses for up to seven days) probably reduces the time to tolerance of solid food, time to hospital discharge and rates of major adverse events. Readmission rates, rates of cardiovascular events and narcotic pain requirements are probably similar. The need for reinsertion of nasogastric tubes is reduced. We found no evidence for the impact on rates of parenteral nutrition within 30 postoperative days. PMID: 28462518 [PubMed - as supplied...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 2, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Sultan S, Coles B, Dahm P Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Music-based therapeutic interventions for people with dementia.
CONCLUSIONS: Providing people with dementia with at least five sessions of a music-based therapeutic intervention probably reduces depressive symptoms but has little or no effect on agitation or aggression. There may also be little or no effect on emotional well-being or quality of life, overall behavioural problems and cognition. We are uncertain about effects on anxiety or social behaviour, and about any long-term effects. Future studies should employ larger sample sizes, and include all important outcomes, in particular 'positive' outcomes such as emotional well-being and social outcomes. Future studies should also exam...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 2, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: van der Steen JT, van Soest-Poortvliet MC, van der Wouden JC, Bruinsma MS, Scholten RJ, Vink AC Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Mobile phone text messaging to improve medication adherence in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.
CONCLUSIONS: While the results of this systematic review are promising, there is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on the effectiveness of text message-based interventions for adherence to medications for secondary prevention of CVD. Sufficiently powered, high-quality randomised trials are needed, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. PMID: 28455948 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - April 29, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Adler AJ, Martin N, Mariani J, Tajer CD, Owolabi OO, Free C, Serrano NC, Casas JP, Perel P Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Psychological interventions for coronary heart disease.
CONCLUSIONS: This updated Cochrane Review found that for people with CHD, there was no evidence that psychological treatments had an effect on total mortality, the risk of revascularisation procedures, or on the rate of non-fatal MI, although the rate of cardiac mortality was reduced and psychological symptoms (depression, anxiety, or stress) were alleviated; however, the GRADE assessments suggest considerable uncertainty surrounding these effects. Considerable uncertainty also remains regarding the people who would benefit most from treatment (i.e. people with or without psychological disorders at baseline) and the specif...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - April 28, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Richards SH, Anderson L, Jenkinson CE, Whalley B, Rees K, Davies P, Bennett P, Liu Z, West R, Thompson DR, Taylor RS Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Over short-term to medium-term follow-up, PCSK9 inhibitors reduced LDL-C. Studies with medium-term follow-up time (longest median follow-up recorded was 26 months) reported that PCSK9 inhibitors (compared with placebo) decreased CVD risk but may have increased the risk of any adverse events (driven by SPIRE-1 and -2 trials). Available evidence suggests that PCSK9 inhibitor use probably leads to little or no difference in mortality. Evidence on relative efficacy and safety when PCSK9 inhibitors were compared with active treatments was of low to very low quality (GRADE); follow-up times were short and events wer...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - April 28, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Schmidt AF, Pearce LS, Wilkins JT, Overington JP, Hingorani AD, Casas JP Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Chemotherapy alone versus chemotherapy plus radiotherapy for adults with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Combined modality treatment consisting of chemotherapy followed by localised radiotherapy is the standard treatment for patients with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). However, due to long- term adverse effects such as secondary malignancies the role of radiotherapy has been questioned recently and some clinical study groups advocate chemotherapy only for this indication. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of chemotherapy alone compared to chemotherapy plus radiotherapy in adults with early stage HL . SEARCH METHODS: For the or i ginal version of this review, we searched MEDLINE, Emb...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - April 27, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Blank O, von Tresckow B, Monsef I, Specht L, Engert A, Skoetz N Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Tobacco packaging design for reducing tobacco use.
CONCLUSIONS: The available evidence suggests that standardised packaging may reduce smoking prevalence. Only one country had implemented standardised packaging at the time of this review, so evidence comes from one large observational study that provides evidence for this effect. A reduction in smoking behaviour is supported by routinely collected data by the Australian government. Data on the effects of standardised packaging on non-behavioural outcomes (e.g. appeal) are clearer and provide plausible mechanisms of effect consistent with the observed decline in prevalence. As standardised packaging is implemented in differ...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - April 27, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: McNeill A, Gravely S, Hitchman SC, Bauld L, Hammond D, Hartmann-Boyce J Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Supervised dosing with a long-acting opioid medication in the management of opioid dependence.
CONCLUSIONS: Take-home medication strategies are attractive to treatment services due to lower costs, and place less restrictions on clients, but it is unknown whether they may be associated with increased risk of diversion and unsanctioned use of medication. There is uncertainty about the effects of supervised dosing compared with unsupervised medication due to the low and very low quality of the evidence for the primary outcomes of interest for this review. Data on defined secondary outcomes were similarly limited. More research comparing supervised and take-home medication strategies is needed to support decisions on th...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - April 27, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Saulle R, Vecchi S, Gowing L Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Biopsy versus resection for the management of low-grade gliomas.
CONCLUSIONS: Since the last version of this review, no new studies have been identified for inclusion and currently there are no RCTs or CCTs available on which to base definitive clinical decisions. Therefore, physicians must approach each case individually and weigh the risks and benefits of each intervention until further evidence is available. Some retrospective studies and non-randomized prospective studies do seem to suggest improved OS and seizure control correlating to higher extent of resection. Future research could focus on RCTs to determine outcomes benefits for biopsy versus resection. PMID: 28447767 [Pub...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - April 27, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Jiang B, Chaichana K, Veeravagu A, Chang SD, Black KL, Patil CG Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research