Using PhonBank and Phon in studies of phonological development and disorders.
Abstract The goal of this paper is to present an overview of new tools that can be used to further our understanding of phonological development and disorders. We begin with a summary of the field of child phonology with a focus on databases and methods of analysis and then move to a description of PhonBank, a shared database for the study of phonology, and Phon, a specialised software system capable of performing various types of phonological analyses based on both phonetic transcriptions and acoustic analyses of speech productions. We provide a detailed example of using PhonBank and Phon to examine the use of ve...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - June 2, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Rose Y, Stoel-Gammon C Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Fricative acquisition in English- and Icelandic-speaking preschoolers with protracted phonological development.
Hansson GÓ Abstract Few studies have directly compared fricative development across languages. The current study examined voiceless fricative production in Icelandic- versus English-speaking preschoolers with protracted phonological development (PPD). Expected were: a low fricative match (with age effect), highest match levels for /f/ and non-word-initial fricatives, developmentally early mismatch (error) patterns including deletion, multiple feature category mismatches or stops, and developmentally later patterns affecting only one feature category. Crosslinguistic differences in phonetic inventories were ...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - May 18, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Bernhardt BM, Másdóttir T, Stemberger JP, Leonhardt L, Hansson GÓ Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Predicting the naming of regular-, irregular- and non-phonetic compounds in Chinese.
This study investigated the contributions of different cognitive measures in predicting the three types of Chinese characters: regular phonetic compounds, irregular phonetic compounds and non-phonetic compounds. A total of 246 Grade 3 children (mean age = 8.63 yrs) were tested using a bunch of tasks including phonological processing, orthographic processing, morphological processing, rapid automatised naming and Chinese character naming. Results showed that advanced phonological processing skills contributed largely to regular phonetic compounds naming while other cognitive measures predict the naming of the ...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - May 13, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Lau DK, Leung MT, Liang Y, Lo JC Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Phonetic categorisation and cue weighting in adolescents with Specific Language Impairment (SLI).
This study investigates phonetic categorisation and cue weighting in adolescents and young adults with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). We manipulated two acoustic cues, vowel duration and F1 offset frequency, that signal word-final stop consonant voicing ([t] and [d]) in English. Ten individuals with SLI (14.0-21.4 years), 10 age-matched controls (CA; 14.6-21.9 years) and 10 non-matched adult controls (23.3-36.0 years) labelled synthetic CVC non-words in an identification task. The results showed that the adolescents and young adults with SLI were less consistent than controls in the identification of the good category...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - May 13, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Tuomainen O, Stuart NJ, van der Lely HK Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Comprehension of figurative language in Taiwanese children with autism: The role of theory of mind and receptive vocabulary.
This study investigated the role of ToM and language ability in comprehending figurative language in 50 Taiwanese children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs) compared with 50 typically developing children. Results showed that the No-ToM HFASDs group performed worse than the first-order ToM HFASDs group and the second-order ToM HFASDs group in comprehension of metaphors, irony, sarcasm and indirect reproach, but not for indirect request. Receptive vocabulary correlated only with metaphor comprehension. The volatility of results seen among studies in terms of the relationship between ToM and figurative ...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - April 24, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Huang SF, Oi M, Taguchi A Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Sonority vs. independency: A comparison of the sonority hierarchy and phonological make-up in child Japanese.
Abstract Although awareness of the underlying phonological structure of a language is said to be a prerequisite in learning to read, there is still much debate as to which phonological units are the best predictors. The syllable plays an important role in accounting for various phonological phenomena observed cross-linguistically, and studies have shown its importance in promoting reading abilities. However, in the case of Tokyo Japanese, the role of the syllable is inconspicuous compared to the mora unit. This is due to the fact that in practice, the syllable often overlaps with the mora, exceptions arising from ...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - April 24, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Miyakoda H Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Syntactic comprehension and working memory in children with specific language impairment, autism or Down syndrome.
This study examined syntactic assignment for predicates and reflexives as well as working memory effects in the sentence comprehension of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), Down syndrome (DS), high functioning Autism (HFA) and Typical Language Development (TLD). Fifty-seven children (35 boys and 22 girls) performed a computerised picture-selection sentence comprehension task. Predicate attachment and reflexive antecedent assignment (with working memory manipulations) were investigated. The results showed that SLI, HFA and DS children exhibited poorer overall performance than TLD children. Children with SLI e...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - April 22, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Fortunato-Tavares T, Andrade CR, Befi-Lopes D, Limongi SO, Fernandes FD, Schwartz RG Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Past tense -ed omissions by children with specific language impairment: The role of sonority and phonotactics.
Abstract Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) frequently omit past tense -ed. Omission rates are subject to phonological context. Two phonological characteristics were manipulated; the sonority profile of the stem-final phoneme plus affix, and the phonotactic probability of the word-final phonemes (/i:pt/ in beeped). Seventeen children with SLI (mean age 6;7) and 21 language-matched children (mean age 4;8) repeated sentences containing regularly inflected verbs according to a 2 (sonority) by 2 (phonotactic legality) design. Affix omissions were analysed. There was a significant effect of sonority only,...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - April 22, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Riches N Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Non-word repetition in 2-year-olds: Replication of an adapted paradigm and a useful methodological extension.
This study is based on Hoff, Core and Bridges' adapted NWR task, which includes a real-word repetition (RWR) condition. We tested 86 typically developing 2-year-olds and found relationships between NWR and both receptive and expressive vocabulary using a novel measure that controls for speech production by comparing contextually matched targets in RWR. Post hoc analyses demonstrated the influence of lexical and sublexical factors in repetition tasks. Overall, results illustrate the importance of controlling for speech production differences in young children and support a useful methodological approach for testing NWR. ...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - April 20, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Torrington Eaton C, Newman RS, Ratner NB, Rowe ML Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Communication restriction in adults who stutter.
This study explored communication restriction in adults with stuttering (AWS) by means of typical language measures obtained using the Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts - New Zealand (SALT-NZ) software, as well as systemic functional linguistics (SFL) analyses. The areas of language productivity and complexity, modality (i.e. linguistic politeness) and the language of appraisal were compared between AWS and typically fluent speakers (adults with no stuttering (AWNS)). Ten-minute conversational samples were obtained from 20 AWS and 20 age- and sex-matched AWNS. Transcripts were analysed for quantity and complexity...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - April 20, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Lee A, Van Dulm O, Robb MP, Ormond T Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Editorial.
r N PMID: 25803494 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics)
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - March 26, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Ball MJ, Müller N Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

The impact of attentional allocation capacities on nonword repetition in children with specific language impairment.
This study aimed at directly assessing the hypothesis that attentional allocation capacity influences poor nonword repetition (NWR) performances in children with specific language impairment (SLI), using an attention demanding visual search task given concurrently with the NWR task. Twenty-one children with SLI, 21 typically developing children matched on age and 21 typically developing children matched on nonword span performed an immediate serial recall task of nonwords. The nonword lists were presented either alone or concurrently with the visual search task. Overall, results revealed a resource-sharing trade-off betwee...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - March 24, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Leclercq AL, Maillart C, Lange M, Majerus S Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Beyond narrative: Is there an implicit structure to the way in which adults organise their discourse?
This study aimed to characterise the discourse of 30 healthy adult speakers across three age groups (20-39, 40-59 and 60+ years) and four discourse genres (recount, procedural, exposition and narrative), drawing on discourse frameworks used in classroom teaching. A clinically useful discourse protocol and analytic procedure using SALT was developed that profiled the macrostructure and key aspects of linguistic microstructure of the different genres, exploring coherence and cohesion within and across genre in a systematic manner. Analyses considered whether there were differences in coherence and cohesion among the differen...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - March 16, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Whitworth A, Claessen M, Leitão S, Webster J Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Speech production in children with Down's syndrome: The effects of reading, naming and imitation.
This study aimed to compare reading, picture naming and repetition for the same 10 words, to identify if the speech of eight children with DS (aged 11-14 years) was more accurate, consistent and intelligible when reading. Results show that children were slightly, yet significantly, more accurate and intelligible when they read words compared with when they produced those words in naming or imitation conditions although the reduction in inconsistency was non-significant. The results of this small-scale study provide tentative support for previous claims about the benefits of reading for children with DS. The mechanisms behi...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - March 16, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Knight RA, Kurtz S, Georgiadou I Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

From aardvark to ziggurat: A new tool for assessing children's use of rare vocabulary.
This study introduces a resource for examining children's use of low-frequency vocabulary and describes preliminary evidence of its validity. Using a corpus of>1400 transcripts from school-aged children, we derived a concordance of all words spoken by the children and generated a list of 2079 uncommon words we have called WERVE, the Wordlist for Expressive Rare Vocabulary Evaluation. Preliminary validity evidence for WERVE was examined through correlation analyses with WERVE results and other common language measures in a test sample of 112 children age 7 and 8 years. In addition, we replicated the correlation analyses ...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - March 16, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Mahurin Smith J, Dethorne L, Petrill S Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Complexity markers in morphosyntactic productions in French-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI).
Abstract The usage-based theory considers that the morphosyntactic productions of children with SLI are particularly dependent on input frequency. When producing complex syntax, the language of these children is, therefore, predicted to have a lower variability and to contain fewer infrequent morphosyntactic markers than that of younger children matched on morphosyntactic abilities. Using a spontaneous language task, the current study compared the complexity of the morphological and structural productions of 20 children with SLI and 20 language-matched peers (matched on both morphosyntactic comprehension and mean ...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - March 16, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Prigent G, Parisse C, Leclercq AL, Maillart C Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Using ultrasound visual biofeedback to treat persistent primary speech sound disorders.
In this study, we evaluate its effectiveness in treating children with persistent speech sound disorders that have been unresponsive to traditional therapy approaches. A case series of seven different children (aged 6-11) with persistent speech sound disorders were evaluated. For each child, high-speed ultrasound (121 fps), audio and lip video recordings were made while probing each child's specific errors at five different time points (before, during and after intervention). After intervention, all the children made significant progress on targeted segments, evidenced by both perceptual measures and changes in tong...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - March 9, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Cleland J, Scobbie JM, Wrench AA Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Impact of the LSVT on vowel articulation and coarticulation in Parkinson's disease.
Abstract Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT®) on vowel articulation and consonant-vowel (C-V) coarticulation in dysarthric speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD). Nine Quebec French speakers diagnosed with idiopathic PD underwent the LSVT®. Speech characteristics were compared before and after treatment. Vowel articulation was measured using acoustic vowel space and calculated with the first (F1) and second formant (F2) of the vowels /i/, /u/ and /a/. C-V coarticulation was measured using locus equations, an acoustic metric based on t...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - February 17, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Martel Sauvageau V, Roy JP, Langlois M, Macoir J Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Exploring consequences of short- and long-term deafness on speech production: A lip-tube perturbation study.
cute;nard L Abstract Abstract Studies have reported strong links between speech production and perception. We aimed to evaluate the role of long- and short-term auditory feedback alteration on speech production. Eleven adults with normal hearing (controls) and 17 cochlear implant (CI) users (7 pre-lingually deaf and 10 post-lingually deaf adults) were recruited. Short-term auditory feedback deprivation was induced by turning off the CI or by providing masking noise. Acoustic and articulatory measures were obtained during the production of /u/, with and without a tube inserted between the lips (perturbation), and w...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - February 6, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Turgeon C, Prémont A, Trudeau-Fisette P, Ménard L Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Phonetic variations and sound changes in Hong Kong Cantonese: Diachronic review, synchronic study and implications for speech sound assessment.
Abstract Abstract The aim of this article was to describe phonetic variations and sound changes in Hong Kong Cantonese (HKC) to provide speech-language pathologists with information about acceptable variants of standard pronunciations for speech sound assessments. Study 1 examined the pattern of variations and changes based on past diachronic research and historical written records. Nine phonetic variations were found. Five in syllable-initial and syllabic contexts: (1) [n-] → [l-], (2) [ŋ-] → Ø-, (3) Ø- → [ŋ-], (4) [k(w)ɔ-] → [kɔ-], (5) syllabic [ŋ̍] → [m̩]; and four ...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - February 4, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: To CK, Mcleod S, Cheung PS Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

The development of phonological representations in Mandarin-speaking children: Evidence from a longitudinal study of phonological awareness.
Abstract Abstract Two competing approaches to the analysis of the phonological structure of Mandarin syllables have been put forward. The first and more traditional approach is that a syllable can be segmented into initial consonant, medial glide, nucleus plus coda and tone. The second approach does not distinguish the non-compulsory medial glide as an independent element. To compare and evaluate these two different approaches, the development of phoneme-level awareness was investigated in 67 Mandarin-speaking children in Year 1 of school (mean age: 6;9) and Year 5 (mean age: 10;1). Results showed that at school e...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - February 4, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Yeh LL, Wells B, Stackhouse J, Szczerbinski M Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

The effect of age and vocal task on cepstral/spectral measures of vocal function in adult males.
This study investigated the effect of aging on cepstral/spectral acoustic measures calculated from clinical stimuli (vowels and sentences from the Consensus Auditory Perceptual Evaluation of Voice). Thirty younger adult males (20-49 years of age) and thirty older males (50-79 years of age) produced sustained vowels and read a connected speech stimulus which were applied to cepstral/spectral acoustic analyses to derive the multiparametric measure of Cepstral/Spectral Index of Dysphonia (CSID). Results indicated that older males exhibited significantly greater CSID measures than younger males in connected speech (p =&...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - February 4, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Watts CR, Ronshaugen R, Saenz D Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Slow speech rate effects on stuttering preschoolers with disordered phonology.
Abstract Abstract To study the effects of clinicians' slow rate on the speech of children who stutter with and without a concomitant phonological disorder, an A-B-A-B single case design was used with six clinician-child dyads, where B = Clinician's slow speech rate model. Two boys and one girl, aged 49-54 months, stuttering with disordered phonology (S + DP), were compared to three boys aged 42-50 months, stuttering with normal phonology (S + NP). Articulation rates were measured in phones per second (pps) in clinician-child adjacent utterance pairs. The S + ...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - February 4, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Lasalle LR Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Quantifying lingual coarticulation using ultrasound imaging data collected with and without head stabilisation.
The objective of this study was to explore the applicability of quantitative measurements of stabilisation-free tongue movement data, by comparing ultrasound data collected from 10 adolescents, with and without head stabilisation. Several measures of tongue shape were used to quantify coarticulatory influence from two contrasting vowels on four different consonants. Only one of the measures was completely unaffected by the stabilisation condition for all the consonants. The study also reported cross-consonant differences in vowel-related coarticulatory effects. The implications of the findings for the theory of coarticulat...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - February 4, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Zharkova N, Gibbon FE, Hardcastle WJ Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of language sample measures with Persian-speaking preschool children.
This study examined the diagnostic accuracy of selected language sample measures (LSMs) with Persian-speaking children. A pre-accuracy study followed by phase I and II studies are reported. Twenty-four Persian-speaking children, aged 42 to 54 months, with primary language impairment (PLI) were compared to 27 age-matched children without PLI on a set of measures derived from play-based, conversational language samples. Results showed that correlations between age and LSMs were not statistically significant in either group of children. However, a majority of LSMs differentiated children with and without PLI at the group leve...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - January 21, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Kazemi Y, Klee T, Stringer H Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Norwegian Words: A lexical database for clinicians and researchers.
This article presents the content and structure of the database as well as the search options available in the interface. Finally, it briefly describes some of the ways in which the database can be used in research, clinical practice and teaching. PMID: 25588015 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics)
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - January 14, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Lind M, Simonsen HG, Hansen P, Holm E, Mevik BH Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Child-directed speech: An examination of frequency and reliability in spontaneous language samples.
This study uses a test-retest procedure to examine frequency and reliability of morphosyntactic production in the language of 17 mothers interacting with their children. To examine reliability of different sample lengths, counts and reliability are calculated at 50, 100, 150 and 200 utterances. Results are compared to those of children (2;6-3;6) involved in a larger study and reported in previous work. Results show that (1) frequency counts were higher for adults than children, (2) reliability of most elements was markedly lower in adult language, and (3) relative frequency of items in the child language samples mirrored t...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - January 9, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Tommerdahl J, Kilpatrick CD Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Cerebral processing of proper and common nouns: Perception and production following left hemisphere damage.
Abstract Abstract The goal of this study was to further investigate hemispheric specialization for proper and common nouns by examining the ability of individuals with left hemisphere damage (LHD) to perceive and verbally reproduce famous names and matched common names compared with the performance of matched healthy controls (HC). Ten individuals with LHD due to stroke and 16 age- and education-matched HC completed recognition and production tasks of famous proper and common nouns. All tasks were designed as split-visual field experiments, modelled after the study done by Ohnesorge and Van Lancker. Results contri...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - December 17, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Yang SY, Van Lancker Sidtis D Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Lateral bracing of the tongue during the onset phase of alveolar stops: An EPG study.
This study examined the dynamics of lateral bracing during the onset of alveolar stops /t/, /d/, /n/ produced by15 typical English-speaking adults using electropalatography. Percent tongue palate contact in the lateral regions over a 150-ms period from the preceding schwa to stop closure was measured. Rapid rising of the sides of the tongue from the back towards the front during the 50-ms period before closure was observed, with oral stops showing significantly more contact than nasal stops. This feature corresponds to well-documented formant transitions detectable from acoustic analysis. Possible explanations for increase...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - December 11, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Lee A, Gibbon FE, Oebels J Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Swedish Test of Intelligibility for Children (STI-CH) - Validity and reliability of a computer-mediated single word intelligibility test for children.
n C Abstract Abstract The aim of this study was twofold: first, to describe a new Swedish intelligibility test (Swedish Test of Intelligibility for Children, STI-CH) and second to evaluate its validity and reliability. STI-CH is based on the repetition of single words. Ten children with a speech-sound disorder (4:6-8:3 years of age, mean = 6.0 years) and 10 children with typical speech and language development (4:8-7:4 years of age, mean = 5.9 years) were included. Twenty speech-language pathology students served as listeners. Intra-judge reliability was high (r > 0.92)...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - December 9, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Lagerberg TB, Hartelius L, Johnels JA, Ahlman AK, Börjesson A, Persson C Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Segmental and suprasegmental properties in nonword repetition - An explorative study of the associations with nonword decoding in children with normal hearing and children with bilateral cochlear implants.
This study explored nonword repetition (NWR) and nonword decoding in normal-hearing (NH) children and in children with bilateral cochlear implants (CI). Participants were 11 children, with CI, 5:0-7:11 years (M = 6.5 years), and 11 NH children, individually age-matched to the children with CI. This study fills an important gap in research, since it thoroughly describes detailed aspects of NWR and nonword decoding and their possible associations. All children were assessed after having practiced with a computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach during four weeks. Results showed that NH chil...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - December 9, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Nakeva Von Mentzer C, Lyxell B, Sahlén B, Dahlström O, Lindgren M, Ors M, Kallioinen P, Engström E, Uhlén I Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Speech processing in children with functional articulation disorders.
This study explored auditory speech processing and comprehension abilities in 5-8-year-old monolingual Hungarian children with functional articulation disorders (FADs) and their typically developing peers. Our main hypothesis was that children with FAD would show co-existing auditory speech processing disorders, with different levels of these skills depending on the nature of the receptive processes. The tasks included (i) sentence and non-word repetitions, (ii) non-word discrimination and (iii) sentence and story comprehension. Results suggest that the auditory speech processing of children with FAD is underdeveloped comp...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - November 25, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Gósy M, Horváth V Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

The acquisition of allophones among bilingual Spanish-English and French-English 3-year-old children.
This study examines the acquisition of allophones in Spanish and French by monolingual and bilingual children. We hypothesised that two factors would influence allophone acquisition: (1) the amount of exposure to phonological input, and (2) the degree of variability of the allophonic pattern. Thirty-four typically developing 3-year-old participated in the study. The analyses revealed that regardless of the language, the monolingual children produced similar error rates in the production of the target allophones. In contrast, the bilingual children produced different patterns of acquisition of the allophones: the Spanish-En...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - November 25, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: MacLeod AA, Fabiano-Smith L Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Perceived articulatory precision in patients with Parkinson's disease after deep brain stimulation of subthalamic nucleus and caudal zona incerta.
n F Abstract Abstract The effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and caudal zona incerta (cZi) on speech articulation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) was investigated. Read speech samples were collected from nine patients with STN-DBS and 10 with cZi-DBS. The recordings were made pre-operatively and 12 months post-operatively with stimulator on and off (on medication). Blinded, randomised, repeated perceptual assessments were performed on words and isolated fricatives extracted from the recordings to assess (1) overall articulatory quality ratings, (2) frequency of occurr...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - October 21, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Eklund E, Qvist J, Sandström L, Viklund F, Van Doorn J, Karlsson F Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Development of an audiovisual speech perception app for children with autism spectrum disorders.
This article reviews the known differences in audiovisual speech perception in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and specifies the need for interventions that address this construct. Elements of an audiovisual training program are described. This researcher-developed program delivered via an iPad app presents natural speech in the context of increasing noise, but supported with a speaking face. Children are cued to attend to visible articulatory information to assist in perception of the spoken words. Data from four children with ASD ages 8-10 are presented showing that the children improved their performance o...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - October 14, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Irwin J, Preston J, Brancazio L, D'angelo M, Turcios J Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Rates of auxiliary is and are in African American English speaking children with specific language impairment following language treatment.
Abstract Abstract The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine rates of auxiliary is and are across dialect patterns produced by African American English with specific language impairment (AAE-SLI) children following language treatment. The following research question is asked: Do AAE-SLI children exhibit rates of auxiliary is and are across dialect patterns consistent with previous reports of typically developing children and adult AAE speakers? A pre-/post-test design was used to identify patterns in which auxiliary is and are were produced at significant levels. Individual performance was included to exa...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - October 9, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Smith S, Bellon-Harn ML Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Lexical tone and stuttering loci in Mandarin: Evidence from preschool children who stutter.
Abstract Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between stuttering loci and lexical tone in Mandarin-speaking preschoolers. Conversational samples from 20 Taiwanese children who stutter (CWS; M = 4:9; range = 3:2-6:4) were analysed for frequency and type of speech disfluency and lexical tone associated with stuttering-like disfluencies (SLDs). Results indicated that SLDs were significantly more likely to be produced on Mandarin syllables carrying Tone 3 and Tone 4 syllables compared to syllables carrying either Tone 1 or Tone 2. Post-hoc analyses revealed: (1...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - September 30, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Chou FC, Zebrowski P, Yang SL Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Oral-diadochokinetic rates for Hebrew-speaking school-age children: Real words vs. non-words repetition.
This study evaluated oral-DDK rates for Hebrew-speaking elementary school children using non-words and real words. The participants were 60 children, 9-11 years old, with normal speech and language development, who were asked to repeat "pataka" (non-word) and "bodeket" (Hebrew real word). Data replicate the advantage generally found for real word repetition with preschoolers. Children produced real words faster than non-words for all age groups, and repetition rates were higher for the older children. The findings suggest that adding real words to the standard oral-DDK task with elementary school childr...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - September 26, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Icht M, Ben-David BM Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Propositional idea density in older men's written language: Findings from the HIMS study using computerised analysis.
Abstract Abstract Decline in linguistic function has been associated with decline in cognitive function in previous research. This research investigated the informativeness of written language samples of Australian men from the Health in Men's Study (HIMS) aged from 76 to 93 years using the Computerised Propositional Idea Density Rater (CPIDR 5.1). In total, 60 255 words in 1147 comments were analysed using a linear-mixed model for statistical analysis. Results indicated no relationship with education level (p = 0.79). Participants for whom English was not their first learnt language showed Pr...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - September 12, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Spencer E, Ferguson A, Craig H, Colyvas K, Hankey GJ, Flicker L Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Enhancing generalisation in biofeedback intervention using the challenge point framework: A case study.
Abstract Abstract Biofeedback intervention can help children achieve correct production of a treatment-resistant error sound, but generalisation is often limited. This case study suggests that generalisation can be enhanced when biofeedback intervention is structured in accordance with a "challenge point" framework for speech-motor learning. The participant was an 11-year-old with residual /r/ misarticulation who had previously attained correct /r/ production through a structured course of ultrasound biofeedback treatment but did not generalise these gains beyond the word level. Treatment difficulty was ...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - September 12, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Hitchcock ER, Mcallister Byun T Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Nasality in Friedreich ataxia.
Abstract Abstract Perceptual speech research in Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) has identified altered nasality as a key component of the dysarthria profile, however the incidence and severity of abnormal nasality remains unknown. Utilizing objective and perceptual methods, data on the relationship between resonance, disease duration, severity, age of onset and genetic profiles were collated. Thirty-seven participants with FRDA and 24 healthy controls provided contemporaneous speech samples for perceptual analysis, and single word samples for acoustic analysis. A subset of participants (eight participants with FRDA and e...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - September 10, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Poole ML, Wee JS, Folker JE, Corben LA, Delatycki MB, Vogel AP Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Speech-related fatigue and fatigability in Parkinson's disease.
This study tested the assumption that speech is more susceptible to fatigue than normal in persons with dysarthria. After 1 h of speech-like exercises, participants with Parkinson's disease (PD) were expected to report increased perceptions of fatigue and demonstrate fatigability by producing less precise speech with corresponding acoustic changes compared to neurologically normal participants. Twelve adults with idiopathic PD and 13 neurologically normal adults produced sentences with multiple lingual targets before and after six 10-min blocks of fast syllable or word productions. Both groups reported increasing se...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - August 25, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Makashay MJ, Cannard KR, Solomon NP Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Acquisition of the stop-spirant alternation in bilingual Mexican Spanish-English speaking children: Theoretical and clinical implications.
Abstract Abstract The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics of typical acquisition of the Mexican Spanish stop-spirant alternation in bilingual Spanish-English speaking children and to shed light on the theoretical debate over which sound is the underlying form in the stop-spirant allophonic relationship. We predicted that bilingual children would acquire knowledge of this allophonic relationship by the time they reach age 5;0 (years;months) and would demonstrate higher accuracy on the spirants, indicating their role as the underlying phoneme. This quasi-longitudinal study examined children's singl...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - August 13, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Fabiano-Smith L, Oglivie T, Maiefski O, Schertz J Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
Authors: PMID: 25084003 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics)
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - August 1, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Production of tongue twisters by speakers with partial glossectomy.
Abstract Abstract A partial glossectomy can affect speech production. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of the presence of a tumour as well as the glossectomy surgery on the patients' production of tongue twisters with the sounds [t] and [k]. Fifteen patients with tongue cancer and 10 healthy controls took part in the study. The outcome measures were the patients' speech acceptability, rate of errors, the time needed to produce the tongue twisters, pause duration between item repetitions and the tongue shape during the production of the consonants [t] and [k] before and after surgery. The patien...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - July 21, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Bressmann T, Foltz A, Zimmermann J, Irish JC Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Preparing an E-learning-based Speech Therapy (EST) efficacy study: Identifying suitable outcome measures to detect within-subject changes of speech intelligibility in dysarthric speakers.
Abstract Abstract We explored the suitability of perceptual and acoustic outcome measures to prepare E-learning based Speech Therapy (EST) efficacy tests regarding speech intelligibility in dysarthric speakers. Eight speakers with stroke (n = 3), Parkinson's disease (n = 4) and traumatic brain injury (n = 1) participated in a 4 weeks EST trial. A repeated measures design was employed. Perceptual measures were (a) scale ratings for "ease of intelligibility" and "pleasantness" in continuous speech and (b) orthographic transcription scores of semantically ...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - July 15, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Beijer LJ, Rietveld AC, Ruiter MB, Geurts AC Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Editorial.
r N PMID: 25000370 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics)
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - July 1, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Ball MJ, Müller N Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

The rhaeadr effect in clinical phonology.
Abstract Abstract A distinction is drawn between Crystal's bucket theory of language processing and an overflow of effects between different linguistic levels in language production. Most of the examples are drawn from Welsh (a language of mutual interest to the author and the honoree of this issue). For that reason, it is proposed that this effect is termed the rhaeadr effect (from the Welsh for waterfall). The rhaeadr effect is illustrated with the initial consonant mutation systems of Welsh and Irish, and with data from both normal phonological (and morphophonological) development and disordered speech. PM...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - July 1, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Ball MJ Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Unraveling phonological conspiracies: A case study.
Abstract Abstract This paper focuses on three seemingly unrelated error patterns in the sound system of a child with a phonological delay, Child 218 (male, age 4 years 6 months) and ascribes those error patterns to a larger conspiracy to eliminate fricatives from the phonetic inventory. Employing Optimality Theory for its advantages in characterizing conspiracies, our analysis offers a unified account of the observed repairs. The contextual restrictions on those repairs are, moreover, attributed to early developmental prominence effects, which are independently manifested in another error pattern involving rhotic ...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - July 1, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Dinnsen DA, Gierut JA, Morrisette ML, Rose DE Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

How to meet the neighbors: Modality effects on phonological generalization.
Abstract Abstract Long-term auditory priming of words from dense neighborhoods has been posited as a learning mechanism that affects change in the phonological structure of children's lexical representations. An apparent confound associated with the modality of priming responsible for structural change has been introduced in the literature, which challenges this proposal. Thus, our purpose was to evaluate prime modality in the treatment of children with phonological delay. Nine children were assigned to auditory-visual, auditory, or visual priming of words from dense neighborhoods prior to the treatment of product...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - July 1, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Gierut JA, Morrisette ML Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research