Factors related to the quality of life in patients with bone metastases
This study was conducted by a multidisciplinary team for bone metastases at a university hospital in Japan. One-hundred seventy-four patients who could complete the self-report questionnaires were selected. The questionnaire in cluded the EQ-5D, EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL, BM22, and K6 distress scale. We obtained clinical data on tumor progression, bone metastasis, pain, and ECOG-PS. The mean (SD) EQ-5D score was 0.58 (0.24), which was lower than that of the general Japanese and US population (0.85). Skeletal-related events (SREs), pain, and ECOG-PS were significantly related to lower EQ-5D scores in the multivariable analysis (p 
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - July 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Peritoneal Surface Disease Severity Score (PSDSS), AGO-score and TIAN model in patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer treated by cytoreductive surgery plus HIPEC
AbstractIn patients with platinum sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer selected for a secondary cytoreduction, the use of prognostic scores allows predicting the possibilities of a new complete cytoreduction. The aim of this work is to evaluate the usefulness of PSDSSov, the AGO-score and the TIAN-model as prognostic tools in these patients. Sixty four patients with recurrent platinum sensitive ovarian cancer treated by cytoreduction and HIPEC were analyzed between January 2008 and December 2016. Since 2012, the data needed to calculate the PSDSS, AGO-score and TIAN model were collected prospectively. Fifty patients (78%) re...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - July 3, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Identification of S100A14 as a metastasis-promoting molecule in a murine organotropic metastasis model
AbstractCancer metastasis shows great diversity in target organs, routes and molecular mechanisms depending on the type of cancer and even on the individual patients. To identify key molecules involved in metastasis, we constructed a murine model system including multiple sublines with different organotropism and pathways of metastasis. We selected metastatic sublines from a murine mammary tumor cell line MCH66. Using this model, we extracted metastasis-related molecules by gene expression screening methods and verified their metastasis-promoting effects by gene knockdown or overexpression experiments. For the candidates p...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - July 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Co-expression of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 and 8 inhibits proliferation and invasiveness of breast carcinoma cells
AbstractThe carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) 6 and CEACAM8 form heterodimers and exert their effects. Therefore, we examined the effects of CEACAM6 and CEACAM8 co-expression in breast cancer. We first studied CEACAM6/8 expression using immunohistochemistry in 109 patients with breast cancer. We then established MCF-7 cells that were stably transfected with CEACAM8 and studied cell proliferation, invasion and adhesion. The number of CEACAM6 and CEACAM8 double-positive breast carcinoma cells significantly increased in patients with low histopathological grade and stage. Proximity ligation assa...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - June 20, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The clinical outcome of eribulin treatment in Japanese patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma: a Tokai Musculoskeletal Oncology Consortium study
AbstractThe efficacy and safety of eribulin in Japanese patients with advanced soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) have not been evaluated in a large-scale cohort study. Thus, we aimed to investigate the clinical outcome of 82 Japanese patients with STS receiving eribulin across multiple study centers retrospectively. Of 82 STS patients receiving eribulin treatment, 13 were treated for locally unresectable tumor, 46 for metastasis, and 23 for both. The primary endpoint of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of eribulin against STS. The median age was 60  years. Thirty-seven were diagnosed with L-sarcoma (leiomyosarcoma or ...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - June 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Hypermethylation-mediated inactivation of miR-124 predicts poor prognosis and promotes tumor growth at least partially through targeting EZH2/H3K27me3 in ESCC
In conclusion, miR-124 may function as a tumor suppressive miRNA, and hypermethylation-mediated inactivation of miR-124 may be useful for a poor prognostic marker for ESCC patients. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - June 13, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Human-specific RNA analysis shows uncoupled epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity in circulating and disseminated tumour cells from human breast cancer xenografts
AbstractBlood samples, bone marrow, tumours and metastases where possible were collected from SCID mice bearing orthotopic xenografts of the triple-negative MDA-MB-468 cell line or a transplantable ER-positive patient derived xenograft (ED-03), and assessed using human-specific, tandem-nested RT-qPCR for markers relating to detection of circulating (CTCs) and disseminated tumour cells (DTCs), breast cancer clinicopathology, the ‘cancer stem cell’ phenotype, metabolism, hypoxia and epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity (EMP). Increased levels ofSNAI1,ILK,NOTCH1,CK20, andPGR, and a decrease/loss ofEPCAM in CTCs/DTCs ...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - June 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Diagnostics of metastasis: an increasing challenge with high clinical importance
(Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - June 6, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Stereotactic radiation therapy in oligometastatic colorectal cancer: outcome of 102 patients and 150 lesions
AbstractTo evaluate the local control (LC), progression free survival (PFS), out-field PFS, overall survival (OS), toxicity and failure predictors of SRT in a series of various sites oligometastatic CRC patients. Patients with oligometastatic CRC disease were analyzed retrospectively. The SRT prescribed dose was dependent on the lesion volume and its location. 102 consecutive oligometastatic CRC patients (150 lesions) were included. They underwent SRT between 2012 and 2015. Median prescription dose was 45  Gy (median dose/fraction was 15 Gy/3 fractions biological equivalent dose (BED10) 112.5  Gy). Median fo...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - June 4, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Histopathological growth patterns of colorectal liver metastasis exhibit little heterogeneity and can be determined with a high diagnostic accuracy
This study aims to assess the reliability and replicability of this histological biomarker. Within and between metastasis HGP concordance was analysed in patients who underwent surgery for CRLM. An independent cohort was used for external validation. Within metastasis concordance was assessed in CRLM with  ≥ 2 tissue blocks. Similarly, concordance amongst multiple metastases was determined in patients with ≥ 2 resected CRLM. Diagnostic accuracy [expressed in area under the curve (AUC)] was compared by number of blocks and number of metastases scored. Interobserver agreement (Cohen’s&...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - May 27, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

CTHRC1 promotes M2-like macrophage recruitment and myometrial invasion in endometrial carcinoma by integrin-Akt signaling pathway
AbstractThe infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in endometrial cancer (EC). Collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1), a secreted ECM protein, has been reported to have important roles in promoting cancer invasion and metastasis, but the functional role of CTHRC1 and its association with TAMs in EC remain unclear. Here we report that, in EC patients, CTHRC1 expression was up-regulated in endometrial cancer tissues compared with normal endometrium (P  
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - May 22, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Metastasis is impaired by endothelial-specific Dll4 loss-of-function through inhibition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and reduction of cancer stem cells and circulating tumor cells
AbstractSystemic inhibition of Dll4 has been shown to thoroughly reduce cancer metastasis. The exact cause of this effect and whether it is endothelial mediated remains to be clarified. Therefore, we proposed to analyze the impact of endothelialDll4 loss-of-function on metastasis induction on three early steps of the metastatic process, regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cancer stem cell (CSC) frequency and circulating tumor cell (CTC) number. For this, Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) cells were used to model mouse tumor metastasis in vivo, by subcutaneous transplantation into endothelial-specificDll4 los...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - May 22, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The importance of developing therapies targeting the biological spectrum of metastatic disease
AbstractGreat progress has been made in cancer therapeutics. However, metastasis remains the predominant cause of death from cancer. Importantly, metastasis can manifest many years after initial treatment of the primary cancer. This is because cancer cells can remain dormant before forming symptomatic metastasis. An important question is whether metastasis research should focus on the early treatment of metastases, before they are clinically evident ( “overt”), or on developing treatments to stop overt metastasis (stage IV cancer). In this commentary we want to clarify why it is important that all avenues of tr...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - May 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for endometrial cancer-derived peritoneal metastases: a systematic review
In conclusion, CRS and HIPEC in EC with PM is safe and feasible. An additional therapeutic value of HIPEC is suggested, but prospective comparative trials are warranted. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - May 14, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Non-canonical roles for metabolic enzymes and intermediates in malignant progression and metastasis
AbstractMetabolic alterations are established as a hallmark of cancer. Such hallmark changes in cancer metabolism are characterized by reprogramming of energy-producing pathways and increases in the generation of biosynthetic intermediates to meet the needs of rapidly proliferating tumor cells. Various metabolic phenotypes such as aerobic glycolysis, increased glutamine consumption, and lipolysis have also been associated with the process of metastasis. However, in addition to the energy and biosynthetic alterations, a number of secondary functions of enzymes and metabolites are emerging that specifically contribute to met...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - May 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Identification of canonical NF κB (C-NFκB) pathway in uveal melanoma and their relation with patient outcome
AbstractInflammation in uveal melanoma (UM) is linked to a bad prognosis. It is rare type of cancer, of which the metastases are usually fatal within a year. Infiltration with an inflammatory infiltrate increases with disease progression but does not seem to inhibit metastasis. The Canonical NF κB (C-NFκB) pathway is known to play a crucial role in tumor inflammation. We therefore, studied the expression of canonical NFκB proteins and their prognostic relevance in UM. Our study evaluated the expression of C-NFκB proteins (p65, p50, and c-Rel) by using immunohistochemistry on sections f rom 75 formal...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - May 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Quantitative assessment of breast cancer liver metastasis expansion with patient-derived xenografts
AbstractAdvanced breast cancer often spreads to the bone, brain, liver, and lungs. The survival time of a patient with breast cancer liver metastasis is often less than 9  months without treatment. Experimental model systems often focus on the lung as a site of metastatic relapse, and therefore, there is less of an understanding of the biological processes that occur during expansive liver metastasis growth. In these studies, 14 genetically distinct breast cancer pa tient-derived xenografts (PDXs) were characterized for growth in the liver after portal vein injection of cancer cells. Growth in the liver occurred in 12...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - May 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Discovery of CCL18 antagonist blocking breast cancer metastasis
In this study, we identify an effective small molecular compound (SMC) to antagonize the effect of CCL18. We screen more than 1000 SMCs from Sun Yat-sen University SMC library and select 15 top scored SMCs by using computer-aided virtual screening based on the structure of CCL18. Then in vitro cell migration assay narrows down the selected 15 SMCs to the most effective SMC-21598. We find 10  µM SMC-21598 significantly inhibits CCL18-induced breast cancer cells adherence, invasiveness, and migration. Our further surface plasmon resonance (SPR), fluorescence spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) ...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - May 6, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The extracellular matrix in tumor progression and metastasis
AbstractThe extracellular matrix (ECM) constitutes the scaffold of tissues and organs. It is a complex network of extracellular proteins, proteoglycans and glycoproteins, which form supramolecular aggregates, such as fibrils and sheet-like networks. In addition to its biochemical composition, including the covalent intermolecular cross-linkages, the ECM is also characterized by its biophysical parameters, such as topography, molecular density, stiffness/rigidity and tension. Taking these biochemical and biophysical parameters into consideration, the ECM is very versatile and undergoes constant remodeling. This review focus...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - April 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Effect of bisphosphonates on overall survival in subgroups of patients with prostate cancer
AbstractAdjuvant therapy with bisphosphonates in prostate cancer is effective in improving bone mineral density and thus reducing fractures and skeletal-related events. We analyzed the effect of bisphosphonates on overall survival (OS) in subgroups of patients with prostate cancer. A systematic literature search was conducted of the PubMed database and the bibliographies of related studies. The long-term OS rates were extracted from every eligible trial. The hazard ratio (HR) was pooled with the fixed effects model, and preplanned subgroup analyses were performed. The search yielded 112 articles, of which 10 articles with ...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - April 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Promoter hypermethylation-mediated downregulation of tumor suppressor gene SEMA3B and lncRNA SEMA3B-AS1 correlates with progression and prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
AbstractFrequent deletions of tumor-suppressor genes at chromosome 3p21.3 have been detected in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). As a candidate tumor suppressor gene, semaphorin 3B (SEMA3B) is located at 3p21.3 and is frequently inactivated in several tumors. However, the role and inactivation mechanisms of SEMA3B and its antisense long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) SEMA3B-AS1 in the carcinogenesis of ESCC have not been fully elucidated. The present study was conducted to investigate the role, epigenetic inactivation mechanisms, and prognostic value of SEMA3B and SEMA3B-AS1 in ESCC tumorigenesis and prognosis. Frequent...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - March 27, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Molecules in metastasis
(Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - March 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Circulating microRNAs in head and neck cancer: a scoping review of methods
AbstractCirculating microRNAs have been described as head and neck cancer biomarkers in multiple anatomical subsites including the oral cavity, nasopharynx, larynx, salivary glands and the skin. While there is an expanding volume of published literature showing the significance of individual or panels of microRNAs, the clinical validation of candidate biomarkers is lacking. The various methods used to collect, store, process and interpret these microRNAs are likely introducing bias and contributing to the inconsistent results. A systematic scoping review was conducted using PRISMA standards to identify published English li...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - March 14, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cancer-associated fibroblasts: how do they contribute to metastasis?
AbstractCancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are activated fibroblasts in the tumor microenvironment. They are one of the most prominent cell types in the stroma and produce large amounts of extracellular matrix molecules, chemokines, cytokines and growth factors. Importantly, CAFs promote cancer progression and metastasis by multiple pathways. This, together with their genetic stability, makes them an interesting target for cancer therapy. However, CAF heterogeneity and limited knowledge about the function of the different CAF subpopulations in vivo, are currently major obstacles for identifying specific molecular targets...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - March 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Salvage treatment for recurrences after first resection of colorectal liver metastases: the impact of histopathological growth patterns
AbstractThe majority of patients recur after resection of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Patients with CRLM displaying a desmoplastic histopathological growth pattern (dHGP) have a better prognosis and lower probability of recurrence than patients with non-dHGP CRLM. The current study evaluates the impact of HGP type on the pattern and treatment of recurrences after first resection of CRLM. A retrospective cohort study was performed, including patients with known HGP type after complete resection of CRLM. All patients were treated between 2000 and 2015. The HGP was determined on the CRLM resected at first partial hepa...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - March 6, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The role of heterogeneous environment and docetaxel gradient in the emergence of polyploid, mesenchymal and resistant prostate cancer cells
AbstractThe ability of a population of PC3 prostate epithelial cancer cells to become resistant to docetaxel therapy and progress to a mesenchymal state remains a fundamental problem. The progression towards resistance is difficult to directly study in heterogeneous ecological environments such as tumors. In this work, we use a micro-fabricated “evolution accelerator” environment to create a complex heterogeneous yet controllable in-vitro environment with a spatially-varying drug concentration. With such a structure we observe the rapid emergence of a surprisingly large number of polyploid giant cancer cells (P...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - February 27, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Modulation of cell adhesion and migration through regulation of the immunoglobulin superfamily member ALCAM/CD166
AbstractIn epithelial-derived cancers, altered regulation of cell –cell adhesion facilitates the disruption of tissue cohesion that is central to the progression to malignant disease. Although numerous intercellular adhesion molecules participate in epithelial adhesion, the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) member activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCA M), has emerged from multiple independent studies as a central contributor to tumor progression. ALCAM is an archetypal member of the IgSF with conventional organization of five Ig-like domains involved in homo- and heterotypic adhesions. Like many IgSF membe...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - February 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Proffered abstracts from the 17th Biennial Congress of the Metastasis Research Society
(Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - February 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Metastasis in the wild: investigating metastasis in non-laboratory animals
AbstractHumans are not the only species to spontaneously develop metastatic cancer as cases of metastasis have been reported in a wide range of animals, including dinosaurs. Mouse models have been an invaluable tool in experimental and clinical metastasis research, with the use of genetically-engineered mouse models that spontaneously develop metastasis or ectopic/orthotopic transplantation of tumour cells to wildtype or immunodeficient mice being responsible for many key advances in our understanding of metastasis. However, are there other species that can also be relevant models? Similarities to humans in terms of enviro...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - February 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy and its effect on gastric-cancer-derived peritoneal metastases: an overview
AbstractThis manuscript aspires to portray a review of the current literature focusing on manifest peritoneal metastasis (PM) derived from gastric cancer and its treatment options. Despite the development of chemotherapy and multimodal treatment options during the last decades, mortality remains high worldwide. After refreshing important epidemiological considerations, the molecular mechanisms currently accepted through which PM occurs are revised. Palliative chemotherapy is the only recommended treatment option for patients with PM of gastric cancer according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, althou...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - February 4, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Hepatic arterial infusion of irinotecan and EmboCept ® S results in high tumor concentration of SN-38 in a rat model of colorectal liver metastases
AbstractIntraarterial chemotherapy for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) can be applied alone or together with embolization particles. It remains unclear whether different types of embolization particles lead to higher intratumoral drug concentration. Herein, we quantified the concentrations of CPT-11 and its active metabolite SN-38 in plasma, liver and tumor tissue after hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of irinotecan, with or without further application of embolization particles, in a rat model of CRLM. Animals underwent either systemic application of irinotecan, or HAI with or without the embolization particles Embocept&...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - January 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Meeting report: Metastasis Research Society (MRS) 17th Biennial conference and associated Young Investigator Satellite Meeting (YISM) on cancer metastasis
AbstractThe Metastasis Research Society (MRS) 17th Biennial conference on metastasis was held on the 1st to the 5th of August 2018  at Princeton University, NJ, USA. The meeting was held around themes addressing notable aspects of the understanding and treatment of metastasis and metastatic disease covering basic, translational, and clinical research. Importantly, the meeting was largely supported by our patient advocate partn ers including Susan G. Komen for the Cure, Theresa’s Research Foundation and METAvivor. There were a total of 85 presentations from invited and selected speakers spread across the main con...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - January 23, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Sema4D expression and secretion are increased by HIF-1 α and inhibit osteogenesis in bone metastases of lung cancer
AbstractMost lung cancer bone metastasis are characterized by osteolytic destruction and osteoblastic activity is significantly decreased, suggesting that hypoxia may play a critical role in the process, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) is a recently discovered osteogenic inhibitory factor that is expressed at high levels in lung cancers. Here, CoCl2-induced hypoxia significantly enhanced the inhibitory effect of lung cancer cell conditioned media on osteoblast differentiation by inducing the expression and secretion of Sema4D in a HIF-1 α- but not HIF-2α-dependent manner. Mo...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - January 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Correction to: The therapeutic targeting of the FGFR1/Src/NF- κB signaling axis inhibits pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma stemness and oncogenicity
In the original publication, the affiliations of authors were published incorrectly. The corrected affiliations are given in this Correction. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - January 4, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Frequent discordance in PD-1 and PD-L1 expression between primary breast tumors and their matched distant metastases
AbstractProgrammed death-1 (PD-1) is an immune checkpoint that is able to inhibit the immune system by binding to its ligand programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). In many cancer types, among which breast cancer, prognostic and/or predictive values have been suggested for both PD-1 and PD-L1. Previous research has demonstrated discrepancies in PD-L1 expression between primary breast tumors and distant metastases, however data so far have been scarce. We therefore evaluated immunohistochemical expression levels of PD-1 and PD-L1 in primary breast tumors and their paired distant metastases, and evaluated prognostic values. Tissu...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - December 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Dietary regulation of metastasis
AbstractThe impact of diet and associated lifestyle choices on the risk of developing cancer is well established. However, whether these parameters also affect cancer recurrence and survival is less well investigated. Virtually nothing is known about the impact of diet on the development of metastases. It is therefore significant that a study in this issue of Clinical and experimental metastasis reports that breast cancer-bearing mice fed on a diet rich in long-chain omega-3 fatty acids had a lower incidence of metastasis than control mice, which was associated with modified infiltration of immune cells into the tumors. Th...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - November 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Brain metastases as first manifestation of advanced cancer: exploratory analysis of 459 patients at a tertiary care center
AbstractSymptomatic brain metastases (BM) are a frequent and late complication in cancer patients. However, a subgroup of cancer patients presents with BM as the first symptom of metastatic cancer. Here we aimed to analyze the clinical course and prognostic factors of this particular BM patient population. Patients presenting with newly diagnosed BM without a history of metastatic cancer were identified from the Vienna Brain Metastasis Registry. Clinical characteristics and overall survival were retrieved by chart review. 459/2419 (19.0%) BM patients presented with BM as first symptom of advanced cancer. In 374/459 (81.5%)...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - November 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Chemotherapy resistance and stemness in mitotically quiescent human breast cancer cells identified by fluorescent dye retention
AbstractMetastatic recurrence in breast cancer is a major cause of mortality and often occurs many years after removal of the primary tumour. This process is driven by the reactivation of disseminated tumour cells that are characterised by mitotic quiescence and chemotherapeutic resistance. The ability to reliably isolate and characterise this cancer cell population is critical to enable development of novel therapeutic strategies for prevention of breast cancer recurrence. Here we describe the identification and characterisation of a sub-population of slow-cycling tumour cells in the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast canc...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - October 30, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Transparent reporting of experimental parameters in assays measuring phenotypic steps in metastasis
AbstractMetastasis is key to cancer mortality. Understanding its biology is vital for developing strategies to prevent and treat metastasis. Phenotypic assays to either study metastasis or evaluate anti-metastatic drugs are widely used in preclinical research. This technical note discusses the adherence of reporting essential experimental and methodological parameters in chemotactic invasion assays in vitro and spontaneous metastasis assays in vivo. Following the analysis of 130 recent (
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - October 28, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

miR-21 expression analysis in budding colon cancer cells by confocal slide scanning microscopy
In conclusion, miR-21 expression was unambiguously identified in TBCs by evaluation of digital slides obtained by confocal slide scanning microscopy. In addition, the digital co nfocal slides provided a more detailed understanding of local cancer cell invasion by allowing evaluation of the cell structures in three dimensions. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - October 25, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Lung cancer with bone metastases in the United States: an analysis from the Surveillance, Epidemiologic, and End Results database
AbstractThe present study used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database to identify demographic and prognostic characteristics of lung cancer with bone metastases in the United States from 2010 to 2014. 30,364 patients with metastatic lung cancer to bones were identified in the SEER database. Their information on the basic characteristics and the histological signatures of the cancer was extracted and analyzed. Joinpoint analysis was used to test the trends in annual percentage change (APC) of the incidence. 1-year survival rate among patients with metastatic lung cancer to bones was only 20.2%, and m...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - October 19, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease mammary tumor growth, multiorgan metastasis and enhance survival
AbstractEpidemiological studies show a reduced risk of breast cancer (BC) in women consuming high levels of long-chain (LC) omega-3 ( ω-3) fatty acids (FAs) compared with women who consumed low levels. However, the regulatory and mechanistic roles of dietary ω-6 and LC-ω-3 FAs on tumor progression, metastasis and survival are poorly understood. Female BALB/c mice (10-week old) were pair-fed with a diet containing ω-3 or an iso caloric, isolipidic ω-6 diet for 16 weeks prior to the orthotopic implantation of 4T1 mammary tumor cells. Major outcomes studied included: mammary tumor growth, surviva...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - October 16, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Systematic analysis of parameters predicting pathological axillary status (ypN0 vs. ypN+) in patients with breast cancer converting from cN+ to ycN0 through primary systemic therapy (PST)
AbstractOptimization of axillary staging among patients converting from clinically node-positive disease to clinically node-negative disease through primary systemic therapy is needed. We aimed at developing a nomogram predicting the probability of positive axillary status after chemotherapy based on clinical/pathological parameters. Patients from study arm C of the SENTINA trial were included. Univariable/multivariable analyses were performed for 13 clinical/pathological parameters to predict a positive pathological axillary status after chemotherapy using logistic regression models. Odds ratios and 95%-confidence-interva...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - October 15, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Radiotherapy in palliation of thoracic tumors: a phase I –II study (SHARON project)
AbstractThe main clinical goal for patients with advanced or metastatic thoracic cancer is palliation of tumor-related symptoms and improvement of quality of life. The aim of this phase I –II trial was to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of a short-course of palliative radiotherapy (RT) and to evaluate its efficacy in terms of palliative response. A phase I trial was planned with escalating dose increments. Total doses ranged from 16 to 20 Gy delivered (BID) in two consecut ive days. Dose limiting toxicity was defined as any acute grade ≥ 3 toxicity based on the RTOG scale. MTD was used in the p...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - October 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Role of simvastatin in tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis
This study aimed to investigate the potential effect of simvastatin on lymphatic formation and LN metastasis. Tumor models were established by subcutaneous injection of B16-F10 melanoma cells into mouse hind footpads. Simvastatin was administered (0.2  µg/g, intraperitoneal injection, IP) every other day for a total of eight times. Tissue samples were removed and examined by immunohistochemical staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques. The lymphatics of LN, skin, liver, and lung exhibited morphological ch anges, and LN weight and metastatic area of the tumor group treated ...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - September 25, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of 3D-conformal half body irradiation in patients with multiple bone metastases
AbstractHalf-body irradiation (HBI) represented a standard treatment for multiple painful bone metastases (BMs). However, its use has progressively reduced due to the associated toxicity rates. The aim of this paper was to evaluate HBI delivered by conformal radiotherapy (RT) technique in a large patients population with widespread BMs. HBI was delivered in 3  Gy fractions, bid, ≥ 6 h apart, on 2 consecutive days (total dose: 12 Gy) using 3-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) box technique. The target included pelvic bones, lumbar-sacral vertebrae and upper third of femurs. Acute and late toxicity wa...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - September 24, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) protein expression in breast cancer with special reference to bone metastases
This study investigated serum- and tissue levels of Dkk1 in breast cancer patients with- or without bone metastases. Serum Dkk1 levels were measured by ELISA in 89 breast cancer patients and 86 healthy women. Tissue levels of Dkk1 and β-catenin, a major downstream component of Wnt transduction pathway, were tested with immunohistochemical staining in 143 different tissues, including adjacent non-tumoral breast tissues, primary breast tumours, lymph nodes metastases, and bone metastases. Serum levels of Dkk1 were significantly in creased in breast cancer patients without metastases compared with healthy controls and ev...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - September 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research