Injuries and Conditions Affecting the Elbow Flexor/Pronator Tendons
Common flexor-pronator tendon injuries and medial epicondylitis can be successfully treated nonoperatively in most cases. Operative treatment is reserved for patients with continued symptoms despite adequate nonoperative treatment or in high-level athletes with complete rupture of the common flexor-pronator tendon. The physical examination and workup of patients with flexor-pronator tendon injuries should focus on related or concomitant pathologies of the medial elbow. The gold standard for surgical treatment of flexor-pronator tendon ruptures or medial epicondylitis includes tendon debridement and reattachment. (Source: C...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 21, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Rami George Alrabaa, Nicholas Dantzker, Christopher S. Ahmad Source Type: research

Ulnar Collateral Ligament Evaluation and Diagnostics
The overhead throwing motion subjects the elbow to a predictable pattern of forces, including medial tension, lateral compression, and posterior shear, that in turn result in a predictable pattern of injuries. Careful history taking, thorough physical examination, and judicious diagnostic imaging allow clinicians to correctly diagnose ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury. Athletes with UCL injury complain of acute or chronic medial elbow injury, resulting in decreased throwing effectiveness, with loss of control and/or velocity. Magnetic resonance imaging is the gold standard for diagnosis, but stress ultrasound rapidly ...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 21, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Michael C. Ciccotti, Michael G. Ciccotti Source Type: research

Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction
Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries can significantly impair the overhead athlete. Reconstruction of the anterior bundle of the UCL (UCL-R) has allowed a high proportion of these individuals to return to their previous level of play. Several techniques for UCL-R are described that produce acceptable results with an overall low complication rate. Transient ulnar neuritis is the most common complication following UCL-R. The rate of UCL injury in young athletes is rising with increased youth involvement and year-round participation in overhead sports. The sports medicine community must broaden its focus to not only treat...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 21, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Edward Lyle Cain, Mims G. Ochsner Source Type: research

Conditions and Injuries Affecting the Nerves Around the Elbow
Sports-related peripheral neuropathies account for 6% of all peripheral neuropathies and most commonly involve the upper extremity. The routes of the median, radial, and ulnar nerves are positioned in arrangements of pulleys and sheaths to glide smoothly around the elbow. However, this anatomic relationship exposes each nerve to risk of compression. The underlying mechanisms of the athletic nerve injury are compression, ischemia, traction, and friction. Chronic athletic nerve compression may cause damage with moderate or low pressure for long or intermittent periods of time. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 21, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Mark S. Schickendantz, Sercan Yalcin Source Type: research

Sprains, Strains, and Partial Tears of the Medial Ulnar Collateral Ligament of the Elbow
Medial ulnar collateral ligament (MUCL) insufficiency is becoming common in younger, nonprofessional athletes. In contrast to elite athletes who develop valgus extension overload syndrome and associated chronic pathologic changes in the MUCL, younger patients present with sprains and partial tears that can often be managed non-operatively with successful outcome and rapid return to play. In the younger throwing athlete with medial-sided elbow pain, a hinged elbow brace and rehabilitation of dysfunctional muscles often lead to successful recovery and return to play within 1-2 months. In more severe injuries, direct repair o...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 21, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Felix H. Savoie, Michael O ’Brien Source Type: research

Orthobiologics in Elbow Injuries
This article provides an in-depth review of the current literature for the use of orthobiologics in elbow injuries. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 21, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Cleo D. Stafford, Ricardo E. Colberg, Hunter Garrett Source Type: research

Elbow Dislocation
This article is a brief overview of the elbow dislocations focusing on updates in treatment and rehabilitation protocols. The fight between obtaining elbow stability without leading to long-term elbow stiffness has been a continued focus in field of sports medicine. This article highlights advances made to help treat the injuries appropriately and obtain optimal patient outcomes. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 21, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Nima Rezaie, Sunny Gupta, Benjamin C. Service, Daryl C. Osbahr Source Type: research

Lateral Epicondylitis/Extensor Tendon Injury
Pain over the lateral aspect of the elbow without nerve injury or elbow instability often is diagnosed as lateral epicondylitis or, colloquially, tennis elbow. It is a common complaint, seen most frequently in women between ages 40 and 60, although it is common in men too. Typical presenting symptoms include pain with prolonged wrist extension activities, pain with resisted wrist or elbow extension, and pain at rest radiating from the elbow along the dorsum of the forearm. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 21, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Matthew Meunier Source Type: research

Elbow Fractures
The elbow joint consists of the humeroulnar, humeroradial, and proximal radioulnar joints. Elbow stability is maintained by a combination of static and dynamic constraints. Elbow fractures are challenging to treat because the articular surfaces must be restored perfectly and associated soft tissue injuries must be recognized and appropriately managed. Most elbow fractures are best treated operatively with restoration of normal bony anatomy and rigid internal fixation and repair and/or reconstruction of the collateral ligaments. Advanced imaging, improved understanding of the complex anatomy of the elbow joint, and improved...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 21, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Kaare S. Midtgaard, Joseph J. Ruzbarsky, Thomas R. Hackett, Randall W. Viola Source Type: research

Distal Triceps Tendon Injuries
Distal triceps ruptures are uncommon, usually caused by a fall on an outstretched hand or a direct blow. Factors linked to injury include eccentric loading of a contracting triceps, anabolic steroid use, weightlifting, and traumatic laceration. Risk factors include local steroid injection, hyperparathyroidism, and olecranon bursitis. Initial diagnosis can be complicated by pain and swelling, and a palpable defect is not always present. Plain radiographs can be helpful. MRI confirms the diagnosis and directs treatment. Incomplete tears can be treated nonsurgically; complete tears are best managed surgically. Good to excelle...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 21, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Clark Monroe Walker, Thomas John Noonan Source Type: research

The Lacertus Syndrome of the Elbow in Throwing Athletes
When more obvious and common causes of elbow pathology are ruled out, it is important to be aware of uncommon causes of elbow pain in throwers. The Lacertus syndrome can be a debilitating problem when overlooked; however, it can be easily diagnosed with a careful history and physical examination. If the description suggests a postexertional compartment-like problem, consider having the patient throw before the examination, and the diagnosis becomes easier to either confirm or rule out. Once the diagnosis is established treatment includes rest or fasciotomy. Recovery is uncomplicated and athletes can return to throwing with...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 21, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Steve E. Jordan Source Type: research

Repair and InternalBrace Augmentation of the Medial Ulnar Collateral Ligament
This article reviews the history of UCL repair including the rationale for the revival of interest in primary repair of the U CL as an option for the treatment of select athletes as well as the early clinical results indicating the short-term successful outcomes of the procedure in properly selected athletes.” (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 21, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: George A. Paletta, John Milner Source Type: research

The Athlete ’s Elbow: Not a “Bend in the Road”
I would like to begin by thanking my friends and colleagues who have given of their time and talents to contribute to this issue of Clinics in Sports Medicine. These and other very talented physicians, surgeons, and therapists around the “elbow world” continue to raise the bar of the care of the athlete’s elbow and collectively improve the outcomes in these patients. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 21, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Jeffrey R. Dugas Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Elbowing Our Way Beyond Tommy John
Dr Frank Jobe rocked the sports medicine world when he performed the first ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction in 1974. Almost a half century later, we can reflect on the contributions of other sports medicine elbow pioneers, including Dr James Andrews, Dr Neal ElAttrache, and many of the authors of this issue of Clinics in Sports Medicine, including the Editor, Dr Jeff Dugas. This issue nicely summarizes the current state-of-the-art of sports-related elbow injuries to include not only the UCL but also other ligaments, tendons, fractures, dislocations, and nerve injuries involving this important joint. (Source: ...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 21, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Mark D. Miller Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Elbow Injuries and Treatment
CLINICS IN SPORTS MEDICINE (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 21, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Jeffrey R. Dugas Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 21, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Contributors
MARK D. MILLER, MD (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 21, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Contents
Mark D. Miller (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 21, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Clinics in Sports Medicine
Foot and Ankle Injuries and Treatment (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - May 21, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Distal Biceps Injuries
Distal biceps tendon injuries typically occur from forced eccentric contraction against a heavy load and are more common in males than females. Most patients who rupture their distal biceps tendon undergo operative repair to minimize strength loss and fatigue. Single-incision and two-incision techniques have been developed in recent decades and achieve satisfactory outcomes. Cortical button and bone tunnel fixation demonstrate superior strength relative to suture anchors and interference screws for acute repairs. Patients who present late or who undergo surgery greater than 4 to 6  weeks from their injury are deemed c...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - April 16, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Fotios Paul Tjoumakaris, James P. Bradley Source Type: research

Olecranon Stress Fracture
Olecranon stress fractures are a rare upper extremity fracture that primarily affects throwing athletes. The incidence of olecranon stress fractures are increasing owing to the number of patients playing and the volume of engagement in competitive sports, especially in the pediatric population. However, olecranon stress fractures can present a challenge from a management and a rehabilitation perspective owing to their vague presentation, thereby affecting how these patients are diagnosed and managed. Therefore, it is imperative to further evaluate the disease process, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition to best mana...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - April 16, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Dylan N. Greif, Christopher P. Emerson, Paul Allegra, Brandon J. Shallop, Lee D. Kaplan Source Type: research

Rehabilitation of Elbow Injuries
Athletes are subject to traumatic and repetitive stress injuries at the elbow joint as a result of high levels of forces imparted across the elbow. Injuries can be acute to the point of tissue failure, or chronic as a result of repetitive overuse. Complete restoration of elbow function must be achieved to allow the athlete to return to their prior level of function. Systematic and progressive rehabilitation programs can help avoid overstressing healing tissues. Treatment programs are designed to restore full motion, muscular strength, endurance, and neuromuscular control. Multiphased rehabilitation programs are designed to...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - April 16, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Kevin E. Wilk, Christopher A. Arrigo Source Type: research

Hand and Wrist Tendinopathies
This article reviews some of the common hand and wrist conditions, such as trigger digits, first dorsal compartment tendonitis, and extensor carpi ulnaris tendonitis. In addition, it reviews less commonly seen tendon conditions of the flexor carpi radialis and ulnaris, intersection syndrome, and extensor pollicis entrapment conditions. Diagnosis, nonoperative and operative treatment, and postoperative recommendations and return to play are also discussed. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Nathan C. Patrick, Warren C. Hammert Source Type: research

Management of Metacarpal and Phalangeal Fractures in the Athlete
Metacarpal and phalangeal fractures are common injuries in athletes and occur frequently in contact and ball-handling sports. They usually result after direct hits from other players or athletic equipment. The fractures often are minimally displaced and require a short period of immobilization followed by early range of motion for expeditious return to play. Unstable or intra-articular fractures may require operative fixation. Open reduction and internal fixation afford the most stability while allowing for early rehabilitation. Athletes represent a unique population, and treatment of these fractures requires consideration...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Elizabeth P. Wahl, Marc J. Richard Source Type: research

Thumb Metacarpophalangeal Ulnar and Radial Collateral Ligament Injuries
Thumb metacarpophalangeal collateral ligament injuries are common in athletes and occur via forced abduction or hyperextension. Management primarily depends on the grade of ligamentous injury and the presence of a Stener lesion or large avulsion fracture. Surgeons should consider the athlete ’s position, hand dominance, duration of season remaining, and goals. Shared decision making regarding timing of surgery is imperative. Acutely, primary ligamentous repair with or without augmentation is achievable. Chronic collateral ligament injuries are effectively treated with ligament reconst ruction. Numerous surgical techn...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Dane Daley, Michael Geary, Raymond Glenn Gaston Source Type: research

Acute Scaphoid Waist Fracture in the Athlete
Scaphoid fractures are the most common carpal fracture and the most challenging. Although appropriately managing acute scaphoid waist fractures is a priority, it also is of primary importance to make a diagnosis acutely. Scaphoid waist fractures can occur with low-energy trauma and lead to mild symptoms. A tendency to minimize symptoms and low level of initial disability lead to delay in diagnosis. Displaced scaphoid fractures require operative intervention uniformly. Although nondisplaced fractures can heal with nonoperative treatment, management of these injuries is affected by patient demands. In high-level athletes, op...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Thomas B. Hughes Source Type: research

Ulnar-Sided Wrist Pain in the Athlete
Ulnar-sided wrist pain is a common problem in athletes that can be challenging owing to its frequent combination of overuse in conjunction with acute injury. Repetitive pronosupination, wrist flexion and extension, as well as radial and ulnar deviation can predispose the athlete to injury of ulnar structures. Careful understanding of the sport-specific injuries as well as the underlying biomechanics are key to understanding and treating the athlete. In this article, we discuss the most frequent causes of ulnar-sided wrist pain in the athlete and focus on anatomy and pathophysiology, presentation, and diagnosis, as well as ...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Hannah A. Dineen, Jeffrey A. Greenberg Source Type: research

Therapy Considerations for Getting Athletes to Return to Play
During the protective phase of treatment, therapy for hand and wrist injuries in athletes is similar to the plan of care provided to all patients. The nuances in the care provided to athletes become apparent during the transition to the postprotective phase of rehabilitation when the focus has shifted to return to play. Therapy following a sports injury should address the individual needs of the athletes in their everyday lives as well as the specificity of their training and sports-specific activities. The factors that influence return to play are discussed. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Jane M. Fedorczyk Source Type: research

Hand and Wrist Injuries in the Pediatric Athlete
This article examines the most common problematic hand and wrist injuries in the pediatric athlete. Hand and wrist injuries in the growing skeleton pose a different diagnostic and therapeutic challenge than in the mature skeleton. Ligaments are stronger than bone, and unossified cartilaginous sections of the skeleton are yet more susceptible to injury than bone. Although remodeling can correct for even moderate deformities if sufficient growth potential exists, remodeling cannot return the child to normal anatomy in many cases. Remodeling depends on intact periosteum, a nearby growing physis, and competent ligaments to dir...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Dan A. Zlotolow, Scott H. Kozin Source Type: research

Nuances in the Management of Hand and Wrist Injuries in Athletes
The management of patients with sports-related injuries can be confusing. Do I manage these patients in the same way as other non-athletes? Is there a role for non-operative treatment? Should I fix the fracture, and does the rehabilitation of these patients vary to get the patient back to play sooner? Given this, I have had the privilege to solicit the opinions from some of the thought-leaders within the hand and wrist community to provide their expertise in managing these patients. I hope the readers will find these articles stimulating, informative, and helpful in the care of the injured athlete. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Sanjeev Kakar Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Athletic Hand and Wrist Injuries Return to Play
As I look back at my early career as a team physician, I recall some of my most challenging injuries involved the hand and wrist. Fortunately, I had experienced colleagues that I could (and did) call, even from the sidelines. My good fortune continued throughout my career, and recently, one of my colleagues literally came down from the stands in a championship football game to devise a splint to allow one of our star players to safely return to play. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Mark D. Miller Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Nuances in the Management of Hand and Wrist Injuries in Athletes
CLINICS IN SPORTS MEDICINE (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Sanjeev Kakar Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Contributors
MARK D. MILLER, MD (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Contents
Mark D. Miller (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Elbow Injuries and Treatment (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 28, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Imaging of the Hand and Wrist
This article reviews the strengths and limitations of these imaging modalities and how they can be utilized in commonly encountered clinical questions. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 4, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Christin A. Tiegs-Heiden, B. Matthew Howe Source Type: research

Distal Radius Fractures in the Athlete
Although the technical details of distal radius fracture fixation in athletes are largely similar to the general population, the issues surrounding the injury, desire to return to sport, and rehabilitation require specialized attention. Athletes are generally healthy, with a drive to recover and must balance the risk of long-term consequences of returning to play too early with the potential loss of scholarship, salary, or opportunities for advancement. Outcomes after nonoperative and operative treatment of distal radius fractures are generally excellent in athletes and return to the same level of sport occurs in most pati...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 4, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Andrew D. Sobel, Ryan P. Calfee Source Type: research

Management of Finger Joint Dislocation and Fracture-Dislocations in Athletes
Although finger joint dislocations are generally thought of as benign by many athletes and assumed to be a sprain, these injuries represent a spectrum that includes disabling fracture-dislocations. Failure to recognize certain dislocations or fracture-dislocations may result in permanent deformity and loss of motion. Simple dislocations are frequently amenable to early return to play with protection; however, more complex injuries may require specialized splinting or surgery. Delay in diagnosis of unstable proximal interphalangeal fracture-dislocations may require reconstruction or fusion. Early diagnosis and appropriate t...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 4, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Erin A. Miller, Jeffrey B. Friedrich Source Type: research

Surgical Techniques for the Treatment of Acute Carpal Ligament Injuries in the Athlete
This article reviews common carpal ligament injury patterns in the athlete with a focus on both classic and newer surgical techniques. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 4, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Jacob D. Gire, Jeffrey Yao Source Type: research

Evaluation and Treatment of Flexor Tendon and Pulley Injuries in Athletes
Flexor tendon and pulley injuries in athletes present a unique challenge to the treating clinician. An understanding of the anatomy and mechanism of injury helps the clinician appropriately diagnose and treat the injury. Treatment may become more complicated when associated with delays in diagnosis, in-season considerations, and an athlete ’s desire to return to play. Two injuries involving the flexor tendon-pulley system, avulsion injuries of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon from its insertion onto the base of the distal phalanx and flexor pulley injuries, are examined in detail in this article. (Source: Clinic...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 4, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Lauren M. Shapiro, Robin N. Kamal Source Type: research

Extensor Tendon Injuries in the Athlete
This article offers a brief revie w of the anatomy and complex function of the extensor mechanism, discusses the etiologies of various extensor injuries, and outlines the multiple treatment options and expected outcomes. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 4, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Spencer Skinner, Jonathan Isaacs Source Type: research

Carpal Fractures Other than Scaphoid in the Athlete
Carpal fractures of bones other than the scaphoid occur at a much lower rate than scaphoid fractures. The close relationship between the carpus, intrinsic and extrinsic wrist ligaments, and wrist kinematics makes a thorough history, clinical examination, and interpretation of imaging for carpal malalignment essential. Carpal malalignment should be addressed with reduction and fixation. Nondisplaced fractures are often treated nonoperatively and displaced intraarticular fractures are almost always treatment operatively. The physician should keep in mind the athlete ’s specific goals and needs. Treatment must be indivi...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - February 4, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Bilal Mahmood, Steve K. Lee Source Type: research

As Goes the Meniscus Goes the Knee
The meniscus plays an important, complex role in maintaining the homeostasis and health of the knee. Meniscal tears are a risk factor for early chondral injury and eventually knee osteoarthritis. There is a growing body of evidence about the early biological changes associated with meniscal injury that likely start the process of joint degeneration. This review highlights the basic science, translational and clinical studies of the detrimental effects of meniscal injury and deficiency on the biology of the knee. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - November 23, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Peter S. Chang, Robert H. Brophy Source Type: research

Return to Play Following Meniscal Repair
Meniscal injuries in athletes present a challenging problem. Surgeons must balance the needs of the healing meniscus with the desire of the athlete to return to play as quickly as possible. Evidence-based rehabilitation protocols are important for ensuring a successful meniscal repair and preventing athletes from returning to play prematurely. Ultimately, however, the return to play determination requires a shared decision-making approach between the physician, the athlete, and the providers involved in the athlete ’s rehabilitation process. This decision considers not only the athlete’s ability to meet return-...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - November 23, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Taylor J. Wiley, Nicholas J. Lemme, Stephen Marcaccio, Steven Bokshan, Paul D. Fadale, Cory Edgar, Brett D. Owens Source Type: research

Meniscus Repair and Regeneration
Meniscus injuries are among the most common athletic injuries and result in functional impairment in the knee. Repair is crucial for pain relief and prevention of degenerative joint diseases like osteoarthritis. Current treatments, however, do not produce long-term improvements. Thus, recent research has been investigating new therapeutic options for regenerating injured meniscal tissue. This review comprehensively details the current methodologies being explored in the basic sciences to stimulate better meniscus injury repair. Furthermore, it describes how these preclinical strategies may improve current paradigms of how ...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - November 23, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: John Twomey-Kozak, Chathuraka T. Jayasuriya Source Type: research

Meniscus Injuries
This article presents evidence-based rehabilitation and return-to-play guidelines as well as a brief review of return-to-play outcomes following isolated meniscus repair. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - November 23, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Seth L. Sherman, Zachary J. DiPaolo, Taylor E. Ray, Barbie M. Sachs, Lasun O. Oladeji Source Type: research

Degenerative Meniscus Tear in Older Athletes
Older athletes consist of a relatively healthier population with a high desire for return to sport despite knee injury. A meniscal tear is a common injury that has lasting impacts on joint function and activity level. Lower extremity loading from sporting activity in conjunction with degenerative meniscal changes increases the risk of meniscal tear in older athletes. Optimal treatment of degenerative meniscal tears is often debated with varying studies reporting the benefits of strictly nonoperative treatment or the value of surgery. Postoperative rehabilitation is crucial to enhance the possibility of return to sport. (So...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - November 23, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Brian R. Wolf, Trevor R. Gulbrandsen Source Type: research

Role of Alignment and Osteotomy in Meniscal Injuries
Meniscal injuries are common in patients with varus or valgus malalignment, but consensus is lacking as to when surgery should address the meniscal injury only and when it should be combined with an osteotomy. Several factors need to be evaluated to provide the most appropriate treatment in each case. Here we highlight the most relevant literature on the subject and suggest a rationale for surgical treatment. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - November 23, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Pablo Eduardo Gelber, Bjorn Barenius, Simone Perelli Source Type: research

Meniscus Form and Function
The menisci are 2 fibrocartilaginous crescents anchored via bony and ligamentous attachments to surrounding structures. Their biochemical composition and multilayered structure make them ideal for converting compressive forces to tensile forces in addition to improving joint congruity and providing shock absorption to weight bearing. The medial meniscus maintains more attachments at both the horns and the midbody than the lateral meniscus, making it more susceptible to injury. Understanding of the gross anatomy, vascular anatomy, biochemical composition, and microstructure is key to understanding causes of meniscal patholo...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - November 23, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Alexander R. Markes, Jonathan D. Hodax, Chunbong Benjamin Ma Source Type: research