Performing research in pregnancy: Challenges and perspectives
There are numerous barriers to conducting clinical research in pregnancy, including ethical considerations, logistical difficulties, and federal regulations. Due to these challenges, there is a paucity of data on the safe and appropriate use of dermatologic therapies in pregnancy, even for easily accessed over-the-counter topical products, as well as for commonly prescribed medications. Given the lack of human safety data, the Food and Drug Administration pregnancy labeling system previously placed a high priority on animal data but was recently revised to highlight human data and pregnancy registries. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - May 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Rebecca I. Hartman, Alexa B. Kimball Source Type: research

Erratum to “Leprosy in the bible” [Clin Dermatol 2016:34 3–7]
The authors regret that in our original contribution two mistakes were found. First, Miriam was not the daughter of Moses; in fact she was his sister. Thus, the text should be: “Miriam was made leprous ‘as white as snow' (Nb. 12:9–10) ‘by order of the Lord, because she criticized Moses, her brother.'” In addition, Leviticus was not characterized properly. This sentence should read: “Leviticus was the divine code for sanctified life, including priests/ Kohanim, Levites (in historical Judaism, Kohanim were the priestly caste of Levites. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - May 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Andrzej Grzybowski, Małgorzata Nita Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Erratum to “Severity score indexes for blistering diseases” [Clin Dermatol 2011:30 108–113]
The authors regret that an earlier version of the Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI) with a column missing in the activity section was published in this review. The correct version which was originally published in J Invest Dermatol is reproduced below. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - May 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Benjamin S. Daniel, Michael Hertl, Victoria P. Werth, Rüdiger Eming, Dedee F. Murrell Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Erratum to “The fate of Hungarian Jewish dermatologists during the Holocaust. Part 1: Six refugees who fled”
On p293, the affiliation for the corresponding author should read: “Julia Bock, PhD." (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - May 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Walter H.C. Burgdorf, Julia Bock, Leonard J. Hoenig, Lawrence Charles Parish Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

10th World Congress of the International Academy of Cosmetic Dermatology, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, November 14-16, 2015
The 10th World Congress of the International Academy of Cosmetic Dermatology (IACD) was held from November 14-16, 2015 at the Sul America Convention Center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, under the presidency of Marcia Ramos-e-Silva, Professor and Chair of Dermatology at the Federal University of Brazil in Rio de Janeiro (Fig. 1). (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - May 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Vesna Petronic-Rosic Tags: Congress ReportEdited by Marcia Ramos e-Silva, MD, PhD Source Type: research

My personal experiences at the BEST Medical Center: A day in the clinic—the morning
Dr. Ida Lystic is a gastroenterologist who trained at the OTHER (Owen T. Henry and Eugene Rutherford) Medical Center, after having completed her MD degree at the prestigious Harvey Medical School (recently renamed the Harvey Provider School). She accepted a faculty position at the BEST (Byron Edwards and Samuel Thompson) Medical Center. Dr. Lystic shares her experiences on a typical morning in gastroenterology clinic. Although her clinic start date was delayed by 2 months after becoming sick following a mandatory flu shot and having to complete more than 70 hours of compliance training modules, she is now familiar with the...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - May 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Philip R. Cohen, Razelle Kurzrock Tags: Dermatologic Disquisitions and Other Essays Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - May 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - May 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Complications of decorative tattoo
Decorative tattoo is a popular practice that is generally safe when performed in the professional setting but can be associated with a variety of inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic complications, risks that may be increased with current trends in home tattooing. Modern tattoo inks contain azo dyes and are often of unknown composition and not currently regulated for content or purity. Biopsy of most (if not all) tattoo reactions presenting to the dermatologist is recommended, given recent clusters of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections occurring within tattoo, as well as associations between tattoo reactions and s...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - February 20, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Michi M. Shinohara Tags: DERMATOLOGIC DISQUISITIONS AND OTHER ESSAYSEdited by Philip R. Cohen, MD Source Type: research

Atopic dermatitis in the domestic dog
Dogs may develop a syndrome of spontaneous, inflammatory, pruritic dermatitis that shares many features with human atopic dermatitis, including a young age of onset, characteristic lesion distribution, immunoglobulin E sensitization to common environmental allergen sources, and evidence of epidermal barrier dysfunction. There are also several important differences between canine and human atopic dermatitis. Although dogs may suffer from multiple-organ hypersensitivity syndromes, there is no evidence that this species experiences the progressive evolution from cutaneous to respiratory allergy characteristic of the human ato...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - February 20, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Cherie M. Pucheu-Haston Tags: Comment and Controversy Source Type: research

The fate of Hungarian Jewish dermatologists during the Holocaust Part 1: Six refugees who fled
From the times of Moritz Kaposi, Hungarian Jewish physicians have significantly contributed to the development of dermatology. Part 1 of this special report highlights some of the early Jewish dermatologists in Hungary. It also tells the stories of five Hungarian Jewish dermatologists who fled anti-Semitism in Hungary, or other European countries, between 1920 and 1941: Frederick Reiss, Emery Kocsard, Stephen Rothman, Peter Flesch, and George Csonka. A sixth Hungarian dermatologist, Tibor Benedek, was persecuted by the Nazis, because he had a Jewish wife, forcing the couple to flee Germany. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - February 20, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Walter H.C. Burgdorf, Julia Bock, Leonard J. Hoenig, Lawrence Charles Parish Tags: CLIO DERMATOLOGICA Source Type: research

Cutaneous and ocular manifestations of neurocutaneous syndromes
Neurocutaneous syndromes are a heterogeneous group of congenital and hereditary disorders with manifestations in the skin and the nervous system, usually together with ocular features that represent diagnostic clues and potential sources of morbidity. Dermatologists and ophthalmologists often need to work together in identifying and managing patients with these conditions; herein, we focus on classic and under-recognized neurocutaneous syndromes. We begin with autosomal dominant genodermatoses characterized by hamartomas and tumors in the skin, eyes, and central nervous system: neurofibromatosis type 1, tuberous sclerosis ...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - February 20, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Karen A. Chernoff, Julie V. Schaffer Source Type: research

Autoimmune bullous diseases with skin and eye involvement: Cicatricial pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris, and pemphigus paraneoplastica
Autoimmune blistering diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders that mostly affect the skin and mucous membranes. Occasionally, other organ systems may be involved, depending on the unique pathophysiology of each disease. Cicatricial pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris, and paraneoplastic pemphigus are distinct entities, but all have the potential to have cutaneous and ocular involvement. Awareness and early recognition of ocular involvement in these diseases is important given the increased risk for vision loss and blindness with delay in management. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - February 20, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Karen C. Broussard, Theresa G. Leung, Ahmadreza Moradi, Jennifer E. Thorne, Jo-David Fine Source Type: research

Eye and skin disorders: Part II: Ocular signs that help in diagnosis of systemic diseases in dermatology practice
Part II of Eye and skin disorders continues our theme that the disciplines of dermatology and ophthalmology overlap in many ways, requiring our specialties to collaborate to deliver the best of care to our patients. This second issue of Clinics in Dermatology is a continuation of the review, begun in Part II, of the many eye and skin diseases causing patients to consult with both an ophthalmologist and a dermatologist.1 Most of the contributions are authored by both a dermatologist and an ophthalmologist working together, which we hope will simulate future clinical collaborations on a day to day basis. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - February 20, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Andrzej Grzybowski, Barry D. Kels, Jane M. Grant-Kels Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Ocular manifestations of genetic skin disorders
Genetic skin diseases, or genodermatoses, often have extracutaneous manifestations. Ocular manifestations in particular can have significant clinical implications, like blindness. Other manifestations, such as the corneal opacities that occur in X-linked ichthyosis, are asymptomatic but characteristic of a particular genodermatosis. Ophthalmologic examination can aid in diagnosis when characteristic findings are seen. The genodermatoses with ocular manifestations will be reviewed, but neurocutaneous, syndromes, genetic pigmentary disorders, and genetic metabolic diseases are not included because they are covered elsewhere ...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - February 20, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Melinda Jen, Sudha Nallasamy Source Type: research

An eye on nutrition: The role of vitamins, essential fatty acids, and antioxidants in age-related macular degeneration, dry eye syndrome, and cataract
Visual impairment is a global epidemic. In developing countries, nutritional deficiency and cataracts continue to be the leading cause of blindness, whereas age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts are the leading causes in developed nations. The World Health Organization has instituted VISION 2020: “The Right to Sight” as a global mission to put an end to worldwide blindness. In industrialized societies, patients, physicians, researchers, nutritionists, and biochemists have been looking toward vitamins and nutrients to prevent AMD, cataracts, and dry eye syndrome (DES). (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - February 20, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Meagen M. McCusker, Khayyam Durrani, Michael J. Payette, Jeanine Suchecki Source Type: research

Ocular manifestations of infectious skin diseases
Ocular complications of infectious skin diseases are a common occurrence. Managing the inflamed or infected eye in the emergency setting presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the emergency physician. Infectious agents may affect any part of the eye. Ocular findings may be the first sign of many infectious diseases, such as, for example, gonorrhea or chlamydia infection. Understanding the various forms of ocular involvement in these conditions is important, because untreated ophthalmic involvement can lead to severe vision loss. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - February 20, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Anna Sadowska-Przytocka, Magdalena Czarnecka-Operacz, Dorota Jenerowicz, Andrzej Grzybowski Source Type: research

Ocular involvement in cutaneous connective tissue disease
Connective tissue disorders commonly involve multiple organ systems including the skin and eye. The pathogenesis of many of these disorders affects the microvasculature in these organs. Redness, dryness, pain, and vision loss might be signs of ocular disease in a patient with connective tissue disease. Ocular involvement can potentially lead to blindness and indicate systemic involvement. Dermatologists should be aware of potential ocular involvement in cutaneous connective tissue disorders, and their recognition should prompt ophthalmologic evaluation. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - February 20, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Frank A. Santoro, John Huang Source Type: research

Ocular changes induced by drugs commonly used in dermatology
The use of many drugs in dermatologic diseases may cause ocular side effects. Some may regress after discontinuation of the therapy, but others persist or progress even after the cessation of treatment. This review presents four groups of commonly prescribed drugs—antimalarial medicines, glucocorticoids, retinoids, and psoralens + ultraviolet A (UVA) therapy—and discusses their possible ocular side effects.The most significant complication of antimalarial drugs is retinopathy with the risk of permanent visual impairment. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - February 20, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Anna Turno-Kręcicka, Andrzej Grzybowski, Marta Misiuk-Hojło, Eliza Patryn, Karolina Czajor, Małgorzata Nita Source Type: research

Multisystem diseases affecting the skin and eye
There exist a wide variety of multisystem diseases that can affect both the eyes and skin. The skin and eyes may be the initial sites affected, leading to a new diagnosis of a systemic illness, or severe skin and eye involvement can drive treatment for patients with multisystem disease. It is important for physicians to be aware of how to recognize and diagnose these conditions, to evaluate patients for extent of disease, and to initiate appropriate therapies to combat these potentially severe diseases. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - February 20, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Karolyn A. Wanat, Benjamin Kim, Misha Rosenbach Source Type: research

Ocular rosacea, psoriasis, and lichen planus
Although the number of dermatologic conditions with ocular manifestations is relatively limited, these entities have a high prevalence and represent a large proportion of clinic visits to both dermatologic and ophthalmic practices. This contribution will review oculocutaneous diseases that are not part of the allergic or autoantibody-mediated spectrum. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - February 20, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Guy F. Webster, Khayyam Durrani, Jeanine Suchecki Source Type: research

The eye and the skin in endocrine metabolic diseases
The eye and skin may offer critical clues to the diagnosis of a varied spectrum of metabolic diseases from endocrine origin and their different stages of severity, such as diabetes mellitus and Graves disease. On the other hand, such entities may compromise the eye and visual function severely, and awareness of these possible associations is an important step in their diagnosis and management. A large number of less common endocrine diseases may also have significant ocular/visual or skin involvement. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - February 20, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Julio A. Urrets-Zavalía, Evangelina Espósito, Iliana Garay, Rodolfo Monti, Alejandro Ruiz-Lascano, Leandro Correa, Horacio M. Serra, Andrzej Grzybowski Source Type: research

The eye and the skin in nonendocrine metabolic disorders
As metabolism is controlled by the input of genes and the environment, metabolic disorders result from some disturbance in the interaction between genes and environmental factors. Many metabolic disorders consist in congenital enzyme deficiencies, also known as “inborn errors of metabolism,” that may be disabling or cause severe illness and death and are predominantly inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. The deposit in cells and tissues of storage substances from errors in metabolic processes may produce a wide variety of disorders affecting different organs and functions, with different degrees of seve...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - February 20, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Julio A. Urrets-Zavalía, Evangelina Espósito, Iliana Garay, Rodolfo Monti, Alejandro Ruiz-Lascano, Leandro Correa, Horacio M. Serra, Andrzej Grzybowski Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - February 20, 2016 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - February 20, 2016 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Medicolegal issues
The legal landscape in dermatology is constantly evolving. Dermatologists should nurture strong physician-patient relationships with proper informed consent and stay abreast of legal issues as they pertain to today’s practice of medicine. Medicolegal issues that have risen to the forefront include wrong-site surgery, delegation of procedures to nonphysician operators, and compounding of medications. Additionally, although the marriage of health care and technology has facilitated our practice of medicine, it has opened doors to new medicolegal pitfalls associated with the use of electronic medical records, teledermat...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - January 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Abel Torres, Sailesh Konda, Tanya Nino, Emily de Golian Tags: Dermatologic Disquisitions and Other Essays Source Type: research

Patient expectations and performance measures in dermatologic surgery
Patient satisfaction has increasingly played an important role in quality-of-care reforms and health care delivery. In dermatologic surgery, patient expectations of procedures and the outcomes are important determinants of satisfaction. Identification of the patient's met and unmet expectations through patient-reported outcome measures may enable a better understanding of the patient's perspective and improve communication and the delivery of care. Performance measures report on the quality of care being delivered. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - January 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Erica H. Lee Tags: DERMATOLOGIC DISQUISITIONS AND OTHER ESSAYS Source Type: research

Leprosy in the Bible
For many years, the biblical term tzaraat has referred to leprosy. In fact, the disease or diseases described under this name have no relationship to leprosy, as it was known in the Middle Ages or today; moreover, the term referred not only to skin disease, but also to the state of the ritual impurity and punishment for the sins.Although the real nature of tzaraat remains unknown, the differential diagnosis might include the following: Psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, favus, dermatophyte infections, nummular dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, pityriasis rosea, crusted scabies, syphilis, impetigo, sycosis barbae, alopecia area...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - January 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Andrzej Grzybowski, Małgorzata Nita Source Type: research

Misericordia and leprosy in the 20th century
Leprosy, which in particular affects poor people of developing countries, was also a challenge for social and charitable activities. This was possible due to the engagement of “great community workers,” people who devoted their professional and family life, passions, and their own material goods to conduct socio-medical activities among leprosy affected persons. This contribution discusses the work of the lepro-activists of international fame, Albert Schweitzer and Mother Teresa of Calcutta, as well as those who are less well known, Wanda Maria Błeńska and Marian Żelazek. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - January 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Andrzej Grzybowski, Jarosław Sak, Krzysztof Korecki Tags: Clinics in Dermatology Source Type: research

Genetics of leprosy: Expected—and unexpected—developments and perspectives
A solid body of evidence produced over decades of intense research supports the hypothesis that leprosy phenotypes are largely dependent on the genetic characteristics of the host. The early evidence of a major gene effect controlling susceptibility to leprosy came from studies of familial aggregation, twins, and complex segregation analysis. Later, linkage and association analysis, first applied to the investigation of candidate genes and chromosomal regions and more recently, to genome-wide scans, have revealed several HLA and non-HLA gene variants as risk factors for leprosy phenotypes such as disease per se, its clinic...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - January 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Monica E.D. Sauer, Heloisa Salomão, Geovana B. Ramos, Helena R.S. D’Espindula, Rafael S.A. Rodrigues, Wilian C. Macedo, Renata H.M. Sindeaux, Marcelo T. Mira Tags: Clinics in Dermatology Source Type: research

Leprosy type 1 reaction (formerly reversal reaction)
Nerve damage leading to impairment and permanent disability is the major problem in the course of a leprosy infection. Most of the damage occurs during two types of leprosy reactions, type 1 reaction (T1R) and type 2 reaction (T2R). Timely and adequate treatment may prevent this damage.Particular T1R reactions, however, are often diagnosed too late and are even missed. Clinical symptoms and warning signs are therefore covered, as are the immunology and pathophysiology of nerve damage. The differences between upgrading and downgrading, old terms but still relevant, are explained. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - January 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Bernard Naafs, Colette L.M. van Hees Source Type: research

Leprosy: Between biblical descriptions to advances in immunology and diagnostic techniques
The drastic reduction of prevalence of leprosy after the introduction of the World Health Organization’s recommended regimes of multidrug therapy was not followed by a marked decrease in the incidence rate; this disease is still of concern in many countries in the developing world. Efforts to improve knowledge to reduce the burden of leprosy are still needed. Dermatologists are key partners to improve the quality of care of leprosy-affected persons, and Clinics in Dermatology (CID) brings its contribution in this connection, issuing two special issues dedicated to exploring a variety of aspects related to the disease...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - January 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Andrzej Grzybowski, Marcos Virmond Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Leprosy: Social implications from antiquity to the present
One of the most important dermatologic diseases from the sociologic viewpoint has been leprosy. Those with leprosy were isolated, excluded from society, and stigmatized. Such a stigma indicates the strong feeling that a leprosy patient is shameful and should not be accepted by society. During the first millennium, leprosy was rapidly inscribed in the system of religious prohibitions—the disease was a punishment by God for wrongdoing, and the disease was associated with the lower spheres of the society. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - January 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Andrzej Grzybowski, Jarosław Sak, Jakub Pawlikowski, Małgorzata Nita Source Type: research

Neuropathic pain in leprosy
Nerve impairment is a key clinical aspect of leprosy and may present the distribution of mononeuropathy or multiple nerve trunks, small cutaneous nerve fibers, and free nerve endings. The clinical range of leprosy is determined by individual cell-mediated immune response to infection that also may play a role in different types of pain syndromes in leprosy. Previous studies reported a high prevalence of neuropathic pain in leprosy. In an Ethiopian study with 48 patients, pure nociceptive pain was experienced by 43% of patients and pure neuropathic pain (NeP) by 11% of patients. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - January 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Irina Raicher, Patrick Raymond Nicolas Andre Ghislain Stump, Rosemari Baccarelli, Lucia H.S.C. Marciano, Somei Ura, Marcos C.L. Virmond, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Daniel Ciampi de Andrade Source Type: research

Advances in leprosy immunology and the field application: A gap to bridge
Advances concerning the hosts’ immune response to Mycobacterium leprae infection have focused on elucidating the immune pathomechanisms involved, with the hope that predictive diagnostic and prognostic parameters (biomarkers) for field use would emerge; however, improvements in our understanding of the immunologic responses to this complex disease have, to date, somewhat failed to provide the effective and robust methods for improving its predictive diagnosis in the field situation, particularly in those patients suffering from paucibacillary disease. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - January 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Vania Nieto Brito de Souza, Anand M. Iyer, David A. Lammas, Ben Naafs, Pranab Kumar Das Source Type: research

Imaging techniques in leprosy clinics
Leprosy is the most common treatable peripheral nerve disorder worldwide, with periods of acute neuritis leading to functional impairment of limbs and stigmatizing deformities. The nerve involvement in leprosy reactions, if recognized early and promptly treated with steroids and nerve release surgery, can be reversible. Currently, the nerve assessment in leprosy relies mainly on clinical assessment and nerve conduction studies. High-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) of peripheral nerves is finding wider application in the differential diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - January 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Suman Jain, Leo H. Visser, Sujai Suneetha Source Type: research

Rehabilitation of leprosy-affected people: An overview
Leprosy is mainly a disease of the skin and nerves. The involvement of nerves may lead to impairments that have, contributed to the fact that leprosy is often still seen as a disease to be feared. In non–leprosy-endemic Western countries, beliefs continue to prevail about the inevitability of deformities and the lack of a cure. I review the pathogenesis of deformity and to present a discourse on how deformities can, to a very large extent, be prevented and corrected. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - January 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: J. Wim Brandsma Source Type: research

History of chemotherapy of leprosy
Chemotherapy of leprosy over the past 70 years has passed through several phases, from sulfones, to clofazimine, and to highly bactericidal drugs like rifampicin. The use particularly of the more potent drugs in effective combinations and the development of standard multidrug therapy regimens have made a huge difference in the successful treatment of leprosy as well as in reducing tremendously the prevalence of leprosy globally. A major contributing factor to development of better drugs and drug combinations has been the introduction of the mouse footpad model to evaluate the in vivo activity of drugs against Mycobacterium...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - January 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Shaik K. Noordeen Source Type: research

Leprosy as a multilayered biosocial phenomenon: The comparison of institutional responses and illness narratives of an endemic disease in Brazil and an imported disease in Portugal
This paper questions the relation between human health and society from the case study of leprosy. To discuss the cultural and social mediator factors of both the experience of leprosy and outcomes of medical practices, it examines the biomedical twist in the dialectic between citizenship and public good that aimed to turn leprosy into a disease like any other, with the advent of multidrug therapy during the 1980s. Such analysis is based on a multisited ethnography, developed between 2008 and 2013 in two divergent contexts from the global South and North: Brazil, which remains the country in the world with the highest rela...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - January 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Alice Cruz Source Type: research

Assessing nerves in leprosy
Leprosy neuropathy is dependent on the patient’s immune response and expresses itself as a focal or multifocal neuropathy with asymmetric involvement. Leprosy neuropathy evolves chronically but recurrently develops periods of exacerbation during type 1 or type 2 reactions, leading to acute neuropathy. Nerve enlargement leading to entrapment syndromes is also a common manifestation. Pain may be either of inflammatory or neuropathic origin. A thorough and detailed evaluation is mandatory for adequate patient follow-up, including nerve palpation, pain assessment, graded sensory mapping, muscle power testing, and autonom...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - January 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: José Antonio Garbino, Carlos Otto Heise, Wilson Marques Source Type: research

Drug-resistant
Dapsone was used as a single drug to treat leprosy, and secondary resistance soon developed, greatly reducing its effectiveness. Multidrug therapy has been used successfully since 1982, and until now, only a few sporadic cases of rifampicin resistance have been reported. Surveillance is needed to make sure that chemotherapy for leprosy remains effective for the foreseeable future. This review is based on reports from the annual drug resistance surveillance meetings convened by the World Health Organization and related literature. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - January 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Paul R. Saunderson Source Type: research

Epidemiologic trends of leprosy for the 21st century
Major gaps still exist in the knowledge about leprosy, particularly with regard to how it spreads. Leprosy epidemiology remains complicated due to the specific characteristics of Mycobacterium leprae. To describe epidemiologic trends for the 21st century, the first part of this paper gives an overview of the epidemiology of leprosy, followed by past trends and the present situation of new-case detection as a proxy of the incidence. The third part, regarding predicted epidemiologic trends for the 21st century, elaborates on the main topic of this paper. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - January 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Pieter A.M. Schreuder, Salvatore Noto, Jan Hendrik Richardus Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - January 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - January 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

On the skin of a soldier: The story of flogging
After Farrier-Major Critton struck the 150th lash on the back of Private Frederick John White, at the end of a common disciplinary session at Hounslow Barracks, West London, in 1846, the soldier, whistling, walked himself to the infirmary to have his wounds dressed. His skin healed promptly, but 4 weeks later, he was found dead in his dormitory. The army medical officers, after performing an autopsy, reached the conclusion that the soldier had died from inflammation of internal organs but excluded any connection with flogging. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - November 1, 2015 Category: Dermatology Authors: Diana Garrisi Tags: Clio Dermatologica Source Type: research

Kids are not just little people: Pediatric versus adult dermatology approaches to skin diseases. Part I
“Children make your life important.”Erma BombeckMost of us in dermatology enjoy that we can treat patients of all ages. Who does not delight in caring for a young toddler after performing skin cancer screenings in grandparents for several hours? Who among us would not admit to enjoying caring for someone else’s teenager with a skin issue? The diversity of the age of our patients, as well as the diversity of diseases we diagnose, is likely listed high by most of us as to why we went into dermatology. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - November 1, 2015 Category: Dermatology Authors: Hanspaul S. Makkar, Jane M. Grant-Kels, Marti Jill Rothe Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Atopic dermatitis: Kids are not just little people
The approach to children and adults with atopic dermatitis is similar. In both age groups, failure to respond to conventional therapy should prompt evaluation for complicating factors such as secondary infection and secondary ACD. Immunologic, metabolic, genetic, and nutritional disorders should be considered in the differential diagnosis of refractory pediatric atopic dermatitis. Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL), cutaneous drug reactions, other spongiotic dermatoses, psoriasis, dermatomycosis, and infestations should be considered in the differential of refractory atopic dermatitis in adults. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - November 1, 2015 Category: Dermatology Authors: Smita Awasthi, Marti Jill Rothe, Lawrence F. Eichenfield Source Type: research

Allergic contact dermatitis: Kids are not just little people
Over the last ten years, there has been an increased awareness of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children, in addition to adults. Historically, ACD was not considered a significant disease in the pediatric population. This may have been due to failure to employ patch testing, which is the gold standard for establishing a diagnosis of ACD. A number of epidemiologic studies now reflect upon the significance of positive patch tests in children and its utility in diagnosing ACD. While there is significant overlap among the most common allergens in children and adults, the patterns of exposure and sources of allergens can...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - November 1, 2015 Category: Dermatology Authors: Bruce A. Brod, James R. Treat, Marti Jill Rothe, Sharon E. Jacob Source Type: research

Trichodystrophies: A hair-raising differential diagnosis
The appearance of an individual’s hair is said to be reflective of internal health. Patients with hair shaft disorders commonly present with fragile, lusterless, sparse hair in addition to psychosocial distress. Hair shaft disorders may be hereditary or acquired and may present in children or adults. Due to the varied presentations, the differential diagnosis for hair is broad and often confusing. The authors present a question-by-question guide to help clinicians arrive at the correct diagnosis. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - November 1, 2015 Category: Dermatology Authors: Alok Vij, Wilma F. Bergfeld Source Type: research

Alopecia: Kids are not just little people
Alopecia is a disorder that affects all patients, young and old. Many diagnoses, particularly the scarring alopecias, are more common in adults; however, others, such as tinea capitis, are more common in children, and some, such as alopecia areata, often affect both age groups. The approach to, and evaluation of, an alopecia patient is thus highly dependent on his or her age. In adults with diffuse, non-scarring hair loss, a part-width examination can help detect pattern hair loss, the most common cause of diffuse loss in this age group. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - November 1, 2015 Category: Dermatology Authors: Lynne J. Goldberg, Leslie A. Castelo-Soccio Source Type: research