Apararenone in patients with diabetic nephropathy: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 dose –response study and open-label extension study
AbstractBackgroundWe investigated the efficacy and safety of apararenone (MT-3995), a non-steroidal compound with mineralocorticoid receptor agonist activity, in patients with stage 2 diabetic nephropathy (DN).MethodsThe study had two parts: a dose –response, parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, phase 2, 24-week study and an open-label, uncontrolled, 28-week extension study. Primary and secondary endpoints were the 24-week percent change from baseline in urine albumin to creatine ratio (UACR) and 24- and 52-week UACR remission rates. Safety parameters were changes from baseline i...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - September 24, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Higher cardiovascular mortality in men with persistent dipstick hematuria
ConclusionsIn men, persistent dipstick hematuria is a significantly risk factor of all-cause mortality, in particular cardiovascular death among general screening participants. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - September 22, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Glucocorticoid treatment is associated with ICU-acquired hypernatremia: a nested case –control study
ConclusionIn this nested case –control study, we demonstrated a significant association between IAH and high-dose glucocorticoid with significant duration–response effects. Serum sodium concentrations should be monitored carefully in critically ill patients administered prolonged high-dose glucocorticoid. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - September 22, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Initial responsiveness to darbepoetin alfa and its contributing factors in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients in Japan
This study aimed to investigate the initial responsiveness to darbepoetin alfa (DA) and its contributing factors using the data from the BRIGHTEN.MethodsOf 1980 patients enrolled at 168 facilities, 1695 were included in this analysis [285 patients were excluded mainly due to lack of hemoglobin (Hb) values]. The initial ESA response index (iEResI) was defined as a ratio of Hb changes over 12  weeks after DA administration per weight-adjusted total DA dose and contributing factors to iEResI were analyzed.ResultsThe mean age was 70  ± 12 years (male 58.8%; diabetic nephropathy 27.6%). The median...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - September 19, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Podocyte sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase acid-like 3b decreases among children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome
ConclusionThe expression of SMPDL-3b on podocytes is specifically decreased in paediatric-onset INS and its urinary excretion level reflects such conditions. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - September 18, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 in Chinese children with IgA nephropathy, IgA vasculitis with nephritis, and IgA vasculitis
AbstractObjectiveIgA nephropathy (IgAN) and IgA vasculitis with nephritis (IgAV-N) are related diseases. Galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) plays an important role in the pathology of IgAV-N and IgAN, so we aim to compare the serum levels of Gd-IgA1 in Chinese pediatric patients with IgAN, IgAV-N, and IgAV.MethodsWe retrospectively enrolled 52 patients with IgAN, 57 patients with IgAV-N, 26 patients with IgAV, and 40 healthy children. The serum levels of Gd-IgA1 were measured at the time of biopsy using a lectin-based ELISA method.ResultsGd-IgA1 levels in IgAV-N patients and IgAN patients were higher than in healthy contro...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - September 15, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Serum uromodulin is a novel renal function marker in the Japanese population
ConclusionsThe serum uromodulin measurement could be a useful biomarker for identification of patients with early deterioration of kidney function. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - September 11, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Dental caries status is associated with arteriosclerosis in patients on hemodialysis
ConclusionThese findings suggest that worse dental caries status could be associated with arteriosclerosis among patients on hemodialysis, which may indirectly affect the prognosis of arteriosclerosis in these patients. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - September 11, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Zebra bodies without Fabry disease or hydroxychloroquine
(Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - September 11, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Intravenous administration of Streptococcus mutans induces IgA nephropathy-like lesions
AbstractBackgroundIgA nephropathy (IgAN) is one of the most frequently occurring types of chronic glomerulonephritis. Previous analyses have revealed that a major pathogen of dental caries,Streptococcus mutans [which expresses collagen-binding protein (Cnm) on its surface], is involved in the pathogenesis of IgAN.MethodsCnm-positiveS. mutans isolated from a patient with IgAN was intravenously administered to specific pathogen-free Sprague –Dawley rats to evaluate their kidney conditions.ResultsThe urinary protein level of theS. mutans group reached a plateau at 30  days, with increased numbers of mesangial cells...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - September 9, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Impact of the number of steroid pulses in tonsillectomy combined with steroid pulse therapy: a nationwide retrospective study in Japan
AbstractBackgroundSteroid pulse therapy with tonsillectomy is known as a major treatment for IgA nephropathy (IgAN). However, its protocol was different among institutions and the effects of varying the number of steroid pulses remain unclear.MethodsFrom a total of 1,174 IgAN patients in a multicenter retrospective cohort analysis in Japan, 195 patients were treated by tonsillectomy combined with corticosteroid. They were divided into four groups based on the number of administered steroid pulses from 0 to three (TSP0-3), and remission of urinary abnormalities and renal survival until 1.5-fold increase in serum creatinine ...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - September 3, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Renal tubular injury by glyphosate-based herbicide
(Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - September 1, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Association between urinary salt excretion and albuminuria in Japanese patients with chronic kidney disease: the Fukuoka kidney disease registry study
ConclusionsThis significant association of USALT with UACR and macroalbuminuria suggests that higher USALT may cause increased albuminuria, thereby contributing to kidney disease progression. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - August 29, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Effects of LDL apheresis on proteinuria in patients with diabetes mellitus, severe proteinuria, and dyslipidemia
ConclusionOur results suggest that LDL apheresis may be effective and safe for patients with diabetes, proteinuria, and dyslipidemia.Trial registrationTrial registration number: jRCTs042180076. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - August 28, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Factors affecting patency of arteriovenous fistula following first percutaneous transluminal angioplasty
ConclusionIn conclusion, higher AAC grade and anatomic factor related to the location of AVF (upper arm) were the important predictors of AVF dysfunction after PTA. These results could assist in tailoring surveillance programs and performing appropriate interventions for risky AVF. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - August 27, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

The risk of nephrotic syndrome with non-VEGF inhibitory antineoplastic drugs: from viewpoint of the adverse event reports in Japan
(Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - August 27, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Safety and efficacy of etelcalcetide, an intravenous calcimimetic, for up to 52  weeks in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism: results of a post-marketing surveillance in Japan
ConclusionThis was the first real-world, large-scale, long-term observational PMS of etelcalcetide in Japan. We did not observe any new safety concerns. Etelcalcetide was associated with clinically relevant improvements in serum iPTH and maintenance of serum cCa, P, and ALP levels. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - August 20, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Association between circulating tumor necrosis factor receptors and oral bacterium in patients receiving hemodialysis: a cross-sectional study
ConclusionCirculating TNFR levels are associated with the number ofP. gingivalis in saliva after adjusting for relevant clinical factors. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - August 20, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Sclerostin is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in kidney transplant recipients
ConclusionsBaseline plasma sclerostin is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in patients after kidney transplantation. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - August 20, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Nomenclature for kidney function and disease: executive summary and glossary from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) consensus conference
(Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - August 19, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Septic acute kidney injury: a review of basic research
AbstractSepsis is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) among patients in the intensive care unit. However, the numbers of basic science papers for septic AKI account for only 1% of all publications on AKI. This may be partially attributable to the specific pathophysiology of septic AKI as compared to that of the other types of AKI because it shows only modest histological changes despite functional decline and often requires real-time functional analysis. To increase the scope of research in this field, this article reviews the basic research information that has been reported thus far on the subject of septic AKI, m...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - August 11, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Seasonality of peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis in Japan: a single-center, 10-year study
ConclusionNo seasonality was evident in the incidence of PD-related peritonitis in our hospital over a 10-year period. These findings suggest that the development of peritonitis in Japanese PD patients is not affected by seasonality. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - August 11, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Superior lumbar hernia after laparoscopic renal biopsy
(Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - August 11, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Correction to: A Nautilus kidney
In the original publication of the article, the second sentence under the heading, Case presentation appears incorrectly as A computed tomographic (CT) scan demonstrated left-sided hydronephrosis (Fig.  1). (Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - August 11, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Evaluation of anemia, malnutrition, mineral, and bone disorder for maintenance hemodialysis patients based on bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA)
ConclusionsThe obtained correlations and SVM classification models imply that BIVA can be used as a preliminary tool to evaluate and classify the degree of anemia, malnutrition, fluid overload, and mineral and bone disorder (MBD) in MHD patients by reducing the number of SBTs. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - August 10, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Correction of serum potassium with sodium zirconium cyclosilicate in Japanese patients with hyperkalemia: a randomized, dose –response, phase 2/3 study
AbstractBackgroundSodium zirconium cyclosilicate (SZC) is an oral potassium binder approved to treat hyperkalemia in adults in a number of countries, including Japan.MethodsThis phase 2/3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose –response study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03127644) was designed to determine the efficacy and safety of SZC in Japanese adults with hyperkalemia. Patients with serum potassium (sK+) concentrations  ≥ 5.1– ≤ 6.5 mmol/L were randomized 1:1:1 to SZC 5 g, SZC 10 g, or placebo three times daily for 48 h (six doses total). The pr...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - August 10, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Hyperchloremic acidosis develops at the stage G4 and shifts to high anion gap acidosis at the stage G5 in chronic kidney disease
ConclusionBy CKD progression, Cl-Ac progressed and regressed at the CKD stages G4 and G5, respectively. The regression would have reflected the shift of Cl-Ac to high anion gap acidosis. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - August 9, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

A higher level of serum furin indicates a higher risk of microalbuminuria: results from a longitudinal study in Chinese adults
AbstractBackgroundFurin, a key enzyme of natriuretic peptide system, has been suggested to play a role in microalbuminuria, but the association between furin and microalbuminuria has been scarcely studied.MethodsLeveraging a longitudinal cohort of Chinese adults who had urinary albumin measured twice 4  years apart, we examined the cross-sectional and prospective associations of baseline serum furin with microalbuminuria, adjusting for age, sex, education level, smoking, drinking, obesity, blood pressure, glucose, lipids, and antihypertensive medications.ResultsThe cross-sectional analysis in 2175 participants (53 &th...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - August 8, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Impact on survival of urgent dialysis initiation in patients with end-stage renal disease: a case –control study
ConclusionThe prognosis of patients starting dialysis in an urgent condition was poor compared with those who started planned dialysis. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - August 7, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicles carrying miRNAs in kidney diseases: a systemic review
AbstractMiRNAs play essential roles in processes of physiological status and disease conditions including in renal diseases, while extracellular vesicles (EVs) serve as important mediators for cell –cell communication. In body fluid or extracellular spaces, miRNAs are packaged into EVs and transferred to targeted cells to perform their bioeffects under particular conditions. In the present review, we aim to summarize and update the known and verified EV-carrying miRNAs (EV-miRNAs) and their general roles in kidney diseases. In addition to performing a systemic analysis, we try to provide some clues and perspectives f...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - August 7, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Efficacy of repeat-dose rituximab maintenance therapy for minimal change disease in adults
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of repeat-dose RTX maintenance therapy regardless of age.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the clinical courses of 13 biopsy-proven adult MCD patients receiving RTX and evaluated the relapse rate, concomitant steroid and immunosuppressant use, relationship between B-cell depletion time and relapse, and adverse events.ResultsMean patient age at start of RTX therapy was 51.5  ± 20.1 years. Each RTX induction consisted of a single 375 mg/m2 dose. One patient received two RTX doses with a 1-year interval. The remaining 12 patients received RTX at 6-month...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - August 6, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

The revised version 2018 of the nationwide web-based registry system for kidney diseases in Japan: Japan Renal Biopsy Registry and Japan Kidney Disease Registry
ConclusionThe revised version 2018 J-RBR/J-KDR system attempts to cover all kidney diseases by focusing on their pathogenesis. It will be a new platform for the standardized registration of kidney biopsy cases that provides more systemized data of higher quality. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - August 6, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Importance of non-medical reasons for dropout in patients on peritoneal dialysis
AbstractBackgroundTo describe the associated factors for non-medical reasons for dropout in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients.MethodsA retrospective cohort study was performed using registry data of adult patients commencing PD as their initial renal replacement therapy in one hospital-facilitated PD center in Taiwan between 2014 and 2018. The collected data included socio-demographics and relevant medical and PD-related parameters. Kaplan –Meier analysis was used to determine the impact of non-medical reasons and medical reasons on PD dropout.ResultsThe analysis included 224 PD patients, of whom 37 dropped out for n...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - August 5, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Delirium is independently associated with early mortality in elderly patients starting hemodialysis
AbstractBackgroundDelirium is an independent predictor of death in patients undergoing dialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, it is unknown whether delirium during hospitalization at the start of hemodialysis (HD) in elderly populations is associated with early mortality.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective cohort study to investigate the association between delirium and early mortality in the elderly after starting HD. The cohort consisted of patients  ≥ 75 years who started dialysis for ESRD at the National Center for Global Health and Medicine from 2010 to 2017 and at Yokosuka Kyosai ...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - August 3, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Renal stones in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, a treatment challenge?
(Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - August 3, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Physical activity in patients with pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease is related to physical function
(Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - August 3, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Laparoscopic preperitoneal tunneling technique using a novel device for peritoneal dialysis catheter placement
ConclusionsLaparoscopic preperitoneal tunneling technique is an effective way to implant intra-abdominal catheter. Our method based on a novel puncture device for preperitoneal tunneling is safe and efficient. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - August 1, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Development of prognostic model for patients at CKD stage 3a and 3b in South Central China using computational intelligence
ConclusionsCSM could be used as a point-of-care test to screen patients at high risk for disease progression, might allowing individualized therapeutic management. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - August 1, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

The prognosis of subjects showing a reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate without albuminuria in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes: a cohort study for diabetic kidney disease
AbstractBackgroundTo determine the renal and cardiovascular prognosis and all-cause mortality of Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes showing a reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) without albuminuria.MethodsA population of 675 patients with type 2 diabetes was prospectively observed for 4  years to determine the renal and cardiovascular outcomes and mortality. The subjects were divided into the four groups: those with a preserved eGFR and no albuminuria (n = 306), a preserved eGFR and albuminuria (n = 151), a reduced eGFR and no albuminuria (n = 96), and a re...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - July 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

AdipoRon, an adiponectin receptor agonist, protects contrast-induced nephropathy by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation via activation of the AMPK pathway
ConclusionOur data indicate that AdipoRon protects against the CIN by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation via activating the AMPK pathway, showing that AdipoRon might be a potential candidate for the prevention and therapy of CIN. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - July 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Should rituximab be administered before cyclophosphamide as a first-line steroid-sparing agent to young children with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome?
(Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - July 29, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Influenza virus vaccination in children with nephrotic syndrome: insignificant risk of relapse
ConclusionsOur results suggest that flu vaccines should not be avoided in children with NS based on the potential for NS relapses. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - July 27, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Correction to: Temporal change in life and renal prognosis of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis in Japan via nationwide questionnaire survey
In the Original publication of the article, the text in the horizontal axis in Fig.  1a and b appears incorrectly as “Time from treatment start (Months)”. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - July 27, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Influence of post-disaster evacuation on incidence of hyperuricemia in residents of Fukushima Prefecture: the Fukushima Health Management Survey
ConclusionThis is the first study to demonstrate an association between evacuation after a disaster and increased incidence of hyperuricemia. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - July 26, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Associations between metabolic syndrome and urinary Na-to-K ratio and glomerular filtration rate in middle-aged adults regardless of Na and K intakes
We examined the hypothesis that U-Na/K, GFR, and a preference for salty foods are associated with MetS risk and the hypothesis in 8540 adults aged over 40  years without chronic kidney disease.MethodsParticipants were categorized using a U-Na/K of
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - July 22, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Cyst infection in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: our experience at Toranomon Hospital and future issues
AbstractCyst infection is a frequent and serious complication of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) that is often difficult to treat and can be fatal. However, much is still unknown about cyst infection. Positron emission tomography (PET) is generally recommended for detecting infected cysts, but it has the disadvantages of limited availability, high cost, and radiation exposure. We have devised magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnostic criteria for cyst infection. Lipid-soluble antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones show good penetration into cysts and are recommended for cyst infection. However, we repo...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - July 22, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Neointimal hyperplasia in the inferior vena cava of adenine-induced chronic kidney disease rats with aortocaval fistulas
ConclusionsOur rat models with ACFs showed typical features of NIH in the formation of fistula stenosis, which can resemble clinical findings in uremic patients. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - July 14, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Onset mechanism of a female patient with Dent disease 2
ConclusionsThis is the first report of a female patient clinically and genetically diagnosed with Dent-2 caused by anOCRL heterozygous splicing site variant and skewed XCI. Skewed XCI may be one of the factors associated with phenotypic diversity in female patients with Lowe syndrome and Dent-2. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - July 14, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Acquired Reactive Perforating Collagenosis
(Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - July 14, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

ANCA-associated nephritis without crescent formation has atypical clinicopathological features: a multicenter retrospective study
AbstractBackgroundAlthough crescentic glomerulonephritis is a hallmark of ANCA-associated nephritis, the clinicopathological features of ANCA-associated nephritis without crescent formation remain to be elucidated.MethodsWe enrolled 146 Japanese ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) patients subjected to renal biopsy in 16 hospitals from 2001 to 2018, and compared those with and without crescent formation (C  + and C− groups). The primary endpoint was end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and/or death.ResultsC − group comprised 25 (17.1%) subjects. They had better renal function at the time of renal biopsy [e...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - July 10, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research