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The Development of Regional Dialect Locality Judgments and Language Attitudes Across the Life Span
The development of language attitudes and perception of talker regional background was investigated across the life span (N = 240, age range = 4–75 years). Participants rated 12 talkers on dimensions of geographic locality, status, and solidarity. Children could classify some dialects by locality by age 6–7 years and showed adult‐like patterns by age 8 years. Children showed adult‐like status ratings for some dialects by age 4–5 years but were not fully adult‐like until age 12 years. Solidarity ratings were more variable and did not exhibit a clear develo...
Source: Child Development - October 20, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Elizabeth A. McCullough, Cynthia G. Clopper, Laura Wagner Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Expecting the Unexpected? Expectations for Future Success Among Adolescent First ‐Time Offenders
This article also considers whether improved behavior raises expectations about the future and uses autoregressive latent trajectory modeling with structured residuals to examine the within‐person cross‐lagged associations between expectations and behavior. The results indicated that positive expectations reduce offending and improve grades, which are in turn associated with higher expectations. Although raising expectations may improve outcomes following an arrest, ensuring adolescents have the tools to meet their goals may be an effective way to raise expectations. (Source: Child Development)
Source: Child Development - October 12, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Alissa Mahler, Adam Fine, Paul J. Frick, Laurence Steinberg, Elizabeth Cauffman Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Childhood Amnesia in Children: A Prospective Study Across Eight  Years
This was a prospective study of earliest memories across 8 years for 37 children who were of age 4–9 years initially. In three interviews (initial and after 2 and 8 years) children provided their three earliest memories; those from earlier interviews that were not spontaneously provided later were cued. There was little consistency in the earliest memory or overlap across interviews in spontaneous memories. The youngest group also forgot over half their initial memories although few were forgotten by older children. For consistency of content, 25%–32% of information by former 6‐ to 9‐year‐o...
Source: Child Development - October 3, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Carole Peterson, Darcy Hallett, Cassy Compton ‐Gillingham Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

A Methylome ‐Wide Association Study of Trajectories of Oppositional Defiant Behaviors and Biological Overlap With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
In 671 mother–child (49% male) pairs from an epidemiological birth cohort, we investigated (a) prospective associations between DNA methylation (at birth) and trajectories (ages 7–13) of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and the ODD subdimensions of irritable and headstrong; (b) common biological pathways, indexed by DNA methylation, between ODD trajectories and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); (c) genetic influence on DNA methylation; and (d) prenatal risk exposure associations. Methylome‐wide significant associations were identified for the ODD and headstrong, but not for irritable. Overl...
Source: Child Development - September 20, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Edward D. Barker, Esther Walton, Charlotte A.M. Cecil, Richard Rowe, Sara R. Jaffee, Barbara Maughan, Thomas G. O'Connor, Argyris Stringaris, Alan J. Meehan, Wendy McArdle, Caroline L. Relton, Tom R. Gaunt Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Self ‐Concept Predicts Academic Achievement Across Levels of the Achievement Distribution: Domain Specificity for Math and Reading
This study examines whether self‐concept of ability in math and reading predicts later math and reading attainment across different levels of achievement. Data from three large‐scale longitudinal data sets, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development–Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, and Panel Study of Income Dynamics–Child Development Supplement, were used to answer this question by employing quantile regression analyses. After controlling for demographic variables, child characteristics, and early ability, the findings i...
Source: Child Development - September 18, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Maria Ines Susperreguy, Pamela E. Davis ‐Kean, Kathryn Duckworth, Meichu Chen Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Optimism as a Candidate Health Asset: Exploring Its Links With Adolescent Quality of Life in Sweden
This study aims to understand the role that optimism could play in the context of a health asset approach to promote adolescent health‐related quality of life (HRQOL). Adolescents (n = 948), between 11 and 16 years old from a medium‐sized rural town in Sweden, answered questionnaires measuring optimism, pessimism, and HRQOL. The findings indicate a significant decrease in optimism and a significant increase in pessimism between early and midadolescence. The study has allowed us to present associational evidence of the links between optimism and HRQOL. This infers the potential of an optimistic orientatio...
Source: Child Development - September 18, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Katrin H äggström Westberg, Marie Wilhsson, Petra Svedberg, Jens M. Nygren, Antony Morgan, Maria Nyholm Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Children's Theories of the Self
This article provides a theoretical review of the developmental origins of children's “folk theories” about the nature of the self, linking theoretical developments in philosophy with empirical discoveries from developmental psychology. The article first reviews children's views about the material nature of the self, outlining evidence that children naturally think about the self as distinct from the body. It then discusses children's understanding of the persistence of the self over time and, finally, explores children's views about conflict within the self. Together, these findings suggest that preschoolers p...
Source: Child Development - September 18, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Christina Starmans Tags: Special Section Source Type: research

Intelligence and Neurophysiological Markers of Error Monitoring Relate to Children's Intellectual Humility
This study explored developmental and individual differences in intellectual humility (IH) among 127 children ages 6–8. IH was operationalized as children's assessment of their knowledge and willingness to delegate scientific questions to experts. Children completed measures of IH, theory of mind, motivational framework, and intelligence, and neurophysiological measures indexing early (error‐related negativity [ERN]) and later (error positivity [Pe]) error‐monitoring processes related to cognitive control. Children's knowledge self‐assessment correlated with question delegation, and older children showed greate...
Source: Child Development - September 18, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Judith H. Danovitch, Megan Fisher, Hans Schroder, David Z. Hambrick, Jason Moser Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

The Origins of Children's Growth and Fixed Mindsets: New Research and a New Proposal
This article presents a new perspective on why this is the case, and reviews research on adult practices that do instill growth mindsets, concluding that a sustained focus on the process of learning is critical. After discussing key implications and promising future directions, we consider the topic in the context of important societal issues, like high‐stakes testing. (Source: Child Development)
Source: Child Development - September 14, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Kyla Haimovitz, Carol S. Dweck Tags: Special Section Source Type: research

Consequences of Individual Differences in Children's Formal Understanding of Mathematical Equivalence
Experts claim that individual differences in children's formal understanding of mathematical equivalence have consequences for mathematics achievement; however, evidence is lacking. A prospective, longitudinal study was conducted with a diverse sample of 112 children from a midsized city in the Midwestern United States (Mage [second grade] = 8:1). As hypothesized, understanding of mathematical equivalence in second grade predicted mathematics achievement in third grade, even after controlling for second‐grade mathematics achievement, IQ, gender, and socioeconomic status. Most children exhibited poor understandi...
Source: Child Development - September 13, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Nicole M. McNeil, Caroline Byrd Hornburg, Brianna L. Devlin, Cristina Carrazza, Mary O. McKeever Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Black Adolescent Males: Intersections Among Their Gender Role Identity and Racial Identity and Associations With Self ‐Concept (Global and School)
Intersectional approaches for understanding identity have gained momentum in the social sciences. Black adolescent males are often perceived as threatening, underachieving, and hypermasculine, which is reinforced through media outlets and psychological research that portray them as a monolith rather than a heterogeneous group with multiple intersecting identities. This cross‐sectional study of 70 Black adolescent males between 14 and 18 years old simultaneously explores their race and gender identities and associations with self‐concept (global and school). Results demonstrated that participants reported a combina...
Source: Child Development - September 12, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Tamara R. Buckley Tags: Empirical Report Source Type: research

The Longitudinal Effects of Early Language Intervention on Children's Problem Behaviors
Researchers examined whether a parent‐implemented language intervention improved problem behaviors 1 year after intervention. Ninety‐seven children with language delays (mean age at 12‐month follow‐up = 48.22 months) were randomized to receive Enhanced Milieu Teaching (EMT) language intervention or business as usual treatment. Twelve months after the intervention ended, children in the EMT intervention condition displayed lower rates of parent‐reported externalizing, internalizing, and total problem behaviors. A mediation analysis revealed that the relation between EMT and problem behaviors wa...
Source: Child Development - September 5, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Philip R. Curtis, Megan Y. Roberts, Ryne Estabrook, Ann P. Kaiser Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Child Development)
Source: Child Development - September 4, 2017 Category: Child Development Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

The Relation Between Walking and Language in Infant Siblings of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
In typical development, walk onset is accompanied by increased language growth (e.g., Walle & Campos, 2014). The present study explored whether this relation may be disrupted in the infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; heightened risk of receiving an ASD diagnosis; HR), a population exhibiting substantial variability in motor and language development (e.g., Gamliel, Yirmiya, & Sigman, 2007; Landa & Garrett‐Mayer, 2006). Receptive and expressive language were examined across the transition to walking in three groups of HR infants (no diagnosis, language delay, and ASD; N = ...
Source: Child Development - September 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Kelsey L. West, Nina B. Leezenbaum, Jessie B. Northrup, Jana M. Iverson Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Infant Visual Attention and Stimulus Repetition Effects on Object Recognition
This study examined behavioral, heart rate (HR), and event‐related potential (ERP) correlates of attention and recognition memory for 4.5‐, 6‐, and 7.5‐month‐old infants (N = 45) during stimulus encoding. Attention was utilized as an independent variable using HR measures. The Nc ERP component associated with attention and the late slow wave (LSW) associated with recognition memory were analyzed. The 7.5‐month‐olds demonstrated a significant reduction in Nc amplitude with stimulus repetition. This reduction in Nc was not found for younger infants. Additionally, infants only demonstrated differential...
Source: Child Development - September 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Greg D. Reynolds, John E. Richards Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Does the Effect of Justice System Attitudes on Adolescent Crime Vary Based on Psychosocial Maturity?
Adolescents who view the justice system negatively are prone to commit crime. Simultaneously, youth who have difficulty regulating their behavior are likely to commit crime. Using a longitudinal sample of 1,216 male adolescents (ages 13–17) who had been arrested for the first time, were racially/ethnically diverse, and were drawn from three U.S. states, this study incorporated a developmental perspective into the procedural justice framework to examine whether psychosocial immaturity moderated the effect of justice system attitudes on youth crime. Attitudes toward the justice system were associated with reoffending a...
Source: Child Development - September 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Adam Fine, Kevin T. Wolff, Michael T. Baglivio, Alex R. Piquero, Paul J. Frick, Laurence Steinberg, Elizabeth Cauffman Tags: Empirical Report Source Type: research

A Long ‐Term Effect of Perceptual Individuation Training on Reducing Implicit Racial Bias in Preschool Children
This study tracked the long‐term effect of perceptual individuation training on reducing 5‐year‐old Chinese children's (N = 95, Mage = 5.64 years) implicit pro‐Asian/anti‐Black racial bias. Initial training to individuate other‐race Black faces, followed by supplementary training occurring 1 week later, resulted in a long‐term reduction of pro‐Asian/anti‐Black bias (70 days). In contrast, training Chinese children to recognize White or Asian faces had no effect on pro‐Asian/anti‐Black bias. Theoretically, the finding that individuation training can have a long‐term...
Source: Child Development - September 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Miao K. Qian, Paul C. Quinn, Gail D. Heyman, Olivier Pascalis, Genyue Fu, Kang Lee Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Discrimination and Ethnic –Racial Identity: Understanding Direction of Effects Using Within‐ and Between‐Person Analyses
Ethnic–racial identity (ERI) development and ethnic–racial discrimination are two salient experiences among adolescents in the United States. Despite growing awareness of the costs and benefits of these experiences individually, we know little about how they may influence one another. The current study examined competing hypotheses relating discrimination and components of ERI (i.e., exploration, resolution, affirmation) among a sample of Mexican‐origin adolescent mothers (N = 181; Mage at Wave 1 = 16.83, SD = 1.01) across six waves of data. Findings revealed that within‐person...
Source: Child Development - September 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Katharine H. Zeiders, Sara D. Bayless, Chelsea L. Derlan, Adriana J. Uma ña‐Taylor, Kimberly A. Updegraff, Laudan B. Jahromi Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Ethnic Harassment and Immigrant Youth's Engagement in Violent Behaviors: Understanding the Risk Factors
The present study aimed to examine whether ethnic harassment was related to violent behaviors among immigrant youth over time and to identify the risk factors. The sample comprised immigrant adolescents living in Sweden (N = 365; Mage = 13.93, SD = 0.80). Results showed that the more youth were ethnically harassed, the more they engaged in violent acts over time. A separated identity significantly moderated the effect of ethnic harassment on youth's engagement in violent behaviors. Specifically, ethnic harassment positively predicted engagement in violent behaviors only at high levels of separ...
Source: Child Development - September 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Sevgi Bayram Özdemir, Metin Özdemir, Hakån Stattin Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

An Expanded View of Joint Attention: Skill, Engagement, and Language in Typical Development and Autism
This study provides an expanded view of joint attention and its relation to expressive language development. A total of 144 toddlers (40 typically developing, 58 with autism spectrum disorder [ASD], 46 with developmental delay [DD]) participated at 24 and 31 months. Toddlers who screened positive for ASD risk, especially those subsequently diagnosed with ASD, had poorer joint attention skills, joint engagement during parent–toddler interaction, and expressive language. Findings highlight the dynamic relation between joint attention and language development. In the ASD and DD groups, joint engagement predicted la...
Source: Child Development - September 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Lauren B. Adamson, Roger Bakeman, Katharine Suma, Diana L. Robins Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Scaling Theory of Mind in a Small ‐Scale Society: A Case Study From Vanuatu
Although theory of mind (ToM) is argued to emerge between 3 and 5 years of age, data from non‐Western, small‐scale societies suggest diversity. Deeper investigations into these settings are warranted. In the current study, over 400 Melanesian children from Vanuatu (range = 3–14 years), growing up in either urban or rural remote environments, completed culturally tailored ToM batteries. Results show a marked delay in false belief (FB) performance, particularly among participants from rural villages. By further investigating a diverse range of concepts beyond FB, we illustrate two unique cultura...
Source: Child Development - September 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Henry G. W. Dixson, Aim ée F. Komugabe‐Dixson, Barnaby J. Dixson, Jason Low Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Infants Distinguish Between Two Events Based on Their Relative Likelihood
This study demonstrates that infants' looking responses are sensitive to the magnitude of the difference in likelihood between two events. (Source: Child Development)
Source: Child Development - September 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Ezgi Kayhan, Gustaf Gredeb äck, Marcus Lindskog Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Multigenerational Effects on Children's Cognitive and Socioemotional Outcomes: A Within ‐Child Investigation
Associations between grandparental investment and child outcomes were investigated using three waves of a longitudinal British Millennium Cohort Study that included children between the ages of 9 months and 5 years (n = 24,614 person‐observations from 13,744 children). Grandparental investment was measured by parent–grandparent contact frequency and grandparental financial support. Child cognitive development was measured using the British Ability Scale and socioemotional outcomes using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. Grandparental investment was associated with improved cognitive a...
Source: Child Development - September 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Antti O. Tanskanen, Mirkka Danielsbacka Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Discrimination, Parent –Adolescent Conflict, and Peer Intimacy: Examining Risk and Resilience in Mexican‐Origin Youths' Adjustment Trajectories
Peer discrimination and parent–adolescent conflict in early adolescence were examined as predictors of depressive symptoms and risky behaviors from early to late adolescence using four waves of data over an 8‐year period from a sample of 246 Mexican‐origin adolescents (MTime 1 age = 12.55, SD = 0.58; 51% female). The buffering effect of friendship intimacy and moderating role of adolescent gender were tested. Higher levels of discrimination and conflict in early adolescence were associated with higher initial levels of depressive symptoms and risky behaviors in early adolescence and stability ...
Source: Child Development - September 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Melissa Y. Delgado, Rajni L. Nair, Kimberly A. Updegraff, Adriana J. Uma ña‐Taylor Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Peer Effects on Aggressive Behavior in Norwegian Child Care Centers
This study examined whether exposure to changes in peer aggression predicted changes in child physical aggression (PA) in preschool children attending Norwegian Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) centers. Data from the Behavior Outlook Norwegian Developmental Study were used, including 956 children. In fixed effects models, within‐child changes in exposure to peer aggression predicted changes in teacher‐rated child PA across ages 2, 3, and 4. Moreover, changes in exposure to a peer group with two or more externalizing children increased teacher‐rated child PA over time, but only for boys. No significant peer e...
Source: Child Development - September 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Luisa A. Ribeiro, Henrik D. Zachrisson Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

The Decline in Adult Activities Among U.S. Adolescents, 1976 –2016
The social and historical contexts may influence the speed of development. In seven large, nationally representative surveys of U.S. adolescents 1976–2016 (N = 8.44 million, ages 13–19), fewer adolescents in recent years engaged in adult activities such as having sex, dating, drinking alcohol, working for pay, going out without their parents, and driving, suggesting a slow life strategy. Adult activities were less common when median income, life expectancy, college enrollment, and age at first birth were higher and family size and pathogen prevalence were lower, consistent with life history theor...
Source: Child Development - September 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Jean M. Twenge, Heejung Park Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

How Unequal Is the United States? Adolescents ’ Images of Social Stratification
This study highlights the use of pictorial images to understand adolescents’ views on social stratification. A continuum of five visual images of social stratification were presented to a diverse sample of five hundred ninety‐eight 8th–12th graders (14–18 years old). Adolescents selected which image best represented the United States (today, in 20 years, how it ought to be). Images ranged from inequitable to egalitarian. Results supported reference group and possible selves theories. Adolescents in higher status families chose a more egalitarian image for how the United States is today and how...
Source: Child Development - September 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Constance A. Flanagan, Mariah Kornbluh Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

How Children Construct Views of Themselves: A Social ‐Developmental Perspective
This article calls for research that bridges social and developmental psychology to illuminate this important issue. Adopting such a social‐developmental approach, the current special section shows that children construct their self‐concept based on the social relationships they have, the feedback they receive, the social comparisons they make, and the cultural values they endorse. These findings underline the deeply social nature of self‐development. (Source: Child Development)
Source: Child Development - September 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Eddie Brummelman, Sander Thomaes Tags: Special Section Source Type: research

Fine Motor Control Underlies the Association Between Response Inhibition and Drawing Skill in Early Development
Previous research shows that the development of response inhibition and drawing skill are linked. The current research investigated whether this association reflects a more fundamental link between response inhibition and motor control. In Experiment 1, 3‐ and 4‐year‐olds (n = 100) were tested on measures of inhibition, fine motor control, and drawing skill. Data revealed an association between inhibition and fine motor control, which was responsible for most of the association observed with drawing skill. Experiment 2 (n = 100) provided evidence that, unlike fine motor control, gross motor contro...
Source: Child Development - September 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Andrew Simpson, Reshaa Al Ruwaili, Richard Jolley, Hayley Leonard, Nicolas Geeraert, Kevin J. Riggs Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Memory and Executive Functioning in 12 ‐Year‐Old Children With a History of Institutional Rearing
We examined visual recognition memory and executive functioning (spatial working memory [SWM], spatial planning, rule learning, and attention shifting) in 12‐year‐olds (n = 150) who participated in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled trial of foster care for institutionally reared children. Similar to prior reports at 8 years of age, institutionally reared children showed significant deficits in visual recognition memory and SWM. Deficits in attention shifting and rule learning were also apparent at this time point. These data suggest that early experiences continue to shape...
Source: Child Development - September 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Johanna Bick, Charles H. Zeanah, Nathan A. Fox, Charles A. Nelson Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Parental Co ‐Construction of 5‐ to 13‐Year‐Olds' Global Self‐Esteem Through Reminiscing About Past Events
The current study explored parental processes associated with children's global self‐esteem development. Eighty 5‐ to 13‐year‐olds and one of their parents provided qualitative and quantitative data through questionnaires, open‐ended questions, and a laboratory‐based reminiscing task. Parents who included more explanations of emotions when writing about the lowest points in their lives were more likely to discuss explanations of emotions experienced in negative past events with their child, which was associated with child attachment security. Attachment was associated with concurrent self‐esteem, which predic...
Source: Child Development - September 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Michelle A. Harris, M. B. Donnellan, Jen Guo, Dan P. McAdams, Mauricio Garnier ‐Villarreal, Kali H. Trzesniewski Tags: Special Section Source Type: research

Beliefs About Stress Attenuate the Relation Among Adverse Life Events, Perceived Distress, and Self ‐Control
This study (N = 1,343) examined the protective effects of stress mindsets—beliefs about the extent to which stress might be beneficial or strictly detrimental. The results confirmed that increasing the number of adverse life events across the school year predicted rank order increases in perceived distress, which in turn predicted rank order decreases in self‐control. Adolescents who believed in the potential benefits of stress were less prone to feeling stressed in the wake of adverse life events. These findings suggest that changing the way adolescents think about stress may help protect them from actin...
Source: Child Development - September 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Daeun Park, Alisa Yu, Sarah E. Metz, Eli Tsukayama, Alia J. Crum, Angela L. Duckworth Tags: Empirical Report Source Type: research

Do Varieties of Spanish Influence U.S. Spanish –English Bilingual Children's Friendship Judgments?
Latinos are the largest minority group in the United States (U.S. Census, 2014), yet this term comprises individuals from multiple ethnicities who speak distinct varieties of Spanish. We investigated whether Spanish–English bilingual children (N = 140, ages 4–17) use Spanish varieties in their social judgments. The findings revealed that children distinguished varieties of Spanish but did not use Spanish dialects to make third‐person friendship judgments until 10–12 years; this effect became stronger in adolescence. In contrast, young children (4–6 years) made friendship judgme...
Source: Child Development - August 30, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Maria M. Arredondo, Susan A. Gelman Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

When Parents ’ Praise Inflates, Children's Self‐Esteem Deflates
Western parents often give children overly positive, inflated praise. One perspective holds that inflated praise sets unattainable standards for children, eventually lowering children's self‐esteem (self‐deflation hypothesis). Another perspective holds that children internalize inflated praise to form narcissistic self‐views (self‐inflation hypothesis). These perspectives were tested in an observational‐longitudinal study (120 parent–child dyads from the Netherlands) in late childhood (ages 7–11), when narcissism and self‐esteem first emerge. Supporting the self‐deflation hypothesis, parents&rsquo...
Source: Child Development - August 30, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Eddie Brummelman, Stefanie A. Nelemans, Sander Thomaes, Bram Orobio de Castro Tags: Special Section Source Type: research

The Role of Campus Support, Undocumented Identity, and Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals on Civic Engagement for Latinx Undocumented Undergraduates
This study examined civic engagement in a sample of 790 undocumented Latinx undergraduates (aged 18–30). The relations between social supports (campus safe spaces and peer support) and civic engagement and whether a strong sense of undocumented identity mediated this relation were examined. Competing statistical models examined the role of participants' status (whether or not they received temporary protection from deportation with Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals [DACA]) in this mediational process. Results revealed that having a strong identification with being undocumented mediated the role of social support...
Source: Child Development - August 30, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Dalal Katsiaficas, Vanessa Volpe, Syeda S. Raza, Yuliana Garcia Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Clear Self, Better Relationships: Adolescents ’ Self‐Concept Clarity and Relationship Quality With Parents and Peers Across 5 Years
This study examined reciprocal associations between adolescents’ self‐concept clarity (SCC) and their relationship quality with parents and best friends in a five‐wave longitudinal study from age 13 to 18 years. In all, 497 adolescents (57% boys) reported on their SCC and all informants (i.e., adolescents, both parents, and adolescents’ best friends) reported on support and negative interaction. Within‐person cross‐lagged analyses provided systematic evidence for both parent effects and child effects, with the direction of effects being strongly dependent on the relational context. For example, hig...
Source: Child Development - August 28, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Andrik I. Becht, Stefanie A. Nelemans, Marloes P. A. Dijk, Susan J. T. Branje, Pol A. C. Van Lier, Jaap J. A. Denissen, Wim H. J. Meeus Tags: Special Section Source Type: research

Smart Conformists: Children and Adolescents Associate Conformity With Intelligence Across Cultures
The current study used a novel methodology based on multivocal ethnography to assess the relations between conformity and evaluations of intelligence and good behavior among Western (U.S.) and non‐Western (Ni‐Vanuatu) children (6‐ to 11‐year‐olds) and adolescents (13‐ to 17‐year‐olds; N = 256). Previous research has shown that U.S. adults were less likely to endorse high‐conformity children as intelligent than Ni‐Vanuatu adults. The current data demonstrate that in contrast to prior studies documenting cultural differences between adults' evaluations of conformity, children and adolescents in ...
Source: Child Development - August 24, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Nicole J. Wen, Jennifer M. Clegg, Cristine H. Legare Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

When Peer Performance Matters: Effects of Expertise and Traits on Children's Self ‐Evaluations After Social Comparison
The present research examined the influence of peer characteristics on children's reactions to upward social comparisons. In Experiment 1, one hundred twenty‐six 5‐, 8‐, and 10‐year‐olds were told that they were outperformed by an expert or novice peer. Older children reported higher self‐evaluations after comparisons with an expert rather than a novice, whereas 5‐year‐olds reported high self‐evaluations broadly. In Experiment 2, ninety‐eight 5‐ to 6‐year‐olds and 9‐ to 10‐year‐olds were told that the peer possessed a positive or negative trait that was task relevant (i.e., intelligence) or ...
Source: Child Development - August 22, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Candace Lapan, Janet J. Boseovski Tags: Special Section Source Type: research

Close Friendship Strength and Broader Peer Group Desirability as Differential Predictors of Adult Mental Health
Middle adolescents’ close friendship strength and the degree to which their broader peer group expressed a preference to affiliate with them were examined as predictors of relative change in depressive symptoms, self‐worth, and social anxiety symptoms from ages 15 to 25 using multimethod, longitudinal data from 169 adolescents. Close friendship strength in midadolescence predicted relative increases in self‐worth and decreases in anxiety and depressive symptoms by early adulthood. Affiliation preference by the broader peer group, in contrast, predicted higher social anxiety by early adulthood. Results are interpr...
Source: Child Development - August 21, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Rachel K. Narr, Joseph P. Allen, Joseph S. Tan, Emily L. Loeb Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

“Wealth Makes Many Friends”: Children Expect More Giving From Resource‐Rich Than Resource‐Poor Individuals
Young children show social preferences for resource‐rich individuals, although few studies have explored the causes underlying such preferences. We evaluate the viability of one candidate cause: Children believe that resource wealth relates to behavior, such that they expect the resource rich to be more likely to materially benefit others (including themselves) than the resource poor. In Studies 1 and 2 (ages 4–10), American children from predominantly middle‐income families (n = 94) and Indian children from lower income families (n = 30) predicted that the resource rich would be likelier to s...
Source: Child Development - August 21, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Richard E. Ahl, Yarrow Dunham Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Self ‐Construals and Social Adjustment in Immigrant and Nonimmigrant Early Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Executive Functioning
This study examined whether executive functions (EFs) moderate the association between independent and interdependent self‐construals and social adjustment in 488 Moroccan, Romanian, and Italian preadolescents (ages 11–13) in Italy. Participants were assessed using self‐report questionnaires and standardized EF tasks. Better working memory was related to increased social competence across all groups. High levels of inhibitory control were found to enhance the positive relation between interdependence and prosocial behavior for native Italian youth, and between interdependence and social competence for Moroccan pr...
Source: Child Development - August 21, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Diana Miconi, Ughetta Moscardino, Gianmarco Alto è, Silvia Salcuni Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Little Evidence That Socioeconomic Status Modifies Heritability of Literacy and Numeracy in Australia
Socioeconomic status (SES) has been found to moderate the influence of genes and the environment on cognitive ability, such that genetic influence is greater when SES is higher, and the shared environment is greater when SES is lower, but not in all Western countries. The effects of both family and school SES on the heritability of literacy and numeracy in Australian twins aged 8, 10, 12, and 14 years with 1,307, 1,235, 1,076, and 930 pairs at each age, respectively, were tested. Shared environmental influences on Grade 3 literacy were greater with low family SES, and no other moderating effects of SES were significan...
Source: Child Development - August 18, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Katrina L. Grasby, William L. Coventry, Brian Byrne, Richard K. Olson Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Longitudinal Trajectories of Family Functioning Among Recent Immigrant Adolescents and Parents: Links With Adolescent and Parent Cultural Stress, Emotional Well ‐Being, and Behavioral Health
This study examined longitudinal effects of adolescent and parent cultural stress on adolescent and parent emotional well‐being and health behaviors via trajectories of adolescent and parent family functioning. Recent immigrant Latino adolescents (Mage = 14.51) and parents (Mage = 41.09; N = 302) completed measures of these constructs. Latent growth modeling indicated that adolescent and parent family functioning remained stable over time. Early levels of family functioning predicted adolescent and parent outcomes. Baseline adolescent cultural stress predicted lower positive adolescent and p...
Source: Child Development - August 18, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Elma I. Lorenzo ‐Blanco, Alan Meca, Brandy Piña‐Watson, Byron L. Zamboanga, José Szapocznik, Miguel Ángel. Cano, David Cordova, Jennifer B. Unger, Andrea Romero, Sabrina E. Des Rosiers, Daniel W. Soto, Juan A. Villamar, Monica Pattarroyo, Karina M. Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Feeding Imprinting: The Extreme Test Case of Premature Infants Born With Very Low Birth Weight
Feeding imprinting, considered a survival‐enabling process, is not well understood. Infants born very preterm, who first feed passively, are an effective model for studying feeding imprinting. Retrospective analysis of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) records of 255 infants (Mgestational age = 29.98 ± 1.64) enabled exploring the notion that direct breastfeeding (DBF) during NICU stay leads to consumption of more mother's milk and earlier NICU discharge. Results showed that DBF before the first bottle feeding is related to shorter transition into oral feeding, a younger age of full oral feedi...
Source: Child Development - August 11, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Moriya Suberi, Iris Morag, Tzipora Strauss, Ronny Geva Tags: Empirical Report Source Type: research

Parental Cultural Socialization and Adolescent Private Regard: Exploring Mediating Pathways Through Daily Experiences
This study provides a framework to explore how development occurs in daily lives. (Source: Child Development)
Source: Child Development - August 11, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Yijie Wang, Heining Cham, Meera Aladin, Tiffany Yip Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

He Says, She Says: Mothers and Children Remembering the Same Events
This study examined the consistency of memories for the same events in mothers and children, and how that varied as a function of culture and organizational components of memories. European American (EA) and Chinese immigrant (CI) mothers and their 6‐year‐old children (N = 127) independently recalled two emotionally salient events. In both cultures, mothers and children agreed more on factual event details and observable behaviors and less on subjective experiences and idiosyncratic interpretations. EA mothers and children told more diverse stories than did CI mothers and children. The findings shed important...
Source: Child Development - August 10, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Qi Wang, Qingfang Song Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

The Influence of Adult and Peer Role Models on Children ’ and Adolescents’ Sharing Decisions
This study explores how the age (adult vs. peer) and the suggestion (to be fair vs. unfair) of models affect the sharing decisions of 9‐ and 12‐year‐olds (N = 365) from Italy and Singapore. Results demonstrate a developmental shift in the influence of models on children's and adolescents’ sharing decisions in both cultures: Children's decisions were more affected by an adult model's suggestion than by that of a peer model, whereas the opposite was true for adolescents. Regardless of the models’ influence, participants considered equal sharing to be the fair choice and reported being happier when...
Source: Child Development - August 4, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Azzurra Ruggeri, Shenghua Luan, Monika Keller, Michaela Gummerum Tags: Empirical Report Source Type: research

From Innovation to Impact at Scale: Lessons Learned From a Cluster of Research –Community Partnerships
This article presents a description of how an interdisciplinary network of academic researchers, community‐based programs, parents, and state agencies have joined together to design, test, and scale a suite of innovative intervention strategies rooted in new knowledge about the biology of adversity. Through a process of cocreation, collective pilot testing, and the support of a measurement and evaluation hub, the Washington Innovation Cluster is using rapid cycle iterative learning to elucidate differential impacts of interventions designed to build child and caregiver capacities and address the developmental consequence...
Source: Child Development - August 4, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Holly S. Schindler, Philip A. Fisher, Jack P. Shonkoff Tags: Special Section Source Type: research

Judging a Book by Its Cover: Children's Facial Trustworthiness as Judged by Strangers Predicts Their Real ‐World Trustworthiness and Peer Relationships
This longitudinal research examined whether children's facial trustworthiness as judged by strangers can predict their real‐world trustworthiness and peer acceptance. Adults (Study 1) and children (Study 2) judged the facial trustworthiness of 8‐ to 12‐year‐old children (N = 100) solely based on their photographs. The children's classmates were asked to report their real‐world trustworthiness and peer acceptance. Children's facial trustworthiness reliably predicted these outcomes both initially when the photographs were taken, as well as 1 year later, and this effect was mediated by the initial rat...
Source: Child Development - August 3, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Qinggong Li, Gail D. Heyman, Jing Mei, Kang Lee Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Does Temperament Underlie Infant Novel Food Responses?: Continuity of Approach –Withdrawal From 6 to 18 Months
This study investigated whether temperamental approach–withdrawal underlies infants' responses to novel foods. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of mother–infant dyads (n = 136). Approach–withdrawal responses to novel foods and novel toys were coded when infants were 6 and 12 months of age. When infants were 18 months of age, approach–withdrawal behaviors, positive affect, and negative affect were used in a latent profile analysis to identify groups of toddlers who exhibited similar responses to novelty. As predicted, novel food and novel toy responses were concurrently a...
Source: Child Development - August 2, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Kameron J. Moding, Cynthia A. Stifter Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research