Reply to Johnson
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wagenlehner, F. M., Newell, P., Yates, K., Gasink, L. B. Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Definitions of Complicated Urinary Tract Infection and Pyelonephritis
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Johnson, J. R. Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reply to Meijide et al
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Borges, A. H., Neuhaus, J., Babiker, A., Wilkin, T., Mitsuyasu, R. Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Cancer Incidence in Persons Living With HIV
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Meijide, H., Mena, A., Rodriguez-Osorio, I., Castro-Iglesias, A., Poveda, E. Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reply to Daniels et al.
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Palmer, L. B., Sweeney, D. A., Metersky, M. L., Kalil, A. C. Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Inhaled Antibiotics for Hospital-Acquired and Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Daniels, L. M., Juliano, J., Marx, A., Weber, D. J. Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Persistent Mouth Ulceration in a Renal Allograft Recipient
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Arasaratnam, R. J., Restrepo, A. Tags: Answer to the Photo Quiz Source Type: research

Expert Consensus on Metrics to Assess the Impact of Patient-Level Antimicrobial Stewardship Interventions in Acute-Care Settings
Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) positively impact patient care, but metrics to assess ASP impact are poorly defined. We used a modified Delphi approach to select relevant metrics for assessing patient-level interventions in acute-care settings for the purposes of internal program decision making. An expert panel rated 90 candidate metrics on a 9-point Likert scale for association with 4 criteria: improved antimicrobial prescribing, improved patient care, utility in targeting stewardship efforts, and feasibility in hospitals with electronic health records. Experts further refined, added, or removed metrics during ...
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Moehring, R. W., Anderson, D. J., Cochran, R. L., Hicks, L. A., Srinivasan, A., Dodds Ashley, E. S., for the Structured Taskforce of Experts Working at Reliable Standards for Stewardship (STEWARDS) Panel Tags: Invited Article Source Type: research

Emerging Public Health Challenges of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Related to Changes in the Pathogen, the Population, and the Environment
Emerging public health challenges of Shiga toxin (stx)–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) include the occurrence of more frequent or severe disease and risk factors shifts associated with changes, often interconnected, in the pathogen, the population, and the environment. In 3 outbreaks with heightened severity attributed to enhanced pathogen virulence, including the acquisition of an stx2 phage in 1 outbreak, population and environmental factors likely contributed significantly to disease outcomes. Evolving population risk factors that are associated with more severe disease include consumption of fresh produce, cont...
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Karmali, M. A. Tags: Food Safety Source Type: research

Persistent Mouth Ulceration in a Renal Allograft Recipient
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Photo Quiz Source Type: research

Use of Neuraminidase Inhibitors for Treatment of Severe Influenza: Times Are Changing
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Martin, E. T. Tags: Editorial Commentary Source Type: research

Proton Pump Inhibitor Use Is Associated With Extended-Spectrum {beta}-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Rectal Carriage at Hospital Admission: A Cross-Sectional Study
In this cross-sectional study, 8.5% of patients using proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) were rectal carriers of extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E), compared with 2.9% of non-PPI users. In multivariable analysis, PPI use was independently associated with ESBL-E rectal carriage at hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio, 3.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.65 – 9.19). (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Huizinga, P., van den Bergh, M. K.-, van Rijen, M., Willemsen, I., van 't Veer, N., Kluytmans, J. Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

MASTERMIND: Bringing Microbial Diagnostics to the Clinic
New diagnostics are urgently needed to address emerging antimicrobial resistance. The Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group proposes a strategy called MASTERMIND (Master Protocol for Evaluating Multiple Infection Diagnostics) for advancement of infectious diseases diagnostics. The goal of this strategy is to generate the data necessary to support US Food and Drug Administration clearance of new diagnostic tests by promoting research that might not have otherwise been feasible with conventional trial designs. MASTERMIND uses a single subject’s sample(s) to evaluate multiple diagnostic tests at the same time, provi...
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Patel, R., Tsalik, E. L., Petzold, E., Fowler, V. G., Klausner, J. D., Evans, S., for the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) Tags: Viewpoints Source Type: research

Healthcare-Associated Mycobacterium chimaera Transmission and Infection Prevention Challenges: Role of Heater-Cooler Units as a Water Source in Cardiac Surgery
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kanamori, H., Weber, D. J., Rutala, W. A. Tags: Editorial Commentary Source Type: research

Invasive Systemic Infection After Hospital Treatment for Diabetic Foot Ulcer: Risk of Occurrence and Effect on Survival
Conclusions. DFU-ISIs are important late complications of DFUs. Prevention of DFU-ISIs should be studied prospectively. Meanwhile, clinicians should aggressively incorporate treatment to accelerate ulcer healing and address MRSA into the care of diabetic patients with foot ulcers. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chen, S.-Y., Giurini, J. M., Karchmer, A. W. Tags: Major Article Source Type: research

Mycobacterial Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes in Mycobacterium abscessus Lung Disease
Conclusions. Precise identification to the subspecies level and analysis of mycobacterial characteristics could help predict treatment outcomes in patients with M. abscessus lung disease. Treatment failures and recurrences are frequently associated with multiple genotypes, suggesting reinfection. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00970801. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Koh, W.-J., Jeong, B.-H., Kim, S.-Y., Jeon, K., Park, K. U., Jhun, B. W., Lee, H., Park, H. Y., Kim, D. H., Huh, H. J., Ki, C.-S., Lee, N. Y., Kim, H. K., Choi, Y. S., Kim, J., Lee, S.-H., Kim, C. K., Shin, S. J., Daley, C. L., Kim, H., Kwon, O. J. Tags: Major Article Source Type: research

Progression and Treatment Outcomes of Lung Disease Caused by Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium massiliense
Conclusions. Progression rates were similar but treatment outcomes differed significantly between patients with lung disease caused by M. abscessus and M. massiliense. This difference in treatment outcomes was partly explained by the susceptibility of these organisms to clarithromycin. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Park, J., Cho, J., Lee, C.-H., Han, S. K., Yim, J.-J. Tags: Major Article Source Type: research

Therapeutic Immune Recovery and Reduction of CXCR4-Tropic HIV-1
Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that X4-tropic HIV sharply declines in most patients during successful therapy, which indicates a preferential tropism-dependent provirus elimination in the immunocompetent host. The recently implemented World Health Organization strategies of immediate therapy initiation are fully in line with this gradual loss of X4 tropism during therapy. Moreover, the early use of coreceptor antagonists against the remaining CCR5-tropic viruses may be indicated. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bader, J., Däumer, M., Schöni-Affolter, F., Böni, J., Gorgievski-Hrisoho, M., Martinetti, G., Thielen, A., Klimkait, T., for the Swiss HIV Cohort Study Tags: Major Article Source Type: research

High Rates of Anal High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in HIV-Infected Women Who Do Not Meet Screening Guidelines
Conclusions. Anal HSIL is common in HIV-infected women. Substantial numbers of HSIL would have been missed by strictly adhering to existing AC screening guidelines. These results support routine screening of all HIV-infected women regardless of human papillomavirus history or sexual practices. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gaisa, M., Ita-Nagy, F., Sigel, K., Arens, Y., Hennessy, M. A., Rodriguez-Caprio, G., Mullen, M., Aberg, J. A., Cespedes, M. Tags: Major Article Source Type: research

Shedding of Hepatitis C Virus Into the Rectum of HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex With Men
Conclusion. This study provides the first direct evidence to our knowledge that a sufficient quantity of HCV is shed into the rectum in HIV-infected men with HCV infection to directly infect an inserted penis or be passed indirectly through fomite-like transmission to the rectum of sex partner. We must develop an appropriate public health campaign to educate MSM about these routes of HCV infection to reverse the HCV epidemic among HIV-infected MSM. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Foster, A. L., Gaisa, M. M., Hijdra, R. M., Turner, S. S., Morey, T. J., Jacobson, K. B., Fierer, D. S. Tags: Major Article Source Type: research

Spinal Arachnoiditis as a Complication of Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis in Non-HIV Previously Healthy Adults
Conclusions. These data suggest that a post-infectious spinal arachnoiditis is an important complication of CM in previously healthy individuals, requiring heightened clinician awareness. Despite microbiological control, this syndrome causes significant pathology likely due to increased inflammation and may be amenable to suppressive therapeutics. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Panackal, A. A., Komori, M., Kosa, P., Khan, O., Hammoud, D. A., Rosen, L. B., Browne, S. K., Lin, Y.-C., Romm, E., Ramaprasad, C., Fries, B. C., Bennett, J. E., Bielekova, B., Williamson, P. R. Tags: Major Article Source Type: research

Fecal Fixation: Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Clostridium difficile Infection
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Johnson, S., Gerding, D. N. Tags: Editorial Commentary Source Type: research

Oral Vancomycin Followed by Fecal Transplantation Versus Tapering Oral Vancomycin Treatment for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial
Conclusions. In patients experiencing an acute episode of recurrent CDI, a single FT by enema was not significantly different from oral vancomycin taper in reducing recurrent CDI. Further research is needed to explore optimal donor selection, FT preparation, route, timing, and number of administrations. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01226992. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hota, S. S., Sales, V., Tomlinson, G., Salpeter, M. J., McGeer, A., Coburn, B., Guttman, D. S., Low, D. E., Poutanen, S. M. Tags: Major Article Source Type: research

Comparing the Outcomes of Patients With Carbapenemase-Producing and Non-Carbapenemase-Producing Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Bacteremia
Background. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are associated with considerable mortality. As mechanisms of carbapenem resistance are heterogeneous, it is unclear if mortality differs based on resistance mechanisms. We sought to determine whether CRE resistance mechanism determination is prognostically informative. Methods. We conducted an observational study comparing 14-day mortality between patients with carbapenemase-producing (CP)-CRE compared with non-CP-CRE bacteremia. Clinical data were collected on all patients. A comprehensive DNA microarray-based assay was performed on all isolates to identify β...
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tamma, P. D., Goodman, K. E., Harris, A. D., Tekle, T., Roberts, A., Taiwo, A., Simner, P. J. Tags: Major Article Source Type: research

Azithromycin 1.5g Over 5 Days Compared to 1g Single Dose in Urethral Mycoplasma genitalium: Impact on Treatment Outcome and Resistance
Conclusions. Extended azithromycin 1.5g was no more effective than a single 1g dose at achieving cure of M. genitalium urethritis and importantly did not reduce the selection of macrolide resistance. Nonmacrolide and new approaches for the treatment of M. genitalium urethritis are required. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Read, T. R. H., Fairley, C. K., Tabrizi, S. N., Bissessor, M., Vodstrcil, L., Chow, E. P. F., Grant, M., Danielewski, J., Garland, S. M., Hocking, J. S., Chen, M. Y., Bradshaw, C. S. Tags: Major Article Source Type: research

Characteristics and Outcomes of Pediatric Patients With Ebola Virus Disease Admitted to Treatment Units in Liberia and Sierra Leone: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Background. The clinical and virologic characteristics of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in children have not been thoroughly documented. Methods. Consecutive children aged
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Smit, M. A., Michelow, I. C., Glavis-Bloom, J., Wolfman, V., Levine, A. C. Tags: Major Article Source Type: research

Infectious Diseases Society of America Position Statement on Telehealth and Telemedicine as Applied to the Practice of Infectious Diseases
The use of telehealth and telemedicine offers powerful tools for delivering clinical care, conducting medical research, and enhancing access to infectious diseases physicians. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) has prepared a position statement to educate members on the use of telehealth and telemedicine technologies. The development of telehealth and telemedicine programs requires the consideration of several issues such as HIPAA, state and local licensure requirements, credentialing and privileging, scope of care, quality, and responsibility and liability. IDSA supports appropriate use of telehealth and te...
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Siddiqui, J., Herchline, T., Kahlon, S., Moyer, K. J., Scott, J. D., Wood, B. R., Young, J. Tags: IDSA Public Policy Source Type: research

In the Literature
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: In the Literature Source Type: research

News
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: News Source Type: research

Cover
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Cover / Standing Material Source Type: research

Oxford Specialist Handbook of Infectious Disease Epidemiology Edited by Ibrahim Abubakar, Helen R. Stagg, Ted Cohen, and Laura C. Rodrigues. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016. 416 pp. $65.00 (paperback).
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vaz, L. E., Wormser, G. P. Tags: Book Review Source Type: research

Overcoming Outpatient Loss to Follow-up as a Barrier to Efficiently Instituting Hepatitis B Liver-related Care
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lieveld, F. I., Arends, J. E., Amelung, L., Dijk, E., Gisolf, E. H., Vrolijk, J. M., van Erpecum, K. J., Siersema, P. D., Spanier, B. W. M., Hoepelman, A. I. M., Richter, C. Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reply to Colebunders
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rosenke, K., Adjemian, J., Munster, V. J., Strong, J. E., Sprecher, A., Feldmann, H., de Wit, E. Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

What to Do for the Asymptomatic Pulmonary Coccidioidal Nodule or Cavity in Immunosuppressed Patients? A Focus in the Recent Coccidioidomycosis Guidelines
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kontoyiannis, D. P. Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Is Plasmodium Species Parasitemia Really Associated With Increased Survival in Ebola Virus-Infected Patients?
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Colebunders, R. L. Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reply to Sainz and Navarro
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Weijsenfeld, A. M., Pajkrt, D. Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

HIV-Infected Youths: Transition in Spain Compared to the Netherlands
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sainz, T., Navarro, M. L. Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Fever and Vision Loss in an Immunocompetent 20-Year-Old Male
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Di Bella, S., Rinaldi, S., Maurel, C., Vattovani, O., Luzzati, R., Tognetto, D. Tags: Answer To The Photo Quiz Source Type: research

Prevention and Infection Management in Mechanical Circulatory Support Device Recipients
There are currently no guidelines for the management of infection and its prevention in mechanical circulatory support (MCS) device recipients. The International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) has initiated a multidisciplinary collaboration for the creation of a consensus document to guide clinicians in infection prevention and management in MCS patients. Most medical centers use local protocols that are based on expert opinion. MCS recipients are debilitated and have some immunological dysfunction. Over the years there have been technical advancements with smaller devices and drivelines with improved du...
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kusne, S., Staley, L., Arabia, F. Tags: Invited Article: Immunocompromised Hosts Source Type: research

Question: Fever and Vision Loss in an Immunocompetent 20-Year-Old Male
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Photo Quiz Source Type: research

The Early Clinical Response Endpoint: Great Timing by the Food and Drug Administration?
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Talbot, G. H. Tags: Editorial commentary Source Type: research

Early Clinical Response as a Predictor of Late Treatment Success in Patients With Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Retrospective Analysis of 2 Randomized Controlled Trials
In the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, pooled data from 2 clinical trials (N = 1333 patients) showed that programmatic and investigator-assessed early treatment success both had a high positive predictive value (94.3%–100.0%) for late clinical cure, including among hospitalized patients. The negative predictive value of programmatic early success was
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nathwani, D., Corey, R., Das, A. F., Sandison, T., De Anda, C., Prokocimer, P. Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Male-to-Female Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus--United States, January-April 2016
This report summarizes new information about both timing of exposure and symptoms of sexually transmitted Zika virus disease, and results of semen testing for Zika virus from 2 male travelers. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Russell, K., Hills, S. L., Oster, A. M., Porse, C. C., Danyluk, G., Cone, M., Brooks, R., Scotland, S., Schiffman, E., Fredette, C., White, J. L., Ellingson, K., Hubbard, A., Cohn, A., Fischer, M., Mead, P., Powers, A. M., Brooks, J. T. Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection: Prognostic Value of Maternal DNAemia at Amniocentesis
Conclusion. Maternal viremia at amniocentesis is associated with a 3-fold greater chance of congenital infection, but it is not correlated with symptomatic disease. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Simonazzi, G., Cervi, F., Zavatta, A., Pellizzoni, L., Guerra, B., Mastroroberto, M., Morselli-Labate, A. M., Gabrielli, L., Rizzo, N., Lazzarotto, T. Tags: Major Article Source Type: research

High Rate of Treatment Failures in Nonimmune Travelers Treated With Artemether-Lumefantrine for Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Sweden: Retrospective Comparative Analysis of Effectiveness and Case Series
Conclusions. Our findings indicate a high rate of symptomatic late treatment failures after 6-dose AL regime in nonimmune adults, especially in men. Our report warrants the need to establish optimal dosing of AL in adults and to alert clinicians about the importance of informing patients regarding the risk of parasites reappearing weeks after AL treatment. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sonden, K., Wyss, K., Jovel, I., Vieira da Silva, A., Pohanka, A., Asghar, M., Homann, M. V., Gustafsson, L. L., Hellgren, U., Färnert, A. Tags: Major Article Source Type: research

Clinical and Microbiological Characteristics of Clostridium difficile Infection Among Hospitalized Children in the Netherlands
Conclusions. Pediatric CDI in hospitals has remained stable over the last 6 years and resulted in fewer complications than for adult CDI. Further studies are needed to elucidate the source and epidemiology of PCR ribotype 265, primarily found in children. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: van Dorp, S. M., Smajlovic, E., Knetsch, C. W., Notermans, D. W., de Greeff, S. C., Kuijper, E. J. Tags: Major Article Source Type: research

Treating Sick Young Infants With Only Fast Breathing With Oral Amoxicillin in Resource-Limited Settings: Taking the High Road?
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jehan, F., Qazi, S. Tags: Editorial commentary Source Type: research

Ambulatory Treatment of Fast Breathing in Young Infants Aged
Conclusions. This trial failed to show equivalence of placebo to amoxicillin in the management of isolated fast breathing without hypoxemia or other clinical signs of illness in term young infants. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01533818. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tikmani, S. S., Muhammad, A. A., Shafiq, Y., Shah, S., Kumar, N., Ahmed, I., Azam, I., Pasha, O., Zaidi, A. K. M. Tags: Major Article Source Type: research

Long-term Impact of a "3 + 0" Schedule for 7- and 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines on Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Australia, 2002-2014
Background. Australia introduced universal 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) from 2005, replaced by 13-valent PCV (PCV13) in 2011, uniquely among high-income countries giving doses at 2, 4, and 6 months (3 + 0 schedule). Data on impact of a timely 3 + 0 PCV schedule with high coverage are sparse, with none for PCV13. Methods. We used national surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) from 2002 for baseline and appropriate later comparison periods to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) by serotype and age using a Poisson model. PCV coverage was assessed from the Australian Childhood Immunisation R...
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jayasinghe, S., Menzies, R., Chiu, C., Toms, C., Blyth, C. C., Krause, V., McIntyre, P. Tags: Major Article Source Type: research

Fixed-Dose Artesunate-Amodiaquine Combination vs Chloroquine for Treatment of Uncomplicated Blood Stage P. vivax Infection in the Brazilian Amazon: An Open-Label Randomized, Controlled Trial
Conclusions. ASAQ exhibited high efficacy against CQ resistant P. vivax and is an adequate alternative in the study area. Studies with an efficacious comparator, longer follow-up and genotype-adjustment can improve CQR characterization. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01378286. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - January 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Siqueira, A. M., Alencar, A. C., Melo, G. C., Magalhaes, B. L., Machado, K., Alencar Filho, A. C., Kuehn, A., Marques, M. M., Manso, M. C., Felger, I., Vieira, J. L. F., Lameyre, V., Daniel-Ribeiro, C. T., Lacerda, M. V. G. Tags: Major Article Source Type: research