Activated inducible co-stimulator-positive (ICOS+ ) programmed death 1-positive (PD-1+ ) Tfh cells indicate disease activity and severity in ulcerative colitis patients.
In this study, we recruited 68 UC patients and 34 healthy controls. Circulating ICOS+ , PD-1+ and ICOS+ PD-1+ Tfh subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. Totally 12 active UC patients achieving remission after treatment with 5-aminosalicylic acid were followed up and Tfh subset changes were analyzed. Serum IgG, CRP, IL-4 and IL-21 levels and B cell subsets were analyzed and Mayo scores were calculated. Correlation analyses were performed between Tfh subsets and the clinical indicators. ROC curves were generated to evaluate the efficiency of Tfh subsets for disease monitoring. We found that levels of ICOS+ , PD-1+ and ICOS...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - July 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Long Y, Zhao X, Liu C, Xia C, Liu C Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Neutrophil Elastase and Endogenous Inhibitors in Beh çet's Disease Saliva.
Neutrophil Elastase and Endogenous Inhibitors in Behçet's Disease Saliva. Clin Exp Immunol. 2020 Jun 24;: Authors: Novak T, Fortune F, Bergmeier L, Khan I, Hagi-Pavli E Abstract Behçet's disease (BD) is a vasculitis of unknown aetiology typified by chronic recurrent oral ulcers and systemic inflammatory manifestations. Neutrophils, and specifically their protease neutrophil elastase (NE), have been implicated in its pathology. Although NE is an effective antimicrobial, excessive NE can damage host tissue. Recurrent oral ulceration is a primary BD symptom, therefore we hypothesized that e...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - June 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Novak T, Fortune F, Bergmeier L, Khan I, Hagi-Pavli E Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

The suppressive effect on CD4 T-cell alloresponse against endothelial HLA-DR via PD-L1 induced by anti-A/B ligation.
Abstract While donor specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies are a frequent cause for chronic antibody-mediated rejection in organ transplantation, this is not the case for antibodies targeting blood group antigens, as ABO-incompatible (ABO-I) organ transplantation has been associated with a favorable graft outcome. Here, we explored the role of CD4 T-cell-mediated alloresponses against endothelial HLA-DR in the presence of anti-HLA-class I or anti-A/B antibodies. CD4 T-cells, notably CD45RA-memory CD4 T-cells, undergo extensive proliferation in response to endothelial HLA-DR. The CD4 T-cell proliferativ...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - June 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Iwasaki K, Hamana H, Kishi H, Yamamoto T, Hiramitsu T, Okad M, Tomosugi T, Takeda A, Narumi S, Watarai Y, Miwa Y, Okumura M, Matsuoka Y, Horimi K, Muraguchi A, Kobayash T Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Leonurus sibiricus root extracts decrease airway remodeling markers expression in fibroblasts.
Abstract Bronchial asthma is believed to be provoked by the interaction between airway inflammation and remodeling. Airway remodeling is a complex and poorly-understood process, and controlling it appears key for halting the progression of asthma and other obstructive lung diseases. Plants synthesize a number of valuable compounds as constitutive products and as secondary metabolites, many of which have curative properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-remodeling properties of extracts from transformed and transgenic L. sibiricus roots with overexpression of AtPAP1 transcriptional factor. Two fib...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - June 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Wieczfinska J, Sitarek P, Kowalczyk T, Pawliczak R Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Heparin affects the induction of regulatory T cells independent of anticoagulant activity and suppresses the allogeneic immune responses.
Abstract Heparin is a widely used anticoagulant that enhances antithrombin (AT) activity. However, heparin also suppresses immune and inflammatory responses in various rodent models and clinical trials, respectively. The mechanism by which heparin suppresses immune responses is unclear. The effect of heparin on regulatory T cells (Tregs) in allogeneic immune responses was analysed using an acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) mouse model and mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLRs). In vitro culture systems were utilized to study the effects of heparin on Tregs. Heparin administration reduced mortality rates and incre...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - June 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kashiwakura Y, Kojima H, Kanno Y, Hashiguchi M, Kobata T Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Rheumatoid arthritis synovial microenvironment induces metabolic and functional adaptations in dendritic cells.
Abstract Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease which causes degradation of cartilage and bone. It is well appreciated that the pathogenic hallmark of RA is the mass influx of inflammatory cells into the joint. However, the role dendritic cells (DC) may play in this inflammatory milieu is still relatively unexplored. Moreover, the contribution this unique synovial microenvironment has on DC maturation is still unknown. Using monocyte-derived DC (MoDC), we established an in vitro model to recapitulate the synovial microenvironment to explore DC maturation. MoDC treated with conditioned media from...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - June 17, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Canavan M, Marzaioli V, McGarry T, Bhargava V, Nagpal S, Veale DJ, Fearon U Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Engineering of chimeric Natural Killer cell receptors to develop precision adoptive immunotherapies for cancer.
Abstract Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune effectors which play a crucial role in recognising and eliminating virally infected and cancerous cells. They effectively distinguish between healthy and distressed self through the integration of signals delivered by germline-encoded activating and inhibitory cell surface receptors. The frequent upregulation of stress markers on genetically unstable cancer cells has prompted the development of novel immunotherapies that exploit such innate receptors. One prominent example entails the development of chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) that detect cell surface ligan...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - June 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Obajdin J, Davies DM, Maher J Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Generation of a novel CD30+ B cell subset producing GM-CSF and its possible link to the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis.
In this study we sought to elucidate the generation mechanism of GM-Beffs and also determine a role of this subset in SSc. Among Th-associated cytokines, IL-4 most significantly facilitated the generation of GM-Beffs within memory B cells in healthy controls (HCs). In addition, the profibrotic cytokine TGF-β further potentiated IL-4- and IL-13-induced GM-Beffs. Of note, tofacitinib, a JAK inhibitor, inhibited the expression of GM-CSF mRNA and protein in memory B cells induced by IL-4, but not by TGF-β.GM-Beffs were enriched within CD20+ CD30+ CD38-/low cells, a distinct population from plasmablasts, suggesting th...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - June 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Higashioka K, Kikushige Y, Ayano M, Kimoto Y, Mitoma H, Kikukawa M, Akahoshi M, Arinobu Y, Horiuchi T, Akashi K, Niiro H Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Complement activation in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura according to phases of disease course.
Abstract Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune thrombocytopenia with a shortened platelet survival and relative bone marrow failure. The pathogenesis involves antibody production, cytokine release, T-cell impairment, complement activation, and clearance of platelets. We measured plasma levels of C3, C4, C1q, and sC5b-9 in 80 ITP patients in acute phase, 50 ITP patients in complete (CR) or partial (PR) remission, and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Statistical analyses showed that acute ITP patients had higher plasma levels of sC5b-9 and C1q than CR or PR patients (median of sC5b-9: 200...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - June 9, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Castelli R, Lambertenghi Delilliers G, Gidaro A, Cicardi M, Bergamaschini L Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 inhibits the maturation of dendritic cells involving NF- κB signaling pathway in glioma microenvironment.
In conclusion, our research demonstrated that TCM upregulated SOCS1 to suppress the maturation of DCs via NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID: 32516488 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology)
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - June 9, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: He M, Chen X, Luo M, Ouyang L, Xie L, Huang Z, Liu A Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Late diagnosis of Chronic Granulomatous Disease.
In this study we present a retrospective cohort of 16 patients diagnosed with Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) at adulthood. Some of the patients had a milder clinical phenotype, but others had a classic phenotype with severe infectious and inflammatory complications reflecting a profoundly impaired neutrophil function. It is therefore of great importance to investigate the individual journey of each patient through different misdiagnoses and the threads which led to the correct diagnosis. Currently the recommended definitive treatment for CGD is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Although survival of our p...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - June 7, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Barkai T, Somech R, Broides A, Gavrieli R, Wolach B, Marcus N, Hagin D, Stauber T Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Cladribine modifies functional properties of microglia.
CONCLUSION: Microglia acquire a less activated phenotype when treated with 0.1-1 µM CdA that putatively overlaps human CSF concentrations. This may be related to the upregulated gene expression of DCK upon activation and suggests a potential alternative mechanism of CdA with direct effect on CNS resident cells. PMID: 32492189 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology)
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - June 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jørgensen LØ, Hyrlov KH, Elkjaer ML, Weber AB, Pedersen AE, Svenningsen ÅF, Illes Z Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Abnormal processing of IL-1 β in NLRP7-mutated monocytes in hydatidiform mole patients.
CONCLUSION: Inflammasome related NLRP7 mutation is a potential mechanism of RHM. PMID: 32484253 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology)
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - June 2, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zhang P, Zhu X, Yu X, Huang B, Jiang T, Zhang X, Yan H, Qian J Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Hypomethylation of Notch1 DNA is Associated with the Occurrence of Uveitis.
In this study, we measured the Notch1 DNA methylation level, determined the Notch1 and related DNA methylases mRNA expression, and evaluated the ratio of Th17/Treg in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from uveitis patients and normal control subjects; moreover, we also tested the levels of relevant inflammatory cytokines in serum from the participants. Results indicated that compared with those in normal control individuals, the expression of Ten-eleven translocation 2 (TET2) and Notch1 mRNA is elevated in uveitis patients, whereas the methylation level in Notch1 DNA promotor region (-842 ~ -646 bp) is downregulat...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - June 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Wei H, Yin X, Tang H, Gao Y, Liu B, Wu Q, Tian Q, Hao Y, Bi H, Guo D Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

HBV-specific CD8 T cells present higher TNF α expression but lower cytotoxicity in hepatocellular carcinoma.
HBV-specific CD8 T cells present higher TNFα expression but lower cytotoxicity in hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Exp Immunol. 2020 May 31;: Authors: Zhao L, Jin Y, Yang C, Li C Abstract TNFα is largely regarded as a proinflammatory cytokine, but several recent researches demonstrated that TNFα could possess immunoregulatory roles with potential to suppress antitumor immunity. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and HBV-specific CD8 T cells could exert antitumor roles in HCC patients. Here, we found that HBV-specific CD8 T...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - May 31, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zhao L, Jin Y, Yang C, Li C Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG is a promising platform to develop vaccines against Trypansoma cruzi infection.
par I Abstract Chagas disease caused by the hemoflagelate parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is one of the most prevalent endemic parasitosis affecting 7-8 millions of people. Due to the complexity of the infection, no vaccines are available up to now. The extraordinary adjuvant capacity of BCG was explored in this work to develop a vaccine candidate to protect against Trypanosoma cruzi infection by using recombinant BCG vaccine platform. Three antigens of the parasite corresponding to an N and a C terminal fragments of the enzyme trans-sialidase (NT-TS and CT-TS respectively) and a fragment of the enzyme Cruzipain (CZf) ...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - May 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Bontempi I, Leal K, Prochetto E, Díaz G, Cabrera G, Bortolotti A, Morbidoni HR, Borsuk S, Dellagostin O, Marcipar I Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Innate immunity in systemic sclerosis.
PMID: 32458451 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology)
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - May 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: O'Reilly S Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Peptidoglycan-treated tumor antigen-pulsed dendritic cells impart complete resistance against tumor rechallenge.
Abstract Solid tumors elicit suppressive T cell responses which impair antigen presenting cells (APCs) functions. Such an immune suppression results in uncontrolled tumor growth and mortality. Addressing APC dysfunction, dendritic cell (DC)-mediated anti-tumor vaccination was extensively investigated in both mice and humans. These studies never achieved full resistance to tumor relapse. Herein, we describe a repetitive RM-1 murine tumor rechallenge model for recurrence in humans. Using this newly developed model, we show that priming with tumor antigen-pulsed, TLR2 ligand-activated DCs elicits host-protective anti...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - May 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Patidar A, Selvaraj S, Chauhan P, Guzman CA, Ebenson T, Sarkar A, Chattopadhyay D, Saha B Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Pathologic role of excessive DNA as a trigger of keratinocyte proliferation in psoriasis.
In this study, we explored excessive DNA as a potential trigger of psoriasis using cultured human keratinocytes and psoriatic skin tissues. We demonstrated that human genomic DNA fragments induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression, hyperproliferation, and overexpression of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and transforming growth factor α (TGF-α), accompanied by defective expression of keratins 1 and 10 in cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes, which have a similar phenotype as that of keratinocytes in psoriatic skin lesions. In psoriatic lesions, we found high levels ...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - May 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Luo Y, Hara T, Kawashima A, Ishido Y, Suzuki S, Ishii N, Kambara T, Suzuki K Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Suppressed immune profile in children with combined type 1 diabetes and celiac disease.
ö M Abstract Children diagnosed with a combination of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease (CD) show a dysregulated T helper (Th) 1/Th17 response. Besides the cellular involvement, several soluble immune markers are involved in the autoimmune process of both T1D and CD. Only few studies have examined the peripheral pattern of different cytokines, chemokines, and acute phase proteins (APP) in children with combined T1D and CD. To our knowledge no studies have evaluated the serum levels of adipocytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in this context. The purpose of the present study was to acquire mo...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - May 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tompa A, Åkesson K, Karlsson S, Faresjö M Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Directed Differentiation of Regulatory T cells from Na ïve T Cells and Prevention of Their Inflammation-Mediated Instability using Small Molecules.
Directed Differentiation of Regulatory T cells from Naïve T Cells and Prevention of Their Inflammation-Mediated Instability using Small Molecules. Clin Exp Immunol. 2020 May 13;: Authors: Haddadi MH, Negahdari B, Hajizadeh-Saffar E, Khosravi-Maharlooei M, Basiri M, Dabiri H, Baharvand H Abstract Regulatory T (Treg) cell therapy is a promising approach for immune tolerance induction in autoimmunity conditions and cell/organ transplantations. Insufficient isolation yields and impurity during downstream processes and Treg instability after adoptive transfer in inflammatory conditions are major limit...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - May 13, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Haddadi MH, Negahdari B, Hajizadeh-Saffar E, Khosravi-Maharlooei M, Basiri M, Dabiri H, Baharvand H Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Serum sCD40L levels are increased in patients with Psoriatic Arthritis and are associated with clinical response to apremilast.
Abstract The pathogenesis of Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) involves several pathways, including the CD40/CD40L signaling which promotes the release of multiple cytokines. Transmembrane CD40L is also released as soluble form (sCD40L) and Phosphodiesterase 4- (PDE4) seems to be involved in its cleavage. We aimed to investigate whether apremilast, a PDE4 inhibitor, could modify circulating level of sCD40L in PsA patients, and the possible associations of these changes with clinical response. Consecutive PsA patients starting apremilast in routine clinical practice were prospectively observed. Disease Activity of Psoriati...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - May 7, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Venerito V, Natuzzi D, Bizzoca R, Lacarpia N, Cacciapaglia F, Lopalco G, Iannone F Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

IL-17 in inflammatory skin diseases psoriasis and hidradenitis suppurativa.
Abstract The skin is one of the most important organs in the body, providing integrity and acting as a barrier to exclude microbes, allergens and chemicals. However chronic skin inflammation can result when barrier function is defective and immune responses are dysregulated or misdirected against harmless or self-antigens. Over the last 15 years IL-17 cytokines have emerged as key players in multiple inflammatory disorders, and they appear to be especially prominent in skin inflammation. IL-17 cytokines produced by T cells and other cell types potently activate keratinocytes to promote inflammation in a feed-forwa...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - May 7, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Fletcher JM, Moran B, Petrasca A, Smith CM Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Using IL-2R/lymphocyte for predicting the clinical progression of patients with COVID-19.
CONCLUSIONS: Lymphopenia and increased levels of cytokines were closely associated with the disease severity. IL-2R/lymphocyte was a prominent biomarker for early identification of severe COVID-19 and predicting the clinical progression of the disease. PMID: 32365221 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology)
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - May 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hou H, Zhang B, Huang H, Luo Y, Wu S, Tang G, Liu W, Mao L, Mao L, Wang F, Sun Z Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Immune checkpoint inhibition: from molecules to clinical application.
PMID: 32297327 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology)
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - April 18, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Taams LS, de Gruijl TD Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Role of inflammasome activation in tumor immunity triggered by immune checkpoint blockers.
Abstract Immune checkpoint blockers improve the overall survival of a limited number of patients among different cancers. Identifying pathways that influence the immunological and clinical response to treatment is critical to improve the therapeutic efficacy and predict clinical responses. Recently, a key role has been assigned to innate immune mechanisms in checkpoint blockade-driven anti-tumor responses. However, inflammatory pathways can both improve and impair anti-tumor immunity. In this review, we discuss how different inflammatory pathways, particularly inflammasome activation, can influence the clinical ou...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - April 18, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Segovia M, Russo S, Girotti MR, Rabinovich GA, Hill M Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Oncolytic adenovirus ORCA-010 increases the type-1 T cell stimulatory capacity of melanoma-conditioned dendritic cells.
e Gruijl TD Abstract Immune checkpoint blockade has resulted in durable responses in patients with metastatic melanoma, but only in a fraction of treated patients. For immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) to be effective, sufficient infiltration with tumor-reactive T cells is essential. Oncolytic viruses (OV) selectively replicate in and lyse tumor cells and so induce an immunogenic form of cell death, providing at once a source of tumor-associated (neo)antigens and of danger signals that together induce effective T cell immunity and tumor infiltration. Melanoma-associated suppression of dendritic cell (DC) differen...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - April 17, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: López González M, van de Ven R, de Haan H, van Eck van der Sluijs J, Dong W, van Beusechem VW, de Gruijl TD Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Different subclasses and isotypes of antibodies against phosphorylcholine in haemodialysis patients: association with mortality.
CONCLUSION: IgM (as previously reported) and IgG1 anti-PC are negatively associated with survival among HD-patients and non-inflamed HD-patients, but among inflamed patients there were no associations. IgG, IgA or IgG2 anti-PC were not associated with survival in these groups and subgroups. Further studies are needed to determine if raising anti-PC levels, especially IgM and IgG1 anti-PC, through immunization, is beneficial. PMID: 32297318 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology)
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - April 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Samal SK, Qureshi AR, Rahman M, Stenvinkel P, Frostegård J Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Key role of macrophages in tolerance induction via t regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells.
CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Taken together, in this mouse model of Tr1-cell induced tolerance to allogeneic islets, M2 macrophages infiltrating the graft upon G-CSF/rapamycin treatment, are key for Tr1-cell induction. This work gives mechanistic insight into pharmacologically-induced Tr1-cell expansion in vivo in this stringent model of allogeneic transplantation. PMID: 32293025 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology)
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - April 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Mfarrej B, Jofra T, Morsiani C, Gagliani N, Fousteri G, Battaglia M Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

The effects of advanced maternal age on T-cell subsets at the maternal-fetal interface prior to term labor and in the offspring: a mouse study.
This study provides insight into the immune alterations observed at the maternal-fetal interface of advanced aged mothers and their offspring. PMID: 32279324 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology)
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - April 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Levenson D, Romero R, Garcia-Flores V, Miller D, Xu Y, Sahi A, Hassan SS, Gomez-Lopez N Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Monocyte-derived dendritic cells display a highly activated phenotype and altered function in patients with familial Mediterranean fever.
, Dörfel D Abstract Dendritic cells (DCs) are sentinels of the immune system that bridge innate and adaptive immunity. By capturing antigens in peripheral tissue, processing and presenting them with concurrent expression of costimulatory molecules and cytokine secretion they control and modulate immune reactions. Through pattern recognition receptors DCs sense molecules that are associated with infection or tissue damage frequently resulting in the formation of inflammasomes upon intracellular stimulation. The inherited autoinflammatory familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is associated with deregulated activit...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - April 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Funk T, Fuchs AR, Altdörfer VS, Klein R, Autenrieth SE, Müller MR, Salih HR, Henes J, Grünebach F, Dörfel D Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Changes in lung immune cells related to clinical outcome during treatment with infliximab for sarcoidosis.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Pulmonary sarcoidosis is characterized by an exaggerated CD4+ T-cell response and formation of non-necrotizing granulomas. Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is regarded as crucial for granuloma formation and TNF-α inhibitors offer a 3rd line treatment option for patients not responding to conventional treatment. However, not all patients benefit from treatment, and an optimal dose and treatment duration have not been established. Insight into the influence of TNF-α inhibitors on lung immune cells may provide clues to what drives inflammation in sarcoidosis and improve ou...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - April 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kullberg S, Rivera NV, Abo Al Hayja M, Grunewald J, Eklund A Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Hypoxia regulates the differentiation and anti-tumor effector functions of γδT cells in oral cancer.
Hypoxia regulates the differentiation and anti-tumor effector functions of γδT cells in oral cancer. Clin Exp Immunol. 2020 Apr 07;: Authors: Sureshbabu SK, Chaukar D, Chiplunkar SV Abstract Hypoxia within the tumor microenvironment (TME) is a key factor contributing to immunosuppression in tumors, co-relating with poor treatment outcome and decreased overall survival in advanced oral cancer (OC) patients. Vδ2 is a dominant subset of gamma delta Tcells(γδT cells) present in the peripheral blood which exhibits potent anti-tumor cytotoxicity and is evolving as a key player ...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - April 7, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Sureshbabu SK, Chaukar D, Chiplunkar SV Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Integrated omics analysis of sweat reveals an aberrant amino acid metabolism pathway in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease.
Abstract Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease is an autoimmune disease leading to visual impairment. Its pathogenic mechanisms remain poorly understood. Our purpose was to investigate the distinctive protein and metabolic profiles of sweat in patients with VKH disease. In the present study, proteomics and metabolomics analysis was performed on 60 sweat samples (30 VKH patients and 30 normal controls) using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) analysis was used to validate the results of our omics analysis. In total, we were able to detect 716 proteins and 175 metabolites...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - March 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Cui X, Su G, Zhang L, Yi S, Cao Q, Zhou C, Kijlstra A, Yang P Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Exogenous interleukin-2 can rescue in-vitro T cell activation and proliferation in patients with a novel CARMIL2 mutation.
In conclusion, we found that IL-2 rescued T cell activation and proliferation in CARMIL2-deficient patients. Thus, IL-2 should be further studied as a potential therapeutic modality for these patients. PMID: 32201938 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology)
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - March 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Shamriz O, Simon AJ, Lev A, Megged O, Ledder O, Picard E, Joseph L, Molho Pessach V, Tal Y, Millman P, Slae M, Somech R, Toker O, Berger M Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

EliSpot assays and their diagnostic potential in Lyme disease and Lyme Neuroborreliosis.
Abstract We have read the research article entitled "Prospective comparison of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assays for the diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis" by van Gorkom T, Voet W, Sankatsing SUC, Nijhuis CDM, Ter Haak E, Kremer K and Thijsen SFT published in Clinical and Experimental Immunology (2019 Oct 30. https://doi.org/10.1111/cei.13393) (1). We want to congratulate the authors for the publishing of this article, and make some remarks and contributions. PMID: 32180218 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology)
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - March 17, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ettischer-Schmid N, Preyer R Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Serum IgG antibody titer to Fusobacterium nucleatum is associated with unfavorable outcome after stroke.
We examined risk factors for unfavorable outcome following stroke occurrence including serum antibody titers to periodontal pathogens. The enrolled cohort included 534 patients who had experienced an acute stroke, who were divided into favorable (n=337) and unfavorable (n=197) outcome groups according to modified ranking scale (mRS) score determined at 3 months after onset (favorable: score 0 or 1, unfavorable: score 2 to 6. The associations of risk factors with unfavorable outcome, including serum titers of IgG antibodies to 16 periodontal pathogens, were examined. Logistic regression analysis showed that the initial Nati...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - March 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Nishi H, Hosomi N, Ohta K, Aoki S, Nakamori M, Nezu T, Shigeishi H, Shintani T, Obayashi T, Ishikawa K, Kinoshita N, Shiga Y, Sugiyama M, Ohge H, Maruyama H, Kawaguchi H, Kurihara H Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Vitamin D status and the immune assessment in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.
Abstract 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is characterized by a heterogeneous phenotype, including alterations in phospho-calcium metabolism and immunodeficiency. We analyzed vitamin D status and the immune assessment, focusing on T cell subpopulations and dendritic cells (DCs) in a cohort of 17 pediatric 22q11.2DS patients and 17 age-matched healthy subjects. As antigen presenting cells, DCs are the main target of vitamin D, promoting a tolerogenic T-cell response. Patients were subdivided into three groups according to the parameters of phospho-calcium metabolism and serum levels of 25OHD: normal values, vi...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - March 9, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Legitimo A, Bertini V, Costagliola G, Baroncelli GI, Morganti R, Valetto A, Consolini R Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Co-occurrence of IgE and IgG autoantibodies in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria.
The objective of this study was to evaluate in CSU patients at the same time IgE- and IgG-reactivity to well recognized and recently reported autoantigens, assessing their effects on response to the anti-IgE monoclonal antibody omalizumab. Twenty CSU patients underwent omalizumab treatment. Urticaria activity score 7 (UAS7) was recorded at baseline and at different drug administration time points for categorizing early-, late- or non-responders. At baseline, sera from the 20 patients and from 20 controls were tested for IgE and IgG autoantibodies to high and low affinity IgE receptors (FcεRI and FcεRII), ti...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - March 2, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Asero R, Marzano AV, Ferrucci S, Lorini M, Carbonelli V, Cugno M Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

STIM1 knockdown decreases the affinity of obinutuzumab for CD20 by altering CD20 localization to Triton-soluble membrane.
In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the Ca2+ channel features of CD20 as a store-operated Ca2+ channel (SOC) and obinutuzumab binding-induced cell death. Ca2+ channel function and biochemical analysis revealed that CD20 is an Orai1- and STIM1-dependent Ca2+ pore. However, binding of obinutuzumab on CD20 did not effects on Ca2+ influx activity of CD20 besides, the direct cell death rate mediated by obinutuzumab binding was almost equivalent in with or without extracellular Ca2+ condition. , Given the apparent interaction between STIM1 and CD20, we observed Triton-X solubilised obinutuzumab-bound CD20 accomp...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - February 13, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Heo W, Jin N, Park MS, Kim HY, Yoon SM, Lee J, Kim JY Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Toll-like receptors in mediating the pathogenesis in Systemic Sclerosis.
We report the new DAMPs, as well as the TLR-linked pathways involved in disease, with emphasis on Type I interferon signature in SSc, the role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and platelets. The dissection of the contribution of all these pathways to disease, and their correlation with the disease status, as well as their values as prognostic tools, can help to plan timely intervention and design new drugs for more appropriate therapeutic strategies. PMID: 32048277 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology)
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - February 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Frasca L, Lande R Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Diabetes Mellitus: A Novel Form of Autoimmune Diabetes.
Abstract Autoimmune diabetes mellitus is a rare but significant side effect of treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Immune checkpoint inhibitor induced diabetes mellitus (CPI-DM) is characterized by acute onset of dramatic hyperglycemia with severe insulin deficiency and occurrence following exposure to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors rather than CTLA-4 inhibitors. As a growing number of patients undergo immunotherapy, further understanding of the characteristics of CPI-DM patients is needed for improved prognostic and diagnostic application in order to reduce overall morbidity for this already at-risk population. A...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - February 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Quandt Z, Young A, Anderson M Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

IgG antibody response against Plasmodium falciparum Aminopeptidase 1 antigen in Gabonese children living in Makokou and Franceville.
Abstract The search for novel chemical classes of anti-malarial compounds to cope with the current state of chemoresistance of malaria parasites, led to the identification of PfA-M1 as a new therapeutic target. PfA-M1, known to be involved in the hemoglobin digestion cascade which helps to provide most of the amino acids necessary to the parasite's metabolism, is currently considered as a promising target for anti-malarial chemotherapy. However, its immunogenic properties have not yet been tested in the Gabonese population. In Gabon, the prevalence of malaria remains three times higher in semi-urban areas (60.12%)...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - February 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lydie Oyegue-Liabagui S, Imboumy-Limoukou RK, Kouna CL, Bangueboussa F, Schmitt M, Florent I, Bernard Lekana-Douki J Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

MAIT cell activation in adolescents is impacted by bile acid concentrations and body weight.
h G Abstract Bile acids (BAs) are produced by liver hepatocytes and were recently shown to exert functions additionally to their well-known role in lipid digestion. As yet it is not known whether the mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, which represent 10-15 % of the hepatic T cell population, are affected by BAs. The focus of the present investigation was on the association of BA serum concentration with MAIT cell function and inflammatory parameters as well as on the relation of these parameters to body weight. Blood samples from 41 normal weight and 41 overweight children of the LISA (Life style Immune ...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - February 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Mendler A, Pierzchalski A, Bauer M, Röder S, Sattler A, Standl M, Borte M, von Bergen M, Rolle-Kampczyk U, Herberth G Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
Authors: PMID: 31925965 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology)
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - January 12, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Phenotypic shift of small intestinal intraepithelial type 1 innate lymphoid cells in celiac disease is associated with enhanced cytotoxic potential.
We report that duodenal intraepithelial ILCs predominantly consist of NKp44+ CD127- cytotoxic ILC1s and NKp44- CD127+ helper ILC1s, while ILC3s only represent a minor population. In patients with newly diagnosed or active CD (ACD) and refractory CD type 1 (RCD I), the frequency of SI NKp44+ ILCs is decreased, with restoration of NKp44+ ILC frequency observed in patients adhering to a gluten-free diet who show evidence of mucosal healing. On the other hand, the frequency of SI NKp44- ILCs is increased in ACD and RCD I patients and correlates with increased severity of villous atrophy and epithelial damage, as assessed by se...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - January 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Uhde M, Yu X, Bunin A, Brauner C, Lewis SK, Lebwohl B, Krishnareddy S, Alaedini A, Reizis B, Ghosh S, Green PH, Bhagat G Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Phenotypic and potential functional characteristics of different immune cells expressing CD28H/B7-H5 and their relationship with cancer prognosis.
Abstract CD28H and B7-H5 have been identified as receptor-ligand pairs in B7/CD28 family, and have costimulatory activity in immune cells. Here, we have systematically reviewed the research reports on the CD28H/B7-H5 pathway. It was found that CD28H is mainly expressed in T cells and natural killer (NK) cells with naive and poorly differentiated properties, and repeated antigen stimulation leads to permanent loss of CD28H. In tumors, CD28H is mainly expressed in tissue-resident memory (TRM ) lymphocyte T cells, which is associated with improved tumor prognosis. B7-H5 is a ligand for CD28H and is widely expressed i...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - January 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zhong C, Lang Q, Yu J, Wu S, Tian Y, Xu F Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

T-Cell Reconstitution after Lymphocyte Depletion Features a Different Pattern of Inhibitory Receptor Expression in ABO- Versus HLA-Incompatible Kidney Transplant Recipients.
Abstract Chronic antigen stimulation can lead to immune exhaustion (a state of T cell dysfunction). Several phenotypic signatures of T cell exhaustion have been described in various pathological situations, characterized by aberrant expression of multiple inhibitory receptors (IR). This signature has been barely studied in the context of allogenic organ transplantation. We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of the expression of IR (CD244, CD279, TIGIT and CD57) and their correlation with cytokine-producing functions in T cells reconstituting after lymphocyte depletion in patients transplanted from living donors,...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - December 23, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Del Bello A, Kamar N, Treiner E Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

PLC ε1 suppresses tumor growth by regulating murine T cell mobilization.
PLCε1 suppresses tumor growth by regulating murine T cell mobilization. Clin Exp Immunol. 2019 Dec 22;: Authors: Strazza M, Adam K, Smrcka A, Lerrer S, Mor A Abstract Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCε1) is a unique member of the phospholipase family in that it also functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the small GTPase Rap1. It is this function as a Rap1 GEF that gives PLCε1 an essential role in chemokine mediated T cell adhesion. We have utilized a syngeneic tumor model, MC38 cells in C57BL/6 mice, and observed that tumors grow larger and more quickly in th...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - December 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Strazza M, Adam K, Smrcka A, Lerrer S, Mor A Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Chemical chaperones reverse early suppression of regulatory circuits during Unfolded Protein Response in B cells from Common Variable Immunodeficiency patients.
Abstract B cells orchestrate pro-survival and pro-apoptotic inputs during Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) to translate, fold, sort, secrete, and recycle immunoglobulins. In Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) patients, activated B cells are predisposed to an overload of abnormally processed, misfolded immunoglobulins. Using highly accurate transcript measurements, we show that expression of UPR genes and immunoglobulin chains differs qualitatively and quantitatively during the first 4 hours of chemically induced UPR in B cells from CVID patients and a healthy subject. We tested thapsigargin or tunicamycin as s...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - December 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Bhatt D, Stan RC, Pinhata R, Machado M, Maity S, Cunningham-Rundles C, Vogel C, de Camargo MM Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research