Bone Health and BMD Research in Pediatric and Adolescent Individuals with ASD: Current Data, Evaluation, and Next Steps
AbstractAustin spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that can include impairments in communication skills and social interaction as well as behavioral challenges. Recent research has evaluated bone health and bone mineral density (BMD) in cohorts of pediatric, adolescent, and young adult participants. Consistent findings across publications indicate that individuals with ASD have decreased BMD when compared to non-ASD age-matched peers. Factors raised in the literature for consideration of impact on BMD status include dietary intake, feeding behavior, nutrient status, gastrointestinal (GI) sympto...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - November 26, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Bone Metabolism in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Celiac Disease
AbstractOsteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitecture deterioration of bone tissue, with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. Several gastrointestinal disorders have been associated with osteoporosis including inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease. Different factors can explain low bone density and fractures in these patients. (Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism)
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - November 25, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Current and Emerging Pharmacotherapy for Gaucher Disease
AbstractGaucher disease (GD) is the most common inherited lysosomal storage disorder. It is a multi-system disease secondary a deficient activity of glucocerebrosidase- β-acid by variants in theGBA gene. The wide variability in the severity of clinical manifestations causes it to be diagnosed at any age. Only about 30% of patients are identified to have it in their childhood. Leaving aside the most serious forms of the diseases that are observed in the first weeks of life, most of the manifestations focus on the increase of visceral size, cytopenias, growth retardation, and bone pain crisis. The introduction of enzyma...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - November 20, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

X-linked Hypophosphatemic Rickets: the Challenges of Treatment
AbstractX-linked dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (XLHR) is the most common inherited form of rickets due to a mutation in the phosphate regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome (PHEX gene) expressed in bones and teeth. This leads to impaired renal reabsorption of phosphate and defective bone mineralization. Clinical presentation often occurs in childhood, where children mostly present with bow legs, delayed walking, or gait difficulties. Other clinical features may also be present and these are described in this review in addition to the classic laboratory findings. Focus is made on the manag...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - October 29, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Osteoporosis in Veterans with Spinal Cord Injury: an Overview of Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatments
AbstractImmediately after spinal cord injury (SCI), approximately 75% of patients suffer rapid and severe loss of bone mineral density (BMD) below the lesion level (i.e., sublesional), leading to osteoporosis (OP) in ~  60% 1-year post-injury. The distal femur (DF) and proximal tibia (PT) are most commonly involved, and 70% of SCI patients sustain a low impact fracture at some point in their lifetime, adding disability to an already physically challenged population. Unfortunately, OP treatments for post-menopaus al women are not as effective for OP post-SCI. Mechanisms of new agents targeting the neurogenic etiology...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - August 2, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Skeletal Changes Associated with Osteoarthritis
AbstractOsteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disorder in which progressive articular cartilage loss occurs alongside pathological changes in subchondral bone and other joint tissues. The pathophysiological role of bone in OA has been a point of interest for many years and has resurfaced again in recent years as a potential target for new treatments. Articular cartilage and subchondral bone together form the osteochondral unit. Its homeostasis and integrity are reliant on biochemical crosstalk and biomechanical interplay between the two. Subchondral bone, with its relatively greater stiffness and strength, provides m...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - July 19, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Socio-economic Determinants of Bone Health from Past to Present
AbstractIncreasing epidemiology evidence amounts for social determinants of bone health underlying musculo-skeletal conditions such as osteoporosis. Amongst different facets influencing skeletal health, socio-economic status (SES) has been identified as a critical factor determining one ’s access to resources, health care, education, nutrition, and physical activity. Recent conceptual and epigenetic studies assessing SES links with DNA methylation offer further support for the adverse effects of social disadvantage in early life on bone quantity and quality in adulthood. However, this evidence for socially patterned ...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - July 2, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Bone Health in the Transgender Population
AbstractIt is well known that sex steroids, particularly estrogen, play a crucial role in the attainment and maintenance of peak bone density in all people. Transgender (trans) have been frequently observed to have low bone density prior to initiation of gender-affirming hormone therapy, while trans men generally do not. With pharmacologic estrogen, many studies show improving bone density in trans women. With pharmacologic testosterone, bone density in trans men remains largely unchanged although androgens have indirect effects on bone health via changes in fat and lean mass. Much remains unknown about best practices to o...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - July 2, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Comparison of Efficacy of Pharmacologic Treatments in Pregnancy- and Lactation-Associated Osteoporosis
In this study, we aimed to summarise pharmacologic strategies and its efficacy on BMD change and subsequent fractures using individual case data or frequency-weighted group data from available literatures. Among 2438 studies identified using PubMed and Embase until Jan 2019, 30 studies which reported pharmacologic treatment (23 studies) or observation (7 studies) were included. Reported treatment options consisted of observation with calcium/vitamin D supplements (control,n = 32), bisphosphonates (BP,n = 31), teriparatide (TPTD,n = 40) and other strategies (vitamin K2 and strontium...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - June 11, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Low Bone Mineral Density in Anorexia Nervosa: Treatments and Challenges
AbstractAnorexia nervosa, a psychiatric disease predominantly affecting women, is characterized by self-induced starvation and a resultant low-weight state. During starvation, a number of hormonal adaptations —including hypothalamic amenorrhea and growth hormone resistance—allow for decreased energy expenditure during periods of decreased nutrient intake, but these very same adaptations also contribute to the medical complications associated with chronic starvation, including low bone mass. Almost 90 % of women with anorexia nervosa have bone mineral density (BMD) values more than one-standard deviation below t...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - April 15, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Acknowledgement to Referees 2018
(Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism)
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - March 5, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

The Clinical Relevance of the Bone Vascular System: Age-Related Implications
Abstract]The microcirculation of bone and marrow is vital for bone development, maintenance, and repair. In addition to the well-known function of transporting oxygen, nutrients, systemic hormones, precursor cells, waste, etc., the bone vascular network plays a role in the mechanical induction of bone formation. In addition, arteries and marrow sinusoids are critical components of hematopoietic stem cell niches. This review discusses the various roles of the bone and marrow microcirculation in regard to (1) bone development, remodeling, and fracture repair; (2) the regulation of bone intramedullary pressure and interstitia...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - February 22, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of Sympathetic Activity on Human Skeletal Homeostasis: Clinical Evidence from Pheochromocytoma
AbstractBone is a highly dynamic tissue that is continuously being renewed in a lifelong remodeling process that is guided by mechanical and biochemical signals. Imbalances between the underlying processes result in metabolic bone diseases, such as osteoporosis and osteopetrosis; therefore, all phases of bone remodeling are tightly controlled by systemic or local factors to maintain bone homeostasis. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS), one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, operates through a series of interconnected neurons and finalizes the actions by binding catecholamines, released from postga...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - January 19, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of Bone Tissue: Bone Quality Assessment in Preclinical and Clinical Applications of Osteoporosis and Fragility Fracture
AbstractThe pathogenesis of bone fragility is of utmost importance especially to modern societies with aging populations. Increased skeletal fragility due to aging and disease motivates researchers to investigate the contributing biological mechanisms and to find ways to inhibit them. Bone quality is a set of structural and compositional variables that contribute to bone strength and influence its ability to resist fracture. They originate from multiple bone hierarchical levels and include the morphology (mass distribution), the chemical composition, and the biomechanical properties of bone tissue such as stiffness, fatigu...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - January 10, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Tendon Healing in the Context of Complex Fractures
AbstractTendons connect muscle to bone and play an integral role in bone and joint alignment and loading. Tendons act as pulleys that provide anchorage of muscle forces for joint motion and stability, as well as for fracture reduction and realignment. Patients that experience complex fractures also have concomitant soft tissue injuries, such as tendon damage or rupture. Tendon injuries that occur at the time of bone fracture have long-term ramifications on musculoskeletal health, yet these injuries are often disregarded in clinical treatment and diagnosis for patients with bone fractures as well as in basic science approac...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - December 29, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Bone Fracture Acute Phase Response —A Unifying Theory of Fracture Repair: Clinical and Scientific Implications
AbstractBone fractures create five problems that must be resolved: bleeding, risk of infection, hypoxia, disproportionate strain, and inability to bear weight. There have been enormous advancements in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that resolve these problems after fractures, and in best clinical practices of repairing fractures. We put forth a modern, comprehensive model of fracture repair that synthesizes the literature on the biology and biomechanics of fracture repair to address the primary problems of fractures. This updated model is a framework for both fracture management and future studies aimed at u...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - December 29, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Systemic Bone Loss After Fracture
AbstractA history of prior fracture is the most reliable indicator of prospective fracture risk. Increased fracture risk is not confined to the region of the prior fracture but is operant at all skeletal sites, providing strong evidence of systemic bone loss after fracture. Animal and human studies suggest that systemic bone loss begins shortly after fracture and persists for several years in humans. In fact, bone quantity and bone quality may never fully return to their pre-fracture levels, especially in older subjects, demonstrating a need for improved understanding of the mechanisms leading to systemic bone loss after f...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - December 6, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Military Fractures: Overtraining, Accidents, Casualties, and Fragility
AbstractFractures sustained by military personnel are prevalent and costly both in the lives of individual service members and in consideration of overall military readiness. Training, environment, and hazards change throughout and after a military career. During training, military recruits are susceptible to stress fractures through overtraining. In both non-deployed and deployed non-battle environments, the most likely cause of fractures to service members is through mechanisms regularly encountered in civilian environments, including motor vehicle accidents and falls. In combat environments, however, fractures are typic...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - November 28, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Exploring the Links Between Common Diseases of Ageing —Osteoporosis, Sarcopenia and Vascular Calcification
AbstractVascular diseases account for a significant proportion of preventable deaths, particularly in developed countries. Our understanding of diseases that alter the structure and function of blood vessels such as vascular calcification and vascular stiffness has grown enormously such that we now appreciate them to be active processes that can be modified. Interest has also grown in examining the links between other diseases of ageing such as the loss of bone (osteoporosis) and muscle (sarcopenia) with the development and progression of vascular disease as these three disease states commonly co-occur in older age. Cardio...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - November 23, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Clinical Measurements of Bone Tissue Mechanical Behavior Using Reference Point Indentation
AbstractOver the last 30  years, it has become increasingly clear the amount of bone (e.g., “bone quantity”) and the quality of the bone matrix (e.g., “bone quality”) both critically contribute to bone’s tissue-level mechanical behavior and the subsequent ability of bone to resist fracture. Although determining t he tissue-level mechanical behavior of bone through mechanical testing is relatively straightforward in the laboratory, the destructive nature of such testing is unfeasible in humans and in animal models requiring longitudinal observation. Therefore, surrogate measurements are ne...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - September 12, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Bringing Attention to Lesser-known Bone Remodeling Pathways
AbstractOsteoporosis, a disease of low bone mass, places individuals at enhanced risk for fracture, disability, and death. In the USA, hospitalizations for osteoporotic fractures exceed those for heart attack, stroke, and breast cancer and, by 2025, the number of fractures due to osteoporosis is expected to rise to nearly three million in the USA alone. Pharmacological treatments for osteoporosis are aimed at stabilizing or increasing bone mass. However, there are significant drawbacks to current pharmacological options, particularly for long-term management of this chronic condition. Moreover, the drug development pipelin...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - September 1, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Association Between Social Support and Bone Health Outcomes: a Systematic Review
AbstractPrevious studies on the association between social support and bone health outcomes did not produce consistent results. The main goal of this study was to resolve the inconsistency by systematically examining the studies on the association in the last two decades. In order to do that, we distinguished between two types of social supports: structural supports, which is the pattern of person ’s social relationship, and functional support, which is the perceived specific functions from social ties. For fracture, structural social support, especially marital (or cohabitation) status, showed a strong association b...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - September 1, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Clinical Measurements of Bone Tissue Mechanical Behavior Using Reference Point Indentation
AbstractOver the last 30  years, it has become increasingly clear the amount of bone (e.g., “bone quantity”) and the quality of the bone matrix (e.g., “bone quality”) both critically contribute to bone’s tissue-level mechanical behavior and the subsequent ability of bone to resist fracture. Although determining t he tissue-level mechanical behavior of bone through mechanical testing is relatively straightforward in the laboratory, the destructive nature of such testing is unfeasible in humans and in animal models requiring longitudinal observation. Therefore, surrogate measurements are ne...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - September 1, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Vitamin D Status in the North African Population: a Review
The objectives of the present review are to summarize the existing literature on vitamin D status and to list the main predictors of hypovitaminosis D in North African population. We searched Medline/PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, and Springerlink for the published data on vitamin D in North African countries. The identified articles had to meet all the following criteria: human clinical outcomes rather than animal experiments, a cross-sectional or longitudinal study and quantitative information on vitamin D status in North Africa must be included. Several studies proved a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - September 1, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Bringing Attention to Lesser-known Bone Remodeling Pathways
AbstractOsteoporosis, a disease of low bone mass, places individuals at enhanced risk for fracture, disability, and death. In the USA, hospitalizations for osteoporotic fractures exceed those for heart attack, stroke, and breast cancer and, by 2025, the number of fractures due to osteoporosis is expected to rise to nearly three million in the USA alone. Pharmacological treatments for osteoporosis are aimed at stabilizing or increasing bone mass. However, there are significant drawbacks to current pharmacological options, particularly for long-term management of this chronic condition. Moreover, the drug development pipelin...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - September 1, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Association Between Social Support and Bone Health Outcomes: a Systematic Review
AbstractPrevious studies on the association between social support and bone health outcomes did not produce consistent results. The main goal of this study was to resolve the inconsistency by systematically examining the studies on the association in the last two decades. In order to do that, we distinguished between two types of social supports: structural supports, which is the pattern of person ’s social relationship, and functional support, which is the perceived specific functions from social ties. For fracture, structural social support, especially marital (or cohabitation) status, showed a strong association b...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - August 17, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Vitamin D Status in the North African Population: a Review
The objectives of the present review are to summarize the existing literature on vitamin D status and to list the main predictors of hypovitaminosis D in North African population. We searched Medline/PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, and Springerlink for the published data on vitamin D in North African countries. The identified articles had to meet all the following criteria: human clinical outcomes rather than animal experiments, a cross-sectional or longitudinal study and quantitative information on vitamin D status in North Africa must be included. Several studies proved a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - July 6, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Skeletal Effects of Thyroid Hormones
AbstractThe importance of functional thyroid abnormalities can hardly be overstated as they affect over 5% of the population. Thyroid hormones exert a multitude of effects on the metabolism of both the developing and the adult skeleton. It is thus unsurprising that changes in thyroid function can have a variety of often severe skeletal consequences. In recent years, numerous advances were made in the understanding of this domain. These include for instance the mapping of different pathways mediating genomic and nongenomic actions of thyroid hormones in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, or the investigation of the direct role of...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - June 1, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Testosterone and Male Osteoporosis
AbstractMale osteoporosis is not a rare public health issue. The prevalence of hypogonadism increases with aging, and the gradual onset of moderate hypogonadism is the most common cause of male osteoporosis. Decreased testosterone levels with aging can directly or indirectly increase the risk of male osteoporosis and fractures. However, testosterone deficiency is not a universal feature of elderly men, and the association of testosterone with osteoporosis is not as strong as that of estrogen with osteoporosis in females; the effect of testosterone on male osteoporosis and treatment of osteoporosis is still controversial. A...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - June 1, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Skeletal Effects of Thyroid Hormones
AbstractThe importance of functional thyroid abnormalities can hardly be overstated as they affect over 5% of the population. Thyroid hormones exert a multitude of effects on the metabolism of both the developing and the adult skeleton. It is thus unsurprising that changes in thyroid function can have a variety of often severe skeletal consequences. In recent years, numerous advances were made in the understanding of this domain. These include for instance the mapping of different pathways mediating genomic and nongenomic actions of thyroid hormones in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, or the investigation of the direct role of...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - April 24, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Testosterone and Male Osteoporosis
AbstractMale osteoporosis is not a rare public health issue. The prevalence of hypogonadism increases with aging, and the gradual onset of moderate hypogonadism is the most common cause of male osteoporosis. Decreased testosterone levels with aging can directly or indirectly increase the risk of male osteoporosis and fractures. However, testosterone deficiency is not a universal feature of elderly men, and the association of testosterone with osteoporosis is not as strong as that of estrogen with osteoporosis in females; the effect of testosterone on male osteoporosis and treatment of osteoporosis is still controversial. A...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - April 12, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Glucocorticoid Excess in Bone and Muscle
AbstractGlucocorticoids (GC), produced and released by the adrenal glands, regulate numerous physiological processes in a wide range of tissues. Because of their profound immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory actions, GC are extensively used for the treatment of immune and inflammatory conditions, the management of organ transplantation, and as a component of chemotherapy regimens for cancers. However, both pathologic endogenous elevation and long-term use of exogenous GC are associated with severe adverse effects. In particular, excess GC has devastating effects on the musculoskeletal system. GC increase bone resorption...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - March 1, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Stress and Insufficiency Fractures
AbstractStress fractures are most common in athletes and military recruits but also occur in patients with underlying metabolic bone disease (insufficiency fractures). Stress fractures are most frequent in the lower extremities and more common in women. Thefemale athlete triad is an important risk factor. At the cellular level, the osteocyte may be important in the detection of stress fractures. Further, osteocytes are probably important in the healing of stress fractures. In patients with recurrent stress fractures, a biochemical evaluation for underlying metabolic bone disease should be undertaken. Prevention includes av...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - March 1, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Myokine —Irisin—and Its Effects Linking Bone and Muscle Function
AbstractIrisin is a myokine secreted by the skeletal muscle during physical activity both in mice and humans. Its first identified role was to activate the browning response in white adipocytes, subsequently triggering non-shivering thermogenesis; therefore, Irisin has raised great expectations as a potential target in the treatment of obesity. In 2015, we demonstrated that Irisin plays a central role in the control of bone mass, driving positive effects on cortical mineral density and bone mechanical properties. This effect on the bone was triggered using an Irisin dosage 70 times lower than the one needed to induce the b...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - March 1, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

2018 —Changing Times for CRBM
(Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism)
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - March 1, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of Bazedoxifene on Bone Mineral Density and Fracture in Post-Menopausal Osteoporotic Women: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
AbstractBazedoxifene (BZA) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that reduces the risk of fracture and improves bone mineral density in post-menopausal women with osteoporosis. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate effects of BZA on bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture in post-menopausal osteoporotic women. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Sciences, Embase, and Scopus from until November 30, 2016. All randomized controlled trials that compared the effects of BZA on BMD and the incidence of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in post...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - March 1, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Acknowledgement for Reviewers 2017
(Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism)
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - March 1, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

2018 —Changing Times for CRBM
(Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism)
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - February 7, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Glucocorticoid Excess in Bone and Muscle
AbstractGlucocorticoids (GC), produced and released by the adrenal glands, regulate numerous physiological processes in a wide range of tissues. Because of their profound immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory actions, GC are extensively used for the treatment of immune and inflammatory conditions, the management of organ transplantation, and as a component of chemotherapy regimens for cancers. However, both pathologic endogenous elevation and long-term use of exogenous GC are associated with severe adverse effects. In particular, excess GC has devastating effects on the musculoskeletal system. GC increase bone resorption...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - February 5, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of Bazedoxifene on Bone Mineral Density and Fracture in Post-Menopausal Osteoporotic Women: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
AbstractBazedoxifene (BZA) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that reduces the risk of fracture and improves bone mineral density in post-menopausal women with osteoporosis. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate effects of BZA on bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture in post-menopausal osteoporotic women. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Sciences, Embase, and Scopus from until November 30, 2016. All randomized controlled trials that compared the effects of BZA on BMD and the incidence of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in post...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - February 5, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Myokine —Irisin—and Its Effects Linking Bone and Muscle Function
AbstractIrisin is a myokine secreted by the skeletal muscle during physical activity both in mice and humans. Its first identified role was to activate the browning response in white adipocytes, subsequently triggering non-shivering thermogenesis; therefore, Irisin has raised great expectations as a potential target in the treatment of obesity. In 2015, we demonstrated that Irisin plays a central role in the control of bone mass, driving positive effects on cortical mineral density and bone mechanical properties. This effect on the bone was triggered using an Irisin dosage 70 times lower than the one needed to induce the b...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - February 2, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Stress and Insufficiency Fractures
AbstractStress fractures are most common in athletes and military recruits but also occur in patients with underlying metabolic bone disease (insufficiency fractures). Stress fractures are most frequent in the lower extremities and more common in women. Thefemale athlete triad is an important risk factor. At the cellular level, the osteocyte may be important in the detection of stress fractures. Further, osteocytes are probably important in the healing of stress fractures. In patients with recurrent stress fractures, a biochemical evaluation for underlying metabolic bone disease should be undertaken. Prevention includes av...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - December 22, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Bioreactor as a New Resource of Autologous Bone Graft to Overcome Bone Defect In Vivo
AbstractBone defect will not undergo any process of healing when not treated. Tissue engineering is currently exploring alternatives for generating new bone tissue. The base triad for bone tissue engineering is manipulation of osteogenic cells, growth factors, and bio scaffolds. Diamond concept includes mechanical environment and this base triad. Provided constant stream of pluripotent stem cells and biomolecular signals that is necessary for bone formation are some advantages of this in vivo bioreactor. Thus, we conducted article searches by using computerized database of PUBMED and Google Scholar. After sorting and selec...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - December 1, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Altered Bone Remodeling in Multiple Myeloma
AbstractMultiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic malignancy of plasma cells proliferating in the bone marrow and it is associated with the osteolytic bone disease. About 70% of myeloma patients show the bone disease at diagnosis and 15 –20% have pathologic fractures. The osteolytic disease is due to the altered bone remodeling with increased activity of osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells, and the reduced activity of osteoblasts, the bone forming cells. In the bone marrow microenvironment, the deregulated activity of bone cell s is due to the malignant plasma cells through the release of soluble molecules or cell-cel...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - December 1, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

A Review on Bone Mineral Density Loss in Total Knee Replacements Leading to Increased Fracture Risk
AbstractThe link between low bone mineral density (BMD) scores leading to greater fracture risk is well established in the literature; what is not fully understood is the impact of total knee replacements/revisions or arthroplasties on BMD levels. This literature review attempts to answer this question. Several different databases using specific key terms were searched, with additional papers retrieved via bibliographic review. Based on the available evidence, total knee replacements/revisions and arthroplasties lower BMD and thus increase fracture risk. This review also addresses the possible implications of this research...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - December 1, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Bone Health in Parkinson ’s Disease
AbstractParkinson ’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by tremor at rest, bradykinesia, rigidity, and loss of postural reflexes. Patients can also exhibit a plethora of non-motor symptoms, such as autonomic dysfunction, sleep disturbances, and neuropsychiatric comorbidities. In the l ast years, a growing body of evidence has revealed that PD patients have relevant abnormalities in bone health. A substantial number of studies have shown that PD is associated with an increased risk of fractures, with low bone mineral density and with decreased vitamin D levels in serum. Osteoporos is in ...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - September 1, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Bone Metastasis from Solid Tumors: Biologic and Clinical State of the Art
AbstractBone metastases are a frequent and debilitating consequence for many tumors, of which breast, lung, prostate, and kidney cancer are the most common. The dialog among cancer cells, bone microenvironment, and immune system regulates bone metastasis formation. Indeed, bone and immune system are strictly linked to each other because bone regulates the hematopoietic stem cells from which all cells of the immune system derive. Many immunoregulatory cytokines influence the fate of bone cells and promote the growth of tumor cells in bone, contributing to sustain the vicious cycle of bone metastasis. Bone is an attractive s...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - September 1, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis and the New ACR Guideline
AbstractGlucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) continues to be the most common cause of secondary osteoporosis because at any time about 1% of the adult population has been prescribed oral glucocorticoids. Surprisingly, there are relatively few treatment studies of GIOP, particularly of younger individuals including women of child bearing potential and children. Thus, recommendations for management of patients at risk for fracture or who have already suffered an osteoporotic fracture are often based more on clinical experience than randomized controlled trials. Nonetheless, organizations such as the American College of...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism - September 1, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research