Repeated lumbar or ventricular punctures in newborns with intraventricular haemorrhage.
CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence that repeated removal of CSF via lumbar puncture, ventricular puncture or from a ventricular reservoir produces any benefit over conservative management in neonates with or at risk for developing PHH in terms of reduction of disability, death, or need for placement of a permanent shunt. PMID: 28384379 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - April 6, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Whitelaw A, Lee-Kelland R Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Infant pacifiers for reduction in risk of sudden infant death syndrome.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has been most recently defined as the sudden unexpected death of an infant less than one year of age, with onset of the fatal episode apparently occurring during sleep, that remains unexplained after a thorough investigation, including the performance of a complete autopsy and a review of the circumstances of death and clinical history. Despite the success of several prevention campaigns, SIDS remains a leading cause of infant mortality. In 1994, a 'triple risk model' for SIDS was proposed that described SIDS as an event that results from the intersection of...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - April 5, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Psaila K, Foster JP, Pulbrook N, Jeffery HE Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Educational and behavioural interventions for anticoagulant therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation.
CONCLUSIONS: This review demonstrates that there is insufficient evidence to draw definitive conclusions regarding the impact of educational or behavioural interventions on TTR in AF patients receiving OAT. Thus, more trials are needed to examine the impact of interventions on anticoagulation control in AF patients and the mechanisms by which they are successful. It is also important to explore the psychological implications for patients suffering from this long-term chronic condition. PMID: 28378924 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - April 5, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Clarkesmith DE, Pattison HM, Khaing PH, Lane DA Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin inhibitors for primary hypertension.
CONCLUSIONS: Compared to placebo, aliskiren lowered BP and this effect is dose-dependent. This magnitude of BP lowering effect is similar to that for angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). There is no difference in mortality, nonfatal serious adverse events or withdrawal due to adverse effects with short term aliskiren monotherapy. Diarrhoea was considerably increased with aliskiren 600 mg. PMID: 28379619 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - April 5, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Musini VM, Lawrence KA, Fortin PM, Bassett K, Wright JM Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Low-molecular-weight heparins or heparinoids versus standard unfractionated heparin for acute ischaemic stroke.
CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with a LMWH or heparinoid after acute ischaemic stroke appears to decrease the occurrence of DVT compared with standard UFH, but there are too few data to provide reliable information on their effects on other important outcomes, including functional outcome, death and intracranial haemorrhage. PMID: 28374884 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - April 4, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Sandercock PA, Leong TS Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Total intravenous anaesthesia versus inhalational anaesthesia for adults undergoing transabdominal robotic assisted laparoscopic surgery.
CONCLUSIONS: It is unclear which anaesthetic technique is superior - TIVA or inhalational - for transabdominal robotic assisted surgery in urology, gynaecology and gastroenterology, as existing evidence is scarce, is of low quality and has been generated from exclusively male patients undergoing robotic radical prostatectomy.An ongoing trial, which includes participants of both genders with a focus on quality of recovery, might have an impact on future evidence related to this topic. PMID: 28374886 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - April 4, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Herling SF, Dreijer B, Wrist Lam G, Thomsen T, Møller AM Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation in heart transplant recipients.
CONCLUSIONS: We found moderate quality evidence suggesting that exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation improves exercise capacity, and that exercise has no impact on health-related quality of life in the short-term (median 12 weeks follow-up), in heart transplant recipients. Cardiac rehabilitation appears to be safe in this population, but long-term follow-up data are incomplete and further good quality and adequately-powered trials are needed to demonstrate the longer-term benefits of exercise on safety and impact on both clinical and patient-related outcomes, such as health-related quality of life, and healthcare costs. ...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - April 4, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Anderson L, Nguyen TT, Dall CH, Burgess L, Bridges C, Taylor RS Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

WITHDRAWN: Surgery for thumb (trapeziometacarpal joint) osteoarthritis.
CONCLUSIONS: We did not identify any studies that compared surgery to sham surgery or to non-operative treatments. We were unable to demonstrate that any technique confers a benefit over another technique in terms of pain and physical function. Furthermore, the included studies were not of high enough quality to provide conclusive evidence that the compared techniques provided equivalent outcomes. PMID: 28368089 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - April 3, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Wajon A, Vinycomb T, Carr E, Edmunds I, Ada L Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Bypass surgery for chronic lower limb ischaemia.
CONCLUSIONS: There is limited high quality evidence for the effectiveness of bypass surgery compared with other treatments; no studies compared bypass to optimal medical treatment. Our analysis has shown that PTA is associated with decreased peri-interventional complications in participants treated for CLI and shorter hospital stay compared with bypass surgery. Surgical treatment seems to confer improved patency rates up to one year. Endovascular treatment may be advisable in patients with significant comorbidity, rendering them high risk surgical candidates. No solid conclusions can be drawn regarding comparisons of bypas...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - April 3, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Antoniou GA, Georgiadis GS, Antoniou SA, Makar RR, Smout JD, Torella F Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

De-escalation techniques for psychosis-induced aggression or agitation.
CONCLUSIONS: Using de-escalation techniques for people with psychosis induced aggression or agitation appears to be accepted as good clinical practice but is not supported by evidence from randomised trials. It is unclear why it has remained such an under-researched area. Conducting trials in this area could be influenced by funding flow, ethical concerns - justified or not - anticipated pace of recruitment as well the difficulty in accurately quantifying the effects of de-escalation itself. With supportive funders and ethics committees, imaginative trialists, clinicians and service-user groups and wide collaboration this ...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - April 3, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Du M, Wang X, Yin S, Shu W, Hao R, Zhao S, Rao H, Yeung WL, Jayaram MB, Xia J Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Home or foster home care versus institutional long-term care for functionally dependent older people.
CONCLUSIONS: There are insufficient high-quality published data to support any particular model of care for functionally dependent older people. Community-based care was not consistently beneficial across all the included studies; there were some data suggesting that community-based care may be associated with improved quality of life and physical function compared to institutional care. However, community alternatives to institutional care may be associated with increased risk of hospitalisation. Future studies should assess healthcare utilisation, perform economic analysis, and consider caregiver burden. PMID: 28368...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - April 3, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Young C, Hall AM, Gonçalves-Bradley DC, Quinn TJ, Hooft L, van Munster BC, Stott DJ Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Pharmacological interventions for alcoholic liver disease (alcohol-related liver disease): an attempted network meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Because of very low-quality evidence, there is uncertainty in the effectiveness of any pharmacological intervention versus no intervention in people with alcoholic hepatitis or severe alcoholic hepatitis. Based on low-quality evidence, propylthiouracil may decrease mortality in people with other alcohol-related liver diseases. However, these results must be confirmed by adequately powered trials with low risk of bias before propylthiouracil can be considered effective.Future randomised clinical trials should be conducted with approximately 200 participants in each group and follow-up of one to two years in ord...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 31, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Buzzetti E, Kalafateli M, Thorburn D, Davidson BR, Thiele M, Gluud LL, Del Giovane C, Askgaard G, Krag A, Tsochatzis E, Gurusamy KS Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Individual behavioural counselling for smoking cessation.
CONCLUSIONS: There is high-quality evidence that individually-delivered smoking cessation counselling can assist smokers to quit. There is moderate-quality evidence of a smaller relative benefit when counselling is used in addition to pharmacotherapy, and of more intensive counselling compared to a brief counselling intervention. PMID: 28361496 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 31, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Lancaster T, Stead LF Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Group behaviour therapy programmes for smoking cessation.
CONCLUSIONS: Group therapy is better for helping people stop smoking than self-help, and other less intensive interventions. There is not enough evidence to evaluate whether groups are more effective, or cost-effective, than intensive individual counselling. There is not enough evidence to support the use of particular psychological components in a programme beyond the support and skills training normally included. PMID: 28361497 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 31, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Stead LF, Carroll AJ, Lancaster T Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Maintenance immunosuppression for adults undergoing liver transplantation: a network meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on low-quality evidence from a single small trial from direct comparison, tacrolimus plus sirolimus increases mortality and graft loss at maximal follow-up compared with tacrolimus. Based on very low-quality evidence from network meta-analysis, we found no evidence of difference between different immunosuppressive regimens. We found very low-quality evidence from network meta-analysis and low-quality evidence from direct comparison that cyclosporine A causes more retransplantation compared with tacrolimus. Future randomised clinical trials should be adequately powered; performed in people who are general...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 31, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Rodríguez-Perálvarez M, Guerrero-Misas M, Thorburn D, Davidson BR, Tsochatzis E, Gurusamy KS Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Chlorhexidine mouthrinse as an adjunctive treatment for gingival health.
CONCLUSIONS: There is high-quality evidence from studies that reported the Löe and Silness Gingival Index of a reduction in gingivitis in individuals with mild gingival inflammation on average (mean score of 1 on the 0 to 3 GI scale) that was not considered to be clinically relevant. There is high-quality evidence of a large reduction in dental plaque with chlorhexidine mouthrinse used as an adjunct to mechanical oral hygiene procedures for 4 to 6 weeks and 6 months. There is no evidence that one concentration of chlorhexidine rinse is more effective than another. There is insufficient evidence to determine the reduct...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 31, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: James P, Worthington HV, Parnell C, Harding M, Lamont T, Cheung A, Whelton H, Riley P Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Return-to-work coordination programmes for improving return to work in workers on sick leave.
CONCLUSIONS: Offering return-to-work coordination programmes for workers on sick leave for at least four weeks results in no benefits when compared to usual practice. We found no significant differences for the outcomes time to return to work, cumulative sickness absence, the proportion of participants at work at end of the follow-up or the proportion of participants who had ever returned to work at short-term, long-term or very long-term follow-up. For patient-reported outcomes, we found only marginal effects below the MID. The quality of the evidence ranged from very low to moderate across all outcomes. PMID: 283581...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 30, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Vogel N, Schandelmaier S, Zumbrunn T, Ebrahim S, de Boer WE, Busse JW, Kunz R Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Pelvimetry for fetal cephalic presentations at or near term for deciding on mode of delivery.
CONCLUSIONS: X-ray pelvimetry versus no pelvimetry or clinical pelvimetry is the only comparison included in this review due to the lack of trials identified that used other types or pelvimetry (other radiological examination or clinical pelvimetry versus no pelvimetry). There is not enough evidence to support the use of X-ray pelvimetry for deciding on mode of delivery in women whose fetuses have a cephalic presentation. Women who undergo an X-ray pelvimetry may be more likely to have a caesarean section.Further research should be directed towards defining whether there are specific clinical situations in which pelvimetry...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 30, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Pattinson RC, Cuthbert A, Vannevel V Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Pharmacological interventions for non-alcohol related fatty liver disease (NAFLD): an attempted network meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Due to the very low quality evidence, we are very uncertain about the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for people with NAFLD including those with steatohepatitis. Further well-designed randomised clinical trials with sufficiently large sample sizes are necessary. PMID: 28358980 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 30, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Lombardi R, Onali S, Thorburn D, Davidson BR, Gurusamy KS, Tsochatzis E Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Fresh versus frozen embryo transfers in assisted reproduction.
CONCLUSIONS: We found moderate-quality evidence showing that one strategy is not superior to the other in terms of cumulative live birth rates. Time to pregnancy was not reported, but it can be assumed to be shorter using a conventional IVF/ICSI strategy in the case of similar cumulative live birth rates, as embryo transfer is delayed in a freeze-all strategy. Low-quality evidence suggests that not performing a fresh transfer lowers the OHSS risk for women at risk of OHSS. PMID: 28349510 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 28, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Wong KM, van Wely M, Mol F, Repping S, Mastenbroek S Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Pharmacological interventions for primary biliary cholangitis: an attempted network meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on very low quality evidence, there is currently no evidence that any intervention is beneficial for primary biliary cholangitis. However, the follow-up periods in the trials were short and there is significant uncertainty in this issue. Further well-designed randomised clinical trials are necessary. Future randomised clinical trials ought to be adequately powered; performed in people who are generally seen in the clinic rather than in highly selected participants; employ blinding; avoid post-randomisation dropouts or planned cross-overs; should have sufficient follow-up period (e.g. five or 10 years or ...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 28, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Saffioti F, Gurusamy KS, Eusebi LH, Tsochatzis E, Davidson BR, Thorburn D Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Management of people with early- or very early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma: an attempted network meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: The evidence was of low or very low quality. There was no evidence of a difference in all-cause mortality at maximal follow-up between surgery and radiofrequency ablation in people eligible for surgery. All-cause mortality at maximal follow-up was higher with percutaneous acetic acid injection and percutaneous alcohol injection than with radiofrequency ablation in people not eligible for surgery. There was no evidence of a difference in all-cause mortality at maximal follow-up for the other comparisons. High-quality RCTs designed to assess clinically important differences in all-cause mortality and health-rela...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 28, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Majumdar A, Roccarina D, Thorburn D, Davidson BR, Tsochatzis E, Gurusamy KS Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for fibromyalgia in adults.
CONCLUSIONS: There is only a modest amount of very low-quality evidence about the use of NSAIDs in fibromyalgia, and that comes from small, largely inadequate studies with potential risk of bias. That bias would normally be to increase the apparent benefits of NSAIDs, but no such benefits were seen. Consequently, NSAIDs cannot be regarded as useful for treating fibromyalgia. PMID: 28349517 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 27, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Derry S, Wiffen PJ, Häuser W, Mücke M, Tölle TR, Bell RF, Moore RA Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Glucocorticoid supplementation during ovarian stimulation for IVF or ICSI.
CONCLUSIONS: The safety and effectiveness of glucocorticoid administration in women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for IVF/ICSI cycles (until the day of oocyte retrieval) is unclear due to the small number of studies and low event rates. Whilst glucocorticoids possible increase the clinical pregnancy rate, there may be little or no impact on live birth rate. More research is needed. PMID: 28349525 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 27, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Kalampokas T, Pandian Z, Keay SD, Bhattacharya S Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Once-daily versus multiple-daily dosing with intravenous aminoglycosides for cystic fibrosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Once- and three-times daily aminoglycoside antibiotics appear to be equally effective in the treatment of pulmonary exacerbations of cystic fibrosis. There is evidence of less nephrotoxicity in children. PMID: 28349527 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 27, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Smyth AR, Bhatt J, Nevitt SJ Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Continuous chest compression versus interrupted chest compression for cardiopulmonary resuscitation of non-asphyxial out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
CONCLUSIONS: Following OHCA, we have found that bystander-administered chest compression-only CPR, supported by telephone instruction, increases the proportion of people who survive to hospital discharge compared with conventional interrupted chest compression CPR plus rescue breathing. Some uncertainty remains about how well neurological function is preserved in this population and there is no information available regarding adverse effects.When CPR was performed by EMS providers, continuous chest compressions plus asynchronous rescue breathing did not result in higher rates for survival to hospital discharge compared to ...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 27, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Zhan L, Yang LJ, Huang Y, He Q, Liu GJ Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

L-carnitine for cognitive enhancement in people without cognitive impairment.
CONCLUSIONS: Due to the limited number of included trials, short-term treatment, and inadequate reporting, we were unable to draw any conclusions about the efficacy or safety of L-carnitine for cognitive enhancement in healthy adults. Well-designed, randomised, placebo-controlled trials of L-carnitine for cognition enhancement in cognitively healthy people, with large samples and relatively long-term follow-up, are still needed. PMID: 28349514 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 26, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Chen N, Yang M, Zhou M, Xiao J, Guo J, He L Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Pushing/bearing down methods for the second stage of labour.
CONCLUSIONS: This updated review is based on 21 included studies of moderate to very low quality of evidence (with evidence mainly downgraded due to study design limitations and imprecision of effect estimates).Timing of pushing with epidural is consistent in that delayed pushing leads to a shortening of the actual time pushing and increase of spontaneous vaginal delivery at the expense of an overall longer duration of the second stage of labour and an increased risk of a low umbilical cord pH (based only on one study). Nevertheless, there was no clear difference in serious perineal laceration and episiotomy, and in other ...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 26, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Lemos A, Amorim MM, Dornelas de Andrade A, de Souza AI, Cabral Filho JE, Correia JB Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Risk of endometrial cancer in women treated with ovary-stimulating drugs for subfertility.
CONCLUSIONS: The synthesis of the currently available evidence does not allow us to draw robust conclusions, due to the very low quality of evidence. It seems that exposure to clomiphene citrate as an ovary-stimulating drug in subfertile women is associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer, especially at doses greater than 2000 mg and high (more than 7) number of cycles. This may largely be due to underlying risk factors in women who need treatment with clomiphene citrate, such as polycystic ovary syndrome, rather than exposure to the drug itself. The evidence regarding exposure to gonadotropins was inconclusive. ...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 25, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Skalkidou A, Sergentanis TN, Gialamas SP, Georgakis MK, Psaltopoulou T, Trivella M, Siristatidis CS, Evangelou E, Petridou E Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Chlorpromazine versus metiapine for schizophrenia.
CONCLUSIONS: Chlorpromazine has been the mainstay treatment for schizophrenia for decades, yet available evidence comparing this drug to metiapine fails to provide high-quality trial based data. However, the need to determine whether metiapine is more or less effective than chlorpromazine seems to be lacking in clinical relevance and future research on this comparison seems unlikely. PMID: 28349512 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 25, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Zare M, Bazrafshan A Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Clozapine combined with different antipsychotic drugs for treatment-resistant schizophrenia.
CONCLUSIONS: The reliability of results from this review is limited, evidence is of low or very low quality. Furthermore, due to the limited number of included studies, we were unable to undertake formal meta-analyses. As a consequence, any conclusions drawn from these findings are based on single, small-sized RCTs with high risk of type II error. Properly conducted and adequately powered RCTs are required. Future trialists should seek to measure patient-important outcomes such as quality of life, as well as clinical response and adverse effects. PMID: 28333365 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Dat...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 23, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Barber S, Olotu U, Corsi M, Cipriani A Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Capnography versus standard monitoring for emergency department procedural sedation and analgesia.
CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of convincing evidence that the addition of capnography to standard monitoring in ED PSA reduces the rate of clinically significant adverse events. Evidence was deemed to be of moderate quality due to population and outcome definition heterogeneity and limited reporting bias. Our review was limited by the small number of clinical trials in this setting. PMID: 28334427 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 23, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Wall BF, Magee K, Campbell SG, Zed PJ Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Dietary interventions for recurrent abdominal pain in childhood.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found moderate- to low-quality evidence suggesting that probiotics may be effective in improving pain in children with RAP. Clinicians may therefore consider probiotic interventions as part of a holistic management strategy. However, further trials are needed to examine longer-term outcomes and to improve confidence in estimating the size of the effect, as well as to determine the optimal strain and dosage. Future research should also explore the effectiveness of probiotics in children with different symptom profiles, such as those with irritable bowel syndrome.We found only a small number of trial...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 23, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Newlove-Delgado TV, Martin AE, Abbott RA, Bethel A, Thompson-Coon J, Whear R, Logan S Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

WITHDRAWN: Nutrition support for bone marrow transplant patients.
CONCLUSIONS: In this update an additional study that compared PN and Glutamine versus standard PN showed that the certain benefits of parenteral nutrition with added glutamine compared to standard PN for reducing hospital stay are no longer definite. When PN with glutamine is compared with standard PN, patients may not leave hospital earlier, but do have reduced incidence of positive blood cultures, than those receiving standard PN. Where possible use of intravenous fluids and oral diet should be considered as a preference to parenteral nutrition, however, in the event of a patient suffering severe gastrointestinal failure...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 23, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Murray SM, Pindoria S Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

WITHDRAWN: Radioisotopes for metastatic bone pain.
CONCLUSIONS: This update adds new evidence on efficacy of radioisotopes versus placebo, (89)Sr compared with other radioisotopes, and dose-comparisons of (153)Sm and (188)Re. There is some evidence indicating that radioisotopes may provide complete reduction in pain over one to six months with no increase in analgesic use, but severe adverse effects (leucocytopenia and thrombocytopenia) are frequent. PMID: 28334435 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 23, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Roqué I Figuls M, Martinez-Zapata MJ, Scott-Brown M, Alonso-Coello P Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

CSF tau and the CSF tau/ABeta ratio for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease dementia and other dementias in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
CONCLUSIONS: The insufficiency and heterogeneity of research to date primarily leads to a state of uncertainty regarding the value of CSF testing of t-tau, p-tau or p-tau/ABeta ratio for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease in current clinical practice. Particular attention should be paid to the risk of misdiagnosis and overdiagnosis of dementia (and therefore over-treatment) in clinical practice. These tests, like other biomarker tests which have been subject to Cochrane DTA reviews, appear to have better sensitivity than specificity and therefore might have greater utility in ruling out Alzheimer's disease as the aetiolo...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 22, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Ritchie C, Smailagic N, Noel-Storr AH, Ukoumunne O, Ladds EC, Martin S Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Antenatal corticosteroids for accelerating fetal lung maturation for women at risk of preterm birth.
CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from this update supports the continued use of a single course of antenatal corticosteroids to accelerate fetal lung maturation in women at risk of preterm birth. A single course of antenatal corticosteroids could be considered routine for preterm delivery. It is important to note that most of the evidence comes from high income countries and hospital settings; therefore, the results may not be applicable to low-resource settings with high rates of infections.There is little need for further trials of a single course of antenatal corticosteroids versus placebo in singleton pregnancies in higher income...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 21, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Roberts D, Brown J, Medley N, Dalziel SR Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Pharmacological interventions for acute hepatitis B infection: an attempted network meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Low or very low quality evidence suggests that progression to chronic HBV infection was higher in people receiving lamivudine compared with placebo, no intervention, or entecavir. Low quality evidence suggests that interferon may increase the adverse events after treatment for acute HBV infection. Based on a very low quality evidence, there is currently no evidence of benefit of any intervention in acute HBV infection. There is significant uncertainty in the results and further RCTs are required. PMID: 28321877 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 21, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Mantzoukis K, Rodríguez-Perálvarez M, Buzzetti E, Thorburn D, Davidson BR, Tsochatzis E, Gurusamy KS Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Psychological therapies for the treatment of anxiety disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
CONCLUSIONS: We found only low-quality evidence for the efficacy of psychological therapies among people with COPD with anxiety. Based on the small number of included studies identified and the low quality of the evidence, it is difficult to draw any meaningful and reliable conclusions. No adverse events or harms of psychotherapy intervention were reported.A limitation of this review is that all three included studies recruited participants with both anxiety and depression, not just anxiety, which may confound the results. We downgraded the quality of evidence in the 'Summary of findings' table primarily due to the small s...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 21, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Usmani ZA, Carson KV, Heslop K, Esterman AJ, De Soyza A, Smith BJ Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Compulsory community and involuntary outpatient treatment for people with severe mental disorders.
CONCLUSIONS: These review data show CCT results in no clear difference in service use, social functioning or quality of life compared with voluntary care or brief supervised discharge. People receiving CCT were, however, less likely to be victims of violent or non-violent crime. It is unclear whether this benefit is due to the intensity of treatment or its compulsory nature. Short periods of conditional leave may be as effective (or non-effective) as formal compulsory treatment in the community. Evaluation of a wide range of outcomes should be considered when this legislation is introduced. However, conclusions are based o...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 16, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Kisely SR, Campbell LA, O'Reilly R Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Surgical versus non-surgical management for pleural empyema.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest there is no statistically significant difference in mortality between primary surgical and non-surgical management of pleural empyema for all age groups. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery may reduce length of hospital stay compared to thoracostomy drainage alone.There was insufficient evidence to assess the impact of fibrinolytic therapy.A number of common outcomes were reported in the included studies that were not directly examined in our primary and secondary outcomes. These included duration of chest tube drainage, duration of fever, analgesia requirement, and total cost of treatmen...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 16, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Redden MD, Chin TY, van Driel ML Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Addition of anti-leukotriene agents to inhaled corticosteroids for adults and adolescents with persistent asthma.
CONCLUSIONS: For adolescents and adults with persistent asthma, with suboptimal asthma control with daily use of ICS, the addition of anti-leukotrienes is beneficial for reducing moderate and severe asthma exacerbations and for improving lung function and asthma control compared with the same dose of ICS. We cannot be certain that the addition of anti-leukotrienes is superior, inferior or equivalent to a higher dose of ICS. Scarce available evidence does not support anti-leukotrienes as an ICS sparing agent, and use of LTRAs was not associated with increased risk of withdrawals or adverse effects, with the exception of an ...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 15, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Chauhan BF, Jeyaraman MM, Singh Mann A, Lys J, Abou-Setta AM, Zarychanski R, Ducharme FM Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Deprescribing versus continuation of chronic proton pump inhibitor use in adults.
CONCLUSIONS: In people with mild GERD, on-demand deprescribing may lead to an increase in GI symptoms (e.g. dyspepsia, regurgitation) and probably a reduction in pill burden. There was a decline in participant satisfaction, although heterogeneity was high. There were insufficient data to make a conclusion regarding long-term benefits and harms of PPI discontinuation, although two trials (one on-demand trial and one abrupt discontinuation trial) reported endoscopic findings in their intervention groups at study end. PMID: 28301676 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 15, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Boghossian TA, Rashid FJ, Thompson W, Welch V, Moayyedi P, Rojas-Fernandez C, Pottie K, Farrell B Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Vitamin C supplementation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Currently, there is no evidence to suggest that vitamin C supplementation reduces the risk of CVD in healthy participants and those at increased risk of CVD, but current evidence is limited to one trial of middle-aged and older male physicians from the USA. There is limited low- and very low-quality evidence currently on the effect of vitamin C supplementation and risk of CVD risk factors. PMID: 28301692 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 15, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Al-Khudairy L, Flowers N, Wheelhouse R, Ghannam O, Hartley L, Stranges S, Rees K Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Infant formulas containing hydrolysed protein for prevention of allergic disease and food allergy.
CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence to support short-term or prolonged feeding with a hydrolysed formula compared with exclusive breast feeding for prevention of allergy. Very low-quality evidence indicates that short-term use of an EHF compared with a CMF may prevent infant CMA.In infants at high risk of allergy not exclusively breast fed, very low-quality evidence suggests that prolonged hydrolysed formula feeding compared with CMF feeding reduces infant allergy and infant CMA. Studies have found no difference in childhood allergy and no difference in specific allergy, including infant and childhood asthma, eczema and rhin...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 14, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Osborn DA, Sinn JK, Jones LJ Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

First trimester ultrasound tests alone or in combination with first trimester serum tests for Down's syndrome screening.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Down's syndrome occurs when a person has three, rather than two copies of chromosome 21; or the specific area of chromosome 21 implicated in causing Down's syndrome. It is the commonest congenital cause of mental disability and also leads to numerous metabolic and structural problems. It can be life-threatening, or lead to considerable ill health, although some individuals have only mild problems and can lead relatively normal lives. Having a baby with Down's syndrome is likely to have a significant impact on family life.Non-invasive screening based on biochemical analysis of maternal serum or...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 14, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Alldred SK, Takwoingi Y, Guo B, Pennant M, Deeks JJ, Neilson JP, Alfirevic Z Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

First and second trimester serum tests with and without first trimester ultrasound tests for Down's syndrome screening.
CONCLUSIONS: Tests involving first trimester ultrasound with first and second trimester serum markers in combination with maternal age are significantly better than those without ultrasound, or those evaluating first trimester ultrasound in combination with second trimester serum markers, without first trimester serum markers. We cannot make recommendations about a specific strategy on the basis of the small number of studies available. PMID: 28295159 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 14, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Alldred SK, Takwoingi Y, Guo B, Pennant M, Deeks JJ, Neilson JP, Alfirevic Z Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Risk scoring for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.
CONCLUSIONS: There is uncertainty whether current strategies for providing CVD risk scores affect CVD events. Providing CVD risk scores may slightly reduce CVD risk factor levels and may increase preventive medication prescribing in higher-risk people without evidence of harm. There were multiple study limitations in the identified studies and substantial heterogeneity in the interventions, outcomes, and analyses, so readers should interpret results with caution. New models for implementing and evaluating CVD risk scores in adequately powered studies are needed to define the role of applying CVD risk scores in primary CVD ...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 13, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Karmali KN, Persell SD, Perel P, Lloyd-Jones DM, Berendsen MA, Huffman MD Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Corticosteroids for tuberculous pleurisy.
CONCLUSIONS: Long-term respiratory function is potentially the most important outcome for assessing the effects of adjunctive treatments for people with pleural TB. However, the information on the impact of pleural TB on long-term respiratory function is unknown and could be eclipsed by other risk factors, such as concurrent pulmonary TB, smoking, and HIV. This probably needs to be quantified to help decide whether further trials of corticosteroids for pleural TB would be worthwhile. PMID: 28290161 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 13, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Ryan H, Yoo J, Darsini P Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Psychosocial group interventions to improve psychological well-being in adults living with HIV.
CONCLUSIONS: Group-based psychosocial interventions may have a small effect on measures of depression, but the clinical importance of this is unclear. More high quality evidence is needed to assess whether group psychosocial intervention improve psychological well-being in HIV positive adults. PMID: 28291302 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 13, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: van der Heijden I, Abrahams N, Sinclair D Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research