Mutation Analysis of COQ2 in Chinese Patients with Cerebellar Subtype of Multiple System Atrophy.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that COQ2 tended to play a population-specific and subtype-depended role in conferring susceptibility to MSA. PMID: 26096180 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - June 20, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wen XD, Li HF, Wang HX, Ni W, Dong Y, Wu ZY Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

The Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-1β is a Key Regulatory Factor for the Postictal Suppression in Mice.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first direct evidence that IL-1β is key regulatory factor for the PS, and its receptor IL-1R1 may be a potential target for adjuvant treatment of postictal problems. PMID: 26096304 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - June 20, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tao AF, Xu ZH, Chen B, Wang Y, Wu XH, Zhang J, Tang YS, Xu CL, Zhao HW, Hu WW, Shi LY, Zhang SH, Chen Z Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Lovastatin Differentially Affects Neuronal Cholesterol and Amyloid-β Production in vivo and in vitro.
CONCLUSIONS: Lovastatin modifies the mevalonate pathway without affecting cholesterol levels in vivo and is able to reduce Aβ levels only in vitro. PMID: 26096465 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - June 20, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mendoza-Oliva A, Ferrera P, Fragoso-Medina J, Arias C Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Unfavorable Outcome of Thrombolysis in Chinese Patients with Cardioembolic Stroke: a Prospective Cohort Study.
This study compares the outcomes at 3 months postthrombolysis in Chinese patients with AIS secondary to cardioembolism (CE) to the outcomes of those with large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA). METHODS: Using the Thrombolysis Implementation and Monitoring of Acute Ischemic Stroke in China (TIMS-China) cohort, we prospectively followed 827 patients treated within 4.5 h of onset symptoms with alteplase as an intravenous thrombolytic agent. CE and LAA were defined according to TOAST criteria. We compared symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH), mortality, and functional outcome at 3 months using multivaria...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - June 20, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang XG, Zhang LQ, Liao XL, Pan YS, Shi YZ, Wang CJ, Wang YL, Liu LP, Zhao XQ, Wang YJ, Li D, Wang CX, Thrombolysis Implementation and Monitoring of acute ischemic Stroke in China (TIMS-China) Investigators Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Head Transplantation in Mouse Model.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study support the feasibility of this method for avoiding brain ischemia during transplantation, thereby allowing for the possibility of long-term studies of head transplantation. PMID: 26096690 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - June 20, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ren XP, Ye YJ, Li PW, Shen ZL, Han KC, Song Y Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Vitamin D is Not a Protective Factor in ALS.
Abstract AIMS: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with poorer prognosis in ALS. Better understanding of the role of vitamin D in ALS is needed to determine whether trials of systematic supplementation are justified. Our aim was to report vitamin D levels during the course of ALS and to evaluate its relationship with clinical parameters at diagnosis and with disease progression. METHODS: We prospectively collected vitamin D serum concentrations from 125 consecutive ALS patients. Cox proportional hazard models analyzed the relationship between vitamin D concentrations, clinical parameters, and survival. ...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - June 20, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Blasco H, Madji Hounoum B, Dufour-Rainfray D, Patin F, Maillot F, Beltran S, Gordon PH, Andres CR, Corcia P Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Propagation of Pathology through Brain Networks in Neurodegenerative Diseases: From Molecules to Clinical Phenotypes.
Abstract The cellular mechanisms underlying the stereotypical progression of pathology in neurodegenerative diseases are incompletely understood, but increasing evidence indicates that misfolded protein aggregates can spread by a self-perpetuating neuron-to-neuron transmission. Novel neuroimaging techniques can help elucidating how these disorders spread across brain networks. Recent knowledge from structural and functional connectivity studies suggests that the relation between neurodegenerative diseases and distinct brain networks is likely to be a strict consequence of diffuse network dynamics. Diffusion tensor...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - June 1, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Agosta F, Weiler M, Filippi M Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Hypoxemia, Sleep Disturbances, and Depression Correlated with Fatigue in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder.
This study aimed to investigate the incidence of fatigue and explore impacting factors attributed to fatigue in NMOSD. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with NMOSD and twenty matched healthy controls were enrolled. A battery of self-reported questionnaires was conducted to assess quality of sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, depression, and level of activity of daily life. The structure of sleep was assessed by polysomnography with blood oxygen saturation monitored by noninvasive pulse oximeter. Brain and spinal cord lesions were evaluated by MRIs. RESULTS: Fatigue was more severe and more prevalent among the patie...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - June 1, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pan J, Zhao P, Cai H, Su L, Wood K, Shi FD, Fu Y Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

DPP-4 Inhibitor Linagliptin Attenuates Aβ-induced Cytotoxicity through Activation of AMPK in Neuronal Cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings suggest linagliptin can restore the impaired insulin signaling caused by Aβ in neuronal cells, suggesting DPP-4 inhibitors may have therapeutic potential for reducing Aβ-induced impairment of insulin signaling and neurotoxicity in AD pathogenesis. PMID: 26010513 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - May 26, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kornelius E, Lin CL, Chang HH, Li HH, Huang WN, Yang YS, Lu YL, Peng CH, Huang CN Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Peroxynitrite Decomposition Catalyst Reduces Delayed Thrombolysis-induced Hemorrhagic Transformation in Ischemia-reperfused Rat Brains.
CONCLUSION: Peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst could prevent hemorrhagic transformation and improve neurological outcome ischemic rat brains with delayed t-PA treatment via inhibiting peroxynitrite-mediated MMP activation. PMID: 25996167 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - May 21, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen HS, Chen XM, Feng JH, Liu KJ, Qi SH, Shen JG Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Increasing the Permeability of the Blood-brain Barrier in Three Different Models in vivo.
CONCLUSION: The MCAO model was the most suitable for studying the permeability of BBB among the three models in vivo. PMID: 25982054 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - May 17, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu WY, Wang ZB, Wang Y, Tong LC, Li Y, Wei X, Luan P, Li L Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Psora-4, a Kv1.3 Blocker, Enhances Differentiation and Maturation in Neural Progenitor Cells.
CONCLUSION: Our studies reveal a crucial role for the ion channel Kv1.3 in the regulation of NPC differentiation and maturation, making Psora-4 a promising candidate molecule for MS treatment. PMID: 25976092 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - May 15, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhou YY, Hou GQ, He SW, Xiao Z, Xu HJ, Qiu YT, Jiang S, Zheng H, Li ZY Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Low-dose Methylphenidate Monotherapy for Features of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Secondary to Hereditary Cerebellar Ataxia.
PMID: 25976218 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - May 15, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hu LY, Lin YL, Chang HS, Lu T, Lin WS Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Clobazam: A Safe, Efficacious, and Newly Rediscovered Therapeutic for Epilepsy.
Abstract Clobazam is an oral 1,5-benzodiazepine used worldwide for the treatment of many types of epilepsies, although it is currently only approved for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in the USA. This anticonvulsant and anxiolytic therapeutic has repeatedly demonstrated great efficacy and a high safety profile in refractory epilepsy as well as in a few monotherapy trials in both children and adults. Clobazam allosterically activates the GABAA receptor, and it binds less to subunits that mediate sedative effects than other benzodiazepines. It acts quickly, maintaining a therapeutic effect for a long duration due to its ac...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - April 28, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gauthier AC, Mattson RH Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

High Blood Pressure Increases the Risk of Poor Outcome at Discharge and 12-month Follow-up in Patients with Symptomatic Intracranial Large Artery Stenosis and Occlusions: Subgroup analysis of the CICAS Study.
Abstract AIMS: The purpose of this study was to discuss the relationship between blood pressure and prognosis of patients with symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis. METHODS: Data on 2426 patients with symptomatic intracranial large artery stenosis and occlusion who participated in the Chinese Intracranial Atherosclerosis (CICAS) study were analyzed. According to the JNC 7 criteria, blood pressure of all patients was classified into one of the four subgroups: normal, prehypertension, hypertension stage I, and hypertension stage II. Poor outcomes were defined as death and functional dependency (mRS 3-5) a...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - April 28, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yu DD, Pu YH, Pan YS, Zou XY, Soo Y, Leung T, Liu LP, Wang DZ, Wong KS, Wang YL, Wang YJ, Chinese Intracranial Atherosclerosis (CICAS) Study Group Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Robust Neuritogenesis-Promoting Activity by Bis(heptyl)-Cognitin Through the Activation of alpha7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/ERK Pathway.
CONCLUSION: B7C promoted neurite outgrowth through the activation of α7-nAChR/ERK pathway, which offers novel insight into the potential application of B7C in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID: 25917415 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - April 28, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hu SQ, Cui W, Mak SH, Choi CL, Hu YJ, Li G, Tsim KW, Pang YP, Han YF Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Epicentral Disruption of Structural Connectivity in Alzheimer's Disease.
Abstract AIMS: Neurodegenerative changes observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been suggested to begin at the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus and then to propagate in a stereotypical fashion. Using diffusion-weighted imaging, we test whether disruption of structural connectivity in AD is centered on these "epicenters of disease". METHODS: Fifteen healthy controls, 14 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), 13 mild, and 15 moderate patients with AD were enrolled. The percentages of affected connections directly linking to the epicenter (named first ring) and to nodes with topological distanc...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - April 21, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mallio CA, Schmidt R, de Reus MA, Vernieri F, Quintiliani L, Curcio G, Beomonte Zobel B, Quattrocchi CC, van den Heuvel MP Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Levetiracetam-associated Hypokalemia and Hypomagnesaemia among Two Patients Treated for Seizures.
PMID: 25899700 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - April 21, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Vallianou NG, Geladari E, Chroni P, Kokkinakis E Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

An Improved Elevated Platform for Simultaneously Assessing Rodent Locomotor Activity and Anxiety.
PMID: 25879537 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - April 16, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ding XF, Zhao YQ, Liu SH, Zhao T, Zhu LL, Suo WZ, Fan M Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Biochemical and Neuroimaging Studies in Subjective Cognitive Decline: Progress and Perspectives.
In conclusion, there is promising evidence indicating that clinicians should be able to differentiate pre-AD SCD based on the presence of pathophysiological biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging. However, this neuroimaging approach is still at an immature stage without an established rubric of standards. A substantial amount of work remains in terms of replicating recent findings and validating the clinical utility of identifying SCD. PMID: 25864576 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - April 13, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sun Y, Yang FC, Lin CP, Han Y Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Age-Related Changes in Resting-State Networks of A Large Sample Size of Healthy Elderly.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that only the ventral default mode subnetwork had age-related decline in functional connectivity and several reverse patterns of resting-state networks for network development. Understanding age-related network changes may provide solutions for the impact of population aging and diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID: 25864728 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - April 13, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Huang CC, Hsieh WJ, Lee PL, Peng LN, Liu LK, Lee WJ, Huang JK, Chen LK, Lin CP Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Perspective for stroke and brain injury research: mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets.
PMID: 25809674 [PubMed - in process] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - March 28, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen J, Leak RK, Yang GY Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Characteristics of Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment Subtypes: A Selective Overview.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive age-related neurodegenerative disease. Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is considered to represent early AD. Various aMCI clinical subtypes have been identified as either single domain (SD) or multidomain (MD). The various subtypes represent heterogeneous syndrome, indicating the different probability of progression to AD. Understanding the heterogeneous concept of aMCI can help to construct potential biomarkers to monitor the progression of aMCI to AD. This review provides an overview of various neuroimaging measures for subtypes of aMCI. Focusing on neu...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - March 26, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li X, Zhang ZJ Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase Facilitates Post-Stroke Angiogenesis.
PMID: 25753018 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - March 9, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang P, Guan YF, Li WL, Lu GC, Liu JM, Miao CY Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Glial Pathology in Bipolar Disorder: Potential Therapeutic Implications.
Abstract Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic and severe mental disorder with recurrent episodes of mania and depression. In addition to neuronal alterations, accumulating evidences have revealed the importance of glial system in pathophysiology and phenotype of the illness. Postmortem studies have repeatedly demonstrated the alterations in glial cells and its functions in patients with BD. The activated microglia and inflammatory cytokines are proposed to be the potential biomarkers that may help to predict disease exacerbation in BD. On the other hand, anti-BD drugs have been shown to produce profound effects on g...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - March 9, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dong XH, Zhen XC Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Function of Nogo-A/Nogo-A Receptor in Alzheimer's Disease.
Abstract Nogo-A is a protein inhibiting axonal regeneration, which is considered a major obstacle to nerve regeneration after injury in mammals. Rapid progress has been achieved in new physiopathological function of Nogo-A in Alzheimer's disease in the past decade. Recent research shows that through binding to Nogo-A receptor, Nogo-A plays an important role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Particularly, Nogo-A/Nogo-A receptors modulate the generation of amyloid β-protein (Aβ), which is thought to be a major cause of AD. This review describes the recent development of Nogo-A, Nogo-A receptor, and...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - March 2, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xu YQ, Sun ZQ, Wang YT, Xiao F, Chen MW Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Characterization of a Synthetic Steroid 24-keto-cholest-5-en-3β, 19-diol as a Neuroprotectant.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, we identified Diol as a potent neuroprotectant. It may represent a novel and promising neuroprotectant for stroke intervention. PMID: 25678034 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 13, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yan M, Liu AL, Zhou SJ, Tang LP, Ou YQ, Yin W, Chen XY, Su XW, Qiu PX, Huang YJ, Zhang JX, Yan GM, Leng TD Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

The Role of the Two-Pore Domain Potassium Channel TREK-1 in the Therapeutic Effects of Escitalopram in a Rat Model of Poststroke Depression.
CONCLUSION: TREK-1 plays an important role in the therapeutic effects of the SSRI escitalopram in PSD model, making TREK-1 an attractive candidate molecule for further understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of PSD. PMID: 25675906 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 10, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lin DH, Zhang XR, Ye DQ, Xi GJ, Hui JJ, Liu SS, Li LJ, Zhang ZJ Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Evaluating Response to High-Dose 13.3 mg/24 h Rivastigmine Patch in Patients with Severe Alzheimer's Disease.
CONCLUSIONS: A significant therapeutic effect of high-dose rivastigmine patch on ADCS-CGIC response was observed. The 13.3 mg/24 h patch was identified as a predictor of "improvement" or "improvement or no change". Patients with minimal worsening/improvement/no change after treatment initiation may be more likely to respond following long-term therapy. PMID: 25675992 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 10, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Farlow MR, Sadowsky CH, Velting DM, Meng X, Islam MZ Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Opportunities and Challenges: Stem Cell-Based Therapy for the Treatment of Ischemic Stroke.
Abstract Stem cell-based therapy for ischemic stroke has been widely explored in animal models and provides strong evidence of benefits. In this review, we summarize the types of stem cells, various delivery routes, and tracking tools for stem cell therapy of ischemic stroke. MSCs, EPCs, and NSCs are the most explored cell types for ischemic stroke treatment. Although the mechanisms of stem cell-based therapies are not fully understood, the most possible functions of the transplanted cells are releasing growth factors and regulating microenvironment through paracrine mechanism. Clinical application of stem cell-ba...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 10, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tang YH, Ma YY, Zhang ZJ, Wang YT, Yang GY Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Reduction of Orexin-A is Responsible for Prolonged Emergence of the Rat Subjected to Sleep Deprivation from Isoflurane Anesthesia.
PMID: 25678147 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 10, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ran M, Wu W, Li J, Yang C, Ouyang P, Deng J, Dong H Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

MicroRNA-29c Correlates with Neuroprotection Induced by FNS by Targeting Both Birc2 and Bak1 in Rat Brain after Stroke.
CONCLUSIONS: MiR-29c correlates with the neuroprotection induced by FNS by negatively regulating Birc2 and Bak1. PMID: 25678279 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 10, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Huang LG, Li JP, Pang XM, Chen CY, Xiang HY, Feng LB, Su SY, Li SH, Zhang L, Liu JL Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Inflammation and epilepsy in the developing brain: clinical and experimental evidence.
Abstract There is an increasing evidence to support a role of inflammatory processes in epilepsy. However, most clinical and experimental studies have been conducted in adult patients or using adult rodents. The pediatric epilepsies constitute a varied group of diseases that are most frequently age specific. In this review, we will focus on the possible role of inflammation in pediatric epilepsy syndromes. We will first describe the clinical data available and provide an overview of our current understanding of the role of inflammation in these clinical situations. We will then review experimental data regarding t...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - January 26, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dupuis N, Auvin S Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Surgical Stress Induces Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Reduction and Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction Via Glucocorticoid Receptor Phosphorylation in Aged Mice.
CONCLUSION: These results presented a mechanism that surgical stress-induced GR phosphorylation contributes to POCD in aged individuals. Inhibition of GR activation and phosphorylation might be a potential treatment target of POCD. PMID: 25611431 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - January 22, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tian XS, Tong YW, Li ZQ, Li LX, Zhang T, Ren TY, Zhou T, Wang HC, Zhan R, Sun Y, Yan Z, Wang QD, Fan DS, Kong FJ, Guo XY, Xiao WZ, Chui H Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Plasma Amino Acid Profiling in Major Depressive Disorder Treated With Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors.
CONCLUSION: Metabolism of amino acids, including ABA and glutamic acid, has the potential to contribute to understandings of pathogenesis and predictions of therapeutic response in MDD. PMID: 25611566 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - January 22, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Woo HI, Chun MR, Yang JS, Lim SW, Kim MJ, Kim SW, Myung W, Kim DK, Lee SY Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-γ Agonist Pioglitazone Ameliorates White Matter Lesion and Cognitive Impairment in Hypertensive Rats.
CONCLUSIONS: Long-term treatment of pioglitazone has beneficial effect on hypertension-induced WML and cognition decline, which may partly through its effect on attenuation of arteriolar remodeling, endothelial activation, and brain inflammation. PMID: 25611692 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - January 22, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lan LF, Zheng L, Yang X, Ji XT, Fan YH, Zeng JS Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Compound IMM-H004, a Novel Coumarin Derivative, Protects against CA1 Cell Loss and Spatial Learning Impairments Resulting from Transient Global Ischemia.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggested that IMM-H004 exerted neuroprotective role in global ischemia by reducing apoptosis and maintaining the integrity of synaptic structure. PMID: 25601434 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - January 20, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zuo W, Zhang W, Han N, Chen NH Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

MnTM-4-PyP Modulates Endogenous Antioxidant Responses and Protects Primary Cortical Neurons against Oxidative Stress.
CONCLUSION: Induction of various levels of endogenous antioxidant responses by MnTM-4-PyP has indispensable functions in its protection for cortical neurons against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. PMID: 25545542 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 29, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cheng K, Guo F, Lu J, Cao Y, Wang T, Yang Q, Xia Q Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Ethyl Pyruvate Protects against Blood-Brain Barrier Damage and Improves Long-term Neurological Outcomes in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury.
CONCLUSION: Ethyl pyruvate confers long-term neuroprotection against TBI, possibly through breaking the vicious cycle among MMP-9-mediated BBB disruption, neuroinflammation, and long-lasting brain damage. PMID: 25533312 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 23, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shi H, Wang H, Pu H, Shi Y, Zhang J, Zhang W, Wang G, Hu X, Leak RK, Chen J, Gao Y Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Special Issue: Basic Mechanisms of Pediatric Epilepsy.
PMID: 25533596 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 23, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cepeda C, Wu J Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Intrinsic Epileptogenesis in Human Gelastic Seizures with Hypothalamic Hamartoma.
Abstract Human hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) is a rare developmental malformation often characterized by gelastic seizures, which are refractory to medical therapy. Ictal EEG recordings from the HH have demonstrated that the epileptic source of gelastic seizures lies within the HH lesion itself. Recent advances in surgical techniques targeting HH have led to dramatic improvements in seizure control, which further supports the hypothesis that gelastic seizures originate within the HH. However, the basic cellular and molecular mechanisms of epileptogenesis in this subcortical lesion are poorly understood. Since 2003, ...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 12, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wu J, Gao M, Shen JX, Qiu SF, Kerrigan JF Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Riluzole is a Promising Pharmacological Inhibitor of Bilirubin-Induced Excitotoxicity in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These data suggest that riluzole can protect neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus from bilirubin-induced hyperexcitation and excitotoxicity through reducing presynaptic glutamate release. PMID: 25495717 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 12, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Han GY, Li CY, Shi HB, Wang JP, Su KM, Yin XL, Yin SK Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Acute and Chronic Efficacy of Bumetanide in an in vitro Model of Posttraumatic Epileptogenesis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate a persistent contribution of NKCC1 cotransport in posttraumatic ictal-like activity, presumably as a consequence of chronic alterations in neuronal chloride homeostasis and GABA-mediated inhibition. New strategies for more effective reduction in posttraumatic and seizure-induced [Cl(-) ]i accumulation could provide the basis for effective treatments for posttraumatic epileptogenesis and the resultant seizures. PMID: 25495911 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 12, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dzhala V, Staley KJ Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Inhibition of G Protein-Coupled Receptor 81 (GPR81) Protects Against Ischemic Brain Injury.
CONCLUSIONS: G protein-coupled receptor 81 (GPR81) inhibition attenuated ischemic neuronal death. Lactate may aggravate ischemic brain injury by activating GPR81. GPR81 antagonism might be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cerebral ischemia. PMID: 25495836 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 11, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shen Z, Jiang L, Yuan Y, Deng T, Zheng YR, Zhao YY, Li WL, Wu JY, Gao JQ, Hu WW, Zhang XN, Chen Z Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

A Portion of Inhibitory Neurons in Human Temporal Lobe Epilepsy are Functionally Upregulated: An Endogenous Mechanism for Seizure Termination.
CONCLUSION: Automatic seizure termination is likely due to a fact that a portion of the inhibitory neurons and synapses are upregulated in the seizure-onset cortices. This mechanism may create novel therapeutic strategies to treat intractable epilepsy, such as the simultaneous upregulation of cortical inhibitory neurons and their output synapses. PMID: 25475128 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wen B, Qian H, Feng J, Ge RJ, Xu X, Cui ZQ, Zhu RY, Pan LS, Lin ZP, Wang JH Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Traumatic Brain Injury Induces Rapid Enhancement of Cortical Excitability in Juvenile Rats.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that CCI in juvenile rats rapidly induces epileptiform activity and enhanced cortical synaptic bursting. Detection of epileptiform early after injury suggests it may be an important pathophysiological component and potential indicator of developing PTE. PMID: 25475223 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nichols J, Perez R, Wu C, Adelson PD, Anderson T Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Targeting the Neurovascular Unit in Brain Trauma.
Abstract Although the neurovascular unit was originally developed as a conceptual framework for stroke, it is now recognized that these cell-cell interactions play critical roles in many other CNS disorders as well. In brain trauma, perturbations within the neurovascular unit may be especially important. Changes in neurovascular coupling may disrupt blood flow and metabolic regulation. Disruption of transmitter release-reuptake kinetics in neurons and astrocytes may augment excitotoxicity. Alterations in gliovascular signaling may underlie blood-brain barrier disruptions and traumatic edema. Perturbations in cell-...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lok J, Wang XS, Xing CH, Maki TK, Wu LM, Guo SZ, Noviski N, Arai K, Whalen MJ, Lo EH, Wang XY Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Splenic Responses in Ischemic Stroke: New Insights into Stroke Pathology.
Abstract In the past decade, the significant contribution of the spleen to ischemic brain damage has gained considerable attention in stroke research. As the largest natural reservoir of immune cells, the spleen establishes critical connections with the ischemic brain during the progression of stroke and mobilizes its cells to the site of injury. Multiple "alarm" signals released from the injured brain are essential for the initiation of brain-spleen communication. Spleen-derived cells, including neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, are known to contribute significantly to ischemic brain ...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu ZJ, Chen C, Li FW, Shen JM, Yang Y, Leak RK, Ji X, Du H, Hu X Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Anti-tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) as an Effective Therapy of Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia with and without Inflammation.
Abstract Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is an important cause of neurodevelopmental deficits in neonates. Intrauterine infection and the ensuing fetal inflammatory responses augment hypoxic-ischemic brain injury and attenuate the efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia. Here, we review evidences from preclinical studies suggesting that the induction of brain parenchymal tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) plays an important pathogenic role in these conditions. Moreover, administration of a stable-mutant form of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 called CPAI confers potent protection against hypoxic-ischemic injury w...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yang D, Kuan CY Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Optimal Magnetic Resonance Perfusion Thresholds Identifying Ischemic Penumbra and Infarct Core: A Chinese Population-based Study.
CONCLUSION: Among Chinese acute stroke patients, volume of Tmax >6 seconds may precisely target ischemic penumbra tissue as good as voxel-based analysis performed, albeit no concordant MRP parameter is found to accurately predict infarct core because reperfusion occurred within 24 h after thrombolysis fails to restrain the infarct growth. PMID: 25476071 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang S, Tang H, Yu YN, Yan SQ, Parsons MW, Lou M Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research