Folk Remedies for Alopecia
“Patients shouldn't have to think that you can only take a potion at high noon or turn your back to the moon for the medicine to be effective,” said Jean-Pierre Georges Foucault (born 1947), a health expert who spoke about traditional medicine at the 19th Session of UNESCO's International Bioethics Committee in Paris, France. In the realm of folk medicine, superstition and science seamlessly interface. Some of history's most unusual dermatologic remedies have been for alopecia—a visual disease that has assaulted the vanity of men and women for millennia. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - July 1, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Rama Musa Tags: Dermatologic Disquisitions and Other Essays Source Type: research

Karl Holubar (1936–2013): Dermatologic Historian Par Excellence
Karl Holubar () was born on June 3, 1936 in Vienna, Austria, the son of Gottlieb and Therese Holubar. He attended local schools and matriculated at the University of Vienna Medical School, receiving his medical degree in 1960. He took his dermatology training under the long time chief of the Vienna department, Josef Tappeiner (1909–1996). For the rest of his professional life, dermatology would be joined with the history of dermatology not only for his intellectual curiosity but also as a vocation. These endeavours led to his becoming one of the most respected and recognized historians of dermatology worldwide during...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - July 1, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Andrzej Grzybowski, Lawrence Charles Parish, Daniel Wallach Tags: Caretaker of the Skin Source Type: research

Patch testing: Facts and controversies
Abstract: The German dermatologist, Josef Jadassohn (1863-1936), first presented the results of his innovative patch-testing technique in 1895. The safety and efficacy of this diagnostic tool has stood the test of time and is still the gold standard for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD).Since its discovery, much effort has been put into standardization and optimization of allergens, vehicles, and concentrations of patch-test materials; in procedures of its application; and in reading and scoring of test reactions—all contributing to the development of an accurate, reliable, and safe test with a high ...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - July 1, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Ronni Wolf, Edith Orion, Vincenzo Ruocco, Adone Baroni, Eleonora Ruocco Source Type: research

Contact dermatitis: Facts and controversies
Abstract: The history of contact dermatitis (CD) is inseparable from the history of the patch test, and the patch test is inseparable from the pioneer in the field, Josef Jadassohn (1860-1936). Despite the fact that we have been diagnosing, treating, and investigating the condition for more than 100 years, there are still many unsolved questions and controversies, which show no signs of coming to an end in the foreseeable future. This contribution reviews and highlights some of the disagreements and discrepancies associated with CD.For example:These are some of the controversial problems discussed. We have selected the one...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - July 1, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Ronni Wolf, Edith Orion, Eleonora Ruocco, Adone Baroni, Vincenzo Ruocco Source Type: research

Phacomatosis pigmento-pigmentaria: Should we add a new type of phacomatosis? Fact and controversies
We present our reasons for adding one or two new types of phacomatoses to the current classification, in full recognition that it is already complicated and somewhat cumbersome. We consider that the benefits of doing so outweigh any additional strain on the already complicated classification. We expect that this might not sit well with some of our colleagues, but we are prepared to do battle. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - July 1, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Ronni Wolf, Danny Wolf, Vincenzo Ruocco, Adone Baroni, Eleonora Ruocco Source Type: research

Skin diseases associated with Malassezia yeasts: Facts and controversies
Abstract: The implication of the yeast genus Malassezia in skin diseases has been characterized by controversy, since the first description of the fungal nature of pityriasis versicolor in 1846 by Eichstedt. This is underscored by the existence of Malassezia yeasts as commensal but also by their implication in diseases with distinct absence of inflammation despite the heavy fungal load (pityriasis versicolor) or with characteristic inflammation (eg, seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, folliculitis, or psoriasis).The description of 14 Malassezia species and subsequent worldwide epidemiologic studies did not reveal pat...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - July 1, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Georgios Gaitanis, Aristea Velegraki, Peter Mayser, Ioannis D. Bassukas Source Type: research

Treatment regimens, protocols, dosage, and indications for UVA1 phototherapy: Facts and controversies
We describe and discuss treatment regimens, protocols, dosage, and indications for UVA1 phototherapy. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - July 1, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Thilo Gambichler, Sarah Terras, Alexander Kreuter Source Type: research

Scleroderma: Nomenclature, etiology, pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatments: Facts and controversies
Abstract: Scleroderma refers to a heterogeneous group of autoimmune fibrosing disorders. The nomenclature of scleroderma has changed dramatically in recent years, with morphea (localized scleroderma), limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis, diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis, and systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma encompassing the currently accepted disease subtypes. Major advances have been made in the molecular studies of morphea and systemic sclerosis; however, their etiologies and pathogenesis remain incompletely understood. Although morphea and systemic sclerosis demonstrate activation of similar inflammatory and fib...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - July 1, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Nicole Fett Source Type: research

Role of infectious agents in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: Facts and controversies
Abstract: The etiology of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) remains unknown, with potential infectious causes having been explored. This contribution evaluates the evidence suggesting an infectious etiology and pathogenesis of the disease, characterizes the relationships between various specific pathogens and CTCL, and discusses some of the difficulties in establishing a causal link between infectious agents and CTCL carcinogenesis. Researchers have evaluated CTCL specimens for evidence of infection with a variety of agents, including human T-lymphotropic virus, Epstein-Barr virus, human herpesvirus-8, and Staphylococcus au...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - July 1, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Judah J. Mirvish, Rebecca G. Pomerantz, Louis D. Falo, Larisa J. Geskin Source Type: research

Kaposi’s sarcoma: Etiology and pathogenesis, inducing factors, causal associations, and treatments: Facts and controversies
Abstract: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), an angioproliferative disorder, has a viral etiology and a multifactorial pathogenesis hinged on an immune dysfunction. The disease is multifocal, with a course ranging from indolent, with only skin manifestations to fulminant, with extensive visceral involvement. In the current view, all forms of KS have a common etiology in human herpesvirus (HHV)-8 infection, and the differences among them are due to the involvement of various cofactors. In fact, HHV-8 infection can be considered a necessary but not sufficient condition for the development of KS, because further factors (genetic, immunol...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - July 1, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Eleonora Ruocco, Vincenzo Ruocco, Maria Lina Tornesello, Alessio Gambardella, Ronni Wolf, Franco M. Buonaguro Source Type: research

Bullous pemphigoid: Associations and management guidelines: Facts and controversies
Abstract: Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an organ-specific human autoimmune disease typical of the elderly, which may be associated with many different disorders (immune, neurologic, psychiatric, hematologic, pulmonary, and cardiovascular), as well as with different types of tumors. The crucial question is whether these associations are casual or causal. In particular, the relationship between BP and malignancy is still a matter of debate. Although this association often has been emphasized, it is not clear whether the coexistent malignancy and BP are pathogenically connected or if their association is merely linked to aging. ...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - July 1, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Eleonora Ruocco, Ronni Wolf, Stefano Caccavale, Gabriella Brancaccio, Vincenzo Ruocco, Ada Lo Schiavo Source Type: research

Bullous pemphigoid: Etiology, pathogenesis, and inducing factors: Facts and controversies
Abstract: The term pemphigoids includes a group of autoimmune bullous diseases characterized by subepidermal blistering. Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is not only the most common disorder within the pemphigoid group, but also represents the most frequent autoimmune blistering disease in general.The onset and course of BP depend on a variable interaction between predisposing and inducing factors. HLA genes are the most significant genetic predisposition factor to autoimmunity mechanisms. Many studies show an association between HLA-DQβ1*0301 and distinct clinical pemphigoid variants. Imbalance between autoreactive T helper (...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - July 1, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Ada Lo Schiavo, Eleonora Ruocco, Gabriella Brancaccio, Stefano Caccavale, Vincenzo Ruocco, Ronni Wolf Source Type: research

Pemphigus: Associations and management guidelines: Facts and controversies
Abstract: Pemphigus, a prototypical organ-specific human autoimmune disease, may be associated with other immunity-related disorders, viral infections, and different types of tumors. Coexistence with immune diseases is fairly frequent and, for some of them (eg, myasthenia gravis, Basedow’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, or lupus erythematosus), common pathogenic mechanisms can be considered. The association with viral infections (mainly herpesvirus infections) raises the question of whether the virus triggers the outbreak of the disease or simply complicates its clinical course. Neoplastic proliferations coexisting w...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - July 1, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Eleonora Ruocco, Ronni Wolf, Vincenzo Ruocco, Giampiero Brunetti, Francesca Romano, Ada Lo Schiavo Source Type: research

Pemphigus: Etiology, pathogenesis, and inducing or triggering factors: Facts and controversies
Abstract: Pemphigus includes a group of autoimmune bullous diseases with intraepithelial lesions involving the skin and Malpighian mucous membranes. Pemphigus vulgaris (PV), the most frequent and representative form of the group, is a prototypical organ-specific human autoimmune disorder with a poor prognosis in the absence of medical treatment.The pathomechanism of PV hinges on autoantibodies damaging cell–cell cohesion and leading to cell–cell detachment (acantholysis) of the epidermis and Malpighian mucosae (mainly oral mucosa). A controversy exists about which subset of autoantibodies is primarily pathogeni...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - July 1, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Vincenzo Ruocco, Eleonora Ruocco, Ada Lo Schiavo, Giampiero Brunetti, Luigi Pio Guerrera, Ronni Wolf Source Type: research

Anogenital malignancies and premalignancies: Facts and controversies
Abstract: Anogenital malignancies and premalignancies are an important personal/public health problem due to their effects on individuals' physical, mental, and sexual health. Also, due to their etiological association with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, anogenital malignancies and premalignancies constitute an immense public health burden. In addition to HPV infection, immunosuppression, HIV infection, chronic dermatoses, such as lichen sclerosis, previous radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatments, and smoking, are the other important etiopathologic factors in the development of anogenital malignancies and premalign...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - July 1, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Zekayi Kutlubay, Burhan Engin, Tuba Zara, Yalçın Tüzün Source Type: research

Behçet’s syndrome: Facts and controversies
Abstract: Behçet’s syndrome is a systemic vasculitis of small and large vessels affecting both veins and arteries. Almost all patients with Behçet’s syndrome have recurrent oral aphthae, followed by genital ulcers, variable skin lesions, such as erythema nodosum and papulopustuler lesions, arthritis, uveitis, thrombophlebitis, and gastrointestinal and central nervous system involvement. Recent epidemiologic works suggest that genetic factors are more important than environmental factors in its pathogenesis. European League Against Rheumatism guidelines were recently published for the treatment of ...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - July 1, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Cem Mat, Sebahattin Yurdakul, Ayşegül Sevim, Yılmaz Özyazgan, Yalçın Tüzün Source Type: research

Seborrheic dermatitis: Etiology, risk factors, and treatments: Facts and controversies
Abstract: Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a common skin condition seen frequently in clinical practice. The use of varying terms such as sebopsoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, seborrheic eczema, dandruff, and pityriasis capitis reflects the complex nature of this condition. Despite its frequency, much controversy remains regarding the pathogenesis of SD. This controversy extends to its classification in the spectrum of cutaneous diseases, having being classified as a form of dermatitis, a fungal disease, or an inflammatory disease, closely related with psoriasis. Some have postulated that SD is caused by Malassezia yeasts, ba...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - July 1, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Clio Dessinioti, Andreas Katsambas Source Type: research

Controversies in Dermatology: Part IV
Postcard from the Dave Thomson collection (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - July 1, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Ronni Wolf, Lawrence Charles Parish Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - July 1, 2013 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - July 1, 2013 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Erratum to Adjuvant immunotherapy of melanoma and development of new approaches using the neoadjuvant approach
In the contribution “Adjuvant immunotherapy of melanoma and development of new approaches using the neoadjuvant approach” by Diwakar Davar, Ahmad A. Tarhini, and John M. Kirkwood in the May/June 2013 issue (2013;31:237-250; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clindermatol.2012.08.012), there is an error on page 242. The corrected sentence is printed below. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - June 29, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Diwakar Davar, Ahmad A. Tarhini, John M. Kirkwood Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Folk Remedies for Alopecia
“Patients shouldn't have to think that you can only take a potion at high noon or turn your back to the moon for the medicine to be effective,” said Jean-Pierre Georges Foucault (born 1947), a health expert who spoke about traditional medicine at the 19th Session of UNESCO's International Bioethics Committee in Paris, France. In the realm of folk medicine, superstition and science seamlessly interface. Some of history's most unusual dermatologic remedies have been for alopecia—a visual disease that has assaulted the vanity of men and women for millennia. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - June 29, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Rama Musa Tags: Dermatologic Disquisitions and Other Essays Source Type: research

Karl Holubar (1936–2013): Dermatologic Historian Par Excellence
Karl Holubar () was born on June 3, 1936 in Vienna, Austria, the son of Gottlieb and Therese Holubar. He attended local schools and matriculated at the University of Vienna Medical School, receiving his medical degree in 1960. He took his dermatology training under the long time chief of the Vienna department, Josef Tappeiner (1909–1996). For the rest of his professional life, dermatology would be joined with the history of dermatology not only for his intellectual curiosity but also as a vocation. These endeavours led to his becoming one of the most respected and recognized historians of dermatology worldwide during...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - June 29, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Andrzej Grzybowski, Lawrence Charles Parish, Daniel Wallach Tags: Caretaker of the Skin Source Type: research

Patch testing: Facts and controversies
Abstract: The German dermatologist, Josef Jadassohn (1863-1936), first presented the results of his innovative patch-testing technique in 1895. The safety and efficacy of this diagnostic tool has stood the test of time and is still the gold standard for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD).Since its discovery, much effort has been put into standardization and optimization of allergens, vehicles, and concentrations of patch-test materials; in procedures of its application; and in reading and scoring of test reactions—all contributing to the development of an accurate, reliable, and safe test with a high ...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - June 29, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Ronni Wolf, Edith Orion, Vincenzo Ruocco, Adone Baroni, Eleonora Ruocco Source Type: research

Contact dermatitis: Facts and controversies
Abstract: The history of contact dermatitis (CD) is inseparable from the history of the patch test, and the patch test is inseparable from the pioneer in the field, Josef Jadassohn (1860-1936). Despite the fact that we have been diagnosing, treating, and investigating the condition for more than 100 years, there are still many unsolved questions and controversies, which show no signs of coming to an end in the foreseeable future. This contribution reviews and highlights some of the disagreements and discrepancies associated with CD.For example:These are some of the controversial problems discussed. We have selected the one...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - June 29, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Ronni Wolf, Edith Orion, Eleonora Ruocco, Adone Baroni, Vincenzo Ruocco Source Type: research

Phacomatosis pigmento-pigmentaria: Should we add a new type of phacomatosis? Fact and controversies
We present our reasons for adding one or two new types of phacomatoses to the current classification, in full recognition that it is already complicated and somewhat cumbersome. We consider that the benefits of doing so outweigh any additional strain on the already complicated classification. We expect that this might not sit well with some of our colleagues, but we are prepared to do battle. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - June 29, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Ronni Wolf, Danny Wolf, Vincenzo Ruocco, Adone Baroni, Eleonora Ruocco Source Type: research

Skin diseases associated with Malassezia yeasts: Facts and controversies
Abstract: The implication of the yeast genus Malassezia in skin diseases has been characterized by controversy, since the first description of the fungal nature of pityriasis versicolor in 1846 by Eichstedt. This is underscored by the existence of Malassezia yeasts as commensal but also by their implication in diseases with distinct absence of inflammation despite the heavy fungal load (pityriasis versicolor) or with characteristic inflammation (eg, seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, folliculitis, or psoriasis).The description of 14 Malassezia species and subsequent worldwide epidemiologic studies did not reveal pat...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - June 29, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Georgios Gaitanis, Aristea Velegraki, Peter Mayser, Ioannis D. Bassukas Source Type: research

Treatment regimens, protocols, dosage, and indications for UVA1 phototherapy: Facts and controversies
We describe and discuss treatment regimens, protocols, dosage, and indications for UVA1 phototherapy. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - June 29, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Thilo Gambichler, Sarah Terras, Alexander Kreuter Source Type: research

Scleroderma: Nomenclature, etiology, pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatments: Facts and controversies
Abstract: Scleroderma refers to a heterogeneous group of autoimmune fibrosing disorders. The nomenclature of scleroderma has changed dramatically in recent years, with morphea (localized scleroderma), limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis, diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis, and systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma encompassing the currently accepted disease subtypes. Major advances have been made in the molecular studies of morphea and systemic sclerosis; however, their etiologies and pathogenesis remain incompletely understood. Although morphea and systemic sclerosis demonstrate activation of similar inflammatory and fib...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - June 29, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Nicole Fett Source Type: research

Role of infectious agents in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: Facts and controversies
Abstract: The etiology of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) remains unknown, with potential infectious causes having been explored. This contribution evaluates the evidence suggesting an infectious etiology and pathogenesis of the disease, characterizes the relationships between various specific pathogens and CTCL, and discusses some of the difficulties in establishing a causal link between infectious agents and CTCL carcinogenesis. Researchers have evaluated CTCL specimens for evidence of infection with a variety of agents, including human T-lymphotropic virus, Epstein-Barr virus, human herpesvirus-8, and Staphylococcus au...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - June 29, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Judah J. Mirvish, Rebecca G. Pomerantz, Louis D. Falo, Larisa J. Geskin Source Type: research

Kaposi’s sarcoma: Etiology and pathogenesis, inducing factors, causal associations, and treatments: Facts and controversies
Abstract: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), an angioproliferative disorder, has a viral etiology and a multifactorial pathogenesis hinged on an immune dysfunction. The disease is multifocal, with a course ranging from indolent, with only skin manifestations to fulminant, with extensive visceral involvement. In the current view, all forms of KS have a common etiology in human herpesvirus (HHV)-8 infection, and the differences among them are due to the involvement of various cofactors. In fact, HHV-8 infection can be considered a necessary but not sufficient condition for the development of KS, because further factors (genetic, immunol...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - June 29, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Eleonora Ruocco, Vincenzo Ruocco, Maria Lina Tornesello, Alessio Gambardella, Ronni Wolf, Franco M. Buonaguro Source Type: research

Bullous pemphigoid: Associations and management guidelines: Facts and controversies
Abstract: Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an organ-specific human autoimmune disease typical of the elderly, which may be associated with many different disorders (immune, neurologic, psychiatric, hematologic, pulmonary, and cardiovascular), as well as with different types of tumors. The crucial question is whether these associations are casual or causal. In particular, the relationship between BP and malignancy is still a matter of debate. Although this association often has been emphasized, it is not clear whether the coexistent malignancy and BP are pathogenically connected or if their association is merely linked to aging. ...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - June 29, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Eleonora Ruocco, Ronni Wolf, Stefano Caccavale, Gabriella Brancaccio, Vincenzo Ruocco, Ada Lo Schiavo Source Type: research

Bullous pemphigoid: Etiology, pathogenesis, and inducing factors: Facts and controversies
Abstract: The term pemphigoids includes a group of autoimmune bullous diseases characterized by subepidermal blistering. Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is not only the most common disorder within the pemphigoid group, but also represents the most frequent autoimmune blistering disease in general.The onset and course of BP depend on a variable interaction between predisposing and inducing factors. HLA genes are the most significant genetic predisposition factor to autoimmunity mechanisms. Many studies show an association between HLA-DQβ1*0301 and distinct clinical pemphigoid variants. Imbalance between autoreactive T helper (...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - June 29, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Ada Lo Schiavo, Eleonora Ruocco, Gabriella Brancaccio, Stefano Caccavale, Vincenzo Ruocco, Ronni Wolf Source Type: research

Pemphigus: Associations and management guidelines: Facts and controversies
Abstract: Pemphigus, a prototypical organ-specific human autoimmune disease, may be associated with other immunity-related disorders, viral infections, and different types of tumors. Coexistence with immune diseases is fairly frequent and, for some of them (eg, myasthenia gravis, Basedow’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, or lupus erythematosus), common pathogenic mechanisms can be considered. The association with viral infections (mainly herpesvirus infections) raises the question of whether the virus triggers the outbreak of the disease or simply complicates its clinical course. Neoplastic proliferations coexisting w...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - June 29, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Eleonora Ruocco, Ronni Wolf, Vincenzo Ruocco, Giampiero Brunetti, Francesca Romano, Ada Lo Schiavo Source Type: research

Pemphigus: Etiology, pathogenesis, and inducing or triggering factors: Facts and controversies
Abstract: Pemphigus includes a group of autoimmune bullous diseases with intraepithelial lesions involving the skin and Malpighian mucous membranes. Pemphigus vulgaris (PV), the most frequent and representative form of the group, is a prototypical organ-specific human autoimmune disorder with a poor prognosis in the absence of medical treatment.The pathomechanism of PV hinges on autoantibodies damaging cell–cell cohesion and leading to cell–cell detachment (acantholysis) of the epidermis and Malpighian mucosae (mainly oral mucosa). A controversy exists about which subset of autoantibodies is primarily pathogeni...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - June 29, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Vincenzo Ruocco, Eleonora Ruocco, Ada Lo Schiavo, Giampiero Brunetti, Luigi Pio Guerrera, Ronni Wolf Source Type: research

Anogenital malignancies and premalignancies: Facts and controversies
Abstract: Anogenital malignancies and premalignancies are an important personal/public health problem due to their effects on individuals' physical, mental, and sexual health. Also, due to their etiological association with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, anogenital malignancies and premalignancies constitute an immense public health burden. In addition to HPV infection, immunosuppression, HIV infection, chronic dermatoses, such as lichen sclerosis, previous radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatments, and smoking, are the other important etiopathologic factors in the development of anogenital malignancies and premalign...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - June 29, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Zekayi Kutlubay, Burhan Engin, Tuba Zara, Yalçın Tüzün Source Type: research

Behçet’s syndrome: Facts and controversies
Abstract: Behçet’s syndrome is a systemic vasculitis of small and large vessels affecting both veins and arteries. Almost all patients with Behçet’s syndrome have recurrent oral aphthae, followed by genital ulcers, variable skin lesions, such as erythema nodosum and papulopustuler lesions, arthritis, uveitis, thrombophlebitis, and gastrointestinal and central nervous system involvement. Recent epidemiologic works suggest that genetic factors are more important than environmental factors in its pathogenesis. European League Against Rheumatism guidelines were recently published for the treatment of ...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - June 29, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Cem Mat, Sebahattin Yurdakul, Ayşegül Sevim, Yılmaz Özyazgan, Yalçın Tüzün Source Type: research

Seborrheic dermatitis: Etiology, risk factors, and treatments: Facts and controversies
Abstract: Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a common skin condition seen frequently in clinical practice. The use of varying terms such as sebopsoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, seborrheic eczema, dandruff, and pityriasis capitis reflects the complex nature of this condition. Despite its frequency, much controversy remains regarding the pathogenesis of SD. This controversy extends to its classification in the spectrum of cutaneous diseases, having being classified as a form of dermatitis, a fungal disease, or an inflammatory disease, closely related with psoriasis. Some have postulated that SD is caused by Malassezia yeasts, ba...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - June 29, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Clio Dessinioti, Andreas Katsambas Source Type: research

Controversies in Dermatology: Part IV
Postcard from the Dave Thomson collection (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - June 29, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Ronni Wolf, Lawrence Charles Parish Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - June 29, 2013 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - June 29, 2013 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Humility in medicine
Abstract: Becoming a physician comes with privilege and exciting opportunities. The rigor of academic medicine can be challenging. The ability to have humility as a physician is not only a sign of a good doctor, but it can be one of the most challenging attributes to maintain. My surgeon, Dr. Steven Kopits, embodied what it means to be a humble, yet accomplished physician. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - April 26, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Jennifer L. Arnold Tags: Dermatologic Disquisitions and Other Essays Source Type: research

Albert Szent-Györgyi (1893-1986): The scientist who discovered vitamin C
Abstract: Albert Szent-Györgyi, a Hungarian biochemist, discovered vitamin C and rutin (vitamin P). The role of these vitamins in the body and their application to dermatology is vast. For the discovery of vitamin C and the description of oxidation, Albert Szent-Györgyi received a Nobel Prize in medicine in 1937. He discovered the role of adenosine triphosphate, actin-myosin, and many phases of the Krebs cycle, and also initiated studies on the influence of free radicals in the formation of tumors. Between 1918 and 1946, he worked in many European research centers and between 1947 and 1986, in the United States. ...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - April 26, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Andrzej Grzybowski, Krzysztof Pietrzak Tags: Caretaker of the Skin Source Type: research

The Karabus Affair Speaks to Larger Issues for American Academic and Medical Centers
Finally, on March 12, 2013, a major American newspaper, The Wall Street Journal, reported on the plight of Dr. Cyril Karabus. Dr. Karabus is the 78-year-old pediatric oncologist from Claremont, Capetown, South Africa who is well known as the retired head of the Oncology and Hematology Unit of the Red Cross Children’s Hospital, University of Cape Town, as well as for his devoted service to poor children in the apartheid era. In 2002, he cared for a 3-year-old Yemeni girl with acute myelogenous leukemia during a locum tenens in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - April 26, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Leonard A. Zwelling, Razelle Kurzrock, Philip R. Cohen, Bernard Levin, Lawrence Charles Parish Tags: Letter from the Editor Source Type: research

What's new in prognostication of melanoma in the dermatopathology laboratory?
Abstract: With the advent of genetic and epigenetic research, molecular techniques could someday be used to discriminate nevus from melanoma so that ambiguous melanocytic lesions could be more accurately classified or that prognostication could be improved in melanoma patients. That promised day might be closer than realized. The last 20 years of research in cytogenetic and genetic alterations in melanoma have culminated in defined chromosomal lesions discriminating benign from malignant melanocytic tumors. Exploiting these differences, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can reproducibly discriminate unequivocal mel...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - April 26, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Haider K. Bangash, Alison Romegialli, Soheil S. Dadras Source Type: research

Metastatic melanoma in the older patient: Special considerations
Abstract: Cancer is a disease of older age where genomic instability, impaired DNA repair, and weakened immune surveillance against cancer are recognized to play a causative role. Because the incidence of melanoma is increasing at a very fast pace in the elderly and there is a rapid expansion of the aging population, a large number of elderly patients with metastatic melanoma will be encountered in clinical practice. As a result, significant burden is expected to be placed on health care resources as effective treatment of this condition is sought. Because melanoma is an immunogenic tumor and promising immune-based treatme...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - April 26, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Upendra P. Hegde, Jane M. Grant-Kels Source Type: research

Sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma: A critical update for dermatologists after two decades of experience
Abstract: The technique of lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy represents a minimally invasive approach to accurately stage the regional lymph node basin as a component of the initial management of selected patients with stage I and II cutaneous melanomas. In addition to its significant role in accurate regional nodal staging and prognosis, important goals of this procedure include improved regional disease control and possible survival benefit. After 20 years of experience, questions and some controversy persist. This review provides the dermatology community with a critical analysis of major publications that have...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - April 26, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Merrick I. Ross, Jeffrey E. Gershenwald Source Type: research

Chemotherapy in the management of advanced cutaneous malignant melanoma
Abstract: The recent past has witnessed unprecedented clinical progress in the treatment of advanced malignant melanoma through targeting of mutant BRAF in approximately 50% of patients and immune check point blockade in all patients. As has been well documented, responses to targeted therapy are of limited duration, and rates of clinical benefit to immunotherapy are modest. Given these factors, palliation of patients with chemotherapy remains an essential aspect of melanoma oncology. Many chemotherapeutics (and combinations with other agents, such as immunotherapy) have been evaluated in melanoma, although no chemotherapy...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - April 26, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Jason J. Luke, Gary K. Schwartz Source Type: research

The role of radiotherapy in the overall treatment of melanoma
Abstract: Radiotherapy has become an effective treatment in the management of melanoma patients. It has its place beneath surgical treatment options in a tumor entity that has only limited response to systemic medical therapies. New therapies, such as ipilimumab and vemurafenib, may prolong survival for several months but will cure only a few patients. Radiotherapy will still be required in adjuvant settings to reduce the local recurrence rate and in palliative situations, particularly in brain and bone metastasis. We review several indications for radiotherapy in the management of malignant melanoma with an effect on the ...
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - April 26, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Andrea Forschner, Vanessa Heinrich, Annette Pflugfelder, Friedegund Meier, Claus Garbe Source Type: research

Advances in therapy for melanoma brain metastases
Abstract: Melanoma cells frequently metastasize to the brain, and approximately 50% of patients with metastatic melanoma develop intracranial disease. Historically, central nervous system dissemination has portended a very poor prognosis. Recent advances in systemic therapies for melanoma, supported by improved local therapy control of brain lesions, have resulted in better median survival for these patients. We review current local and systemic approaches for patients with melanoma brain metastases. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)
Source: Clinics in Dermatology - April 26, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Jaclyn C. Flanigan, Lucia B. Jilaveanu, Veronica L. Chiang, Harriet M. Kluger Source Type: research