The Bigger Picture: Picking the Right Soap Box —Is it Possible to Connect with Different Audience Targets (Practitioners and Patients) from the Same Platform?
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 281-290 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1604258The use of Internet and social media has skyrocketed in the past decade. It did not take long until physicians realized that they could use social media as a tool for communication with patients and colleagues. Since then use of social media has exploded and the information that has become available for physicians and their patients is remarkable. In addition, because of the immediacy of the platform, messages that are incorrect or not desired can be rapidly promoted, whether deliberately or accidentally. To obtain the best use of social media...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - September 12, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Abbass, Mohammed Ali A. Keshava, Hari B. Delaney, Conor P. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Breaking International Barriers: #ColorectalSurgery Is #GlobalSurgery
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 277-280 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1604257Colorectal surgeons have lagged behind other professionals in the use of social media. Currently, Twitter is the most widely utilized social platform for professional purposes among them. Connection and contagion are the two key actions that, together with immediate feedback and quantifiable impact, favor the use of Twitter over other social networks. In early 2016, a group of colorectal surgeons launched the #colorectalsurgery hashtag and, in less than 1 year, the ecosystem has incorporated over 2,600 users that generated over 24,000 t...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - September 12, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Mayol, Julio Otero, Jaime Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

The Trump Effect: With No Peer Review, How Do We Know What to Really Believe on Social Media?
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 270-276 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1604256Social media is a source of news and information for an increasing portion of the general public and physicians. The recent political election was a vivid example of how social media can be used for the rapid spread of “fake news” and that posts on social media are not subject to fact-checking or editorial review. The medical field is susceptible to propagation of misinformation, with poor differentiation between authenticated and erroneous information. Due to the presence of social “bubbles,” surgeons may not be aware ...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - September 12, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Brady, Justin T. Kelly, Molly E. Stein, Sharon L. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

How Can Social Media Get Us in Trouble?
This article reviews the dangers of social media and illustrates this with examples of unprofessional behavior and the associated consequences. It also provides recommendations for maintaining a professional and productive online persona. Surgeons must understand the various social media platforms and their target audience while upholding online professionalism at all times. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - September 12, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Langenfeld, Sean J. Batra, Rishi Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Changing the Rules of the Game: How Do We Measure Success in Social Media?
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 259-263 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1604254Ours will be the generation proud to say we shifted the sands of educational deserts by open access and proliferation, seeding of data sharing, and watering grassroots research in resource-compromised environments. Universal “social” media is defining features of modern professional life that provide powerful modes of knowledge acquisition/sharing to that end. Altmetric and other measurements stratify academic communications according to this alternate, online media presence (not academic penetrance). Are they meaningless, self-abs...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - September 12, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Hogan, Aisling M. Winter, Desmond C. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

What Does the Future Hold for Scientific Journals? Visual Abstracts and Other Tools for Communicating Research
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 252-258 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1604253Journals fill several important roles within academic medicine, including building knowledge, validating quality of methods, and communicating research. This section provides an overview of these roles and highlights innovative approaches journals have taken to enhance dissemination of research. As journals move away from print formats and embrace web-based content, design-centered thinking will allow for engagement of a larger audience. Examples of recent efforts in this realm are provided, as well as simplified strategies for developing visu...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - September 12, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Nikolian, Vahagn C. Ibrahim, Andrew M. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Social Media: Changing the Paradigm for Surgical Education
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 244-251 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1604252The role of social media (SoMe) in surgical education is emerging as a tool that augments and complements traditional learning. As SoMe usage has steadily increased in our personal and professional lives, it is no surprise that it has permeated into surgical education. Different SoMe sites offer distinct platforms from which knowledge can be transmitted, while catering to various learning styles. The purpose of this review is to outline the various SoMe platforms and their use in surgical education. Moreover, it will discuss their effectivenes...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - September 12, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Petrucci, Andrea M. Chand, Manish Wexner, Steven D. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

How Does Information Spread on Social Media Lead to Effective Change?
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 240-243 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1604251Social media encompasses computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks. The key, of course, is the ability and willingness for information to be shared. But why does some information spread on social media and not others? What factors translate social media awareness to action? In this article, we explore these themes using case studies, as well as tips on how you can utilize social media to effectively champion a cause. [...] Th...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - September 12, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Varghese, Thomas K. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

History of Social Media in Surgery
This article chronicles that history. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - September 12, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Logghe, Heather J. McFadden, Cedrek L. Tully, Natalie J. Jones, Christian Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Getting Started: A Social Media Primer
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 227-232 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1604249Social media use has increased both in the general public and in the surgical profession. A variety of social media platforms have been used, with Twitter being one of the most common and interactive platforms. Common uses by surgeons and scientists for social media include dissemination of information, information exchange, education, research recruitment, community consultation for clinical trials, and hospital or surgeon ratings. As social media use increases, a new language as well as metrics has been developed to track impact and reach of...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - September 12, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Ferguson, Dalya M. Kao, Lillian S. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Guest Editor's Comment: #SoMe
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 225-226 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1604248 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - September 12, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Cologne, Kyle G. Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Kyle G. Cologne, MD, FACS, FASCRS
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 223-224 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1604247 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - September 12, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Steele, Scott R. Tags: Introduction to Guest Editor Source Type: research

Technical Considerations in Stoma Creation
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1598156Creating an intestinal stoma is commonly the final aspect of an often emergent and complicated operation under difficult circumstances. While creation of a protruding, tension-free, and well-vascularized stoma is often straightforward, one must be prepared for challenging situations such as a thick abdominal wall and short, thickened mesentery. A successful stoma starts with attentive preoperative planning including site marking, thoughtful consideration of alternatives, and attention to technical detail. The tips provided in this article should facilitate the ...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - May 22, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Whitehead, Alia Cataldo, Peter A. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Preoperative Considerations for the Ostomate
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1598155Intestinal stomas significantly impact patients' quality of life. Stoma-related complications are common, but even without complications, patients are faced with new challenges in stoma management and daily activities. Preoperative patient education and stoma site marking, in conjunction with conscientious surgical stewardship, are key to patient satisfaction and successful operative outcomes. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |&n...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - May 22, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Wasserman, Molly A. McGee, Michael F. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Intestinal Stomas —Postoperative Stoma Care and Peristomal Skin Complications
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1598159Intestinal stomas are necessary for several colon and rectal conditions and represent a major change in the new ostomate's daily life. Though dehydration is the most frequent etiology requiring readmission, irritant contact dermatitis and a host of other peristomal skin conditions are more common complications for ostomates. Wound, ostomy, and continence nurses are invaluable resources to both ostomy patients and providers. A few simple interventions can prevent or resolve most common peristomal complications. Good stoma care is possible in a resource-poor envi...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - May 22, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Steinhagen, Emily Colwell, Janice Cannon, Lisa M. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Considerations in Stoma Reversal
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1598157Temporary stomas are frequently used in the management of diverticulitis, colorectal cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. These temporary stomas are used to try to mitigate septic complications from anastomotic leaks and to avoid the need for reoperation. Once acute medical conditions have improved and after the anastomosis has been proven to be healed, stomas can be reversed. Contrast enemas, digital rectal examination, and endoscopic evaluation are used to evaluate the anastomosis prior to reversal. Stoma reversal is associated with complications including...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - May 22, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Sherman, Karen L. Wexner, Steven J. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Use of Bowel in Reconstructive Urology: What a Colorectal Surgeon Should Know
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1598162Urologists routinely use bowel in the reconstruction of the urinary tract. With an increasing prevalence of urinary diversions, it is important for surgeons to have a basic understanding of varied use and configuration of bowel segments in urinary tract reconstruction that may be encountered during abdominal surgery. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview of the various reconstructive urological surgeries requiring bowel and to guide physicians on how to manage these patients with urinary diversions. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - May 22, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Morrison, Christopher D. Kielb, Stephanie J. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

The Role of Temporary Fecal Diversion
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1598158The use of temporary fecal diversion is of great importance to tenuous anastomosis, immunosuppressed patient, or actively infected patient. Its use protects newly constructed intestinal anastomoses from being the culprit of pelvic sepsis or systemic illness. Thus, potential morbidity and mortality can be averted. However, its appropriate or optimal use is often debated. We herein discuss the evidence for when to best use a diverting stoma for colorectal, coloanal, and ileoanal anastomoses. We also discuss the importance of considering a temporary diverting stom...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - May 22, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Lightner, Amy L. Pemberton, John H. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Stoma Complications
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1598160When created properly, an ileostomy or colostomy can dramatically improve a patient's quality of life. Conversely, when a patient develops complications related to their stoma, the impact on physical and mental health can be profound. Unfortunately, significant morbidity is associated with stoma creation conveying high rates of both early and late-term complications. Early complications include stomal ischemia/necrosis, retraction, mucocutaneous separation, and parastomal abscess. Late complications include parastomal hernia, prolapse, retraction, and varices. ...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - May 22, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Krishnamurty, Devi Mukkai Blatnik, Jeffrey Mutch, Matthew Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Sexual Dysfunction and Intimacy for Ostomates
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1598161Sex and intimacy presents special challenges for the ostomate. Since some colorectal surgery patients will require either temporary or permanent stomas, intimacy and sexuality is a common issue for ostomates. In addition to the stoma, nerve damage, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are often used in conjunction with stoma creation for cancer patients, thereby adding physiological dysfunction to the personal psychological impact of the stoma, leading to sexual dysfunction. The purpose of this paper is to describe the prevalence, etiology, and the most common types ...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - May 22, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Albaugh, Jeffrey A. Tenfelde, Sandi Hayden, Dana M. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Management of Intestinal Failure: The High-Output Enterostomy and Enterocutaneous Fistula
This article provides an overview of the pathophysiology, causes, investigations, and management of high-output enterostomy and enterocutaneous fistula. High-output stoma and enterocutaneous fistula can result in intestinal failure and this is often fatal if not managed properly. The management involves reducing fluid losses, providing nutrients with fluids, and treating the underlying cause and sepsis. A multidisciplinary approach is required for successful management of patients with high-output enterostomy and enterocutaneous fistula. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - May 22, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Adaba, Franklin Vaizey, Carolynne J. Warusavitarne, Janindra Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

An Open Letter to Surgeons from an Ostomate
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1598154 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - May 22, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Aukett, Kenneth W. Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Michael Francis McGee, MD, FACS, FASCRS
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1598153 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - May 22, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Steele, Scott R. Tags: Introduction to Guest Editor Source Type: research

The Plight of the Ostomate
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1598627 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - May 22, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: McGee, Michael F. Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Combined Endoscopic Laparoscopic Surgery Procedures for Colorectal Surgery
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 145-150 DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1597321Colonoscopy is the standard of care for screening and surveillance of colorectal cancers. Removal of adenomatous polyps prevents the transformation of adenomas to potential adenocarcinoma. While most polyps are amenable to simple endoscopic polypectomy, difficult polyps that are large, broad-based, or located in haustral folds or in tortuous colon segments can present a challenge for endoscopists. Traditionally, patients with endoscopically unresectable polyps have been referred for oncologic surgical resection due to the underlying risk of ma...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - April 4, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Placek, Sarah B. Nelson, Jeffrey Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Colonoscopy: Advanced and Emerging Techniques —A Review of Colonoscopic Approaches to Colorectal Conditions
The objective of this article is to familiarize the colorectal surgeon with techniques utilized by advanced endoscopists. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - April 4, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Kumar, Anjali S. Lee, Jennifer Kim Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Tips, Tricks, and Technique for Laparoscopic Colectomy
This article outlines the pros and cons of each of these factors. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - April 4, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Briggs, Alexandra Goldberg, Joel Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision: A Novel Approach to Rectal Surgery
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 120-129 DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1597314Less invasive approaches continue to be explored and refined for diseases of the colon and rectum. The current gold standard for the surgical treatment of rectal cancer, total mesorectal excision (TME), is a technically precise yet demanding procedure with outcomes measured by both oncologic and functional outcomes (including bowel, urinary, and sexual). To date, the minimally invasive approach to rectal cancer has not yet been perfected, leaving ample opportunity for rectal surgeons to innovate. Transanal TME has recently emerged as a safe an...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - April 4, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Suwanabol, Pasithorn A. Maykel, Justin A. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Transanal Minimally Invasive Surgery
In this study, we review the development of TES, its early results, and the evolution of new surgical techniques. In addition, we evaluate the most recent research on indications and outcomes in rectal cancer. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - April 4, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Thompson, Earl V. Bleier, Joshua I. S. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Laparoscopy for Rectal Cancer
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 104-111 DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1597316It is evident that the use of laparoscopy in the management of rectal cancer has gained popularity in the last few years. It is still, however, not widely accepted as the standard of care. Multiple randomized trials have shown that short-term outcomes and perioperative morbidity and mortality of laparoscopic proctectomy are equivalent to open surgery. However, data regarding long-term oncologic outcomes are still scarce, with only a few randomized trials reporting similar outcomes in both laparoscopic and open group. A more recent trial failed...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - April 4, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Atallah, Chady Efron, Jonathan E. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Laparoscopy for Colon Cancer
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 099-103 DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1597317The use of laparoscopy has become widespread across many surgical specialties. Its utility as treatment for colon cancer was initially met with hesitancy due to concern for port site and wound recurrences; however, this was later disproven by large retrospective series. Subsequently, there have been multiple, large, prospective, randomized studies evaluating laparoscopic versus open colectomy for colon cancer. All studies yielded similar results and showed no statistical difference in overall survival, disease-free survival, and recurrence. Ad...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - April 4, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Franklin, Brenton R. McNally, Michael P. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Laparoscopy for Benign Diseases of the Colon
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 091-098 DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1597318Laparoscopic surgery has revolutionized the delivery of care to the surgical patient undergoing colorectal resection. Since the first laparoscopic-assisted colectomy in 1991, significant advances have been made in minimally invasive colorectal surgery. For many benign conditions, laparoscopic colectomy has been proven to be safe and effective, and in some instances superior when compared with open surgery. Complex laparoscopic resections such as those for diverticulitis and inflammatory bowel disease have also been shown to have equivalent out...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - April 4, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Smith, Radhika Maron, David J. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Laparoscopy, Endoscopy, and Minimally Invasive Colorectal Surgery
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 089-090 DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1597319 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - April 4, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Duncan, James E. Tags: Preface Source Type: research

James E. Duncan, MD, FACS, FASCRS
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 087-088 DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1597320 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - April 4, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Steele, Scott R. Tags: Introduction to Guest Editor Source Type: research

The Importance of Scholarly Integrity and Facts in Academic Publications in Today's World: An Editor and Publisher's View
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: vii-vii DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1600123 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - April 4, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Schiff, Daniel Steele, Scott R. Tags: Publisher's Note Source Type: research

Jason S. Mizell, MD, FACS, FASCRS
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 001-002 DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1593435 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - December 28, 2016 Category: Surgery Authors: Steele, Scott R. Tags: Introduction to Guest Editor Source Type: research

Functional Disorders: Slow-Transit Constipation
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 076-086 DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1593436Constipation is a very common complaint, with slow-transit constipation (STC) accounting for a significant proportion of cases. Old age, female gender, psychiatric illness, and history of sexual abuse are all associated with STC. The exact cause of STC remains elusive; however, multiple immune and cellular changes have been demonstrated. Diagnosis requires evidence of slowed colonic transit which may be achieved via numerous modalities. While a variety of medical therapies exist, these are often met with limited success and a minority of patie...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - December 22, 2016 Category: Surgery Authors: Tillou, John Poylin, Vitaliy Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Functional Disorders: Rectocele
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 063-075 DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1593425Rectoceles are a very common finding in patients, and symptoms most commonly include pelvic pain, pressure, or difficulty with passing stool. However, there are often other associated pelvic floor disorders that accompany rectoceles, making the clinical significance of it in an individual patient often hard to determine. When evaluating a patient with a rectocele, a thorough history and physical exam must be conducted to help delineate other causes of these symptoms. Treatment consists of addressing other defecatory disorders through various m...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - December 22, 2016 Category: Surgery Authors: Mustain, W. Conan Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Abdominal Approaches to Rectal Prolapse
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 057-062 DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1593426Rectal prolapse is a debilitating condition with a complex etiology. Symptoms are most commonly prolapse of the rectum and pain with bowel movements or straining, with worsening fecal incontinence over time due to progressive stretching of the anal sphincters. Physical findings are fairly consistent from patient to patient—most notably diastasis of the levator ani muscles, deep pouch of Douglas, redundant sigmoid colon, a mobile mesorectum, and occasionally a solitary rectal ulcer. Evaluation includes a physical exam or imaging demonstra...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - December 22, 2016 Category: Surgery Authors: Joubert, Kyla Laryea, Jonathan A. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Methods of Evaluation of Anorectal Causes of Obstructed Defecation
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 046-056 DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1593427Obstructed defecation is a complex disorder that results in impaired propagation of stool from the rectum. It is one of the major subtypes of functional constipation and can be secondary to either functional or anatomic etiologies. Patients with obstructed defecation typically present with symptoms of abdominal discomfort, a sensation of incomplete evacuation and rectal obstruction, passage of hard stools, the need for rectal or vaginal digitation, excessive straining, and reduced stool frequency. Evaluation of obstructed defecation is multimo...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - December 22, 2016 Category: Surgery Authors: Fabrizio, Anne C. Alimi, Yewande Kumar, Anjali S. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Volvulus of the Small Bowel and Colon
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 040-045 DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1593428Volvulus of the intestines may involve either the small bowel or colon. In the pediatric population, small bowel volvulus is more common, while in the adult population, colonic volvulus is more often seen. The two most common types of colonic volvulus include sigmoid and cecal volvulus. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is imperative, otherwise bowel ischemia may ensue. Treatment often involves emergent surgical exploration and bowel resection. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - December 22, 2016 Category: Surgery Authors: Kapadia, Muneera R. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Intestinal Intussusception: Etiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 030-039 DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1593429Intussusception is defined as the invagination of one segment of the bowel into an immediately adjacent segment of the bowel. Idiopathic ileocolic intussusception is the most common form in children and is typically managed with nonoperative reduction via pneumatic and/or hydrostatic enemas. In the adult population, intussusception is uncommon and occurs more often in the small intestine than in the colon. It is associated with lead point pathology in most symptomatic cases presenting as bowel obstruction. When lead point pathology is present ...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - December 22, 2016 Category: Surgery Authors: Marsicovetere, Priscilla Ivatury, S. Joga White, Brent Holubar, Stefan D. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Functional Disorders of Constipation: Paradoxical Puborectalis Contraction and Increased Perineal Descent
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 022-029 DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1593430Paradoxical puborectalis contraction (PPC) and increased perineal descent (IPD) are subclasses of obstructive defecation. Often these conditions coexist, which can make the evaluation, workup, and treatment difficult. After a thorough history and examination, workup begins with utilization of proven diagnostic modalities such as cinedefecography and anal manometry. Advancements in technology have increased the surgeon's diagnostic armamentarium. Biofeedback and pelvic floor therapy have proven efficacy for both conditions as first-line treatme...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - December 22, 2016 Category: Surgery Authors: Payne, Isaac Grimm, Leander M. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Medical Management of Rectal Prolapse
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 016-021 DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1593431Full-thickness rectal prolapse, or procidentia, is the passage of the full-thickness wall of the rectum beyond the anal sphincters. This condition results in pain and fecal incontinence which greatly impairs the quality of life of those afflicted. It is associated with several anatomic abnormalities, including decreased anal sphincter tone, levator muscle diastasis, and a deep anterior cul-de-sac. The diagnosis of rectal prolapse is made based on physical examination, although several other modalities are used to provide additional information...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - December 22, 2016 Category: Surgery Authors: Cannon, Jamie A. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Perineal Approaches to Rectal Prolapse
We present risks and benefits along with a description of perineal approaches for surgical treatment of rectal prolapse. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - December 22, 2016 Category: Surgery Authors: Barfield, Louis R. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Functional Disorders: Rectoanal Intussusception
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 005-011 DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1593433Rectoanal intussusception is an invagination of the rectal wall into the lumen of the rectum. Patients may present with constipation, incomplete evacuation, incontinence, or may be asymptomatic. Defecography has been the gold standard for detection. Magnetic resonance imaging defecography and dynamic anal endosonography are alternatives to conventional defecography. However, both methods are not as sensitive as conventional defecography. Treatment options range from conservative/medical treatment such as biofeedback to surgical procedures such...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - December 22, 2016 Category: Surgery Authors: Blaker, Kristen Anandam, Joselin L. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Approaches and Treatment of Intussusception, Volvulus, Rectal Prolapse, and Functional Disorders of the Colon, Rectum, and Anus
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2017; 30: 003-004 DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1593434 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - December 22, 2016 Category: Surgery Authors: Mizell, Jason S. Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Prevention of Colorectal Neoplasia
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2016; 29: 353-362 DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1584086Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. There are well-established screening protocols involving fecal testing, radiographic, and endoscopic evaluations that have led to decreased incidence and mortality of CRC in the United States. In addition to screening for CRC, there is interest in preventing colorectal neoplasia by targeting the signaling pathways that have been identified in the pathway of dysplasia progressing to carcinoma. This review will detail the efficacy of multipl...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - November 21, 2016 Category: Surgery Authors: Dolejs, Scott C. Gayed, Benjamin Fajardo, Alyssa Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Genetic Testing for Polyposis Syndromes
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2016; 29: 345-352 DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1584087Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer diagnosed in the United States with up to 3% of cases being attributable to a hereditary polyposis syndrome. Established diagnostic and/or testing criteria exist for many of the recognized polyposis syndromes and are an important tool in guiding physicians in the identification of individuals who may benefit from referral to a cancer genetics service for hereditary cancer risk assessment. A formal hereditary cancer risk assessment supports fulfillment of obligations for standard of care, as wel...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - November 21, 2016 Category: Surgery Authors: Pyrtel, Khateriaa Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Serrated Polyps and Serrated Polyposis Syndrome
This article reviews serrated polyps and serrated polyposis syndrome. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery)
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - November 21, 2016 Category: Surgery Authors: Ashburn, Jean H. Plesec, Thomas P. Kalady, Matthew F. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research