Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism and breast cancer risk: a nationwide cohort study.
CONCLUSIONS: We found an increased risk of breast cancer in women with hyperthyroidism and a slightly decreased risk in women with hypothyroidism indicating an association between thyroid function level and breast cancer risk. PMID: 26863886 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical Breast Cancer)
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - February 13, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Søgaard M, Farkas DK, Ehrenstein V, Jørgensen JO, Dekkers OM, Sørensen HT Tags: Eur J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Identification of a founder BRCA1 mutation in the Moroccan population.
acute; G, Brunet J, Lázaro C Abstract Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent cancer among women in Morocco. However, the role of the most prevalent BC-predisposing genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, has been largely unexplored. To help define the role of BRCA1 in breast cancer in Morocco, we characterized the first potential BRCA1 founder mutation in this population. Genetic testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in BC high-risk families identified mutation BRCA1 c.5309G>T, p.(Gly1770Val) or G1770V in five independent families from Morocco, suggesting a founder effect. To confirm this hypothesis, haplotype construction was pe...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - February 10, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Quiles F, Teulé À, Martinussen Tandstad N, Feliubadaló L, Tornero E, Del Valle J, Menéndez M, Salinas M, Wethe Rognlien V, Velasco A, Izquierdo A, Capellá G, Brunet J, Lázaro C Tags: Clin Genet Source Type: research

Current status of ultrasound-guided surgery in the treatment of breast cancer.
Abstract The primary goal of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is to obtain tumour-free resection margins. Margins positive or focally positive for tumour cells are associated with a high risk of local recurrence, and in the case of tumour-positive margins, re-excision or even mastectomy are sometimes needed to achieve definite clear margins. Unfortunately, tumour-involved margins and re-excisions after lumpectomy are still reported in up to 40% of patients and additionally, unnecessary large excision volumes are described. A secondary goal of BCS is the cosmetic outcome and one of the main determinants of worse cos...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - February 10, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Volders JH, Haloua MH, Krekel NM, Meijer S, van den Tol PM Tags: World J Clin Oncol Source Type: research

Historical review of the causes of cancer.
Abstract In the early 1900s, numerous seminal publications reported that high rates of cancer occurred in certain occupations. During this period, work with infectious agents produced only meager results which seemed irrelevant to humans. Then in the 1980s ground breaking evidence began to emerge that a variety of viruses also cause cancer in humans. There is now sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human herpes virus 8 according to the International Ag...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - February 10, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Blackadar CB Tags: World J Clin Oncol Source Type: research

Recent advances in microvascular autologous breast reconstruction after ablative tumor surgery.
Abstract Breast cancer is a ubiquitous disease and one of the leading causes of death in women in western societies. With overall increasing survival rates, the number of patients who need post-mastectomy reconstruction is on the rise. Especially since its psychological benefits have been broadly recognized, breast reconstruction has become a key component of breast cancer treatment. Evolving from the early beginnings of breast reconstruction with synthetic implants in the 1960s, microsurgical tissue transfer is on the way to become the gold standard for post oncology restoration of the breast. Particularly since ...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - February 10, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Pollhammer MS, Duscher D, Schmidt M, Huemer GM Tags: World J Clin Oncol Source Type: research

Targeting metabolism in breast cancer: How far we can go?
Abstract Adjuvant therapies for breast cancer have achieved great success in recent years and early breast cancer is now a curable or chronic disease. Targeted therapies, including endocrine therapy and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 targeted therapy, marked a new era of breast cancer treatment. However, except for chemotherapy, an efficient drug treatment to improve the overall survival of breast cancer patients is still lacking for triple negative breast cancer. Furthermore, a certain proportion of breast cancer patients present with resistance to drug therapy, making it much more difficult to control ...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - February 10, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Long JP, Li XN, Zhang F Tags: World J Clin Oncol Source Type: research

β-catenin-independent WNT signaling and Ki67 in contrast to the estrogen receptor status are prognostic and associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer liver metastases.
This study aimed to investigate the value of established prognostic markers and WNT signaling components in liver metastases. Overall N = 34 breast cancer liver metastases (with matched primaries in 19/34 cases) were included in this retrospective study. Primaries and metastatic samples were analyzed for their expression of the estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor, HER-2, Ki67, and various WNT signaling-components by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, β-catenin-dependent and -independent WNT scores were generated and analyzed for their prognostic value. Additionally, the influence of the alternative WNT r...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - February 9, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Bleckmann A, Conradi LC, Menck K, Schmick NA, Schubert A, Rietkötter E, Arackal J, Middel P, Schambony A, Liersch T, Homayounfar K, Beißbarth T, Klemm F, Binder C, Pukrop T Tags: Clin Exp Metastasis Source Type: research

Biomarkers of residual disease after neoadjuvant therapy for breast cancer.
Abstract Nowadays, the decision of which adjuvant treatment should be given to patients with residual breast cancer after neoadjuvant therapy is based on the initial, pretreatment breast cancer molecular subtype and on the estimated residual tumour burden after neoadjuvant therapy. Substantial biological differences exist, however, between treatment-naive breast cancer and the residual tissue that remains after neoadjuvant therapy. In addition, the evaluation of relapse risk in patients is subject to a lack of uniformity in pathological qualification and quantification of remnant breast cancer following neoadjuvan...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - February 9, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Penault-Llorca F, Radosevic-Robin N Tags: Nat Rev Clin Oncol Source Type: research

Fulvestrant decreases anastrozole drug concentrations when taken concurrently by patients with metastatic breast cancer treated on SWOG study S0226.
Abstract AIMS: In the SWOG S0226 trial the combination of anastrozole plus fulvestrant (n=349) was superior to anastrozole alone (n=345) in hormone receptor (HR)-positive metastatic breast cancer. Here we report a pharmacokinetic subset analysis investigating a possible drug interaction between anastrozole and fulvestrant. METHODS: Post-menopausal patients with HR-positive metastatic breast cancer were randomized to anastrozole with or without concurrent fulvestrant. Blood samples were collected at 2, 4, 6, and 8 months, just prior to receiving the next dose of anastrozole and fulvestrant. Drug concentrations...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - February 9, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hertz DL, Barlow WE, Kidwell KM, Albain KS, Vandenberg TA, Dakhil SR, Tirumali NR, Livingston RB, Gralow J, Hayes DF, Hortobagyi GN, Mehta RS, Rae JM Tags: Br J Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

A Randomized, Open-Label, Multicenter, Phase III Study of Epoetin Alfa Versus Best Standard of Care in Anemic Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer Receiving Standard Chemotherapy.
rs P, Vercammen E Abstract PURPOSE: An open-label, noninferiority study to evaluate the impact of epoetin alfa (EPO) on tumor outcomes when used to treat anemia in patients receiving chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. METHODS: Women with hemoglobin ≤ 11.0 g/dL, receiving first- or second-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer, were randomly assigned to EPO 40,000 IU subcutaneously once a week or best standard of care. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included overall survival, time to tumor progression, overall response rate, RBC transfusions, ...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - February 8, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Leyland-Jones B, Bondarenko I, Nemsadze G, Smirnov V, Litvin I, Kokhreidze I, Abshilava L, Janjalia M, Li R, Lakshmaiah KC, Samkharadze B, Tarasova O, Mohapatra RK, Sparyk Y, Polenkov S, Vladimirov V, Xiu L, Zhu E, Kimelblatt B, Deprince K, Safonov I, Bow Tags: J Clin Oncol Source Type: research

Use of Biomarkers to Guide Decisions on Adjuvant Systemic Therapy for Women With Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline.
Abstract PURPOSE: To provide recommendations on appropriate use of breast tumor biomarker assay results to guide decisions on adjuvant systemic therapy for women with early-stage invasive breast cancer. METHODS: A literature search and prospectively defined study selection sought systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, prospective-retrospective studies, and prospective comparative observational studies published from 2006 through 2014. Outcomes of interest included overall survival and disease-free or recurrence-free survival. Expert panel members used informal consensus to develop ev...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - February 8, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Harris LN, Ismaila N, McShane LM, Andre F, Collyar DE, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Hammond EH, Kuderer NM, Liu MC, Mennel RG, van Poznak C, Bast RC, Hayes DF Tags: J Clin Oncol Source Type: research

Utility of Mammography for Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Undergoing Kidney Transplant Evaluation.
CONCLUSIONS: As we found no independent differences in biopsy or malignancy between age groups, it is reasonable for transplant centers to use the same evaluation MMG screening policy for all women ≥40. However, since malignancy risk increased with higher breast density, a lower threshold for additional workup may be warranted in patients with dense breasts or an indeterminate lesion on MMG. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 26855387 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Breast Cancer)
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - February 8, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Stoecker JB, Cote DR, Augustine JJ, Sarabu N, Schulak JA, Sanchez EQ, Humphreville VR, Ammori JB, Woodside KJ Tags: Clin Transplant Source Type: research

Is Hormone Replacement Therapy Safe in Women With a BRCA Mutation?: A Systematic Review of the Contemporary Literature.
CONCLUSIONS: Decisions regarding the use of HT in women who undergo BSO after detection of a BRCA mutation must be individualized based on careful consideration of the risks and benefits. However, the risks of a subsequent cancer diagnosis appear small, particularly in regards to the benefits of treatment afforded by HT. PMID: 26840041 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Breast Cancer)
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - February 2, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Birrer N, Chinchilla C, Del Carmen M, Dizon DS Tags: Am J Clin Oncol Source Type: research

Cardiac Surveillance Guidelines for Trastuzumab-Containing Therapy in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Getting to the Heart of the Matter.
PMID: 26834055 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Breast Cancer)
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - February 1, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dang CT, Yu AF, Jones LW, Liu J, Steingart RM, Argolo DF, Norton L, Hudis CA Tags: J Clin Oncol Source Type: research

Anthracyclines and Alkylating Agents: New Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Childhood Cancer Survivors?
PMID: 26834056 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Breast Cancer)
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - February 1, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: van Leeuwen FE, Ronckers CM Tags: J Clin Oncol Source Type: research

Translational Breast Cancer Research Consortium (TBCRC) 022: A Phase II Trial of Neratinib for Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Breast Cancer and Brain Metastases.
CONCLUSION: Although neratinib had low activity and did not meet our threshold for success, 12.5% of patients received six or more cycles. Studies combining neratinib with chemotherapy in patients with CNS disease are ongoing. PMID: 26834058 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Breast Cancer)
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - February 1, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Freedman RA, Gelman RS, Wefel JS, Melisko ME, Hess KR, Connolly RM, Van Poznak CH, Niravath PA, Puhalla SL, Ibrahim N, Blackwell KL, Liu MC, Lowe A, Agar NY, Ryabin N, Farooq S, Lawler E, Rimawi MF, Krop IE, Wolff AC, Winer EP, Lin NU Tags: J Clin Oncol Source Type: research

Patient Prognostic Score and Associations With Survival Improvement Offered by Radiotherapy After Breast-Conserving Surgery for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: A Population-Based Longitudinal Cohort Study.
Abstract PURPOSE: Radiotherapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is a standard treatment option for the management of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We sought to determine the survival benefit of RT after BCS on the basis of risk factors for local recurrence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective longitudinal cohort study was performed to identify patients with DCIS diagnosed between 1988 and 2007 and treated with BCS by using SEER data. Patients were divided into the following two groups: BCS+RT (RT group) and BCS alone (non-RT group). We used a patient prognostic scoring model to stratify patient...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - February 1, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sagara Y, Freedman RA, Vaz-Luis I, Mallory MA, Wong SM, Aydogan F, DeSantis S, Barry WT, Golshan M Tags: J Clin Oncol Source Type: research

Patients' Perspectives on Creating a Personal Safety Net During Chemotherapy.
This article presents the results of a qualitative study intended to explore the experience of Japanese patients with breast cancer during chemotherapy, including the finding that participants created personal safety nets in physical, emotional, and social contexts that helped them to gain confidence in their ability to exert control over their lives. Understanding each patient's personal safety net allows nurses to support their patients in maintaining and improving their function and well-being. PMID: 26800399 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical Breast Cancer)
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - January 24, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Komatsu H, Yagasaki K, Yamauchi H, Yamauchi T Tags: Clin J Oncol Nurs Source Type: research

The Impact of a Knitting Intervention on Compassion Fatigue in Oncology Nurses.
Abstract Compassion fatigue is the emotional exhaustion and stress that nurses can feel when caring for terminally ill patients. This can contribute to high nursing turnover rates, result in poor job satisfaction, and lead to decreased ability to provide quality care. Oncology nurses are vulnerable to compassion fatigue because they develop relationships with patients battling life-threatening illnesses, provide end-of-life care, and encounter ethical dilemmas related to cancer treatment. 
. PMID: 26800415 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical Breast Cancer)
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - January 24, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Anderson LW, Gustavson CU Tags: Clin J Oncol Nurs Source Type: research

Rapid Extensive Recurrence of Triple Negative Breast Cancer: Are Both Therapy and Cancer Biology the Culprit?
Abstract Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) comprises 17-20% of all breast cancers and is one of the most common breast cancers. The lack of therapy and failure of existing therapy has been a challenge for clinicians. Doxorubicin (DOX) is the first-line therapy, however, it has significant limitations. Rapid extensive recurrence with metastasis in any cancer has been a challenge for surgeons and medical oncologists. The challenge can be due to failure of therapy, drug resistance, or epigenetic changes. Here, we are discussing a stage I breast cancer patient, operated and treated with appropriate chemotherapy wit...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - January 17, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Vyas D, Deshpande K, Chaturvedi L, Gieric L, Ching K Tags: J Clin Med Res Source Type: research

Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT): a review of the evidence for use as a screening tool.
Abstract Breast screening with full-field digital mammography (FFDM) fails to detect 15-30% of cancers. This figure is higher for women with dense breasts. A new tomographic technique in mammography has been developed - digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) - which allows images to be viewed in sections through the breast and has the potential to improve cancer detection rates. Results from retrospective reading studies comparing DBT with FFDM have been largely favourable with improvement in sensitivity and specificity. Increases in diagnostic accuracy have been reported as being independent of breast density; howeve...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - January 12, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Gilbert FJ, Tucker L, Young KC Tags: Clin Radiol Source Type: research

Association between well-known histopathological criteria and overall survival in invasive ductal carcinoma.
Abstract UNLABELLED: We investigated the effect of clinical features and well-known histomorphological parameters on survival of breast cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 44 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma were included in this study. We investigated the effect of age, breast cancer location (right/left), histological grade, largest diameter of the tumor, lymphovascular and perineural invasion on patient survival. IBM SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) 20 program was used for statistics. Cox proportional hazard regression model for survival analysis, log-log plot, life function graphs were used...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - December 2, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Deger A, Ozyigit F, Arik O, Ekici F, Cinkaya A, Tayfur M, Deger H Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research

Overexpression of histone demethylase JMJD5 promotes metastasis and indicates a poor prognosis in breast cancer.
In this study, we showed the expression of JMJD5 was increased in breast cancer tissues and breast adenocarcinoma cell lines MCF-7 as well as triple negative breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 compared with paired adjacent normal mammary tissues and normal mammary epithelial cell lines MCF-10A. The higher expression of JMJD5 was significantly corresponded with clinical stage, histological grade and lymph node metastasis. Overexpression of JMJD5 promoted cell invasion and induce EMT, while JMJD5 siRNA inhibits MDA-MB-231 cells invasion in vitro. Moreover, qChIP analysis revealed the Snail family proteins Snai1 was the dire...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - December 2, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zhao Z, Sun C, Li F, Han J, Li X, Song Z Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research

Xanthatin, a novel potent inhibitor of VEGFR2 signaling, inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in breast cancer cells.
In this study, we described a novel VEGFR2 inhibitor, xanthatin, which inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth. The biochemical profiles of xanthatin were investigated using kinase assay, migration assay, tube formation, Matrigel plug assay, western blot, immunofluorescence and human tumor xenograft model. Xanthatin significantly inhibited growth, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cell as well as inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated angiogenesis. In addition, it inhibited VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its downstream signaling regulator. Moreover, xant...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - December 2, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Yu Y, Yu J, Pei CG, Li YY, Tu P, Gao GP, Shao Y Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research

Knockdown of eIF3D inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion through suppressing the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
Knockdown of eIF3D inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion through suppressing the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015;8(9):10420-7 Authors: Fan Y, Guo Y Abstract eIF3D (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit D) is one member of the eIF3 family and plays a critical role in translation initiation. Previous studies showed that it was involved in the development and progression of several tumors. However, the role of eIF3D in breast cancer and the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Therefore, this study set out to investigate the role of eIF3D ...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - December 2, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Fan Y, Guo Y Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research

Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is an alternative method for the detection of HER-2 amplification in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast cancer samples.
Abstract Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) are the most common methods that are used to quantify HER-2 gene and protein levels, respectively, in human breast cancer. However, due to bad sample quality, some samples are unable to be subjected to a FISH assay. We evaluated 71 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast carcinoma specimens by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), IHC, and FISH. We also performed qPCR and FISH assays on delayed formalin-fixed (DDF) samples. The qPCR results were in complete concordance with the results of IHC and FISH. In reg...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - December 2, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Pu T, Guo P, Qiu Y, Chen S, Yang L, Sun L, Ye F, Bu H Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research

HOXD13 methylation status is a prognostic indicator in breast cancer.
In this study, we examined HOXD13 mRNA expression in 40 pairs of breast cancers and corresponding normal breast tissues. Bisulfite sequencing of HOXD13 promoter was performed in 6 pairs of breast tumors and corresponding normal breast tissues to examine the potential HOXD13 CpG methylated sites. HOXD13 DNA methylation frequency analysis was performed using MethyLight in 196 pairs of breast cancers and corresponding normal breast samples. DNA methylation status and clinico-pathological features were investigated. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards models were utilized to assess the effect of methyla...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - December 2, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zhong Z, Shan M, Wang J, Liu T, Xia B, Niu M, Ren Y, Pang D Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research

Protective role of Osthole on myocardial cell apoptosis induced by doxorubicin in rats.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of Osthole on protecting myocardial cell apoptosis induced by doxorubicin during cardiac failure in rats. METHODS: Myocardial cells isolated from the newborn SD rats were separated into three groups: cells treated with 1 μmol doxorubicin, cells treated with Osthole at three concentrations of 10, 20, and 40 μmol, cells treated neither with Osthole nor with doxorubicin were the control groups. Consequently, cell apoptosis of myocardial cells in each group was analyzed using TUNEL assay. Also, expressions of oxidase, NADPH, and ROS in myocardial cells were analyzed...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - December 2, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Xu H, Han Y, Zhang M, Yan M, Gao C Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research

Down-regulation of BRMS1 by DNA hypermethylation and its association with metastatic progression in triple-negative breast cancer.
In this study, we found that BRMS1 was down-regulation in breast cancer cell lines and primary TNBC, while decreased expression of BRMS1 mRNA was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis. And this down-regulation was found to be in accordance with aberrant methylation of the gene. Hypermethylation of the gene was observed in 53.4% (62/116) of the TNBC primary breast carcinomas, while it was found in only 24.1% (28/116) of the corresponding nonmalignant tissues. In addition, BRMS1 expression was restored in MDA-MB-231 after treatment with the demethylating agent, 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC), and demethylatio...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - December 2, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kong B, Lv ZD, Wang Y, Jin LY, Ding L, Yang ZC Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research

Angiosarcoma (Stewart-Treves syndrome) in postmastectomy patients: report of 10 cases and review of literature.
CONCLUSIONS: STS is a fatal complication of postmastectomy lymphedema. Patients with STS have very poor prognosis. The key to improve patient's survival is the early diagnosis through a high alert of this disease by primary care physicians and comprehensive physical examination of patients with pertinent history and suspicious clinical presentations followed by prompt biopsy for definitive diagnosis. PMID: 26617830 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical Breast Cancer)
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - December 2, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Cui L, Zhang J, Zhang X, Chang H, Qu C, Zhang J, Zhong D Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research

Lymphangiogenesis in breast cancer is associated with non-sentinel lymph node metastases in sentinel node positive patients.
Abstract Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is not suggested in breast cancer patients with negative sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsies, and SLN is the only positive node in 40-70% of the remaining cases. To distinguish a subgroup in which ALND would be omitted, we investigated the role of lymphangiogenesis in primary breast cancer as a risk factor for distal lymph node involvements in patients with positive SLNs. 86 patients were included in this study. The frequency of proliferative lymphatic endothelial cells (LECP%) was evaluated in each specimen after immunohistochemical double staining for D2-40 and Ki-67...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - December 2, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lv L, Ma RM, Yang F, Zhang XH, Huang DP Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research

Expression of Yes-associated protein (YAP) in metastatic breast cancer.
In conclusion, the level of YAP expression varies according to the metastatic site in metastatic breast cancer. Moreover, high YAP expression was correlated with poor prognosis. PMID: 26617849 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical Breast Cancer)
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - December 2, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kim HM, Jung WH, Koo JS Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research

Predictive value of CD44 and CD24 for prognosis and chemotherapy response in invasive breast ductal carcinoma.
CONCLUSION: There was significant correlation between CD44(+)/CD24(-/low) tumor cell prevalence and tumor metastasis, prognosis and chemotherapy response. The CD44(+)/CD24(-) phenotype may be an important factor for malignant relapse following surgical resection and chemotherapy in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma. PMID: 26617852 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical Breast Cancer)
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - December 2, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Chen Y, Song J, Jiang Y, Yu C, Ma Z Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research

Ki-67 and caspase expression in breast carcinoma: does variance in locational sampling exist?
Abstract Ki-67 and caspase indices are two very important prognostic variables for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the immunoexpressions of these two prognostic variables at the center, the periphery of the tumor in comparison with each other, and additional parameters in 53 breast cancer specimens. It has been shown that the increase of caspase immunoexpression either at the periphery or the center of the tumor correlated with the increase of Ki-67 immunoexpression at the same areas. There was no statistically significant difference between caspase and Ki-67 immunoexpression at the center or t...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - December 2, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Deniz F, Dilek K, Hande M, Umit UM, Handan K Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research

Prognostic significance of HOXD13 expression in human breast cancer.
Abstract Homeobox protein Hox-D13 has been recognized as a tumor suppressor in pancreatic cancer. To evaluate the function of HOXD13 in invasive breast cancer pathogenesis, we examined HOXD13 expression in 434 breast cancer tissues and 230 their counterpart normal breast tissues by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray (TMA). The association between HOXD13 expression and clinicopathological factors was analyzed by use of Chi-square test. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank tests were applied to analyze the survival status. Cox regression was applied for multivariate analysis of prognosis. We found t...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - December 2, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zhong ZB, Shan M, Qian C, Liu T, Shi QY, Wang J, Liu Y, Liu Y, Huang YX, Pang D Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research

High DBC1 (CCAR2) expression in gallbladder carcinoma is associated with favorable clinicopathological factors.
In conclusion, high DBC1 expression is associated with several favorable clinicopathologic factors in gallbladder carcinoma. These findings suggest that loss of DBC1 expression plays a role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression in gallbladder carcinoma. PMID: 26617872 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical Breast Cancer)
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - December 2, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Won KY, Cho H, Kim GY, Lim SJ, Bae GE, Lim JU, Sung JY, Park YK, Kim YW, Lee J Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research

Synchronous primary breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma in a male patient: a case report.
In this report, we present a case in which a Chinese patient with hepatitis B developed a tumor mass that originated from segment V of the liver and presented with right breast nodules at the same time. Synchronous mastectomy and hepatectomy were performed, and standard endocrine therapy and chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment were therefore followed. The diverse histogenesis of the two kinds of cancers highlights the need for us to investigate any common physiopathogenetic elements. PMID: 26617917 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical Breast Cancer)
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - December 2, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tian F, Cui X, Li L, Lu H, Rong W, Bi C, Wu J Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research

Why Women Are Choosing Bilateral Mastectomy.
This article describes a qualitative study that was conducted to explore this decision-making process. PMID: 26583641 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical Breast Cancer)
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - November 22, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jerome-D'Emilia B, Suplee PD, D'Emilia I Tags: Clin J Oncol Nurs Source Type: research

Nuclear Grade Plus Proliferation Grading System for Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast: Validation in a Tertiary Referral Hospital Cohort.
Abstract OBJECTIVES: For patients with invasive breast cancer, management decisions are informed by tumor grade according to the Nottingham Grading System (NGS), either on its own or as part of the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). A system retaining the nuclear grade element but substituting the two subjective components, mitosis count and tubule formation, of the NGS with a proliferation index based on Ki-67 (MIB-1) has been proposed (nuclear grade plus proliferation [N+P] grading). METHODS: We validated the prognostic value of this grading system on a population of 322 women. RESULTS: N+P grading res...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - November 19, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Papadimitriou M, Kaptanis S, Polymeropoulos E, Mitsopoulos G, Stogiannis D, Caroni C, Vaiopoulos G, Panayiotides JG, Karakitsos P Tags: Am J Clin Pathol Source Type: research

Medical Malpractice Concerns and Defensive Medicine: A Nationwide Survey of Breast Pathologists.
CONCLUSIONS: Practicing US breast pathologists report exercising defensive medicine by using assurance behaviors due to malpractice concerns. PMID: 26572999 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical Breast Cancer)
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - November 19, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Reisch LM, Carney PA, Oster NV, Weaver DL, Nelson HD, Frederick PD, Elmore JG Tags: Am J Clin Pathol Source Type: research

Utility of Estrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor, and HER-2/neu Analysis of Multiple Foci in Multifocal Ipsilateral Invasive Breast Carcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support current recommendations to evaluate additional smaller tumor foci in multifocal invasive breast cancer if the focus is of different grade or histology. Additional features, including specific histology, grade, and ER, PR, and HER2 status of the largest focus, should also be considered when selecting cases for which testing of additional foci may be of benefit. PMID: 26573003 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical Breast Cancer)
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - November 19, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: East EG, Pang JC, Kidwell KM, Jorns JM Tags: Am J Clin Pathol Source Type: research

Breast Cancer Virtual Special Issue.
PMID: 26573567 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical Breast Cancer)
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - November 19, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jena R Tags: Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) Source Type: research

Regulation of the breast cancer stem cell phenotype by hypoxia-inducible factors.
Abstract The small subpopulation of breast cancer cells that possess the capability for self-renewal and formation of secondary tumours that recapitulate the heterogeneity of the primary tumour are referred to as tumour-initiating cells or BCSCs (breast cancer stem cells). The hypoxic tumour microenvironment and chemotherapy actively induce the BCSC phenotype. HIFs (hypoxia-inducible factors) are required and molecular mechanisms by which they promote the BCSC phenotype have recently been delineated. HIF inhibitors block chemotherapy-induced enrichment of BCSCs, suggesting that their use may improve the response t...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - September 26, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Semenza GL Tags: Clin Sci (Lond) Source Type: research

Cellular and molecular effects of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus.
Abstract mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) functions as the central regulator for cell proliferation, growth and survival. Up-regulation of proteins regulating mTOR, as well as its downstream targets, has been reported in various cancers. This has promoted the development of anti-cancer therapies targeting mTOR, namely fungal macrolide rapamycin, a naturally occurring mTOR inhibitor, and its analogues (rapalogues). One such rapalogue, everolimus, has been approved in the clinical treatment of renal and breast cancers. Although results have demonstrated that these mTOR inhibitors are effective in attenuating c...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - September 6, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Saran U, Foti M, Dufour JF Tags: Clin Sci (Lond) Source Type: research

Role of miR-140 in embryonic bone development and cancer.
Abstract Bone is increasingly viewed as an endocrine organ with key biological functions. The skeleton produces hormones and cytokines, such as FGF23 and osteocalcin, which regulate an extensive list of homoeostatic functions. Some of these functions include glucose metabolism, male fertility, blood cell production and calcium/phosphate metabolism. Many of the genes regulating these functions are specific to bone cells. Some of these genes can be wrongly expressed by other malfunctioning cells, driving the generation of disease. The miRNAs are a class of non-coding RNA molecules that are powerful regulators of gen...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - September 4, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Green D, Dalmay T, Fraser WD Tags: Clin Sci (Lond) Source Type: research

Proteomic profiling identifies specific histone species associated with leukemic and cancer cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Signatures of histone profiles are complex and can distinguish between healthy individuals and CLL patients and may provide prognostic markers. In addition, histone profiles may define tissue specific malignancies. PMID: 26321891 [PubMed] (Source: Clinical Breast Cancer)
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - September 4, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Singh R, Harshman SW, Ruppert AS, Mortazavi A, Lucas DM, Thomas-Ahner JM, Clinton SK, Byrd JC, Freitas MA, Parthun MR Tags: Clin Proteomics Source Type: research

Menopausal Hormone Therapy: Current Considerations.
Abstract Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is the most effective treatment for vasomotor and vaginal symptoms. Today, symptomatic women younger than 60 years of age or less than 10 years since onset of menopause yield the greatest benefit of MHT with the lowest risks when compared with older women remote from menopause. Careful assessment before initiating therapy includes severity of bothersome symptoms, treatment preferences, medical history, presence of contraindications to MHT, and personal risk of cardiovascular disease and breast cancer. Considerations of type of MHT, dosing, and route of administra...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - September 1, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Stuenkel CA Tags: Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am Source Type: research

The Effect of Menopausal Hormone Therapies on Breast Cancer: Avoiding the Risk.
Abstract Estrogen and P treatment results in greater risk of breast cancer than placebo. Treatment with estrogen alone does not increase the risk of breast cancer, may be used by women who have had a hysterectomy, and may even result in a decreased risk of breast cancer. Continued research seeks to improve the understanding of the interplay between estrogen and progestogens that predispose to adverse effects on breast tissue. Caution over this hypothesized benefit is warranted until it is substantiated by data on the incidence of breast cancer in tissue selective estrogen complex users. PMID: 26316245 [PubMed...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - September 1, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Flores VA, Taylor HS Tags: Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am Source Type: research

Breast cancer: The debate over post-mastectomy radiotherapy should continue.
PMID: 26323387 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Breast Cancer)
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - September 1, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Oliai C, Hurvitz SA Tags: Nat Rev Clin Oncol Source Type: research

Regressive Change in High-Grade Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast: Histopathologic Spectrum and Biologic Importance.
CONCLUSIONS: Regression in HG-DCIS is frequent. It may reflect a targeted immune response to certain phenotypes, mainly hormone receptor-negative lesions. Nonetheless, RCs do not lead to complete tumor obliteration but correlate with aggressive tumor characteristics instead. PMID: 26276781 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical Breast Cancer)
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - August 17, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wasserman JK, Parra-Herran C Tags: Am J Clin Pathol Source Type: research