Angiotensin II Type 1 receptor blockade restores angiotensin-(1-7)-induced coronary vasodilation in hypertrophic rat hearts
The purpose of this study was to investigate the coronary effects of angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) in hypertrophic rat hearts. Heart hypertrophy was induced by abdominal aorta coarctation (CoA). Ang-(1-7) and AVE 0991, a non-peptide Mas-receptor agonist, at picomolar concentration, induced a significant vasodilation in hearts from sham-operated rats. These effects were blocked by Mas receptor antagonist A-779. Pretreatment with L-NAME or ODQ (nitric oxide synthase and soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, respectively) also abolished the effect of Ang-(1-7) in control hearts. The coronary vasodilation produced by Ang-(1-7) and AV...
Source: Clinical Science - May 29, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Á Paulo da Silva Souza, D Bruce de Sousa Sobrinho, J Fernandes Queiroz de Almeida, G Maria Melo Alves, L Matuda Macedo, J Estevão Porto, E Franco Vêncio, D Basile Colugnati, R Augusto Souza dos Santos, A José Ferreira, E Pereira Mendes, C Henrique de Source Type: research

Acute Regulation of Pancreatic Islet Microcirculation And Glycemia By Telmisartan and Ramipril: Discordant Effects Between Normal And Type 2 Diabetic Rats
In conclusion, the present study suggests that a local pancreatic RAS, sensitive to acute administration of telmisartan and ramipril, controls pancreatic islet blood flow and insulin secretion and thereby impacting glucose tolerance. Our findings indicate unexpected significant differences of these agents on islet microcirculation, in vivo insulin secretion and glycemia between healthy and type 2 diabetic rats. (Source: Clinical Science)
Source: Clinical Science - May 28, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: A Olverling, Z Huang, T Nyström, Å Sjöholm Source Type: research

Effects of caloric intake timing on insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome
In PCOS women, hyperinsulinemia stimulates ovarian cytochrome P450c17α activity that, in turn, stimulates ovarian androgen production. Our objective was to compare whether timed caloric intake differentially influences insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism in lean PCOS women. Sixty lean PCOS women (BMI 23.7±0.2kg/m2) were randomized into two isocaloric (~1800kcal) maintenance diets with different meal timing distribution: a breakfast diet (BF) (980kcal breakfast, 640kcal lunch, 190kcal dinner) or a dinner diet (D) group (190kcal breakfast, 640kcal lunch, 980kcal dinner) for 90 days. In the BF group, a signif...
Source: Clinical Science - May 20, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: D Jakubowicz, M Barnea, J Wainstein, O Froy Source Type: research

Human parainfluenza type 3 virus impairs the efficacy of glucocorticoids to limit allergy-induced pulmonary inflammation in guinea pigs.
Viral exacerbations of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation in preclinical models reportedly reduce the efficacy of glucocorticoids to limit pulmonary inflammation and airways hyperesponsiveness to inhaled spasmogens. However exacerbations of airway obstruction induced by allergen challenge has not yet been studied. Human parainflueza type 3 virus (hPIV-3) inoculation of guinea pigs increased inflammatory cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and caused hyperesponsiveness to inhaled histamine. Both responses were abolished by treatment with either dexamethasone (20 mg/kg, s.c, o.d.) or fluticasone propio...
Source: Clinical Science - May 17, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: W R Ford, A E Blair, R L. Evans, E John, J J Bugert, K J Broadley, E J Kidd Source Type: research

Parathyroid hormone-related protein is induced by hypoxia and promotes expression of the differentiated phenotype of human articular chondrocytes
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is crucial for normal cartilage development and long bone growth and acts to delay chondrocyte hypertrophy and terminal differentiation in the growth plate. After growth plate closure adult human articular chondrocytes still produce PTHrP suggesting a possible role for this factor in the permanent articular cartilage. However, the expression regulation and function of PTHrP in the permanent articular cartilage is unknown. Human articular cartilage is an avascular tissue and functions in a hypoxic environment. The resident chondrocytes have adapted to hypoxia and use it to drive t...
Source: Clinical Science - May 10, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: M Pelosi, S Lazzarano, B L Thoms, C L Murphy Source Type: research

Amiodarone inhibits the entry and assembly steps of Hepatitis C virus life cycle
Hepatitis C virus infection affects an estimated 180 million people in the world’s population. Adverse effects occurred frequently with current standard treatment of interferon and ribavirin, while resistance of new direct anti-viral agents, NS3 protease inhibitors, is a major concern due to their single anti-HCV mechanism against the viral factor. New anti-viral agents are needed to resolve the problems. Amiodarone, an anti-arrhythmic drug, has recently shown to inhibit hepatitis C virus infection in vitro. The detail mechanism has yet been clarified. The current study was to elucidate the molecular mechanism of inh...
Source: Clinical Science - May 9, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Y Cheng, K Lan, W Lee, S Tseng, L Hung, H Lin, F Lee, S Lee, K Lan Source Type: research

Endothelin 1 and 3 induce choleresis in the rat through ETB receptors coupled to nitric oxide and vago-vagal reflexes
Conclusion: ET-1 and 3 induced choleresis mediated by ETB receptors coupled to nitric oxide release and vago-vagal reflexes without involving hemodynamic changes. ET-induced choleresis seems to be caused by increased plasma membrane translocation and transcriptional expression of key bile transporters. These findings indicate that ETs are able to elicit hemodynamic-independent biological effects in the liver and suggest that these peptides may play a beneficial role in pathophysiological situations where bile secretion is impaired. (Source: Clinical Science)
Source: Clinical Science - May 3, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: M R Rodriguez, L R Soria, M S Ventimiglia, A C Najenson, A di Maria, P Dabas, A Fellet, R A Marinelli, M S Vatta, L G Bianciotti Source Type: research

Perturbations in skeletal muscle sarcomere structure of heart failure and type 2 diabetes patients: Restorative effects of (-)-epicatechin-rich cocoa
We report severe perturbations in components of the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC) as well as sarcomeric microstructure at baseline. ERC induced recovery/enhancement of DAPC protein levels, sarcomeric microstructure and in a coordinated fashion alterations in markers of skeletal muscle growth/differentiation consistent with myofiber regeneration. VO2 max increased (~24%) but did not reach statistical significance. These initial results warrant further rigorous investigation, since the use of ERC (or pure epicatechin) may represent a safe and novel means of improving muscle function. (Source: Clinical Science)
Source: Clinical Science - May 3, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: P R Taub, I Ramirez-Sanchez, T P Ciaraldi, S Gonzalez-Basurto, R Coral-Vazquez, G Perkins, M Hogan, A S Maisel, R R Henry, G Ceballos, F Villarreal Source Type: research

Fetuin-A mRNA expression is elevated in NASH compared to NAFL patients
Background: Fetuin-A is a pro-inflammatory protein expressed by hepatocytes. Its course in morbidly obese patients with NAFLD following weight loss by bariatric surgery (BAS) has not been fully elucidated yet. In the present study, we prospectively examined the effects of weight loss on various metabolic factors 4 weeks and 6 months after surgery. Patients and Methods: Blood and liver tissues were retrieved from 108 morbidly obese patients before/during BAS whereas 50 individuals met the criteria of NASH. Fetuin-A expression was measured by qrtPCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Hepatocyte apoptosis was quantified...
Source: Clinical Science - April 30, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: A Kahraman, J Sowa, M Schlattjan, S Sydor, M Pronadl, A Wree, A Beilfuss, A Kilicarslan, A Altınbaş, L Peter Bechmann, W Syn, G Gerken, A Canbay Source Type: research

The CARD8 gene encoding a protein of innate immunity is expressed in human atherosclerosis and associated with markers of inflammation
Inflammation is a key factor in the development of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. It is promoted through the inflammasome, a molecular machine that produces interleukin-1β in response to cholesterol crystal accumulation in macrophages. The CARD8 protein modulates this process by suppressing caspase-1 and the transcription factor NF-κB. The expression of CARD8 mRNA was examined in atherosclerotic vascular tissue and the impact on myocardial infarction (MI) of a polymorphism in the CARD8 gene. CARD8 mRNA was analyzed by microarray of human atherosclerotic tissue and compared to transplant donor arteria...
Source: Clinical Science - April 23, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: G Varghese Paramel, L Folkersen, R J Strawbridge, A Ateia Elmabsout, E Särndahl, P Lundman, J Jansson, G K Hansson, A Sirsjö, K Fransén Source Type: research

Role of hemeoxygenase in the reno-protective effects of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition in diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rats
We previously showed that inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) increased epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) levels and reduced renal injury in diabetic mice and these changes were associated with induction of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1). The present study determines whether the inhibition of HO negates the reno-protective effect of sEH inhibition in diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). After six weeks of induction of diabetes with streptozotocin, SHR were divided into the following groups: untreated, treated with the sEH inhibitor, trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (t-AUCB), trea...
Source: Clinical Science - April 23, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: A A. Elmarakby, J Faulkner, C Pye, K Rouch, A Alhashim, K Maddipati, B Baban Source Type: research

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with an increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and atrial fibrillation (AF) are two pathologic conditions that are highly prevalent in developed countries and share multiple risk factors. The relationship between NAFLD and AF in type 2 diabetes is currently unknown. We studied a hospital-based sample of 702 patients with type 2 diabetes discharged from our Division of Endocrinology during 2007-2011. The diagnosis of AF was confirmed in affected participants on the basis of electrocardiograms and medical history by experienced cardiologists. NAFLD was defined by ultrasonographic detection of hepatic steatosis in the absence of o...
Source: Clinical Science - April 18, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: G Targher, A Mantovani, I Pichiri, R Rigolon, M Dauriz, G Zoppini, G Morani, C Vassanelli, E Bonora Source Type: research

Protection from age related increase in lipid biomarkers and inflammation contributes to cardiovascular protection in Gilbert{'}s syndrome
Recent epidemiological and clinical data show protection from CVD, all-cause mortality and cancer in subjects with Gilbert’s syndrome (GS), which is characterized by a mildly elevated blood bilirubin concentration. The established antioxidant effect of bilirubin, however, contributes only in part to this protection. Therefore, we investigated whether mildly elevated circulating unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) is associated with altered lipid metabolism. The study was performed on GS and age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (n=59 per group). Full lipoprotein profile, triglycerides (TG), apolipoproteins A1 and B, lipo...
Source: Clinical Science - April 9, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: M Wallner, R Marculescu, D Doberer, M Wolzt, O Wagner, L Vitek, A Cameron Bulmer, K Wagner Source Type: research

Diabetes mellitus at the time of diagnosis of cirrhosis is associated with higher incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, but not with increased mortality
In conclusion, the presence of DM at baseline in patients with cirrhosis was associated with an increased risk of SBP, which may represent an increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, DM was not clearly associated with increased mortality in these patients. (Source: Clinical Science)
Source: Clinical Science - April 8, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: N Wlazlo, M van Greevenbroek, J Curvers, E Jan Schoon, P Friederich, J Twisk, B Bravenboer, C D.A. Stehouwer Source Type: research

Decreased Nox4 levels in the myocardium of patients with aortic valve stenosis
The NADPH oxidases are a key family of reactive oxygen species producing enzymes which may differentially contribute to cardiac pathophysiology. Animal studies show uncertain results regarding the regulation of cardiac Nox4 by pressure overload and no data are available on human myocardial Nox4. We evaluated Nox4 expression and its relationship with myocardial remodelling and left ventricular function in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis (AS). Endomyocardial biopsies from 34 patients with AS were obtained during aortic valve replacement surgery. Left ventricular morphology and function were assessed by echocardiog...
Source: Clinical Science - April 4, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: M U Moreno, I Gallego, B López, A González, A Fortuño, G San José, F Valencia, J Gómez-Doblas, E de Teresa, A M Shah, J Díez, G Zalba Source Type: research

Alpha lipoic acid enhances endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} to ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
In conclusion, our data provide the first evidence that ALA can augment the production of PPAR-γ in vivo and modulate adaptive immunity both centrally and peripherally in EAE and may reveal further antioxidative and immunomodulatory mechanisms for the application of ALA in human multiple sclerosis. (Source: Clinical Science)
Source: Clinical Science - April 3, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: K Wang, C Tsai, C Lee, S Chen, G Lin, M Yen, H Sytwu, S Chen Source Type: research

Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy affects gene expression and immunolocalization of intestinal nutrient transporters
Intrauterine dietary restriction may cause changes in the functioning of offspring organs and systems later in life an effect known as fetal programming. The present study evaluated mRNA abundance and immunolocalization of nutrient transporters as well as enterocytes proliferation in the proximal, median and distal segments of small intestine of rats born to protein-restricted dams. Pregnant rats were fed hypoproteic (6% protein) or control (17% protein) diets, and offspring rats were evaluated at 3 and 16 weeks of age. The presence of sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1), glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), peptide transport...
Source: Clinical Science - April 2, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: D Felipe Pinheiro, P Fernanda Felipe Pinheiro, J Buratini Jr., A Cesar Souza Castilho, P Fernanda Lima, L Aparecida Trinca, M Mendes Vicentini-Paulino Source Type: research

Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers inhibit free fatty acid-induced endothelial and rheological dysfunction.
Circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) from adipose tissue lipolysis lead to endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance in patients with metabolic syndrome or type II diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers prevent FFA-induced endothelial and hemo-rheological dysfunction independently of their antihypertensive properties. Using a double-blind, crossover study design, nifedipine, amlodipine, diltiazem or placebo were administered to 8 healthy subjects for 2 days before each study day. On study days, the following were assessed before and after infusi...
Source: Clinical Science - March 27, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: T Yasu, M Kobayashi, A Mutoh, K Yamakawa, S Momomura, S Ueda Source Type: research

Low CD34{+} cell, high neutrophils and metabolic syndrome are associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism
The relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS), levels of circulating progenitor/immune cells and the risk of VTE has not been investigated yet. We studied 240 patients with previous VTE and 240 controls. Presence of MetS was identified according to NCEP ATP III guidelines and flow cytometry was used to quantify circulating CD34+ cells. VTE patients showed higher BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides levels, blood glucose, hs-CRP and lower HDL cholesterol levels. The prevalence of MetS was significantly higher in VTE (38.3%) than in control individuals (21.3%) with an adjusted odd ratio for VTE of 1.96 (p=0.002). VTE...
Source: Clinical Science - March 18, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: M Rattazzi, S Villalta, S Galliazzo, L Del Pup, A Sponchiado, E Faggin, E Bertacco, R Buso, E Seganfreddo, V Pagliara, E Callegari, M Puato, L Caberlotto, G Scannapieco, G Fadini, P Pauletto Source Type: research

Bafilomycin A1 and its attenuating effect on tumour growth in systemic malignanices especially gastrointestinal malignancies
(Source: Clinical Science)
Source: Clinical Science - March 12, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: S Kapoor Source Type: research

Human mesenchymal stem cell derived from adipose tissue reduce functional and tissue damage in a rat model of chronic renal failure
The therapeutic approaches for chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been able to reduce proteinuria, but not diminish the disease progression. We have demonstrated beneficial effects by injection of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) from healthy donors in a rat model of CKD. However, it has recently been reported that BM-MSCs derived from uremic patients failed to confer functional protection in a similar model. This suggests that autologous BM-MSCs are not suitable for the treatment of CKD. In the present work, we have explored the potential of MSC derived from adipose tissue (AD-MSCs) as an alternative so...
Source: Clinical Science - March 12, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: S Villanueva, J E Carreño, L Salazar, C Vergara, R Strodthoff, F Fajre, C Céspedes, P J Sáez, C Irarrázabal, J Bartolucci, F Figueroa, C P Vio Source Type: research

Human uraemic serum displays calcific potential in vitro that increases with advancing chronic kidney disease
Vascular calcification strongly correlates with declining renal function and contributes to the high morbidity and mortality of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is closely regulated by circulating factors but little is known about the capacity of serum from patients to induce calcification outside the disease setting, which we now define as the calcific potential of serum. We have therefore examined the ability of serum from age- and sex-matched subjects with and without advancing CKD to induce calcification of cultured smooth muscle cells. Samples from patients with CKD induced significant calcification comp...
Source: Clinical Science - March 7, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: A Patidar, D K Singh, P Winocour, K Farrington, A R Baydoun Source Type: research

P2X7 receptor activation contributes to an initial upstream mechanism of lipopolysaccharide-induced vascular dysfunction
Pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and the reactive oxygen species are excessively produced in endotoxemia. However, attempting to inhibit all of these inflammatory signaling pathways at the same time in order to prevent endotoxemia is difficult. In a previous study we observed that activation of P2X7 receptors elicited the release of interleukin (IL)-1β from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-incubated vessels. In the present study we hypothesize that P2X7 receptor activation is the initial event leading to vascular dysfunction following LPS treatment. LPS-induced decreases in mean arterial blood pressure and pressor respo...
Source: Clinical Science - March 7, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: C Chiao, J da Silva-Santos, F R Giachini, R C Tostes, M Su, R Webb Source Type: research

Resistance exercise improves autonomic regulation at rest and haemodynamic response to exercise in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Autonomic dysfunction has been reported in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and is associated with clinical presentations. To date, there are no therapies to improve autonomic regulation in people with NAFLD. The present study defines the impact of a short-term exercise programme on cardiac autonomic and haemodynamic regulation in patients with NAFLD. Seventeen patients with clinically defined NAFLD (age 55±12 years, BMI 33±5 kg/m2, 17±9% Liver fat) were randomized to 8 weeks of resistance exercise or a control group to continue standard care. Resting and submaximal exercise (50%...
Source: Clinical Science - March 5, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: D G Jakovljevic, K Hallsworth, P Zalewski, C Thoma, J J Klawe, C P Day, J Newton, M I Trenell Source Type: research

The direct renin inhibitor aliskiren improves vascular remodeling in transgenic rats harboring human renin and angiotensinogen genes
We tested the hypothesis that chronic treatment with the direct rennin inhibitor aliskiren improves the remodeling of resistance arteries in double transgenic rats (dTGR). dTGR (5 weeks) were treated with aliskiren (3 mg/kg/day) or ramipril (1 mg/kg/day) for 14 days and compared with age-matched vehicle-treated dTGR. Blood pressure was similarly reduced in both aliskiren-treated and ramipril-treated rats compared to control dTGR (167±1 mmHg and 169±2 mmHg vs 197±4vmmHg, respectively P
Source: Clinical Science - February 26, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: C Savoia, E Arrabito, R Parente, L Sada, L Madaro, C Nicoletti, L Zezza, A Alonzo, S Rubattu, S Michelini, D N Muller, M Volpe Source Type: research

Gly16Arg single nucleotide polymorphism but not haplotypes of the {beta}2-adrenergic receptor gene alters cardiac output in humans
In conclusion, the ADRB2 Arg16 allele in humans is associated with a lower Q both at rest and during exercise, overriding the effects of haplotypes. (Source: Clinical Science)
Source: Clinical Science - February 25, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: K Z Rokamp, J M Staalsoe, M Gartmann, A Sletgaard, N B Nordsborg, N H Secher, H B Nielsen, N V Olsen Source Type: research

Heme oxygenase-1 induction reverses interleukin-1{beta} actions on hypoxia inducible transcription factors and human chondrocyte metabolism in hypoxia
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) catalyses the degradation of heme and possesses anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties. The role of inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) is becoming increasingly appreciated. Here we investigated the effects of HO-1 induction in OA and healthy human articular chondrocytes in response to inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1 β) under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia was investigated as it is a more physiological condition of the avascular cartilage. Hypoxic signalling is mediated by hypoxia inducible transcription factors (HIFs), of which there are two ...
Source: Clinical Science - February 13, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: V Clérigues, C Luke Murphy, M Guillén, M Alcaraz Source Type: research

Antioxidant treatment prevents the development of fructose-induced abdominal adipose tissue dysfunction
We tested the effect of OS (oxidative stress) inhibition in rats fed with an FRD (fructose-rich diet; 10% w/v in drinking water) for 3 weeks. Normal adult male rats received a standard CD (commercial diet) or an FRD without or with an inhibitor of NADPH-oxidase, APO (apocynin; 5 mM in drinking water; CD-APO and FRD-APO). We thereafter measured plasma OS and metabolic-endocrine markers, AAT (abdominal adipose tissue) mass and cell size, FA (fatty acid) composition (content and release), OS status, LEP (leptin) and IRS (insulin receptor substrate)-1/-2 mRNAs, ROS (reactive oxygen species) production, NADPH oxidase activity, ...
Source: Clinical Science - February 6, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: J Pablo Fariña, M Elisa García, A Alzamendi, A Giovambattista, C Alberto Marra, E Spinedi, J José Gagliardino Source Type: research

Calcium receptors located in fibrotic septa: a new target to reduce portal pressure in liver cirrhosis
In rats with experimental liver cirrhosis, the kidney contains reduced amount of membrane-bound calcium-sensing receptors (CaRs), and specific stimulation of CaRs causes generation of PGE2, renal vasodilatation, and increased natriuresis. CaRs content and function in the liver of cirrhotic rats are unknown. To assess the activity of this Ca++-dependent vasomotor system, we evaluated the effects of intravenous administration of poly-L-arginine (PolyAg), a selective CaRs-agonist, on hormonal status, portal hemodynamics, mean arterial pressure in rats with liver cirrhosis induced by chronic carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) adminis...
Source: Clinical Science - February 6, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: G Sansoè, M Aragno, R Mastrocola, C Paternostro, M Parola Source Type: research

Interleukin-10 controls the protective effects of circulating microparticles from septic shock patients on tissue-engineered vascular media
During sepsis, inflammation can be orchestrated by the interaction between circulating and vascular cells, that under activation, release microparticles. Recently, we reported that increased circulating microparticles in septic patients play a pivotal role in ex vivo vascular function suggesting that they are protective against vascular hyporeactivity. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of septic microparticles on the contractile response of tissue-engineered vascular media (TEVM). TEVMs composed of only a media were produced by tissue engineering from human arterial smooth muscle cells isolated from...
Source: Clinical Science - February 4, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: H Ahmed Mostefai, J Bourget, F Meziani, M Carmen Martinez, D Leonetti, A Mercat, P Asfar, L Germain, R Andriantsitohaina Source Type: research

The dependence of FMD% on baseline diameter: a problem solved by allometric scaling Reply: No problem in this case
(Source: Clinical Science)
Source: Clinical Science - February 1, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: A E DeVan, G L Pierce, F A Brooks, D R Seals Source Type: research

Omega-3 fatty acid ethyl ester supplementation decreases very-low density lipoprotein triacylglycerol secretion in obese men
In this study, we carried out a 6-week randomized, placebo-controlled study to examine the effect of high dose ω-3 FAEE supplementation (3.2g/day) on the metabolism of VLDL-TG in obese men using intravenous administration of d5-glycerol. We also explored the relationships of VLDL-TG kinetics with the metabolism of VLDL-apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-apoA-I. VLDL-TG isotopic enrichment was measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Kinetic parameters were derived using a multicompartmental model. Compared with placebo, ω-3 FAEE supplementation significantly lowered plasma...
Source: Clinical Science - January 28, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: A TY Wong, D C Chan, E MM Ooi, T WK Ng, G F Watts, P R Barrett Source Type: research

The dependence of FMD% on baseline diameter: a problem solved by allometric scaling
DeVan et al. recently found that both percentage flow mediated dilation (FMD%) and baseline artery diameter differed between their study samples. In this correspondence, I question to what extent the dependence of FMD% on baseline diameter confounded the estimates of endothelial dysfunction. Rather than covariate-adjusting FMD% itself for baseline diameter, I discuss the application of recent advances in allometric scaling in this field of research, (Source: Clinical Science)
Source: Clinical Science - January 28, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: G Atkinson Source Type: research

An inducible transgenic mouse model for Familial Hypertension with Hyperkalaemia (Gordon Syndrome or Pseudohypoaldosteronism Type II).
Mutations in the novel serine/threonine WNK (With No lysine [=K]) kinases, WNK1 and WNK4, cause Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII or Gordon Syndrome (PHAII)), a rare monogenic syndrome which causes hypertension and hyperkalemia on a background of a normal glomerular filtration rate. Current animal models for PHAII recapitulate some aspects of the disease phenotype, but give no clues to how rapidly the phenotype emerges or whether it is reversible. To this end we have created an inducible PHAII transgenic animal model that expresses a human disease-causing WNK4 mutation, WNK4 Q565E, under the control of the Tet-On syst...
Source: Clinical Science - January 22, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: J Chowdhury, C Liu, A Mercier-Zuber, K M O'Shaughnessy Source Type: research

Cerebral hypoperfusion modifies the respiratory chemoreflex during orthostatic stress
The respiratory chemoreflex is known to be modified during orthostatic stress though the underlying mechanisms remain to be established. To detremine the potential role of cerebral hypoperfusion, we examined the relationship between changes in middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA Vmean) and pulmonary ventilation (VE) from supine control to lower body negative pressure (LBNP, -45mmHg) at different carbon dioxide (CO2) levels (0, 3.5, 5% CO2). The regression line of the linear relationship between VE and end tidal CO2 (PETCO2) shifted leftwards during orthostatic stress without any change in sensitivity (1.36 &plu...
Source: Clinical Science - January 21, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: S Ogoh, H Nakahara, K Okazaki, D M. Bailey, T Miyamoto Source Type: research

Testosterone and {beta}-estradiol prevent inward remodeling of rat small mesenteric arteries. Role of NO and transglutaminase.
Increasing evidence shows that sex hormones exert a protective effect on the vasculature, especially in the regulation of the active vasomotor responses. However, whether sex hormones affect vascular remodeling is currently unclear. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone in males and β-estradiol in females prevent inward remodeling, possibly through inhibition of cross-linking activity induced by enzymes of the transglutaminase family (TG). Small mesenteric arteries were isolated from male and female Wistar rats. Dose dependent relaxation to testosterone and β-estradiol was inhibited by ...
Source: Clinical Science - January 21, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: L del Campo, B Guvenc Tuna, M Ferrer, E van Bavel, E NTP Bakker Source Type: research

Reduced Urinary Corin Levels in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that corin may be present in human urine and that urinary corin levels may be altered in patients with kidney disease. We obtained urine and kidney tissue samples from normal individuals and chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. By ELISA, we detected corin protein in human urine. In normal individuals, urinary corin levels did not correlate with that of plasma, indicating that urinary corin is probably of kidney origin. Compared with normal controls, CKD patients had markedly reduced urinary corin levels and the reduction correlated with the disease severity. By immunostaining, huma...
Source: Clinical Science - January 18, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: C Fang, L Shen, L Dong, M Liu, S Shi, N Dong, Q Wu Source Type: research

Short telomere length in blood leukocytes contributes to the presence of atherothrombotic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke and risk of post-stroke death
ABSTRACT Background—Inter-individual differences in biological ageing could affect susceptibility to stroke. To date, the relationship between stroke and telomere shortening remain inconclusive; and sparse data is available to hemorrhagic stroke. Methods and Results— A Chinese case-control study was conducted, comprising 1756 cases (767 atherothrombosis, 494 lacunar infarction, and 486 hemorrhagic strokes) and 1801 controls. Stroke patients were prospectively followed up for median 4.5 (range, 0.1-6.0) years. Individuals with shorter telomere length had a higher presence of atherothrombotic stroke (multivaria...
Source: Clinical Science - January 16, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: W Zhang, Y Chen, Y Wang, P Liu, M Zhang, C Zhang, F B Hu, R Hui Source Type: research

Independent and combined effects of acute physiological hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia on metabolic gene expression in human skeletal muscle
Physiological hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia are strong modulators of gene expression, which underpins some of their well known effects on insulin action and energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to examine whether acute in vivo exposure of healthy humans to hyperinsulinaemia and hyperglycaemia have independent or additive effects on expression of key metabolic genes in skeletal muscle. On 3 randomised occasions, 7 young subjects underwent a 4 h (i) hyperinsulinaemic (50 mU . m-2 . min-1) hyperglycaemic (10 mmol/l) clamp (HIHG), (ii) hyperglycaemic (10 mmol/l) euinsulinaemic (5 mU . m-2 . min-1) clamp (LIHG) a...
Source: Clinical Science - January 15, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: K Tsintzas, L Norton, K Chokkalingam, N Nizamani, S Cooper, F Stephens, R Billeter, A Bennett Source Type: research

Celecoxib modifies glomerular basement membrane, mesangium and podocytes in OVE26 mice, but ibuprofen is more detrimental.
This study substantiates the need to more closely consider COX-2 selective inhibitors like Celecoxib as alternatives to non-selective NSAIDs for therapeutic management in a setting of chronic kidney disease. (Source: Clinical Science)
Source: Clinical Science - January 11, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: R Nasrallah, S J Robertson, J Karsh, R L Hebert Source Type: research

{beta}-arrestin 1 contributes to primary biliary cirrhosis
This Accepted Manuscript, published online on 21 December 2009, was withdrawn by the publisher on 12 February 2010. (Source: Clinical Science)
Source: Clinical Science - December 21, 2009 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Deng, A., Yao, D., Chen, S., Liu, C., Kang, J., Zhou, Y., Yu, H., Qian, C., Wu, C., Jiang, T., Zhong, R., Pei, G. Tags: PublishAheadOfPrint Source Type: research

MicroRNA profile in peripheral blood T cells of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis
This Accepted Manuscript, published online on 17 July 2008, was withdrawn at the author's request on 4 August 2008. (Source: Clinical Science)
Source: Clinical Science - July 17, 2008 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Qian, C., Yao, D., Jiang, T., Chen, S., Wu, C., Zhou, Y., Gu, M., Chen, B., Chen, Y., Zhang, L., Deng, A., Zhong, R. Tags: PublishAheadOfPrint Source Type: research