The indistinguishables: determining appropriate environments for justice involved individuals.
Abstract Criminalizing those with mental illness is a controversial topic with a long and complex history in the United States. The problem has traditionally been dichotomized between criminals (i.e., "bad") in need of placement in jails and prisons and the mentally ill (i.e., "mad") who are need of treatment in psychiatric facilities. Recent trends demonstrate significant increases in the rates of mental illness in jails and prisons, as well as increased rates of violence within psychiatric hospitals. This would suggest that there are a group of justice involved individuals who are "indis...
Source: CNS Spectrums - October 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Evans SE, Bader SM Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Deinstitutionalization and other factors in the criminalization of persons with serious mental illness and how it is being addressed.
Abstract One of the major concerns in present-day psychiatry is the criminalization of persons with serious mental illness (SMI). This trend began in the late 1960s when deinstitutionalization was implemented throughout the United States. The intent was to release patients in state hospitals and place them into the community where they and other persons with SMI would be treated. Although community treatment was effective for many, there was a large minority who did not adapt successfully and who presented challenges in treatment. Consequently, some of these individuals' mental condition and behavior brought them ...
Source: CNS Spectrums - October 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lamb HR, Weinberger LE Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Forensic psychiatry and mental health in Australia: an overview.
This article reviews the development of forensic psychiatry and mental health services in Australia for the international reader. It covers the legacy of a series of colonial systems that have contributed to a modern health service that interacts with justice systems. The development of relevant legislation, hospitals, prison services, community, and courts services is reviewed. The training and academic development of professionals is covered. Gaps in service delivery and future directions are considered. PMID: 31587677 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - October 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ellis A Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Cariprazine efficacy in bipolar I depression with and without concurrent manic symptoms: post hoc analysis of 3 randomized, placebo-controlled studies.
CONCLUSION.: The results of this post hoc analysis suggest that cariprazine may be an appropriate treatment option for patients with bipolar I depression with or without manic symptoms, with higher doses potentially more effective in patients with manic symptoms. PMID: 31576791 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: McIntyre RS, Suppes T, Earley W, Patel M, Stahl SM Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Overlapping features between social anxiety and obsessive-compulsive spectrum in a clinical sample and in healthy controls: toward an integrative model.
CONCLUSION.: OCD and SAD spectrums widely overlap in clinical samples and in the general population. Interpersonal sensitivity and obsessive doubts might represent a common cognitive core for these conditions. PMID: 31576793 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Carpita B, Muti D, Petrucci A, Romeo F, Gesi C, Marazziti D, Carmassi C, Dell'Osso L Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

A longitudinal description of incompetent to stand trial admissions to a state hospital.
CONCLUSION.: Our data add to the body of literature on the potential causes of the nationwide increase in competency referrals. The literature is clear that jails and prisons are now the primary provider of the nation's mental health care. Our data suggest that another system has assumed this role: state hospitals and other providers charged with restoring individuals to competence. PMID: 31576796 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: McDermott BE, Warburton K, Auletta-Young C Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Dextromethorphan/Bupropion: A Novel Oral NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) Receptor Antagonist with Multimodal Activity.
Abstract Although currently available antidepressants increase monoamine levels soon after the start of treatment, therapeutic benefits are often delayed by several weeks and the majority of patients with major depressive disorder fail to achieve an adequate response to first- or second-line therapies targeting monoamines. The recent approval of the NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) antagonist esketamine given intranasally for treatment-resistant depression has reinforced the need for agents with rapid onset with alternate mechanisms of action. Dextromethorphan/bupropion, an investigational medicine currently in develop...
Source: CNS Spectrums - October 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Stahl SM Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

I think, therefore I forget - using experimental simulation of dementia to understand functional cognitive disorders.
CONCLUSIONS.: Cognitively healthy young adults simulating mild dementia perform similarly to older adults with mild dementia, demonstrating beliefs that dementia is associated with significant global impairment, including attention, motor function, and letter vigilance, but preservation of cube drawing. Inconsistent response patterns were common. Contrary to expectation, family history of dementia did not influence performance. Two and three digit span showed particular promise as a bedside test for simulation. Further investigation will establish whether similar patterns of results are produced in individuals with functio...
Source: CNS Spectrums - September 30, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: McWhirter L, Sargent B, Ritchie C, Stone J, Carson A Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Pathophysiologic mechanisms, neuroimaging and treatment in wake-up stroke.
Abstract Wake-up stroke (WUS) or ischemic stroke occurring during sleep accounts for 14%-29.6% of all ischemic strokes. Management of WUS is complicated by its narrow therapeutic time window and attributable risk factors, which can affect the safety and efficacy of administering intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). This manuscript will review risk factors of WUS, with a focus on obstructive sleep apnea, potential mechanisms of WUS, and evaluate studies assessing safety and efficacy of IV t-PA treatment in WUS patients guided by neuroimaging to estimate time of symptom onset. The authors used PubMe...
Source: CNS Spectrums - September 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Elfil M, Eldokmak M, Baratloo A, Ahmed N, Amin HP, Koo BB Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Keeping up with clinical advances: opioid use disorder-Addendum.
PMID: 31482775 [PubMed - in process] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - August 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Patel B, Kosten TR Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Keeping up with the clinical advances: depression-Addendum.
PMID: 31482776 [PubMed - in process] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - August 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ragguett RM, Tamura JK, McIntyre RS Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Keeping up with the clinical advances: tardive dyskinesia.
Abstract Tardive dyskinesia (TD) was first described in 1964, but treatment for this sometimes poorly characterized condition lagged decades as it was labored by medico-legal implications. TD has often been lumped with other medication-induced disorders and incorrectly classified as extrapyramidal symptoms. TD is likely to be under-recognized for many of these reasons. Though diverse in its presentations, TD is distinct in terms of time course, pathophysiology, and phenomenology. PMID: 31482777 [PubMed - in process] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - August 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Elkurd MT, Bahroo L Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Binge eating disorder revisited: what's new, what's different, what's next - Addendum.
PMID: 31482778 [PubMed - in process] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - August 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Citrome L Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Keeping up with the therapeutic advances in schizophrenia: a review of novel and emerging pharmacological entities.
rell CU Abstract Schizophrenia remains one of the most severe medical diseases. Current dopamine modulating first-generation and second-generation antipsychotics target mainly positive symptoms, but not/inadequately negative and cognitive symptoms. Additional challenges include non-adherence and adverse effects, especially cardiometabolic dysregulation. This review evaluates new/emerging pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia. Therapies targeting total symptoms include cannabidiol, D3 antagonist/5-HT1A partial agonist F17464, lumateperone (ITI-007), phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitors MK-8189 and TAK-0...
Source: CNS Spectrums - August 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Krogmann A, Peters L, von Hardenberg L, Bödeker K, Nöhles VB, Correll CU Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Pharmacological treatment of violence in schizophrenia.
Abstract Chronic aggression and violence in schizophrenia are rare, but receive disproportionate negative media coverage. This contributes to the stigma of mental illness and reduces accessibility to mental health services. Substance Use Disorders (SUD), antisocial behavior, non-adherence and recidivism are known risk factors for violence. Treatment with antipsychotic medication can reduce violence. Aside from clozapine, long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAI) appear to be superior to oral antipsychotics for preventing violence, addressing adherence and recidivism. LAI also facilitate the implementation of fun...
Source: CNS Spectrums - July 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Strassnig MT, Nascimento V, Deckler E, Harvey PD Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

UGT1A1 mutations and psychoses: towards understanding the relationship with unconjugated bilirubin.
PMID: 31339084 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - July 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Bentivegna A, Santambrogio J, Clerici M Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of ketamine in the management of anxiety and anxiety spectrum disorders: a review of the literature.
Abstract Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric conditions. Despite many proven pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments available, high rates of partial response and low rates of long-term remission remain. Ketamine has been receiving increasing attention as an interventional treatment modality in psychiatry, especially among refractory conditions, including major depressive disorder. There is limited yet growing evidence to support the use of ketamine in anxiety disorders. In this review of the literature, we present case reports, case series, and controlled trials demonstrating pro...
Source: CNS Spectrums - July 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Banov MD, Young JR, Dunn T, Szabo ST Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Allostatic load and the cannabinoid system: implications for the treatment of physiological abnormalities in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Abstract It is becoming clear that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is not simply a psychiatric disorder, but one that involves pervasive physiological impairments as well. These physiological disturbances deserve attention in any attempt at integrative treatment of PTSD that requires a focus beyond the PTSD symptoms themselves. The physiological disturbances in PTSD range over many systems, but a common thread thought to underlie them is that the chronic effects of PTSD involve problems with allostatic control mechanisms that result in an excess in what has been termed "allostatic load" (AL). A pha...
Source: CNS Spectrums - July 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lohr JB, Chang H, Sexton M, Palmer BW Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Radiologically isolated syndrome is antiquated amidst evolving McDonald criteria for multiple sclerosis.
Abstract The diagnosis of radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) is untenable in the modern era as new diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS) continue to evolve. Even without optic nerve involvement, the shift in the diagnostic criteria for MS forces clinicians to make a diagnosis at the earliest possible time and appropriate treatment initiated. In this analysis, we revisit the original RIS criteria as published and conclude that RIS as a diagnostic entity is obsolete. PMID: 31304895 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - July 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Avasarala J, Yousuf F Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Keeping Up with Clinical Advances: Opioid Use Disorder.
Abstract Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a disorder that can lead to several negative outcomes, including overdose and death. A variety of opioids can be abused by individuals including both prescribed and non-prescribed opioids. Continued opioid use can be driven by negative affective states associated with opioid withdrawal. Several treatments exist in the field including medication assisted treatments such as methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone. Treatments such as clonidine and lofexidine can also be used to assist with decreasing withdrawal symptoms. Increasing adherence to treatment can further improve pati...
Source: CNS Spectrums - July 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Patel B, Kosten TR Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Revitalizing monoamine oxidase inhibitors: a call for action.
PMID: 31272520 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - July 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Gillman PK, Feinberg SS, Fochtmann LJ Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

The use of lithium in mixed states.
Abstract Lithium is a unique drug. In more than 60 years of observation, it showed its multiple important clinical properties in treating mania, stabilizing mood alterations, preventing suicide and protecting from neurodegeneration. It was also the most extensively studied drug in psychiatry. Nevertheless, it is generally underprescribed. Specifically, lithium is virtually not considered in the treatment of patients affected by mixed affective states. Lithium is not suggested for the acute treatment of mixed affective states and is considered to be less effective than other mood stabilizers in the long-term manage...
Source: CNS Spectrums - June 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sani G, Fiorillo A Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Keeping up with the clinical advances: depression.
Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent and heterogeneous disorder. Although there are many treatment options for MDD, patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) remain prevalent, wherein delayed time to response results in inferior chances of achieving remission. Recently, therapeutics have been developed that depart from the traditional monoamine hypothesis of depression and focus instead on the glutamatergic, GABAergic, opioidergic, and inflammatory systems. The literature suggests that the foregoing systems are implicated in the pathophysiology of MDD and preclinical trials have informe...
Source: CNS Spectrums - June 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ragguett RM, Tamura JK, McIntyre RS Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Neurocognition and social cognition training as treatments for violence and aggression in people with severe mental illness.
Abstract Aggressive and violent behavior, including both verbal and physical aggression, have considerable adverse consequences for people with schizophrenia. There are several potential causes of violent behavior on the part of people with severe mental illness, which include intellectual impairments, cognitive and social-cognitive deficits, skills deficits, substance abuse, antisocial features, and specific psychotic features. This review explores the interventions that have been tested to this date. Computerized Cognitive Training (CCT) or Computerized Social-Cognitive Training (CSCT) have been associated with ...
Source: CNS Spectrums - June 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jones MT, Harvey PD Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Forensic patients in state psychiatric hospitals: 1999-2016.
CONCLUSION: More research is needed to determine whether this multi-state trend is merely a coincidence of differing local factors occurring in many states, or a product of larger systemic factors affecting mental health agencies and the courts. PMID: 31221229 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - June 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Wik A, Hollen V, Fisher WH Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Risk factors for recidivism in individuals receiving community sentences: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: Assessing dynamic (modifiable) risk factors should be considered in all individuals given community sentences. The further integration of mental health, substance misuse, and criminal justice services may reduce reoffending risk in community-sentenced populations. PMID: 31218975 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - June 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Yukhnenko D, Blackwood N, Fazel S Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Effective use of atomoxetine to treat six inpatient youths with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder without attention deficit disorder.
JM, Cohen D PMID: 31218979 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - June 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Benarous X, Ferrafiat V, Zammit J, Consoli A, Gérardin P, Guilé JM, Cohen D Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Toward specific ways to combine ketamine and psychotherapy in treating depression.
Abstract In major depression, remission rate in response to monoaminergic antidepressant is around 50%. The lack of strong synergies between classical antidepressants and psychotherapy may be due to the molecular effects of classical antidepressants. They modulate synapses but they do not substantially influence synaptogenesis. They also increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, for activity-dependent plasticity, BDNF release has to work in concert with activation of synaptogenesis. There has been considerable excitement about ketamine's antidepressant effect. Ketamine leads to fast changes in sy...
Source: CNS Spectrums - June 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hasler G Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Binge eating disorder revisited: what's new, what's different, what's next.
Abstract Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common type of eating disorder. According to the most recent data available, the estimated lifetime prevalence of BED among US adults in the general population is 0.85% (men 0.42% and women 1.25%). Among psychiatric treatment populations, prevalence is several-fold higher. Although many people with BED are obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), roughly half are not. In the DSM-5, BED is defined by recurrent episodes of binge eating (eating in a discrete period of time, an amount of food larger than most people would eat in a similar amount of time under similar circumstances an...
Source: CNS Spectrums - June 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Citrome L Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Suicidal ideation and behavior in adults with major depressive disorder treated with vortioxetine: post hoc pooled analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled, short-term and open-label, long-term extension trials.
CONCLUSIONS: Vortioxetine is not associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation or behavior in MDD patients. PMID: 31199210 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - June 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Mahableshwarkar AR, Affinito J, Reines EH, Xu J, Nomikos G, Jacobsen PL Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Guidance for switching from off-label antipsychotics to pimavanserin for Parkinson's disease psychosis: an expert consensus.
PMID: 31182180 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - June 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Black KJ, Nasrallah H, Isaacson S, Stacy M, Pahwa R, Adler CH, Alva G, Cooney JW, Kremens D, Menza MA, Meyer JM, Patkar AA, Simuni T, Morrissette DA, Stahl SM Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Cold pressor pain and gambling disorder: implications for the opioid system.
CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with GD manifested a relative intolerance to pain on the cold pressor paradigm, even though they physiologically did not seem to experience greater pain. Given the role of the opioid system in pain processing, it would be valuable in future work to examine whether cold pressor measures can predict response to treatments in GD, including with opioid antagonists. PMID: 31169110 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - June 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Grant JE, Chamberlain SR Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Problematic internet use: an exploration of associations between cognition and COMT rs4818, rs4680 haplotypes.
CONCLUSION: This study indicates that PIU is characterized by deficits in decision making and working memory domains; it also provides evidence for elevated impulsive responses and impaired target detection on a sustained attention task, which is a novel area worth exploring further in future work. The effects observed in the genetic influences on cognition of PIU subjects imply that the genetic heritable components of PIU may not lie within the genetic loci influencing COMT function and cognitive performance; or that the genetic component in PIU involves many genetic polymorphisms each conferring only a small effect. ...
Source: CNS Spectrums - June 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ioannidis K, Redden SA, Valle S, Chamberlain SR, Grant JE Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in patients with central nervous system infections: a retrospective study.
CONCLUSION: This work demonstrates that CSF biomarkers of neuronal damage or inflammation may vary during CNS infections according to different causative agents. The prognostic value of these biomarkers needs to be assessed in prospective studies. PMID: 31130152 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - May 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Di Stefano A, Alcantarini C, Atzori C, Lipani F, Imperiale D, Burdino E, Audagnotto S, Mighetto L, Milia MG, Di Perri G, Calcagno A Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Lifetime bipolar disorder comorbidity and related clinical characteristics in patients with primary obsessive compulsive disorder: a report from the International College of Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS).
CONCLUSION: These findings from a large international sample indicate that approximately 1 out of 16 patients with primary OCD may additionally have BD comorbidity along with other specific clinical characteristics, including more frequent previous hospitalizations, more complex therapeutic regimens, and a greater severity of OCD. Prospective international studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID: 31131775 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - May 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Dell'Osso B, Vismara M, Benatti B, Cirnigliaro G, Grancini B, Fineberg NA, Van Ameringen M, Hollander E, Stein DJ, Menchon JM, Rodriguez CI, Nicolini H, Lanzagorta N, Pallanti S, Grassi G, Lochner C, Marazziti D, Hranov G, Karamustafalioglu O, Hranov L, Z Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Neurocognitive heterogeneity across the spectrum of psychopathology: need for improved approaches to deficit detection and intervention.
Abstract Neurocognition is one of the strongest predictors of clinical and functional outcomes across the spectrum of psychopathology, yet there remains a dearth of unified neurocognitive nosology and available neurocognition-targeted interventions. Neurocognitive deficits manifest in a transdiagnostic manner, with no psychiatric disorder uniquely affiliated with one specific deficit. In fact, recent research has identified that essentially all investigated disorders are comprised of 3-4 neurocognitive profiles. This within-disorder neurocognitive heterogeneity has hampered the development of novel, neurocognition...
Source: CNS Spectrums - May 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kavanaugh BC, Cancilliere MK, Spirito A Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Monitoring and improving antipsychotic adherence in outpatient forensic diversion programs.
Abstract Outpatient diversion programs present an opportunity for severely mentally ill defendants to receive psychiatric treatment and have alleged offenses dismissed by the court. Moreover, the successful completion of pretrial diversion is associated with fewer post-program arrest and jail days. The target patient population for such programs is typically people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, but the care of such patients in outpatient settings presents challenges for monitoring treatment fidelity, specifically antipsychotic adherence, as low adherence rates are associated with increased rates of recidi...
Source: CNS Spectrums - May 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Meyer JM Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Canadian economic impact of improved workplace productivity in patients with major depressive disorder treated with vortioxetine.
CONCLUSION: This study suggested that workplace productivity gain due to an improvement in symptoms of MDD following treatment with vortioxetine will lead to substantial cost savings for the Canadian economy. PMID: 31120009 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - May 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lachaine J, Beauchemin C, Bibeau J, Patenaude J, Chokka P, Proulx J, Bougie J Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Size matters: the importance of particle size in a newly developed injectable formulation for the treatment of schizophrenia.
Abstract One of the challenges with initiating long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic regimens is achieving relevant drug levels quickly. After first injection of the LAI antipsychotic aripiprazole lauroxil (AL), the lag to reaching relevant plasma aripiprazole levels was initially addressed using supplemental oral aripiprazole for 21 days. A 1-day AL initiation regimen using a NanoCrystal® Dispersion formulation of AL (ALNCD; Aristada Initio®) combined with a single 30 mg dose of oral aripiprazole has been developed as an alternative approach. We compared the 1-day AL initiation regimen (ALNCD + 30 mg...
Source: CNS Spectrums - May 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jain R, Meyer J, Wehr A, Rege B, von Moltke L, Weiden PJ Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Addicted to compulsion: assessing three core dimensions of addiction across obsessive-compulsive disorder and gambling disorder.
CONCLUSION: OCD patients showed several similarities and some differences with GD patients when compared to HCs on impulsivity, decision-making, and reward system, three core dimensions of addiction. These results could have relevant implications for the research of new treatment targets for OCD. PMID: 31106718 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - May 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Grassi G, Makris N, Pallanti S Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Comparison of polypharmacy using low-dose second-generation antipsychotics plus low-dose first-generation antipsychotics with monotherapy using therapeutic-dose second-generation antipsychotics in schizophrenia - a pooled analysis.
PMID: 31084636 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - May 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lin CH, Wang FC, Huang YH, Lin SC, Kuo CC Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Factors affecting time to resolution of suicidality for depressed patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy.
PMID: 31084653 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - May 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lin CH, Yang WC, Wu JI Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Predictors of functional response and remission with desvenlafaxine 50 mg and 100 mg: a pooled analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled studies in patients with major depressive disorder.
CONCLUSION: Early improvement in SDS total score was predictive of functional outcomes for patients treated with desvenlafaxine 50 mg, desvenlafaxine 100 mg, or placebo. PMID: 31060632 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - May 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Soares CN, Wajsbrot DB, Boucher M Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Dopamine antagonist antipsychotics in diverted forensic populations.
Abstract In community settings, negative symptoms and cognitive deficits are the primary barriers to independent living, stable relationships, and employment for individuals suffering from schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. In contrast, however, positive psychotic symptoms (e.g., command hallucinations and persecutory delusions) often drive behavior which serves as the gateway to arrest and criminalization. Historically, the keystone of treatment for positive psychotic symptoms has been antagonism of dopamine D2 receptors in the mesolimbic tract. In this article, we review and explore the principles underlying dopa...
Source: CNS Spectrums - May 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Cummings MA, Proctor GJ, Arias AW Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Using network analysis to explore cognitive domains in patients with unipolar versus bipolar depression: a prospective naturalistic study.
CONCLUSIONS: From a network analytic perspective, memory impairment displays a central role in the cognitive impairment of patients with unipolar depression, whereas executive dysfunction appears to be more central in bipolar depression. Further research is warranted to confirm our results. PMID: 31060642 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - May 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Galimberti C, Bosi MF, Caricasole V, Zanello R, Dell'Osso B, Viganò CA Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Noninvasive brain stimulation in rehabilitation of hemispatial neglect after stroke.
CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive brain stimulation has the potential to facilitate recovery of hemispatial neglect after stroke, but until today, there are not enough data to claim its routine use. PMID: 31046862 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - May 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Veldema J, Bösl K, Neumann G, Verheyden G, Nowak DA Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

A different aspect of the unexpected death of Mozart at the age of 35 years.
Abstract The cause of the early death of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) at the age of 35 has been the source of much discussion in the medical community. Investigators attributed to Mozart nearly 150 different medical diagnoses. However, the neurosurgical aspect of the early death of Mozart has yet to be well-analyzed, and this subject was investigated herein. The key words "Mozart" and "Mozart's death" were searched in PubMed as well as the libraries of universities. The main source was the archive and website of Internationale Stiftung MOZARTEUM/Salzburg (www.mozarteum.at) and the craniu...
Source: CNS Spectrums - April 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kanat A, Romana Gasenzer E, Neugebauer E Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Clinical implications of directly switching antidepressants in well-treated depressed patients with treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction: a comparison between vortioxetine and escitalopram.
CONCLUSION: Results suggest that vortioxetine is a safe and effective switch therapy for treating SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction in adults with well-treated MDD. Also, improvement in sexual dysfunction with vortioxetine or escitalopram may be influenced by prior SSRI usage, sex, age, and history of MDEs. PMID: 31010445 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - April 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jacobsen PL, Nomikos GG, Zhong W, Cutler AJ, Affinito J, Clayton A Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Emotional distress, brain functioning, and biobehavioral processes in cancer patients: a neuroimaging review and future directions.
Abstract Despite emerging evidence that distress and adversity can contribute to negative health outcomes in cancer, little is known about the brain networks, regions, or circuits that can contribute to individual differences in affect/distress states and health outcomes in treated cancer patients. To understand the state-of-the-science in this regard, we reviewed neuroimaging studies with cancer patients that examined the associations between negative affect (distress) and changes in the metabolism or structure of brain regions. Cancer patients showed changes in function and/or structure of key brain regions such...
Source: CNS Spectrums - April 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Reis JC, Antoni MH, Travado L Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

The role of dopamine D3 receptors in the mechanism of action of cariprazine.
Abstract Cariprazine is a new atypical antipsychotic drug (APD) with a unique pharmacodynamic profile, different from both typical and atypical APDs. Specifically, cariprazine acts as a partial agonist at the dopamine (DA) D2 and D3 receptors and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors, and as an antagonist at the 5-HT2B receptors. Moreover, it shows moderate affinities for adrenergic, histaminergic, and cholinergic receptors that are involved in mediating the side effects characteristic of typical APDs. In this review, we discuss the contribution of DA D3 receptors (D3Rs) in the etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia a...
Source: CNS Spectrums - April 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Calabrese F, Tarazi FI, Racagni G, Riva MA Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research