Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Arthroscopic Appearance of the Menisci of the Knee
The menisci are critical for normal function of the knee, providing shock absorption and load transmission that reduce stress on the articular cartilage. When torn, a meniscus may require surgery to restore function, reduce pain, and eliminate mechanical symptoms. Patterns of meniscal tears include longitudinal and bucket-handle, which are often reparable; and horizontal, radial, vertical flap, horizontal flap, and complex. Root tears are usually radial and occur in the posterior roots. When reviewing magnetic resonance images, one must be aware of normal variants and imaging pitfalls that may simulate pathology. (Source: ...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 20, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Kirkland W. Davis, Humberto G. Rosas, Ben K. Graf Source Type: research

Imaging of Glenoid Labrum Lesions
This article reviews the current status of the imaging of the glenoid labrum and associated structures, including anatomic variants and the different types of labral disease. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 20, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: George D. Chloros, Peter J. Haar, Thomas P. Loughran, Curtis W. Hayes Source Type: research

Imaging of the Shoulder with Arthroscopic Correlation
Shoulder pain with or without trauma is a common complaint. MRI is often the most useful imaging study for evaluating the shoulder. This review provides an overview of various modalities and their role in evaluating various clinical issues in shoulder pathologies. Imaging and arthroscopic correlation of common conditions are provided. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 20, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Pranshu Sharma, William B. Morrison, Steven Cohen Source Type: research

Hip-Femoral Acetabular Impingement
This article reviews the basic pathophysiology of FAI, as well as the techniques and indications for MRI and magnetic resonance arthrography. Normal MRI anatomy of the hip and pathologic MRI anatomy associated with FAI are also discussed. Several case examples are presented demonstrating the diagnosis and treatment of FAI. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 16, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Christian N. Anderson, Geoffrey M. Riley, Garry E. Gold, Marc R. Safran Source Type: research

Preface
In 2006, I was given the opportunity to guest edit 2 volumes in The Clinics in Sports Medicine dealing with imaging of the upper and lower extremities in sports-related injuries. Those articles were authored solely by radiologists and dealt primarily with the use of advanced imaging modalities in the evaluation of the inured athlete. Once again, I have been given the honor of guest editing a volume on imaging of the injured athlete. In this updated issue however we have taken a different approach. Each article is coauthored by a radiologist and a clinician who are experts in their respective areas of sports medicine. The f...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 16, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Timothy G. Sanders Source Type: research

Hip-Femoral Acetabular Impingement
This article reviews the basic pathophysiology of FAI, as well as the techniques and indications for MRI and magnetic resonance arthrography. Normal MRI anatomy of the hip and pathologic MRI anatomy associated with FAI are also discussed. Several case examples are presented demonstrating the diagnosis and treatment of FAI. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 16, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Christian N. Anderson, Geoffrey M. Riley, Garry E. Gold, Marc R. Safran Source Type: research

Preface
In 2006, I was given the opportunity to guest edit 2 volumes in The Clinics in Sports Medicine dealing with imaging of the upper and lower extremities in sports-related injuries. Those articles were authored solely by radiologists and dealt primarily with the use of advanced imaging modalities in the evaluation of the inured athlete. Once again, I have been given the honor of guest editing a volume on imaging of the injured athlete. In this updated issue however we have taken a different approach. Each article is coauthored by a radiologist and a clinician who are experts in their respective areas of sports medicine. The f...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 16, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Timothy G. Sanders Source Type: research

MRI of the Knee with Arthroscopic Correlation
This article focuses on current understanding of how MRI and athroscopy can enhance treatment of ligamentous and soft tissue injuries of the knee. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 13, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Justin W. Griffin, Mark D. Miller Source Type: research

Dilemmas in Distinguishing Between Tumor and the Posttraumatic Lesion with Surgical or Pathologic Correlation
This article discusses the most common diagnostic dilemmas when trying to distinguish between tumor and sports injury or other trauma. Bone tumors frequently occur in the same young active patients who experience sports injuries. If the pain persists longer than expected, imaging studies should be obtained to prevent a delay in diagnosis or an inappropriate arthroscopy. A history of spontaneous fracture or a fracture after minor trauma should raise suspicion for underlying lesion as the cause. Occasionally necrosis and/or hemorrhage within a soft tissue sarcoma is so extensive that only a small cuff of viable tumor tissue ...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 10, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Eric Walker, Pam Brian, Victor Longo, Edward J. Fox, Elizabeth E. Frauenhoffer, Mark Murphey Source Type: research

Imaging of Athletic Pubalgia and Core Muscle Injuries: Clinical and Therapeutic Correlations
This article reviews clinical presentations and magnetic resonance imaging findings specific to the various causes of groin pain in the athlete. The focus is on the core muscle injuries (athletic pubalgia or “sports hernia”). The goal is to raise awareness about the variety of injuries that occur and therapeutic options. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 10, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Andrew Palisch, Adam C. Zoga, William C. Meyers Source Type: research

Dilemmas in Distinguishing Between Tumor and the Posttraumatic Lesion with Surgical or Pathologic Correlation
This article discusses the most common diagnostic dilemmas when trying to distinguish between tumor and sports injury or other trauma. Bone tumors frequently occur in the same young active patients who experience sports injuries. If the pain persists longer than expected, imaging studies should be obtained to prevent a delay in diagnosis or an inappropriate arthroscopy. A history of spontaneous fracture or a fracture after minor trauma should raise suspicion for underlying lesion as the cause. Occasionally necrosis and/or hemorrhage within a soft tissue sarcoma is so extensive that only a small cuff of viable tumor tissue ...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 10, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Eric Walker, Pam Brian, Victor Longo, Edward J. Fox, Elizabeth E. Frauenhoffer, Mark Murphey Source Type: research

Imaging of Athletic Pubalgia and Core Muscle Injuries: Clinical and Therapeutic Correlations
This article reviews clinical presentations and magnetic resonance imaging findings specific to the various causes of groin pain in the athlete. The focus is on the core muscle injuries (athletic pubalgia or “sports hernia”). The goal is to raise awareness about the variety of injuries that occur and therapeutic options. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 10, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Andrew Palisch, Adam C. Zoga, William C. Meyers Source Type: research

Imaging of Cartilage and Osteochondral Injuries: A Case-Based Review
This article summarizes technical factors for optimal MRI evaluation of articular cartilage of the knee. There is emphasis on the important correlation of the MRI signal to the structure of the type II collagen matrix in normal cartilage, with an understanding that alterations in this signal pattern can be an important sign of cartilage injury. Finally, specific patterns of cartilage injury and application of MRI in evaluating cartilage repair are illustrated through a series of selected cases. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 7, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Robert A. Gallo, Timothy J. Mosher Source Type: research

Arthritis Mimicking Sports-Related Injuries
Arthritis, including inflammatory, crystal deposition, and synovial proliferative disorders, may mimic sports injury. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical and radiologic findings of arthropathies that can present in athletes and be confused with internal derangement. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 3, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Donald J. Flemming, Stephanie A. Bernard Source Type: research

Ultrasonography of the Shoulder with Arthroscopic Correlation
This article addresses the ultrasonographic diagnosis of abnormalities of the rotator cuff, rotator interval, and biceps brachii, with magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopic correlation. Characteristic ultrasonographic findings as well as imaging pitfalls are reviewed. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 1, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Corrie M. Yablon, Asheesh Bedi, Yoav Morag, Jon A. Jacobson Source Type: research

Index
(Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - April 1, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Muscle Contusion (Thigh)
Thigh contusions are common injuries in sports, and the thigh is a very common location for sports-related muscle contusions. Treatment starts with placement of the knee in 120 of flexion for 24 hours. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can be detrimental to the healing if used for more than 48 to 72 hours, and glucocorticosteroids should be avoided. Early treatment with knee flexion to 120 degrees is very important, and is followed by range-of-motion exercises and advancement of activity. Early proper treatment is the key to success. Complications of myositis ossificans and compartment syndrome need to be considered. (S...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - April 1, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Thomas H. Trojian Source Type: research

Ear Trauma
Understanding basic ear anatomy and function allows an examiner to quickly and accurately identify at-risk structures in patients with head and ear trauma. External ear trauma (ie, hematoma or laceration) should be promptly treated with appropriate injury-specific techniques. Tympanic membrane injuries have multiple mechanisms and can often be conservatively treated. Temporal bone fractures are a common cause of ear trauma and can be life threatening. Facial nerve injuries and hearing loss can occur in ear trauma. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - April 1, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Kylee Eagles, Laura Fralich, J. Herbert Stevenson Source Type: research

Blunt Visual Trauma
Eye injuries in sports have an estimated incidence near 15%. These injuries can have a wide range of severity with a risk profile that is different for each individual sport. It is important to screen for and protect any functionally one-eyed athletes before athletic participation. Protective eyewear has been proposed in many sports, but outcomes data on its effectiveness are limited. Several blunt visual trauma injuries and their management are reviewed, and tools to have in the sideline bag and a few different ophthalmologic medicines are discussed. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - April 1, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Giselle A. Aerni Source Type: research

Blunt Cardiac Contusions
This article is meant to provide physicians with a working definition of blunt cardiac contusions as well as mechanism of injury for blunt cardiac contusions and the differential diagnoses. It is also meant to help physicians with management and plan of care. After a thorough history and physical examination, the implementation of prompt CPR and prehospital automatic external defibrillator use has been shown to increase the survival rate. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - April 1, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Melissa Mascaro, Thomas H. Trojian Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
(Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - April 1, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - April 1, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Contributors
(Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - April 1, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Hip Pointers
The term, hip pointer, is applied in the setting of a blunt trauma injury to the iliac crest. It typically occurs in contact and collision sports and can cause significant pain and loss of practice or game time. A direct blow results in subperiosteal edema with hematoma formation within surrounding muscle or soft tissue and bone contusion of the iliac crest. Conservative management with compression, ice, antiinflammatories, and rehabilitation exercises are successful in treating hip pointers. Injection therapy with the use of local anesthetic can be helpful in minimizing pain and increasing function to allow more rapid ret...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 11, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Matthew Hall, Jeffrey Anderson Source Type: research

Closed Head Injury
This article will discuss closed head trauma and outline specific injuries to the face, brain, skull, and its surroundings. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 11, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Hamish A. Kerr Source Type: research

Blunt Bladder Injury
Bladder injury should be suspected when trauma is followed by gross hematuria, suprapubic or abdominal pain, and difficulty in voiding or the inability to void. Bladder rupture with blunt abdominal trauma is uncommon; however, because of its high mortality rate, recognition of the early signs and symptoms can be life saving. The most common type of injury is a bladder contusion, which is a diagnosis of exclusion. Extraperitoneal bladder ruptures are almost exclusively associated with a pelvic fracture. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 11, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Ivette Guttmann, Hamish A. Kerr Source Type: research

Male Genital Trauma in Sports
Male genital trauma is a rare but potentially serious sports injury. Although such an injury can occur by many different mechanisms, including falls, collisions, straddle injuries, kicks, and equipment malfunction, the clinical presentation is typically homogeneous, characterized by pain and swelling. Almost all sports-related male genital injury comes from blunt force trauma, with involvement of scrotal structures far more common than penile structures. Most injuries can be treated conservatively, but catastrophic testicular injury must first be ruled out. Despite being relatively uncommon compared with other sports injur...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 4, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Stanley R. Hunter, Timothy S. Lishnak, Andria M. Powers, David K. Lisle Source Type: research

Closed Liver Injury
The purpose of this article is to familiarize sports medicine physicians with evaluation, initial management, and treatment of athletes with closed liver trauma. Ten percent of abdominal injuries are caused during sports-related activities. The liver is the most commonly injured organ in blunt abdominal trauma. Physical examination findings may be subtle or absent in patients with underlying liver injury. A paradigm shift toward nonoperative management in hemodynamically stable patients has led to a decrease in mortality. Return-to-play guidelines do not exist for closed liver injuries. These decisions are usually mad...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 4, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Deena C. Casiero Source Type: research

Blunt Trauma Injuries in the Athlete
Let's be blunt about it … there really isn't a lot of information out there on how to deal with blunt trauma. This is a growing concern because the speed and intensity of play in a variety of sports, and the associated injuries, have continued to escalate. Therefore, I invited Dr Thomas DeBerardino, who has extensive experience on this topic from his career in the military to include a stent as the Chief of Sports Medicine at West Point, to organize an issue of Clinics in Sports Medicine on this topic. As usual, Tommy came through with flying colors! (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 4, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Mark D. Miller Source Type: research

Closed Lung Trauma
Pulmonary injuries from blunt thoracic trauma are seen regularly with high-energy mechanisms but described less frequently in association with sports. Pneumothorax, hemothorax, pneumomediastinum, and pulmonary contusion are uncommon with athletic participation and often follow a benign clinical course. Life-threatening complications may arise, and athletes with chest trauma deserve close attention. Appropriate diagnosis is suggested by history and physical examination; conventional chest radiography is preferred as the initial imaging study but has limitations. Use of CT for trauma has improved diagnostic sensitivity for o...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - January 31, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Jeffrey P. Feden Source Type: research

Closed Kidney Injury
Discussion of the athlete with congenital renal disease and the solitary kidney concludes this article. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - January 31, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Tracey A. Viola Source Type: research

Blunt Trauma Injuries
The evaluation and management of sports-related blunt trauma injuries is an important area that interfaces the sports medicine world with many other subspecialty areas of medicine. The goal of this special focus issue is to help keep physicians that care for athletes up to date regarding the latest developments pertaining to new technology to hasten diagnosis and preferred management of blunt trauma injuries. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - January 28, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Thomas M. DeBerardino Source Type: research

Evaluation of Blunt Abdominal Trauma
Sports medicine physicians should be aware of the many injuries that are associated with blunt abdominal trauma. From benign diaphragmatic spasms and rectus abdominis hematomas to the more concerning liver, splenic, renal, and pancreatic injuries, the sideline physician needs to be able to triage athletic-related injuries. Furthermore, many athletes will ask their physician about return-to-play recommendations and continuing care following blunt abdominal trauma. The sports medicine physician should have a working knowledge of the pathophysiology of various abdominal injuries to best advise and treat his or her team member...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - January 23, 2013 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Jessica M. Intravia, Thomas M. DeBerardino Source Type: research