Index
No abstract available (Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - October 21, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Index Source Type: research

Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Fetal Gene Therapy
As fetal gene therapies move from experimental animal models to human in utero phase I clinical trials, there is a need to consider the ethical, legal, and social implications. While fetal gene therapies are attracting more regulatory oversight than previous fetal interventions such as fetal surgery, old sociological questions should be applied to this new context. As health care pathways around fetal therapy are shaped by the ways in which a pregnant person and the fetus are constituted, and as risks and benefits are evaluated, we cannot afford to lose sight of long-term consequences, especially those pertaining to social...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - October 21, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Gene Therapy in Obstetrics Source Type: research

The Current State and Future of Fetal Therapies
This article reviews emerging fetal therapies, as well as existing guidance for their development, considerations for their safety, and ethical and societal implications. (Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - October 21, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Gene Therapy in Obstetrics Source Type: research

Spinal Muscular Atrophy: A Potential Target for In Utero Therapy
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a life-threatening autosomal recessive disease that leads to progressive muscle weakness and atrophy, respiratory insufficiency and scoliosis. SMA is currently the most common monogenic cause of infant mortality. Amazing advancements have been made in the therapeutic options available for these children since 2016. What has also become clear is that the earlier the treatment is administered, the better the clinical outcome. For several reasons, which we will review in this chapter, SMA may be an excellent disease candidate for in utero therapy. (Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - October 21, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Gene Therapy in Obstetrics Source Type: research

Prenatal Gene Therapy for Metabolic Disorders
Gene therapy has traditionally involved the delivery of exogenous genetic material to a cell—most commonly to replace defective genes causing monogenic disorders. This allows cells to produce proteins that are otherwise absent in sufficient quantities, ideally for a therapeutic purpose. Since its inception over 40 years ago, the field of gene therapy has significantly expanded and now includes targeted gene editing strategies, including, but not limited to, clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9), transcription activator–like effector nucleases (TALENs), a...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - October 21, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Gene Therapy in Obstetrics Source Type: research

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Osteogenesis Imperfecta
The aim of this study was to provide a brief overview on the background and rationale on treating fetuses and children suffering from osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs ability to migrate, engraft, and differentiate into bone cells and to act via paracrine effects on the recipient’s tissues makes these cells promising candidates as a clinical therapy for OI. Animal work and limited clinical studies in humans support the use of MSC in treating OI. Off-the-shelf MSC have a good safety profile and exhibit multilineage differentiation potential and a low immunogenic profile and thereby ...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - October 21, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Gene Therapy in Obstetrics Source Type: research

In Utero Gene Therapy for Primary Immunodeficiencies
Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) have become a prime target for gene therapy given the morbidity, mortality, and the single gene etiology. Given that outcomes are better the earlier gene therapy is implemented, it is possible that fetal gene therapy may be an important future direction for the treatment of PIDs. In this chapter, the current treatments available for several PIDs will be reviewed, as well as the history and current status of gene therapy for PIDs. The possibility of in utero gene therapy as a possibility will then be discussed. (Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - October 21, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Gene Therapy in Obstetrics Source Type: research

Prenatal Gene Therapy
Prenatal gene therapy could provide a cure for many monogenic diseases. Prenatal gene therapy has multiple potential advantages over postnatal therapy, including treating before the onset of disease, the ability to induce tolerance and cross the blood-brain barrier. In this chapter, we will describe in utero gene therapy and its rationale, clinical trials of postnatal gene therapy, preclinical studies of in utero gene therapy, and potential risks to the mother and fetus. (Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - October 21, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Gene Therapy in Obstetrics Source Type: research

In Utero Fetal Therapy: Stem Cells, Cell Transplantation, Gene Therapy, and CRISPR-Cas9
In utero fetal therapy offers the opportunity to prevent and treat diseases with a cellular or genetic basis. Components of successful fetal treatment include isolation of a replacement cell population, in utero stem cell transplantation, cell engraftment with fetal immune tolerance, and ongoing cell function. Fetal gene therapy with CRISPR-Cas9 represents an exciting potential therapy for genetic diseases not amenable to gene supplementation via adenoviral vector transduction. These fetal therapies have unique ethical and safety considerations. Clinical trials for in utero cell therapy are underway, as additional discover...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - October 21, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Gene Therapy in Obstetrics Source Type: research

An Introduction: Prenatal Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Single Gene Disorders
Increasing ability to diagnose fetal single gene disorders has changed the prenatal diagnostic paradigm. As fetal sequencing advances, the genomic information obtained can lead to improved prognostic counseling, and elucidation of recurrence risk and future prenatal diagnosis options. For some of these disorders, postnatal molecular therapy, including gene therapy, is available or being studied in clinical trials. Most of the initial research and clinical trials have involved children and adults, but there are potential benefits to treating conditions before birth. Many clinical studies are underway exploring the potential...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - October 21, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Gene Therapy in Obstetrics Source Type: research

Foreword: Gene Therapy in Obstetrics
No abstract available (Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - October 21, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Gene Therapy in Obstetrics Source Type: research

Contributors: Gene Therapy in Obstetrics
No abstract available (Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - October 21, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Contributors: Gene Therapy in Obstetrics Source Type: research

Eliminating Hormones With Orally Active Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Antagonists
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues have been used in clinical practice for nearly 3 decades. Beginning with GnRH agonists, these agents have been used to treat hormone-dependent disease and to suppress gonadotropin production in assisted reproductive technologies. With the development of GnRH antagonists and especially small-molecule antagonists, our ability to achieve gonadotropin and sex steroid suppression has become increasingly effective and convenient. In this review, we will briefly describe the development of GnRH analogues, review the evolution of orally active small-molecule GnRH antagonists and prov...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - October 21, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Hormone Use in Gynecology Source Type: research

Selective Progesterone Receptor Modulators (SPRMs) and Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs) as Treatment for Benign Gynecologic Diseases
In this report we review current evidence for selective progesterone receptor modulators and selective androgen receptor modulators as treatment options for benign gynecologic conditions. (Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - October 21, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Hormone Use in Gynecology Source Type: research

Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators in Gynecology Practice
Selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulators have variable tissue specific estrogen agonist and antagonist activities. Tamoxifen is approved for treatment and prevention of breast cancer; acts as an endometrial estrogen agonist. Raloxifene is approved for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and prevention of breast cancer. The selective ER modulators bazedoxifene paired with conjugated estrogens relieves vasomotor symptoms and prevents bone loss with neutral effects on breast and amenorrhea similar to placebo. Ospemifene is approved to treat dyspareunia. Lasofoxifene is in development for resistant ER positive breast c...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - October 21, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Hormone Use in Gynecology Source Type: research

Compounded Bioidentical Hormones: Myths and Realities
The spectacular success of compounded bioidentical hormone therapy is a product of the unanticipated negative-to-neutral findings of the Women’s Health Initiative hormone trial and the peculiarities of their regulatory status. By not having to provide scientific evidence of safety and efficacy, a requirement for all Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved hormone therapy products, the industry’s relatively unfettered marketing now accounts for about one third of menopausal hormone therapy prescriptions. Clinicians are often caught in the middle between patient beliefs and a desire to practice evidence-based...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - October 21, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Hormone Use in Gynecology Source Type: research

Do Women Need Androgens Like a Fish Needs a Bicycle? A Review of the Literature and Clinical Guidelines
Biopotent androgens such as testosterone circulate in low levels in women. However, androgen precursors, such as dehyroepiandrosterone, are among the most abundant hormones produced in both men and women. While testosterone exerts obvious phenotypic effects in men and is essential for male sexual function, considerable debate and controversy abounds over the role of androgens in women and whether androgens exert an analogous role in women as they do in men. This piece reviews androgen economy in women and the clinical case for and against androgen treatment for women for specific indications. (Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - October 21, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Hormone Use in Gynecology Source Type: research

The Role of Progestogens in Menopausal Hormone Therapy
Progestogens are steroid compounds that have the ability to induce secretory transformation in the endometrium and are utilized in menopausal hormone therapy to prevent endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer. Progestogens can be derived from 21-carbon or 19-carbon steroid cytoskeletons and thus have different properties and metabolic effects beyond the progestational effects on the endometrium. This limited review will focus on the available progestogens utilized in combination hormone therapy including progesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, norethindrone, norethindrone acetate, levonorgestrel, and drospirenone...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - October 21, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Hormone Use in Gynecology Source Type: research

Menopausal Hormone Therapy and the Role of Estrogen
Menopause is a universal experience for midlife women. The physiological decline in endogenous estrogen can be associated with vasomotor symptoms or hot flashes, sleep disruption, and mood disorders. Long-term concerns arise with sequelae of estrogen loss such as genitourinary syndrome of menopause and osteoporosis. Although the pendulum has swung widely since the 1942 approval of conjugated equine estrogens, estrogen therapy, now available in an ever-expanding menu of preparations, routes of administration, and dosing, remains the most effective means to collectively address these, and potentially, additional concerns. Re...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - October 21, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Hormone Use in Gynecology Source Type: research

Transgender Medicine and Hormone Therapy: What the Gynecologist Needs to Know
The transgender community comprises individuals with diverse identities in both gender and sexual orientation. Unfortunately, many face discrimination and harassment within our society—including within the medical system. There is an overall lack of provider training in transgender specific health which has led to health disparities and inequities within this population. This chapter aims to elucidate the medical needs unique to transgender and gender nonconforming individuals and thus enable medical providers to meet those needs with competency and compassion. (Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - October 21, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Hormone Use in Gynecology Source Type: research

Hormonal Contraception: Systemic Estrogen and Progestin Preparations
Combined hormonal contraception (CHC) are short-acting, reversible methods containing both estrogen and progestin. Available CHC methods include combined oral contraceptives, transdermal patches, and vaginal rings. The combined oral contraceptive remains the most commonly used contraceptive method in the United States. The general principles of CHC will be reviewed, including mechanism of action and effectiveness. Unless otherwise stated, these principles apply to all CHCs. When discussing clinical studies and specific considerations related only to pills, patches, or rings, the method(s) will be specified. Words that spec...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - October 21, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Hormone Use in Gynecology Source Type: research

Foreword: Hormone Use in Gynecology
No abstract available (Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - October 21, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Hormone Use in Gynecology Source Type: research

Contributors: Hormone Use in Gynecology
No abstract available (Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - October 21, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Contributors: Hormone Use in Gynecology Source Type: research

Index
No abstract available (Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - July 29, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Index Source Type: research

Spirituality in Pregnancy
This article discusses the role of spirituality in pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum. It highlights the importance of more fully integrating this concept into births traditionally attended by physicians and midwives in the hospital setting. This discussion covers birthing practices ingrained with culture and spirituality. The article concludes with strategies to elicit and integrate spirituality into routine practice to provide improved health care to patients and to find more fulfillment in the role as birth attendant. (Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - July 29, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Complementary/Alternative Medicine (Cam) In Obstetrics Source Type: research

Mind-Body Techniques in Pregnancy and Postpartum
Maternal stress can perturb physiology and psychiatric health leading to adverse outcomes. This review investigates the effectiveness of several mind-body therapies—namely biofeedback, progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery, tai chi, and yoga—as interventions in reducing maternal stress and other pregnancy-related conditions. Through randomized trials, these techniques have shown promising benefits for reducing pain, high blood pressure, stress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, labor pain and outcomes, and postpartum mood disturbances. As these interventions are easy to implement, low cost, and safe to perf...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - July 29, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Complementary/Alternative Medicine (Cam) In Obstetrics Source Type: research

Meditation and Mindfulness in Pregnancy and Postpartum: A Review of the Evidence
Given their growing popularity, mindfulness practices including meditation are actively being studied in clinical trials to assess their efficacy at improving health outcomes during pregnancy and the postpartum period. We conducted a literature review to compile these studies and assessed their findings. There is sufficient evidence to support the practice of mindfulness practices in pregnancy to reduce anxiety, depression, and stress during pregnancy, which may continue to have beneficial effects through the postpartum period. There is limited evidence on the benefits of mindfulness and meditation for other aspects of pre...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - July 29, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Complementary/Alternative Medicine (Cam) In Obstetrics Source Type: research

Massage During Pregnancy and Postpartum
Massage is systematic touch and manipulation of the soft tissues of the body that is increasingly being used as an adjunctive therapy for stress relief and to promote relaxation and wellbeing during pregnancy and as an alternative to pharmacologic or invasive forms of analgesia during labor. Literature to support the use of massage in pregnancy and labor is limited; however, evidence to support its use has been increasing over the past 30 years. Massage has been shown to be valuable to pregnant women with anxiety, depression, leg, and back pain, and has shown significant benefit in perception of pain during labor. (Source:...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - July 29, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Complementary/Alternative Medicine (Cam) In Obstetrics Source Type: research

The Application of Hypnosis in Obstetrics
Hypnosis, the induction of a naturally relaxed state of mind and body, is most commonly practiced by pregnant women in preparation for the childbirth experience. A literature review was performed to assess the effects of hypnosis before, during and after pregnancy. The majority of data is extracted from case series and low-quality studies thereby limiting the acceptability of hypnosis for various pregnancy related conditions. A few well-designed studies show that self-hypnosis may be beneficial for mitigating labor pain and fear of childbirth. Women can safely pursue hypnotherapy during pregnancy; however, high quality tri...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - July 29, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Complementary/Alternative Medicine (Cam) In Obstetrics Source Type: research

Herbalism for Modern Obstetrics
More pregnant and nursing mothers are using herbal remedies than health care providers realize. Lack of familiarity with herbalism in addition to the sparsity of high-quality research for many complementary and alternative medicines are barriers for the western practitioner to engage a patient about herbal therapies. This review provides historical information and available evidence for Traditional Chinese and Western herbal medicines commonly sought by pregnant and nursing mothers. We will review herbs commonly used for: nausea and vomiting, constipation, gestational diabetes, threatened miscarriage, immune system support...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - July 29, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Complementary/Alternative Medicine (Cam) In Obstetrics Source Type: research

Chiropractic Care for the Pregnant Body
This article provides an evidence-based review of the epidemiology of chiropractic use in obstetrics, commonly treated conditions, related physiology of pregnancy, and safety of spinal manipulation. (Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - July 29, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Complementary/Alternative Medicine (Cam) In Obstetrics Source Type: research

Ayurveda for Modern Obstetrics
Ayurveda is a system of holistic medicine that integrates health with lifestyle to restore balance and remove disease by resolving the imbalance that causes it. Ayurvedic techniques that support digestion, immunity, vitality, and rejuvenation can help assist women with a healthy conception, pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum. Ayurvedic approaches can help common but bothersome pregnancy symptoms as well as potentially prevent more serious pregnancy complications. Specific techniques, including developing a daily routine and the practice of pranayama to support vitality through breathing exercises are described to help gui...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - July 29, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Complementary/Alternative Medicine (Cam) In Obstetrics Source Type: research

Aromatherapy in Obstetrics: A Critical Review of the Literature
Aromatherapy is the use of highly concentrated aromatic plant oils administered in various ways for a wide range of therapeutic indications. The purpose of this review is to present an overview of the evidence on aromatherapy during the perinatal period. There is research on the prenatal use of aromatherapy to treat nausea and vomiting, reduce stress, and support immune function; the intrapartum use of aromatherapy for labor pain/anxiety and labor progress; and the postpartum use of aromatherapy for postcesarean symptoms, perineal trauma, sleep, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Overall, the evidence suggests that ar...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - July 29, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Complementary/Alternative Medicine (Cam) In Obstetrics Source Type: research

Acupressure and Acupuncture Use in the Peripartum Period
Acupuncture is the procedure of inserting fine needles into specific points on the body for therapeutic purposes. Acupuncture and its derivatives (acupressure, moxibustion, electroacupuncture, and transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation on acupoints) are a popular treatment choice in the peripartum period (32 wk’ gestation to 14 d postdelivery). There is substantial research evidence supporting acupuncture and its derivatives in the peripartum period. Benefits in the use of acupressure to reduce labor pain intensity and a reduction in the duration of labor with acupressure have been found. There is mi...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - July 29, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Complementary/Alternative Medicine (Cam) In Obstetrics Source Type: research

Foreword: Complementary/Alternative Medicine (Cam) In Obstetrics
No abstract available (Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - July 29, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology Source Type: research

Contributors: Complementary/Alternative Medicine (Cam) In Obstetrics
No abstract available (Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - July 29, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Contributors: Complementary/Alternative Medicine (Cam) In Obstetrics Source Type: research

Menopause: A Global Perspective and Clinical Guide for Practice
Perimenopause and menopause are a time of great transition for women—physically, mentally, and emotionally. Symptoms of the menopause transition and beyond impact women worldwide. Unfortunately, physician knowledge and comfort with addressing menopausal concerns vary greatly, limiting the support physicians provide to women in need. This review aims to increase physician understanding of the epidemiology, physiology, symptomology, and treatment options available for perimenopausal and menopausal women. Our goal is to empower physicians to educate and treat their patients to reduce the negative impact of perimenopausa...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - July 29, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Global Gynecology Source Type: research

Female Genital Cutting: An Evidence-based Review for the OBGYN of Long-term Sequelae and Management Options
Female genital cutting (FGC) is a persisting global practice that increases patients’ risk for experiencing long-term health sequelae. Existing meta-analysis evidence strongly supports an association between FGC and the development of long-term dyspareunia, urinary tract infections, and sexual dysfunction as well as increased risk obstetrically of prolonged labor, cesarean section, perineal lacerations, and episiotomy. Surgical defibulation is recommended in patients with type III FGC to decrease obstetric and gynecologic morbidity. Existing evidence does not seem to definitively support clitoral reconstructive surge...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - July 29, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Global Gynecology Source Type: research

Cervical Cancer Prevention in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
This article outlines the current state of cervical cancer prevention in low and middle income countries, the innovations being employed to improve outcomes, and consideration of the next steps needed as we move towards global elimination. (Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - July 29, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Global Gynecology Source Type: research

Contemporary Issues in Obstetric Fistula
We discuss a variety of contemporary issues relating to obstetric fistula. These include definitions of these injuries, the etiologic mechanisms by which fistulas occur, the role of specialist fistula centers in diagnosis and management, the classification of fistulas, and the assessment of surgical outcomes. We also review the growing need for complex reconstructive surgical procedures, follow-up challenges, and the transition to a fistula-free world in which other pathologies (such as pelvic organ prolapse) will be of increasing importance. Finally, we discuss the need to develop responsive systems of maternal health car...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - July 29, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Global Gynecology Source Type: research

Recent Advances and New Challenges in Cisgender Women’s Gynecologic and Obstetric Health in the Context of HIV
Although rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have declined globally over the past 10 years, United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS estimates 1.7 million new infections occurred in 2019, with cisgender women (cis women) and girls accounting for 48%. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related illnesses are the leading global cause of mortality in cis women aged 15 to 49, and in many sub-Saharan Africa countries, young women face substantially higher HIV risk than their male counterparts. Drivers of this increased risk include sexual and reproductive health characteristics unique to cis women. This review discusses the...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - July 29, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Global Gynecology Source Type: research

Abortion Care Beyond 13 Weeks’ Gestation: A Global Perspective
The majority of abortions are performed early in pregnancy, but later abortion accounts for a large proportion of abortion-related morbidity and mortality. People who need this care are often the most vulnerable–the poor, the young, those who experience violence, and those with significant health issues. In settings with access to safe care, studies demonstrate significant declines in abortion-related morbidity and mortality. This review focuses on evidence-based practices for induced abortion beyond 13 weeks’ gestation and post-abortion care in both high- and low-resource settings. We also highlight key progra...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - July 29, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Global Gynecology Source Type: research

First Trimester Abortion Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
Access to first trimester abortions has increased significantly in the past few decades in low and middle-income countries. Manual vacuum aspiration is now standard of care for procedural abortion and postabortion care. Medication abortion has shifted abortions to being performed earlier in pregnancy and is becoming more widely available with new service delivery strategies to broaden access. Widespread availability of misoprostol has made abortions induced outside of the formal medical sector overall safer. In both legally restrictive and supportive environments, there is increased interested in self-managed abortions as ...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - July 29, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Global Gynecology Source Type: research

Contraceptive Technologies: Looking Ahead to New Approaches to Increase Options for Family Planning
With persistently high global rates of unintended pregnancy and contraceptive nonuse, nonadherence and discontinuation, new contraceptive methods must address the needs of women and men who seek alternatives to their current options. Methods under development aim to reduce potential side effects, improve access and ease of use, ensure safety, increase secondary benefits associated with method use and expand options for both women and men. Developmental approaches employed to enhance current methods utilize new delivery systems and novel active pharmaceutical ingredients. This will improve overall user satisfaction with the...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - July 29, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Global Gynecology Source Type: research

How It Started, and How It’s Going: Global Family Planning Programs
Family planning (FP) is the domain that enables people to have their desired number of children if any, and the desired spacing of births. FP initiatives are cross-cutting approaches to empower people with human and reproductive rights, lessen child morbidity and pregnancy-related morbidity and mortality, alleviate poverty, slow climate change, provide sustainable economic growth and development, advance education, and voluntarily slow overpopulation. We examine global FP programs: the history, drivers, and indicators to measure impact, policy, and strategy that surrounds human reproduction. We focus on current trends of t...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - July 29, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Global Gynecology Source Type: research

How Can We Achieve Sustainable Development Goal-5: Gender Equality for All by 2030?
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were launched in 2016 to expand the 2000 Millennium Development Goals. SDG-5 calls on governments to achieve gender equality and empowerment of all girls, highlighting the importance of sexual and reproductive health (SRH). There are large variations across the globe in maternity safety and there is clear evidence that a significant percentage of maternity mortality is preventable through the provision of reliable contraception and safe abortion services for women. If SDG-5 is to be achieved by 2030, it is essential that women have access to appropriate life-saving healthcare and su...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - July 29, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Global Gynecology Source Type: research

Foreword: Global Gynecology
No abstract available (Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - July 29, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology Source Type: research

Contributors: Global Gynecology
No abstract available (Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - July 29, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Contributors: Global Gynecology Source Type: research

Index
No abstract available (Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - April 30, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Index Source Type: research

How Telehealth Can be Used to Improve Maternal and Child Health Outcomes: A Population Approach
Mobile applications and telehealth services are being used to unprecedented degrees in maternal and child care, with uncertain impact on population health outcomes. In this article, we will review the role of the COVID-19 pandemic in accelerating large scale implementation of telehealth services, known and anticipated impacts on maternal and child health and related inequities, and potential strategies to optimize outcomes at the population level. (Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - April 30, 2021 Category: OBGYN Tags: Smart Technology in Obstetrical Care Source Type: research