MnTM-4-PyP Modulates Endogenous Antioxidant Responses and Protects Primary Cortical Neurons against Oxidative Stress.
CONCLUSION: Induction of various levels of endogenous antioxidant responses by MnTM-4-PyP has indispensable functions in its protection for cortical neurons against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. PMID: 25545542 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 29, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cheng K, Guo F, Lu J, Cao Y, Wang T, Yang Q, Xia Q Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Ethyl Pyruvate Protects against Blood-Brain Barrier Damage and Improves Long-term Neurological Outcomes in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury.
CONCLUSION: Ethyl pyruvate confers long-term neuroprotection against TBI, possibly through breaking the vicious cycle among MMP-9-mediated BBB disruption, neuroinflammation, and long-lasting brain damage. PMID: 25533312 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 23, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shi H, Wang H, Pu H, Shi Y, Zhang J, Zhang W, Wang G, Hu X, Leak RK, Chen J, Gao Y Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Special Issue: Basic Mechanisms of Pediatric Epilepsy.
PMID: 25533596 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 23, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cepeda C, Wu J Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Intrinsic Epileptogenesis in Human Gelastic Seizures with Hypothalamic Hamartoma.
Abstract Human hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) is a rare developmental malformation often characterized by gelastic seizures, which are refractory to medical therapy. Ictal EEG recordings from the HH have demonstrated that the epileptic source of gelastic seizures lies within the HH lesion itself. Recent advances in surgical techniques targeting HH have led to dramatic improvements in seizure control, which further supports the hypothesis that gelastic seizures originate within the HH. However, the basic cellular and molecular mechanisms of epileptogenesis in this subcortical lesion are poorly understood. Since 2003, ...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 12, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wu J, Gao M, Shen JX, Qiu SF, Kerrigan JF Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Riluzole is a Promising Pharmacological Inhibitor of Bilirubin-Induced Excitotoxicity in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These data suggest that riluzole can protect neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus from bilirubin-induced hyperexcitation and excitotoxicity through reducing presynaptic glutamate release. PMID: 25495717 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 12, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Han GY, Li CY, Shi HB, Wang JP, Su KM, Yin XL, Yin SK Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Acute and Chronic Efficacy of Bumetanide in an in vitro Model of Posttraumatic Epileptogenesis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate a persistent contribution of NKCC1 cotransport in posttraumatic ictal-like activity, presumably as a consequence of chronic alterations in neuronal chloride homeostasis and GABA-mediated inhibition. New strategies for more effective reduction in posttraumatic and seizure-induced [Cl(-) ]i accumulation could provide the basis for effective treatments for posttraumatic epileptogenesis and the resultant seizures. PMID: 25495911 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 12, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dzhala V, Staley KJ Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Inhibition of G Protein-Coupled Receptor 81 (GPR81) Protects Against Ischemic Brain Injury.
CONCLUSIONS: G protein-coupled receptor 81 (GPR81) inhibition attenuated ischemic neuronal death. Lactate may aggravate ischemic brain injury by activating GPR81. GPR81 antagonism might be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cerebral ischemia. PMID: 25495836 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 11, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shen Z, Jiang L, Yuan Y, Deng T, Zheng YR, Zhao YY, Li WL, Wu JY, Gao JQ, Hu WW, Zhang XN, Chen Z Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

A Portion of Inhibitory Neurons in Human Temporal Lobe Epilepsy are Functionally Upregulated: An Endogenous Mechanism for Seizure Termination.
CONCLUSION: Automatic seizure termination is likely due to a fact that a portion of the inhibitory neurons and synapses are upregulated in the seizure-onset cortices. This mechanism may create novel therapeutic strategies to treat intractable epilepsy, such as the simultaneous upregulation of cortical inhibitory neurons and their output synapses. PMID: 25475128 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wen B, Qian H, Feng J, Ge RJ, Xu X, Cui ZQ, Zhu RY, Pan LS, Lin ZP, Wang JH Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Traumatic Brain Injury Induces Rapid Enhancement of Cortical Excitability in Juvenile Rats.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that CCI in juvenile rats rapidly induces epileptiform activity and enhanced cortical synaptic bursting. Detection of epileptiform early after injury suggests it may be an important pathophysiological component and potential indicator of developing PTE. PMID: 25475223 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nichols J, Perez R, Wu C, Adelson PD, Anderson T Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Targeting the Neurovascular Unit in Brain Trauma.
Abstract Although the neurovascular unit was originally developed as a conceptual framework for stroke, it is now recognized that these cell-cell interactions play critical roles in many other CNS disorders as well. In brain trauma, perturbations within the neurovascular unit may be especially important. Changes in neurovascular coupling may disrupt blood flow and metabolic regulation. Disruption of transmitter release-reuptake kinetics in neurons and astrocytes may augment excitotoxicity. Alterations in gliovascular signaling may underlie blood-brain barrier disruptions and traumatic edema. Perturbations in cell-...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lok J, Wang XS, Xing CH, Maki TK, Wu LM, Guo SZ, Noviski N, Arai K, Whalen MJ, Lo EH, Wang XY Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Splenic Responses in Ischemic Stroke: New Insights into Stroke Pathology.
Abstract In the past decade, the significant contribution of the spleen to ischemic brain damage has gained considerable attention in stroke research. As the largest natural reservoir of immune cells, the spleen establishes critical connections with the ischemic brain during the progression of stroke and mobilizes its cells to the site of injury. Multiple "alarm" signals released from the injured brain are essential for the initiation of brain-spleen communication. Spleen-derived cells, including neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, are known to contribute significantly to ischemic brain ...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu ZJ, Chen C, Li FW, Shen JM, Yang Y, Leak RK, Ji X, Du H, Hu X Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Anti-tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) as an Effective Therapy of Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia with and without Inflammation.
Abstract Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is an important cause of neurodevelopmental deficits in neonates. Intrauterine infection and the ensuing fetal inflammatory responses augment hypoxic-ischemic brain injury and attenuate the efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia. Here, we review evidences from preclinical studies suggesting that the induction of brain parenchymal tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) plays an important pathogenic role in these conditions. Moreover, administration of a stable-mutant form of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 called CPAI confers potent protection against hypoxic-ischemic injury w...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yang D, Kuan CY Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Optimal Magnetic Resonance Perfusion Thresholds Identifying Ischemic Penumbra and Infarct Core: A Chinese Population-based Study.
CONCLUSION: Among Chinese acute stroke patients, volume of Tmax >6 seconds may precisely target ischemic penumbra tissue as good as voxel-based analysis performed, albeit no concordant MRP parameter is found to accurately predict infarct core because reperfusion occurred within 24 h after thrombolysis fails to restrain the infarct growth. PMID: 25476071 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang S, Tang H, Yu YN, Yan SQ, Parsons MW, Lou M Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Placebo Effects in a Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity Enriched Clinical Trial with the Oromucosal Cannabinoid Spray (THC/CBD): Dimension and Possible Causes.
Abstract Regulatory authorities admit clinical studies with an initial enrichment phase to select patients that respond to treatment before randomization (Enriched Design Studies; EDSs). The trial period aims to prevent long-term drug exposure risks in patients with limited chances of improvement while optimizing costs. In EDSs for symptom control therapies providing early improvements and without a wash-out period, it is difficult to show further improvements and thus large therapeutic gains versus placebo. Moreover, in trials with cannabinoids, the therapeutic gains can be further biased in the postenrichment ra...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 4, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Di Marzo V, Centonze D Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Mechanisms and Potential Therapeutic Applications of Microglial Activation after Brain Injury.
Abstract As the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, microglia rapidly respond to brain insults, including stroke and traumatic brain injury. Microglial activation plays a major role in neuronal cell damage and death by releasing a variety of inflammatory and neurotoxic mediators. Their activation is an early response that may exacerbate brain injury and many other stressors, especially in the acute stages, but are also essential to brain recovery and repair. The full range of microglial activities is still not completely understood, but there is accumulating knowledge about their role following br...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 4, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kim JY, Kim N, Yenari MA Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

In Rasmussen Encephalitis, Hemichannels Associated with Microglial Activation are linked to Cortical Pyramidal Neuron Coupling: A Possible Mechanism for Cellular Hyperexcitability.
CONCLUSIONS: In RE, these results support the notion that a possible mechanism for cellular hyperexcitability may be related to increased intercellular coupling from pannexin linked to increased microglial activation. Such findings suggest that a possible antiseizure treatment for RE may involve the use of gap junction blockers. PMID: 25438677 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 1, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cepeda C, Chang JW, Owens GC, Huynh MN, Chen JY, Tran C, Vinters HV, Levine MS, Mathern GW Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Depolarizing GABA and Developmental Epilepsies.
Abstract Early in development, GABA, which is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in adult brain, depolarizes immature neurons and exerts dual-excitatory and shunting/inhibitory-effects in the developing neuronal networks. The present review discusses some general questions, including the properties of excitation at depolarizing GABAergic synapse and shunting inhibition by depolarizing GABA; technical issues in exploration of depolarizing GABA using various techniques and preparations, including the developmental aspects of traumatic injury and what is known (or rather unknown) on the actions of GABA in vivo; com...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 1, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Khazipov R, Valeeva G, Khalilov I Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Suppression of TRPM7 Inhibits Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion of Malignant Human Glioma Cells.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that human glioma cells express functional TRPM7 channel and that activation of this channel plays an important role in the proliferation, migration, and invasion of malignant glioma cells. TRPM7 channel may represent a novel and promising target for therapeutic intervention of malignant glioma. PMID: 25438992 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 1, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Leng TD, Li MH, Shen JF, Liu ML, Li XB, Sun HW, Branigan D, Zeng Z, Si HF, Li J, Chen J, Xiong ZG Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Brivaracetam Differentially Affects Voltage-Gated Sodium Currents Without Impairing Sustained Repetitive Firing in Neurons.
CONCLUSIONS: The lack of effect of BRV on SRF in neurons suggests that the reported inhibition of BRV on VGSC currents does not contribute to its antiepileptic properties. PMID: 25444522 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 1, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Niespodziany I, André VM, Leclère N, Hanon E, Ghisdal P, Wolff C Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Blood-brain barrier is not a barrier in the development of new drugs for ischemic stroke.
PMID: 25417927 [PubMed - in process] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - November 30, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu WY, Su DF Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Ketamine-an update on its clinical uses and abuses.
Abstract This review highlights the recent clinical research that supports the therapeutic utility of ketamine as a multifaceted drug. After long-term use as a dissociative anesthetic, it has re-emerged as a useful agent for ameliorating pain, asthmaticus, and depression. In addition, it is also a substance of abuse. Chronic ketamine abuse over prolonged periods (weeks, months, and years) can produce toxicity to the gastrointestinal and urinary tract. In this review, we described the recent progress on its clinical uses and abuses. PMID: 25417928 [PubMed - in process] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - November 30, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xu J, Lei H Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Activating Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Alleviates Pathogenesis of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Via Activation of Autophagy and Inhibiting NLRP3 Inflammasome.
CONCLUSION: Collectively, our results demonstrated for the first time that CB2R plays a protective role in EAE through promoting autophagy and inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation. PMID: 25417929 [PubMed - in process] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - November 30, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shao BZ, Wei W, Ke P, Xu ZQ, Zhou JX, Liu C Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Primaquine treatment suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis severity.
aud L PMID: 25417930 [PubMed - in process] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - November 30, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zanucoli F, Thomé R, Bonfanti AP, de Carvalho AC, Issayama LK, da Costa TA, Di Gangi R, Ferreira IT, Bombeiro AL, de Oliveira AL, Verinaud L Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Pleiotropic Role of PPARγ in Intracerebral Hemorrhage: An Intricate System Involving Nrf2, RXR, and NF-κB.
Pleiotropic Role of PPARγ in Intracerebral Hemorrhage: An Intricate System Involving Nrf2, RXR, and NF-κB. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2014 Nov 28; Authors: Zhao X, Gonzales N, Aronowski J Abstract Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subtype of stroke involving formation of hematoma within brain parenchyma, which accounts for 8-15% of all strokes in Western societies and 20-30% among Asian populations, and has a 1-year mortality rate>50%. The high mortality and severe morbidity make ICH a major public health problem. Only a few evidence-based targeted treatments are used for ICH management, and ...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - November 28, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhao X, Gonzales N, Aronowski J Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Cystamine Improves Functional Recovery via Axon Remodeling and Neuroprotection after Stroke in Mice.
CONCLUSIONS: These data provide evidence to investigate the promising utility of cystamine for therapy of stroke in a variety of ways, acting principally through BDNF/TrkB pathway. PMID: 25430473 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - November 27, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li PC, Jiao Y, Ding J, Chen YC, Cui Y, Qian C, Yang XY, Ju SH, Yao HH, Teng GJ Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

A Critical Evaluation of the Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) Model of Absence Seizures.
Abstract Typical absence seizures (ASs) are nonconvulsive epileptic events which are commonly observed in pediatric and juvenile epilepsies and may be present in adults suffering from other idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of ASs has been greatly advanced by the availability of genetic and pharmacological models, in particular the γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) model which, in recent years, has been extensively used in studies in transgenic mice. GHB is an endogenous brain molecule that upon administration to various species, including humans, induces not onl...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - November 18, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Venzi M, Di Giovanni G, Crunelli V Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Beneficial Effect of Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells Pulsed with MOG Autoantigen in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.
ínez-Cáceres EM Abstract BACKGROUND: Treatment with tolerogenic dendritic cells (TolDC) is a promising, cell-based strategy to regulate autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) in an antigen-specific way. This technique involves the use of TolDC from MS patients cultured in the presence of vitamin D3 (VitD3) and pulsed with myelin peptides to induce a stable hyporesponsiveness in myelin-specific autologous T cells. AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyze the in vivo effect of VitD3-TolDC treatment on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of MS. METHODS:...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - November 18, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mansilla MJ, Sellès-Moreno C, Fàbregas-Puig S, Amoedo J, Navarro-Barriuso J, Teniente-Serra A, Grau-López L, Ramo-Tello C, Martínez-Cáceres EM Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Basic Mechanisms of Epileptogenesis in Pediatric Cortical Dysplasia.
Abstract Cortical dysplasia (CD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder due to aberrant cell proliferation and differentiation. Advances in neuroimaging have proven effective in early identification of the more severe lesions and timely surgical removal to treat epilepsy. However, the exact mechanisms of epileptogenesis are not well understood. This review examines possible mechanisms based on anatomical and electrophysiological studies. CD can be classified as CD type I consisting of architectural abnormalities, CD type II with the presence of dysmorphic cytomegalic neurons and balloon cells, and CD type III which occu...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - November 18, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Abdijadid S, Mathern GW, Levine MS, Cepeda C Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Effect of Sex and Age Interactions on Functional Outcome after Stroke.
Abstract Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Experimental and clinical studies showed that sex and age play an important role in deciding the outcome after stroke. At younger ages, males were shown to have a higher risk for stroke than females. However, this trend reverses in older ages particularly when females reach menopause. Many preclinical studies indicate that steroid hormones modulate the age-dependent differential stroke outcome. In addition, patterns of cell death pathways activated following cerebral ischemia are distinct between males and females, but independent of s...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - November 18, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kim T, Vemuganti R Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Gender-Linked Stem Cell Alterations in Stroke and Postpartum Depression.
an CV Abstract Stroke is a significant unmet clinical need. The current stroke treatment of tissue plasminogen activator is limited to the very acute 4.5 h after disease onset which benefits only less than 3% of ischemic stroke patients. Our overarching hypothesis advances the notion that gender, which has been established as a comorbidity factor of stroke, plays a key role in regenerative medicine, in particular stem cell therapy. We hypothesize that gender is a key factor in culture-induced stemness of adult stem cells. Our goal is to provide new evidence supporting gender effects on stroke and stem cells f...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - November 15, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pabón MM, Ji XM, Fernandez JW, Borlongan CV Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Therapeutic Effects of Fucoidan in 6-Hydroxydopamine-Lesioned Rat Model of Parkinson's disease: Role of NADPH oxidase-1.
CONCLUSION: These results support the beneficial effect of fucoidan in 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of PD. Fucoidan may suppress the Nox1-triggered oxidative stress in the SNc to protect DA neurons from 6-OHDA-induced toxicity and achieve its beneficial effect. PMID: 25399812 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - November 15, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang FL, He Y, Zheng Y, Zhang WJ, Wang Q, Jia YJ, Song HL, An HT, Zhang HB, Qian YJ, Tong YL, Dong L, Wang XM Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Synopsis on the Linkage of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease with Chronic Diseases.
Abstract Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of neuronal structure and function, which ultimately leads to neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis, and Huntington's disease. Even after the recent significant advances in neurobiology, the above-mentioned disorders continue to haunt the global population. Several studies have suggested the role of specific environmental and genetic risk factors associated with these disorders. However, the exact mechanism associated with the progression of these disorders still needs to be elucidated. In the recent ...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - November 15, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jabir NR, Firoz CK, Baeesa SS, Ashraf GM, Akhtar S, Kamal W, Kamal MA, Tabrez S Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Allogeneic Head and Body Reconstruction: Mouse Model.
CONCLUSIONS: This experimental study has confirmed a method to avoid cerebral ischemia during the surgery and solved an important part of the problem of how to accomplish long-term survival after transplantation and preservation of the donor brain stem. PMID: 25367718 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - November 4, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ren XP, Song Y, Ye YJ, Li PW, Han KC, Shen ZL, Shan JG, Luther K, Yang BF Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

The Antiaging Activity and Cerebral Protection of Rapamycin at Micro-doses.
CONCLUSION: We propose that rapamycin at micro-dose can be developed into an antiaging agent with a novel mechanism. PMID: 25327787 [PubMed - in process] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - October 24, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Qi H, Su FY, Wan S, Chen Y, Cheng YQ, Liu AJ Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Botanical Drug Puerarin Coordinates with Nerve Growth Factor in the Regulation of Neuronal Survival and Neuritogenesis via Activating ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathways in the Neurite Extension Process.
CONCLUSION: Puerarin effectively coordinated with NGF to stimulate neuritogenesis via activating ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways in neurite extension process. These results demonstrated a general mechanism supporting the therapeutic application of puerarin-related compounds in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID: 25310912 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - October 14, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhao J, Cheng YY, Fan W, Yang CB, Ye SF, Cui W, Wei W, Lao LX, Cai J, Han YF, Rong JH Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Early Life Status Epilepticus and Stress Have Distinct and Sex-Specific Effects on Learning, Subsequent Seizure Outcomes, Including Anticonvulsant Response to Phenobarbital.
CONCLUSIONS: Early life 3KA-SE and maternal separation cause more but transient cognitive deficits in males but aggravate the consequences of subsequent lithium-pilocarpine SE in females. In contrast, on flurothyl seizures, EL events showed either beneficial or no effect, depending on gender, type, and age at EL events. PMID: 25311088 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - October 14, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ozlem A, Moshé SL, Galanopoulou AS Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Identification of a Novel Serum Peptide Associated with Narcolepsy.
PMID: 25312498 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - October 14, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen Y, Lam SP, Chen L, Zhang JH, Li SX, Wing YK, Ho WS Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

The Relevance of Human Fetal Subplate Zone for Developmental Neuropathology of Neuronal Migration Disorders and Cortical Dysplasia.
aš M Abstract The human fetal cerebral cortex develops through a series of partially overlapping histogenetic events which occur in transient cellular compartments, such as the subplate zone. The subplate serves as waiting compartment for cortical afferent fibers, the major site of early synaptogenesis and neuronal differentiation and the hub of the transient fetal cortical circuitry. Thus, the subplate has an important but hitherto neglected role in the human fetal cortical connectome. The subplate is also an important compartment for radial and tangential migration of future cortical neurons. We review th...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - October 14, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kostović I, Sedmak G, Vukšić M, Judaš M Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Recurrent Stroke was Associated with Poor Quality of Life in Patients with Transient Ischemic Attack or Minor Stroke: Finding from the CHANCE Trial.
Abstract AIMS: To examine the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke and assess the impact of recurrent stroke on HRQOL. METHODS: Health-related quality of life data on patients participated in the Clopidogrel in High-risk patients with Acute Nondisabling Cerebrovascular Events (CHANCE) trial were analyzed. The available 90-day EuroQoL data (EQ-5D) were used to calculate EQ-5D index score. Poor HRQOL was defined as an EQ-5D index score ≤0.5. The characteristics of HRQOL and factors predicting poor HRQOL in these patients were then explored. ...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - October 13, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang YL, Pan YS, Zhao XQ, Wang D, Johnston SC, Liu LP, Meng X, Wang AX, Wang CX, Wang YJ, The CHANCE investigators Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Hyperactivation of BDNF-TrkB Signaling Cascades in Human Hypothalamic Hamartoma (HH): A Potential Mechanism Contributing to Epileptogenesis.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that multiple BDNF-TrkB signaling pathways are activated in HH. They act independently or collaboratively to downregulate KCC2 expression, which is the key component for GABA-mediated excitation associated with gelastic seizures. PMID: 25307426 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - October 13, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Semaan S, Wu J, Gan Y, Jin Y, Li GH, Kerrigan JF, Chang YC, Huang Y Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Novel Susceptibility Loci were Found in Chinese Genetic Generalized Epileptic Patients by Genome-wide Association Study.
PMID: 25271899 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - October 1, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang Y, Qu J, Mao CX, Wang ZB, Mao XY, Zhou BT, Yin JY, Long HY, Xiao B, Gong ZC, Zhang Y, Zhang W, Zhou HH, Liu ZQ Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Degeneration and Regeneration of GABAergic Interneurons in the Dentate Gyrus of Adult Mice in Experimental Models of Epilepsy.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that degeneration of GABAergic interneurons may depend on the type of epileptogenic insult and that no newborn GABAergic interneurons occur in the adult dentate gyrus during epileptogenesis. PMID: 25272022 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - October 1, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wei D, Yang F, Wang Y, Yang F, Wu C, Wu SX, Jiang W Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Changes in Metabolites after Treatment with Memantine in Fibromyalgia. A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy with a 6-month Follow-up.
CONCLUSION: Memantine treatment resulted in an increase in cerebral metabolism in FM patients, suggesting its utility for the treatment of the illness. PMID: 25230216 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - September 17, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fayed N, Olivan-Blázquez B, Herrera-Mercadal P, Puebla-Guedea M, Pérez-Yus MC, Andrés E, López Del Hoyo Y, Magallon R, Viguera L, Garcia-Campayo J Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

miR-101 Acts as a Tumor Suppressor by Targeting Kruppel-like Factor 6 in Glioblastoma Stem Cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provided a comprehensive analysis of miR-101 and further defining it as a potential therapeutic candidate for GBM. PMID: 25230316 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - September 17, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yao YL, Ma J, Wang P, Xue YX, Li Z, Zhao LN, Li ZQ, Feng TD, Liu YH Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

BNIP3 Interacting with LC3 Triggers Excessive Mitophagy in Delayed Neuronal Death in Stroke.
CONCLUSIONS: NIX primarily regulates basal level of mitophagy in physiological conditions, whereas BNIP3 exclusively activates excessive mitophagy leading to cell death. PMID: 25230377 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - September 17, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shi R, Zhu S, Li V, Gibson SB, Xu X, Kong J Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Targeting CD36-Mediated Inflammation Reduces Acute Brain Injury in Transient, but not Permanent, Ischemic Stroke.
CONCLUSION: The study revealed that targeting CD36 has a beneficial effect on transient but not permanent focal ischemic stroke. The study thus precludes a generalized strategy targeting CD36 in ischemic stroke and suggests careful consideration of types of stroke and associated pathology in developing stroke therapies. PMID: 25216018 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - September 12, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kim E, Tolhurst AT, Szeto HH, Cho S Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Protein Kinase C is Essential for Kainate-Induced Anxiety-Related Behavior and Glutamatergic Synapse Upregulation in Prelimbic Cortex.
CONCLUSION: The activation of glutamatergic kainate-type receptors leads to anxiety-related behaviors and glutamatergic synapse upregulation through protein kinase C in the prelimbic region of the mouse prefrontal cortex. PMID: 25180671 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - September 2, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu B, Feng J, Wang JH Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

To Sleep or Not to Sleep: A Repeated Daily Challenge for African American Children.
CONCLUSION: At nighttime children habitually obtained few hours of sleep with diurnal sleep fluctuations likely being "a need" and "a chance." Interventions might emphasize on creating optimal opportunities to sleep. PMID: 25180811 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - September 2, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Spruyt K, Alaribe CU, Nwabara OU Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Causes and Consequences of Gray Matter Heterotopia.
The objective of this article is to review the pathophysiological bases of gray matter heterotopia and to appreciate their involvement in brain cortical development and functional consequences, namely epilepsy. The development of the cerebral cortex results from complex sequential processes including cell proliferation, cell migration, cortical organization, and formation of neuronal networks. Disruption of these steps yields different types of cortical malformations including gray matter heterotopia, characterized by the ectopic position of neurons along the ventricular walls or in the deep white matter. Cortical malforma...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - September 2, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Watrin F, Manent JB, Cardoso C, Represa A Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Local Anesthetic Lidocaine Inhibits TRPM7 Current and TRPM7-Mediated Zinc Toxicity.
CONCLUSION: Our data provide the first evidence that local anesthetic lidocaine inhibits TRPM7 channel and TRPM7-mediated zinc toxicity. PMID: 25169754 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - August 28, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Leng TD, Lin J, Sun HW, Zeng Z, O'Bryant Z, Inoue K, Xiong ZG Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research