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Cholinesterase targeting by polyphenols: A therapeutic approach for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive irreversible neurodegenerative disorder characterized by excessive deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) oligomers, and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), comprising of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. The cholinergic system has been suggested as the earliest and most affected molecular mechanism that describes AD pathophysiology. Moreover, cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) are the potential class of drugs that can amplify cholinergic activity to improve cognition and global performance and reduce psychiatric and behavioral disturbances. Approximately, 60%-80% of a...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - May 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jabir NR, Khan FR, Tabrez S Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Early increase of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio predicts 30-day mortality in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.
Abstract AIMS: To examine whether early rise of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) after patient hospitalization correlates with 30-day mortality in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: This retrospective study included all patients receiving treatment for spontaneous ICH between January 2015 and September 2016 at the Jiading District Central Hospital Affiliated Shanghai University of Medicine & Health Sciences in Shanghai, China. NLR was determined at admission (T1), at 24-48 hours (T2) and 5-7 days (T3). NLR and clinicopathologic features were compared between t...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - May 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang F, Xu F, Quan Y, Wang L, Xia JJ, Jiang TT, Shen LJ, Kang WH, Ding Y, Mei LX, Ju XF, Hu SY, Wu X Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Organic psychosis: The pathobiology and treatment of delusions.
Abstract Organic or secondary psychosis can be seen in diverse conditions such as toxic/metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative disease, and stroke. Poststroke psychosis is a rare phenomenon, but its study has significantly contributed to the understanding of delusion formation. The evidence from case studies of patients with focal strokes shows that delusions develop following unilateral damage of the right hemisphere. The majority of patients with right hemisphere stroke do not develop delusions however, and advanced neuroimaging analysis has elucidated why this symptom develops in only a small proportion. Lesion...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - May 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Joyce EM Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Hydroxychloroquine fails to attenuate lesion development in a mouse model of neuromyelitis optica.
PMID: 29761646 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - May 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fang L, Wang Z, Song HH, Zhou YF, Chen C, Yan YP, Qiu W Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

The effect of V-ATPase function defects in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.
PMID: 29761665 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - May 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhao ZW, Yuan Z, Zhao DQ, Wang ZW, Zhu FQ, Luan P Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Genetic and clinical features of Chinese patients with mitochondrial ataxia identified by targeted next-generation sequencing.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results implicate that mitochondrial ataxia might not be as rare in Chinese as previously assumed. This study firstly defines the mutations of mitochondrial ataxia in a Chinese population by targeted NGS, which broadens the clinical spectrum of mtDNA mutations and highlights the importance of screening mtDNA and nDNA mutations among undefined ataxia patients. PMID: 29756269 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - May 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dong HL, Ma Y, Li QF, Du YC, Yang L, Chen S, Wu ZY Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

The novel atypical antipsychotic cariprazine demonstrates dopamine D2 receptor-dependent partial agonist actions on rat mesencephalic dopamine neuronal activity.
CONCLUSIONS: Cariprazine significantly modulates the number of spontaneously active VTA dopamine neurons and moderately suppresses midbrain dopamine neuronal activity. The contribution of dopamine D2 receptors to cariprazine's in vivo effects is prevalent and that of D3 receptors is less apparent. PMID: 29729086 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - May 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Delcourte S, Ashby CR, Rovera R, Kiss B, Adham N, Farkas B, Haddjeri N Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

A novel PDE9 inhibitor WYQ-C36D ameliorates corticosterone-induced neurotoxicity and depression-like behaviors by cGMP-CREB-related signaling.
CONCLUSION: Our results show that inhibition of PDE9 by C36D produces antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like behavioral effects and memory enhancement by activating cGMP/PKG signaling pathway. PDE9 inhibitors may have the potential as a novel class of drug to treat MDD. PMID: 29722134 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - May 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Huang XF, Jiang WT, Liu L, Song FC, Zhu X, Shi GL, Ding SM, Ke HM, Wang W, O'Donnell JM, Zhang HT, Luo HB, Wan YQ, Song GQ, Xu Y Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Modulation of forebrain function by nucleus incertus and relaxin-3/RXFP3 signaling.
te;rez AM, Gundlach AL Abstract The nucleus incertus (NI) in the pontine tegmentum sends ascending projections to the midbrain, hypothalamus, amygdala, basal forebrain, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex, and has a postulated role in modulating several forebrain functions. A substantial population of GABAergic NI neurons expresses the neuropeptide, relaxin-3, which acts via the Gi/o -protein-coupled receptor, RXFP3, present throughout the forebrain target regions. Broad and specific manipulations of these systems by activation or inhibition of the NI or modulating RXFP3 signaling have revealed key insights into th...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - May 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Olucha-Bordonau FE, Albert-Gascó H, Ros-Bernal F, Rytova V, Ong-Pålsson EKE, Ma S, Sánchez-Pérez AM, Gundlach AL Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Individualization of levodopa treatment using a microtablet dispenser and ambulatory accelerometry.
Abstract AIM: This 4-week open-label observational study describes the effect of introducing a microtablet dose dispenser and adjusting doses based on objective free-living motor symptom monitoring in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: Twenty-eight outpatients with PD on stable levodopa treatment with dose intervals of ≤4 hour had their daytime doses of levodopa replaced with levodopa/carbidopa microtablets, 5/1.25 mg (LC-5) delivered from a dose dispenser device with programmable reminders. After 2 weeks, doses were adjusted based on ambulatory accelerometry and clinical mo...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - April 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Johansson D, Ericsson A, Johansson A, Medvedev A, Nyholm D, Ohlsson F, Senek M, Spira J, Thomas I, Westin J, Bergquist F Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Overrated hedonic judgment of odors in patients with schizophrenia.
CONCLUSIONS: There is potential relationship between increased β-endorphin concentration and severity of negative symptoms. Patients with predominant negative symptoms tend to evaluate odors as significantly more pleasant. Individuals with this subtype of schizophrenia might present specific, altered pattern of smell identification and hedonic judgment. Presumably, β-endorphin has no direct influence on olfactory identification performance and hedonic judgment in schizophrenia. PMID: 29638031 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - April 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Urban-Kowalczyk M, Śmigielski J, Kotlicka-Antczak M Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Coping behavior in multiple sclerosis-complementary and alternative medicine: A cross-sectional study.
ettl UK Abstract MAIN PROBLEM: Treatment options for multiple sclerosis (MS) have enlarged tremendously over the last years. Nonetheless, lots of patients look for alternative treatment options. The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widespread in MS, however, its scientific investigation is limited so far. The aim of the study is to analyse clinical and demographical differences of MS patients in dependency of their CAM utilization as coping strategy. METHODS: A total of 254 patients with a clinically definite MS were examined in a semistructured interview. Additional standardized questio...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - April 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rommer PS, König N, Sühnel A, Zettl UK Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Huntington's disease: From basic science to therapeutics.
PMID: 29582586 [PubMed - in process] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - March 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cepeda C, Tong XP Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Disrupted striatal neuron inputs and outputs in Huntington's disease.
Abstract Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the gene coding for the protein huntingtin, resulting in a pathogenic expansion of the polyglutamine tract in the N-terminus of this protein. The HD pathology resulting from the mutation is most prominent in the striatal part of the basal ganglia, and progressive differential dysfunction and loss of striatal projection neurons and interneurons account for the progression of motor deficits seen in this disease. The present review summarizes current understanding regarding the progression in ...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - March 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Reiner A, Deng YP Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Altered lactate metabolism in Huntington's disease is dependent on GLUT3 expression.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that stimulation of lactate uptake by ascorbic acid is a consequence of inhibiting glucose transport. Supporting this, lactate transport stimulation by ascorbic acid in HD cells was completely restored by overexpressing GLUT3. Therefore, alterations in GLUT3 expression could be responsible for inefficient use of lactate in HD neurons, contributing to the metabolic failure observed in HD. PMID: 29582588 [PubMed - in process] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - March 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Solís-Maldonado M, Miró MP, Acuña AI, Covarrubias-Pinto A, Loaiza A, Mayorga G, Beltrán FA, Cepeda C, Levine MS, Concha II, Bátiz LF, Carrasco MA, Castro MA Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Functional outcome and service engagement in major depressive disorder with psychotic features: comparisons with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder in a 6-year follow-up of the Cavan-Monaghan First Episode Psychosis Study (CAMFEPS).
CONCLUSIONS: At 6-year follow-up, these diagnoses are characterized by quantitative rather than qualitative differences in psychopathology, functionality, quality of life, and service engagement, with considerable overlap between them. These findings suggest that MDDP should join SZ, SA, and BD in a milieu of psychosis that transcends arbitrary boundaries. PMID: 29575682 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - March 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kingston T, Scully PJ, Browne DJ, Baldwin PA, Kinsella A, O'Callaghan E, Russell V, Waddington JL Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Upregulation of CXCR4 through promoter demethylation contributes to inflammatory hyperalgesia in rats.
CONCLUSION: Upregulation of CXCR4 expression due to promoter demethylation followed by increased recruitment of p65 to promoter of CXCR4 gene contributes to inflammatory hyperalgesia. These findings provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of chronic pain from an epigenetic perspective. PMID: 29577638 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - March 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li F, Xue ZY, Yuan Y, Huang SS, Fan YH, Zhu X, Wei L Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

A Kv1.3 channel-specific blocker alleviates neurological impairment through inhibiting T-cell activation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
CONCLUSION: ImK prevents neurological damage by suppressing T-cell activation, suggesting the applicability of this peptide in MS therapy. PMID: 29577640 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - March 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yuan XL, Zhao YP, Huang J, Liu JC, Mao WQ, Yin J, Peng BW, Liu WH, Han S, He XH Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Long noncoding RNA LINC00152 is a potential prognostic biomarker in patients with high-grade glioma.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that knockdown of LINC00152 could inhibit tumor growth in vivo. LINC00152 could serve as a potential prognostic biomarker in patients with HGG. PMID: 29577647 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - March 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang W, Wu F, Zhao Z, Wang KY, Huang RY, Wang HY, Lan Q, Wang JF, Zhao JZ Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

The use of antioxidant compounds in the treatment of first psychotic episode: Highlights from preclinical studies.
Abstract Recent evidence highlighted a pathogenetic link between redox dysregulation and the early stages of psychosis. Indeed, an increasing number of studies have pointed toward an association between oxidative stress, both at central and peripheral levels, and first psychotic episode. Moreover, basal low antioxidant capacity has been shown to directly correlate with cognitive impairment in the early onset of psychosis. In this context, the possibility to use antioxidant compounds in first psychotic episode, especially as supplementation to antipsychotic therapy, has become the focus of numerous investigations o...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - March 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Schiavone S, Trabace L Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

The max-intracerebral hemorrhage score predicts long-term outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage.
CONCLUSIONS: The easy-to-use max-ICH score is a reliable tool to predict unfavorable long-term (12-month) functional outcome and death after intracerebral hemorrhage in the Chinese population. PMID: 29529353 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - March 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Suo Y, Chen WQ, Pan YS, Peng YJ, Yan HY, Zhao XQ, Liu LP, Wang YL, Liu GF, Wang YJ Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Low-dose curcumin stimulates proliferation of rat embryonic neural stem cells through glucocorticoid receptor and STAT3.
CONCLUSION: This study shows that low-dose curcumin stimulates the proliferation of NSCs, which is probably by inhibiting the mRNA and protein expressions of GR and directly or indirectly regulating the STAT3 via the synergistic effect of GR and STAT3 pathways and its related signal pathways. PMID: 29529355 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - March 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ma XX, Liu J, Wang CM, Zhou JP, He ZZ, Lin H Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Dysregulation of miRNA and its potential therapeutic application in schizophrenia.
Abstract Although it is generally believed that genetic and developmental factors play critical roles in pathogenesis of schizophrenia, however, the precise etiological mechanism of schizophrenia remains largely unknown. Over past decades, miRNAs have emerged as an essential post-transcriptional regulator in gene expression regulation. The importance of miRNA in brain development and neuroplasticity has been well-established. Abnormal expression and dysfunction of miRNAs are known to involve in the pathophysiology of many neuropsychiatric diseases including schizophrenia. In this review, we summarized the recent f...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - March 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cao T, Zhen XC Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Estrogen receptor- β of microglia underlies sexual differentiation of neuronal protection via ginsenosides in mice brain.
CONCLUSION: After S. pneumoniae infection in mice, particularly in female mice, Rb1-containing ginseng increased bacterial clearance and survival. These findings inform our understanding of the host immune response to pneumococcal meningitis. PMID: 29524300 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - March 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lee S, Lee SO, Kim GL, Rhee DK Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Therapeutic effects of stem cells in rodent models of Huntington's disease: Review and electrophysiological findings.
Abstract The principal symptoms of Huntington's disease (HD), chorea, cognitive deficits, and psychiatric symptoms are associated with the massive loss of striatal and cortical projection neurons. As current drug therapies only partially alleviate symptoms, finding alternative treatments has become peremptory. Cell replacement using stem cells is a rapidly expanding field that offers such an alternative. In this review, we examine recent studies that use mesenchymal cells, as well as pluripotent, cell-derived products in animal models of HD. Additionally, we provide further electrophysiological characterization of...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - March 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Holley SM, Kamdjou T, Reidling JC, Fury B, Coleal-Bergum D, Bauer G, Thompson LM, Levine MS, Cepeda C Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Brain structure alterations in depression: Psychoradiological evidence.
Abstract Depression is the leading cause of disability around the world, but little is known about its pathology. Currently, the diagnosis of depression is made based on clinical manifestations, with little objective evidence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to investigate the pathological changes in brain anatomy associated with this disorder. MRI can identify structural alterations in depressive patients in vivo, which could make considerable contributions to clinical diagnosis and treatment. Numerous studies that focused on gray and white matter have found significant brain region alterations in ...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - March 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang FF, Peng W, Sweeney JA, Jia ZY, Gong QY Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity in posterior cingulate cortex of Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment and dementia.
CONCLUSION: When patients transition from PD-NCI to PD-MCI, there appears to be an increase in functional connectivity in the PCC, suggesting an expansion of the cortical network. Another new network (a compensatory prefrontal cortical-cerebellar loop) later develops during the transition from PD-MCI to PDD. PMID: 29500931 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - March 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhan ZW, Lin LZ, Yu EH, Xin JW, Lin L, Lin HL, Ye QY, Chen XC, Pan XD Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Inhibition of phosphodiesterases as a strategy to achieve neuroprotection in Huntington's disease.
Abstract Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative condition, due to a mutation in the IT15 gene encoding for huntingtin. Currently, disease-modifying therapy is not available for HD, and only symptomatic drugs are administered for the management of symptoms. In the last few years, preclinical and clinical studies have indicated that pharmacological strategies aimed at inhibiting cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDEs) may develop into a novel therapeutic approach in neurodegenerative disorders. PDEs are a family of enzymes that hydrolyze cyclic nucleotides into monophosphate isoforms. Cyclic nucle...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - March 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cardinale A, Fusco FR Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Aberrant intrinsic functional connectivity in thalamo-cortical networks in major depressive disorder.
CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to examine the anatomical specificity of thalamo-cortical connectivity disturbances in MDD. Subjects with MDD demonstrated altered thalamo-cortical connectivity characterized by a complex pattern of region-dependent hypo- or hyperconnectivity. We therefore speculate that selectively modulating the connectivity of thalamo-cortical circuitry may be a potential novel therapeutic mechanism for MDD. PMID: 29493113 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kong QM, Qiao H, Liu CZ, Zhang P, Li K, Wang L, Li JT, Su Y, Li KQ, Yan CG, Mitchell PB, Si TM Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Inhibition of Lats1/p-YAP1 pathway mitigates neuronal apoptosis and neurological deficits in a rat model of traumatic brain injury.
CONCLUSIONS: Our work demonstrates that inhibition of Lats1/p-YAP1 pathway mitigates neuronal apoptosis and neurological deficits in a rat model of TBI. PMID: 29488331 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li D, Ji JX, Xu YT, Ni HB, Rui Q, Liu HX, Jiang F, Gao R, Chen G Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

PGE2-EP3 signaling exacerbates hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairment after laparotomy by reducing expression levels of hippocampal synaptic plasticity-related proteins in aged mice.
CONCLUSION: This study showed that PGE2-EP3 signaling pathway was involved in the progression of POCD and identified EP3 receptor as a promising treatment target. PMID: 29488342 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xiao JY, Xiong BR, Zhang W, Zhou WC, Yang H, Gao F, Xiang HB, Manyande A, Tian XB, Tian YK Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Preferential modulation of the lateral habenula activity by serotonin-2A rather than -2C receptors: Electrophysiological and neuroanatomical evidence.
CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral administration of 5-HT2A R agonist promotes a heterogeneous pattern of neuronal responses in the LHb, and these effects are more prominent than those induced by the 5-HT2C R activation. PMID: 29479825 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Delicata F, Bombardi C, Pierucci M, Di Maio R, De Deurwaerdère P, Di Giovanni G Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Neuroimaging genomic studies in major depressive disorder: A systematic review.
Abstract Genetic-neuroimaging studies could identify new potential endophenotypes of major depressive disorder (MDD). Morphological and functional alterations may be attributable to genetic factors that regulate neurogenesis and neurodegeneration. Given that the association between gene polymorphisms and brain morphology or function has varied across studies, this systematic review aims at evaluating and summarizing all available genetic-neuroimaging studies. Twenty-eight gene variants were evaluated in 64 studies by structural or functional magnetic resonance imaging. Significant genetic-neuroimaging associations...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang HF, Mellor D, Peng DH Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Differential effects of oxycodone and venlafaxine on resting state functional connectivity-A randomized placebo-controlled magnetic resonance imaging study.
er JB Abstract AIM: Different mechanisms may be involved in the antinociceptive effects of oxycodone (opioid) and venlafaxine (serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor), and the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these drugs on brain functional connectivity. METHODS: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired in 20 healthy volunteers before and after a 5-day treatment with oxycodone, venlafaxine, or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Functional connectivity analyses were performed between four predefined seeds (dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, ros...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hansen TM, Lelic D, Olesen AE, Drewes AM, Frøkjaer JB Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Alteration of GABAergic neurotransmission in Huntington's disease.
Abstract Hereditary Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by cell dysfunction and death in the brain, leading to progressive cognitive, psychiatric, and motor impairments. Despite molecular and cellular descriptions of the effects of the HD mutation, no effective pharmacological treatment is yet available. In addition to well-established alterations of glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems, it is becoming clear that the GABAergic systems are also impaired in HD. GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, and GABAergic neurotransmission has been postulated to be modified in m...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Garret M, Du Z, Chazalon M, Cho YH, Baufreton J Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Corticostriatal network dysfunction in huntington's disease: Deficits in neural processing, glutamate transport, and ascorbate release.
CONCLUSIONS: Long before massive cell loss occurs, HD impairs the mechanisms by which cortical and striatal neurons communicate. A key problem identified in transgenic animal models is dysregulation of the dynamic changes in extracellular glutamate and ascorbate. Improved understanding of how these neurochemical systems impact corticostriatal communication is necessary before an effective therapeutic strategy can emerge. PMID: 29464896 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rebec GV Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Neurotrophin-3 restores synaptic plasticity in the striatum of a mouse model of Huntington's disease.
CONCLUSION: NT-3 modulates corticostriatal transmission through TrkB stimulation and restores striatal LTD by signaling through its TrkC receptor. PMID: 29453932 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gómez-Pineda VG, Torres-Cruz FM, Vivar-Cortés CI, Hernández-Echeagaray E Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Myt1l induced direct reprogramming of pericytes into cholinergic neurons.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provided proof of the principle that cholinergic neurons could be produced from HBVPs by reprogramming factor-mediated fate instruction. Myt1l was a critical mediator of induced neuron cell reprogramming. HBVPs represent another excellent alternative cell resource for cell-based therapy to treat neurodegenerative disease. PMID: 29453933 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liang XG, Tan C, Wang CK, Tao RR, Huang YJ, Ma KF, Fukunaga K, Huang MZ, Han F Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid phosphorylated tau231 as a biomarker in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.
CONCLUSION: These results indicate that FS (p-tau231 and MMSE) has a strong potential to provide an early distinction between AD and VaD. PMID: 29453935 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kiđemet-Piskač S, Babić Leko M, Blažeković A, Langer Horvat L, Klepac N, Sonicki Z, Kolenc D, Hof PR, Boban M, Mimica N, Borovečki F, Šimić G Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Nurr1 promotes neurogenesis of dopaminergic neuron and represses inflammatory factors in the transwell coculture system of neural stem cells and microglia.
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that Nurr1 protects dopaminergic neurons from neuroinflammation insults by limiting the production of neurotoxic mediators by microglia and maintain the survival of transplanted NSCs. These phenomena provided a new theoretical and experimental foundation for the transplantation of Nurr1-overexpressed NSCs as a potential treatment of PD. PMID: 29450981 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen X, Qian Y, Wang X, Tang Z, Xu J, Lin H, Yang Z, Song X, Lu D, Guo J, Bian L, Li Y, Zhou L, Deng X Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Bmal1 knockdown suppresses wake and increases immobility without altering orexin A, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, or glutamate decarboxylase.
CONCLUSION: Bmal1 KD led to reduced activity, increased immobility, and dramatic reduction in time spent awake as well as an increase in sleep during the dark phase. Early after injection, there was a slight change in sleep but brain levels of orexin, CRH, and GAD remain unchanged. Control siRNA also affected sleep associated with changes in orexin levels. PMID: 29446232 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Akladious A, Azzam S, Hu Y, Feng P Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Impaired fear extinction in serotonin transporter knockout rats is associated with increased 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in the amygdala.
CONCLUSIONS: In the amygdala, DNA demethylation, independent from c-Fos activation, may contribute to individual differences in risk for PTSD, as conferred by the 5-HTTLPR s-allele. PMID: 29427306 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shan L, Guo HY, van den Heuvel CNAM, van Heerikhuize J, Homberg JR Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Effects of sevoflurane preconditioning on microglia/macrophage dynamics and phagocytosis profile against cerebral ischemia in rats.
CONCLUSIONS: Our current study has identified the impact of sevoflurane preconditioning on microglia/macrophage dynamics, including its migration, phagocytosis, and proliferation at early stage after brain ischemia and reperfusion. Sevoflurane might enhance microglia/macrophage activation and promote brain repair. These results could help to approach more relevant microglia/macrophage cell-based strategy for human stroke therapy. PMID: 29427321 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dang DD, Saiyin H, Yu Q, Liang WM Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Cause or compensation?-Altered neuronal Ca2+ handling in Huntington's disease.
Abstract Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder of typically middle-aged onset for which there is no disease-modifying treatment. Caudate and putamen medium-sized spiny projection neurons (SPNs) most severely degenerate in HD. However, it is unclear why mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT) is preferentially toxic to these neurons or why symptoms manifest only relatively late in life. mHTT interacts with numerous neuronal proteins. Likewise, multiple SPN cellular processes have been described as altered in various HD models. Among these, altered neuronal Ca2+ influx and intracellular Ca2+ ...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mackay JP, Nassrallah WB, Raymond LA Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

LINGO-1 antibody ameliorates myelin impairment and spatial memory deficits in the early stage of 5XFAD mice.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that myelin injury was an early event in 5XFAD mice even prior to emergence of deposition of Aβ. Intervention with the LINGO-1 antibody could attenuate impaired spatial memory deficits by remyelination, which suggested that myelin injury was involved in spatial memory deficits and remyelination may be a potential therapeutic strategy in early stage of AD or mild cognitive impairments. PMID: 29427384 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wu D, Tang X, Gu LH, Li XL, Qi XY, Bai F, Chen XC, Wang JZ, Ren QG, Zhang ZJ Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Chitin biological absorbable catheters bridging sural nerve grafts transplanted into sciatic nerve defects promote nerve regeneration.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that use of chitin biological absorbable catheters to surround sural nerve grafts bridging sciatic nerve defects promotes recovery of structural, motor, and sensory function and improves muscle fiber morphology. PMID: 29424054 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang ZY, Wang JW, Qin LH, Zhang WG, Zhang PX, Jiang BG Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Expression of nerve growth factor carried by pseudotyped lentivirus improves neuron survival and cognitive functional recovery of post-ischemia in rats.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a potential β-NGF gene therapy by utilization of pseudolentivirus in ischemia and indicates future applications of NGF gene treatment in ischemic patients. PMID: 29409115 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cao JY, Lin Y, Han YF, Ding SH, Fan YL, Pan YH, Zhao B, Guo QH, Sun WH, Wan JQ, Tong XP Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Mindfulness meditation improves metabolic profiles in healthy and depressive participants.
PMID: 29405585 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xue T, Li H, Wang MT, Shi Y, Shi K, Cheng Y, Cui DH Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

Remote limb ischemic postconditioning promotes motor function recovery in a rat model of ischemic stroke via the up-regulation of endogenous tissue kallikrein.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates RIPostC treatment as an effective rehabilitation therapy to provide motor function recovery and alleviate brain impairment in a rat model of acute cerebral ischemia. We also for the first time provide evidence showing that the up-regulation of endogenous TK from remote conditioning regions underlies the observed effects of RIPostC. PMID: 29399973 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liang D, He XB, Wang Z, Li C, Gao BY, Wu JF, Bai YL Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

The surgical treatment of intramedullary spinal cord tumors: A retrospective analysis of 76 patients.
PMID: 29396914 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics)
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - February 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wu J, Wu Y, Xu WL, Li GY Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research