Log in to search using one of your social media accounts:

 

The Nature and Consequences of Essentialist Beliefs About Race in Early Childhood
It is widely believed that race divides the world into biologically distinct kinds of people—an essentialist belief inconsistent with reality. Essentialist views of race have been described as early emerging, but this study found that young children (n = 203, Mage = 5.45) hold only the more limited belief that the physical feature of skin color is inherited and stable. Overall, children rejected the causal essentialist view that behavioral and psychological characteristics are constrained by an inherited racial essence. Although average levels of children's causal essentialist beliefs about race w...
Source: Child Development - January 23, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Tara M. Mandalaywala, Gabrielle Ranger ‐Murdock, David M. Amodio, Marjorie Rhodes Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Impacts of Adolescent and Young Adult Civic Engagement on Health and Socioeconomic Status in Adulthood
The present study examines links between civic engagement (voting, volunteering, and activism) during late adolescence and early adulthood, and socioeconomic status and mental and physical health in adulthood. Using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a propensity score matching approach is used to rigorously estimate how civic engagement is associated with outcomes among 9,471 adolescents and young adults (baseline Mage = 15.9). All forms of civic engagement are positively associated with subsequent income and education level. Volunteering and voting...
Source: Child Development - January 23, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Parissa J. Ballard, Lindsay T. Hoyt, Mark C. Pachucki Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

The Myth of Universal Sensitive Responsiveness: Comment on Mesman et  al. (2017)
This article considers claims of Mesman et al. (2017) that sensitive responsiveness as defined by Ainsworth, while not uniformly expressed across cultural contexts, is universal. Evidence presented demonstrates that none of the components of sensitive responsiveness (i.e., which partner takes the lead, whose point of view is primary, and the turn‐taking structure of interactions) or warmth are universal. Mesman and colleagues’ proposal that sensitive responsiveness is “providing for infant needs” is critiqued. Constructs concerning caregiver quality must be embedded within a nexus of cultural logic...
Source: Child Development - January 23, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Heidi Keller, Kim Bard, Gilda Morelli, Nandita Chaudhary, Marga Vicedo, Mariano Rosabal ‐Coto, Gabriel Scheidecker, Marjorie Murray, Alma Gottlieb Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Sense and Sensitivity: A Response to the Commentary by Keller et  al. (2018)
This reply to the commentary by Keller et al. (2018) on the article “Universality Without Uniformity: A Culturally Inclusive Approach to Sensitive Responsiveness in Infant Caregiving” (Mesman et al., ) highlights key points of agreement emphasizing the sense of investing in synergies across research traditions. These include the importance of distinguishing between different parenting constructs, the need for more studies to test the presented theoretical assumptions, and the value of examining multiple caregiver sensitivity in relation to infants’ developing membership of a community. The only ...
Source: Child Development - January 23, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Judi Mesman Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

A Metatheory for Cognitive Development (or “Piaget is Dead” Revisited)
In 1997, I argued that with the loss of Piaget's theory as an overarching guide, cognitive development had become disjointed and a new metatheory was needed to unify the field. I suggested developmental biology, particularly evolutionary theory, as a candidate. Here, I examine the increasing emphasis of biology in cognitive development research over the past 2 decades. I describe briefly the emergence of evolutionary developmental psychology and examines areas in which proximal and distal biological causation have been particularly influential. I argue that developmental biology will continue to increasingly influence rese...
Source: Child Development - January 16, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: David F. Bjorklund Tags: Review Source Type: research

Bridging Evolutionary Biology and Developmental Psychology: Toward An Enduring Theoretical Infrastructure
Bjorklund synthesizes promising research directions in developmental psychology using an evolutionary framework. In general terms, we agree with Bjorklund: Evolutionary theory has the potential to serve as a metatheory for developmental psychology. However, as currently used in psychology, evolutionary theory is far from reaching this potential. In evolutionary biology, formal mathematical models are the norm. In developmental psychology, verbal models are the norm. In order to reach its potential, evolutionary developmental psychology needs to embrace formal modeling. (Source: Child Development)
Source: Child Development - January 16, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Willem E. Frankenhuis, Leonid Tiokhin Tags: Review Source Type: research

How Children Invented Humanity
I use the commentaries of Legare, Clegg, and Wen and of Frankenhuis and Tiokhin as jumping‐off points to discuss an issue hinted at both in my essay and their commentaries: How a developmental perspective can help us achieve a better understanding of evolution. I examine briefly how neoteny may have contributed to human morphology; how developmental plasticity in great apes, and presumably our common ancestor with them, may have led the way to advances in social cognition; and how the “invention” of childhood contributed to unique human cognitive abilities. I conclude by acknowledging that not all development...
Source: Child Development - January 16, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: David F. Bjorklund Tags: Review Source Type: research

The Legacy of Early Abuse and Neglect for Social and Academic Competence From Childhood to Adulthood
This study used data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 267) to investigate whether abuse and neglect experiences during the first 5 years of life have fading or enduring consequences for social and academic competence over the next 3 decades of life. Experiencing early abuse and neglect was consistently associated with more interpersonal problems and lower academic achievement from childhood through adulthood (32–34 years). The predictive significance of early abuse and neglect was not attributable to the stability of developmental competence over time, nor to abuse...
Source: Child Development - January 15, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: K. Lee Raby, Glenn I. Roisman, Madelyn H. Labella, Jodi Martin, R. Chris Fraley, Jeffry A. Simpson Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Youth's Conceptions of Adolescence Predict Longitudinal Changes in Prefrontal Cortex Activation and Risk Taking During Adolescence
The development of cognitive control during adolescence is paralleled by changes in the function of the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). Using a three‐wave longitudinal neuroimaging design (N = 22, Mage = 13.08 years at Wave 1), this study examined if youth's stereotypes about teens modulate changes in their neural activation during cognitive control. Participants holding stereotypes of teens as irresponsible in the family context (i.e., ignoring family obligations) in middle school showed increases in bilateral ventrolateral PFC activation during cognitive control over the transition to high sch...
Source: Child Development - January 15, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Yang Qu, Eva M. Pomerantz, Ethan McCormick, Eva H. Telzer Tags: Special Section Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Child Development)
Source: Child Development - January 12, 2018 Category: Child Development Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Children's Early Decontextualized Talk Predicts Academic Language Proficiency in Midadolescence
This study examines whether children's decontextualized talk—talk about nonpresent events, explanations, or pretend—at 30 months predicts seventh‐grade academic language proficiency (age 12). Academic language (AL) refers to the language of school texts. AL proficiency has been identified as an important predictor of adolescent text comprehension. Yet research on precursors to AL proficiency is scarce. Child decontextualized talk is known to be a predictor of early discourse development, but its relation to later language outcomes remains unclear. Forty‐two children and their caregivers participated in...
Source: Child Development - January 1, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Paola Uccelli, Özlem Ece Demir‐Lira, Meredith L. Rowe, Susan Levine, Susan Goldin‐Meadow Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Becoming Kinder: Prosocial Choice and the Development of Interpersonal  Regret
Three experiments examined children's ability to feel regret following a failure to act prosocially. In Experiment 1, ninety 6‐ to 7‐year‐olds and one hundred seven 7‐ to 9‐year‐olds were given a choice to donate a resource to another child. If they failed to donate, they discovered that this meant the other child could not win a prize. Children in both age groups then showed evidence of experiencing regret, although not in control conditions where they had not made the choice themselves or their choice did not negatively affect the other child. In Experiment 2, eighty‐five 5‐ to 6‐year‐olds and one hun...
Source: Child Development - January 1, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Brian Uprichard, Teresa McCormack Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Examining Character Structure and Function Across Childhood and Adolescence
Character strengths are an integral component of positive youth development that can promote flourishing. Developmental principles posit constructs become increasingly complex with age, yet this process has not been examined with character. Using a socioeconomically and ethnically diverse sample of 2,467 youth ages 9–19, bifactor models were estimated across elementary, middle, and high school‐age groups to examine age differences in character structure and function. With successive age, a greater number of specific character strength factors were identified, suggesting character structure becomes more differentiat...
Source: Child Development - January 1, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Jennifer Shubert, Laura Wray ‐Lake, Amy K. Syvertsen, Aaron Metzger Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Mothers' Early Mind ‐Mindedness Predicts Educational Attainment in Socially and Economically Disadvantaged British Children
Relations between mothers' mind‐mindedness (appropriate and nonattuned mind‐related comments) at 8 months (N = 206), and children's educational attainment at ages 7 (n = 158) and 11 (n = 156) were investigated in a British sample. Appropriate mind‐related comments were positively correlated with reading and mathematics performance at both ages but only in the low‐socioeconomic status (SES) group. Path analyses showed that in the low‐SES group, appropriate mind‐related comments directly predicted age‐11 reading performance, with age‐4 verbal ability mediating the relation b...
Source: Child Development - January 1, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Elizabeth Meins, Charles Fernyhough, Luna C.M. Centifanti Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Trajectories of Infants ’ Biobehavioral Development: Timing and Rate of A‐Not‐B Performance Gains and EEG Maturation
This study examined how timing (i.e., relative maturity) and rate (i.e., how quickly infants attain proficiency) of A‐not‐B performance were related to changes in brain activity from age 6 to 12 months. A‐not‐B performance and resting EEG (electroencephalography) were measured monthly from age 6 to 12 months in 28 infants and were modeled using logistic and linear growth curve models. Infants with faster performance rates reached performance milestones earlier. Infants with faster rates of increase in A‐not‐B performance had lower occipital power at 6 months and greater linear increases in occipi...
Source: Child Development - January 1, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Leigha A. MacNeill, Nilam Ram, Martha Ann Bell, Nathan A. Fox, Koraly P érez‐Edgar Tags: Special Section Source Type: research

Evolutionary Developmental Psychology: 2017 Redux
(Source: Child Development)
Source: Child Development - January 1, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Cristine H. Legare, Jennifer M. Clegg, Nicole J. Wen Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Children's Perceptions of Economic Groups in a Context of Limited Access to Opportunities
Children (N = 267, ages 8–14 years, M = 11.61 years, middle to upper‐middle income) made predictions regarding groups of same‐aged peers from high‐wealth and low‐wealth backgrounds. The context involved granting access to a special opportunity. From middle childhood to early adolescence children increasingly expected both high‐ and low‐wealth groups to want access to opportunities for their own group. However, children viewed high‐wealth groups as motivated in part by selfishness and low‐wealth groups as concerned in part with broader economic inequality. Finally, the hig...
Source: Child Development - January 1, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Laura Elenbaas, Melanie Killen Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Marital Conflict Predicts Mother ‐to‐Infant Adrenocortical Transmission
Employing an experimental design, mother‐to‐infant transmission of stress was examined. Mothers (N = 117) were randomized to either have a positive or conflictual discussion with their marital partners, after which infants (age = 6 months) participated in a fear and frustration task. Saliva samples were collected to assess maternal cortisol responses to the discussion and infant cortisol responses to the challenge task. Results indicate maternal cortisol reactivity and recovery to the conflict (but not positive) discussion predicted infant cortisol reactivity to the infant challenge. Mothers&rs...
Source: Child Development - December 21, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Leah C. Hibel, Evelyn Mercado Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Differential Associations of Distinct Forms of Childhood Adversity With Neurobehavioral Measures of Reward Processing: A Developmental Pathway to Depression
Childhood adversity is associated with altered reward processing, but little is known about whether this varies across distinct types of adversity. In a sample of 94 children (6–19 years), we investigated whether experiences of material deprivation, emotional deprivation, and trauma have differential associations with reward‐related behavior and white matter microstructure in tracts involved in reward processing. Material deprivation (food insecurity), but not emotional deprivation or trauma, was associated with poor reward performance. Adversity‐related influences on the integrity of white matter microstruc...
Source: Child Development - December 21, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Meg J. Dennison, Maya L. Rosen, Kelly A. Sambrook, Jessica L. Jenness, Margaret A. Sheridan, Katie A. McLaughlin Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Attachment Security Priming Decreases Children's Physiological Response to Threat
Ninety 6‐ and 7‐year‐olds (49.3% White, mostly middle class) from greater Washington, DC were randomly assigned to a subliminal priming condition (secure, happy, or neutral) to determine if attachment security priming decreases physiological, expressive, and self‐reported fear reactions to threatening stimuli. Dispositional attachment security was also assessed. Secure priming and attachment security each decreased electrodermal reactivity, increased vagal augmentation, and decreased fearful facial expressions compared to control conditions. Examination of a statistical interaction between security priming and chil...
Source: Child Development - December 20, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Brandi Stupica, Bonnie E. Brett, Susan S. Woodhouse, Jude Cassidy Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Enlisting Peer Cooperation in the Service of Alcohol Use Prevention in Middle School
This article reports on a cluster randomized trial of cooperative learning (CL) as a way to prevent escalation in alcohol use during middle school (N = 1,460 seventh‐grade students, age 12–13, seven intervention and eight control schools). We hypothesized that CL, by bringing students together in group‐based learning activities using positive interdependence, would interrupt the process of deviant peer clustering, provide at‐risk youth with prosocial influences, and in turn, reduce escalations in alcohol use. Results indicated that CL significantly reduced growth in deviant peer affiliation and actual...
Source: Child Development - December 19, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Mark J. Van Ryzin, Cary J. Roseth Tags: Empirical Report Source Type: research

Digital Screen Time Limits and Young Children's Psychological Well ‐Being: Evidence From a Population‐Based Study
There is little empirical understanding of how young children's screen engagement links to their well‐being. Data from 19,957 telephone interviews with parents of 2‐ to 5‐year‐olds assessed their children's digital screen use and psychological well‐being in terms of caregiver attachment, resilience, curiosity, and positive affect in the past month. Evidence did not support implementing limits (
Source: Child Development - December 13, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Andrew K. Przybylski, Netta Weinstein Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Multiracial in Middle School: The Influence of Classmates and Friends on Changes in Racial Self ‐Identification
In the present research, the influence of racial diversity among classmates and friends on changes in racial self‐identification among multiracial youth was examined (n = 5,209; Mage = 10.56 years at the beginning of sixth grade). A novel individual‐level measure of diversity among classmates based on participants’ course schedules was utilized. The findings revealed that although there was some fluidity in multiracial identification at the beginning of middle school, changes in multiracial identification were more evident later in middle school. In addition, although diversity among clas...
Source: Child Development - November 27, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Leslie Echols, Jerreed Ivanich, Sandra Graham Tags: Empirical Report Source Type: research

Is There a Downside to Anticipating the Upside? Children's and Adults ’ Reasoning About How Prior Expectations Shape Future Emotions
Four‐ to 10‐year‐olds and adults (N = 205) responded to vignettes involving three individuals with different expectations (high, low, and no) for a future event. Participants judged characters’ pre‐outcome emotions, as well as predicted and explained their feelings following three events (positive, attenuated, and negative). Although adults rated high‐expectation characters more negatively than low‐expectation characters after all outcomes, children shared this intuition starting at 6–7 years for negative outcomes, 8–10 years for attenuated, and never for positive. Comparis...
Source: Child Development - November 24, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Karen Hjortsvang Lara, Kristin Hansen Lagattuta, Hannah J. Kramer Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Exposure to Parental Depression in Adolescence and Risk for Metabolic Syndrome in Adulthood
The psychosocial consequences of living with a depressed parent have been well characterized. Less well known, however, is how this exposure is predictive of later physical health problems. The present study evaluated how parental depression across youths’ adolescence (ages 11–18) was associated with youth metabolic syndrome at age 25 (n = 391). Youth self‐regulation and health behaviors were considered as possible moderators of the link between parental depression and youth metabolic syndrome. Analyses revealed that parental depression in adolescence was associated with a composite score reflecting...
Source: Child Development - November 24, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Katherine B. Ehrlich, Edith Chen, Tianyi Yu, Gregory E. Miller, Gene H. Brody Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

High ‐Ability Grouping: Benefits for Gifted Students’ Achievement Development Without Costs in Academic Self‐Concept
Effects of full‐time ability grouping on students’ academic self‐concept (ASC) and mathematics achievement were investigated in the first 3 years of secondary school (four waves of measurement; students’ average age at first wave: 10.5 years). Students were primarily from middle and upper class families living in southern Germany. The study sample comprised 148 (60% male) students from 14 gifted classes and 148 (57% male) students from 25 regular classes (matched by propensity score matching). Data analyses involved multilevel and latent growth curve analyses. Findings revealed no evidence for con...
Source: Child Development - November 23, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Franzis Preckel, Isabelle Schmidt, Eva Stumpf, Monika Motschenbacher, Katharina Vogl, Vsevolod Scherrer, Wolfgang Schneider Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Promoting Resilience Among African American Girls: Racial Identity as a Protective Factor
This study examines school climate, racial identity beliefs, and achievement motivation beliefs within a cultural‐ecological and risk and resilience framework. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of 733 (Mage = 14.49) African American adolescent girls. A linear mixed effects model was used to determine if racial identity dimensions moderated the relationship between school climate and achievement motivation beliefs across four waves. Results revealed that racial identity (private regard and racial centrality) and ideology (nationalist) beliefs were associated with higher achievement motivation beliefs ove...
Source: Child Development - November 20, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Sheretta T. Butler ‐Barnes, Seanna Leath, Amber Williams, Christy Byrd, Rona Carter, Tabbye M. Chavous Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Let's Talk: Parents ’ Mental Talk (Not Mind‐Mindedness or Mindreading Capacity) Predicts Children's False Belief Understanding
Although one might expect parents’ mind‐mindedness (MM; the propensity to view children as mental agents) to relate to everyday mental‐state talk (MST) and theory‐of‐mind capacity, evidence to support this view is lacking. In addition, both the uniqueness and the specificity of relations between parental MM, parental MST, and children's false belief understanding (FBU) are open to question. To address these three gaps, this study tracked 117 preschoolers (60 boys) and their parents across a 13‐month period (Mage = 3.94 years, SD = 0.53, at Time 1). Parental MM, MST, and theory‐of...
Source: Child Development - November 8, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Rory T. Devine, Claire Hughes Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Peer Problems Among Postinstitutionalized, Internationally Adopted Children: Relations to Hypocortisolism, Parenting Quality, and ADHD Symptoms
Seventy‐eight postinstitutionalized (PI) children adopted at ages 17–36 months were assessed 2, 8, 16, and 24 months postadoption on measures of cortisol and parenting quality, and compared to same‐aged children adopted from foster care (FC, n = 45) and nonadopted children (NA, n = 45). In kindergarten (Mage = 6.0 years), teachers, parents, and trained observers completed measures of peer relationships and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. PI children had more peer problems and ADHD symptoms according to teachers and observers than NA children w...
Source: Child Development - November 8, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Clio E. Pitula, Carrie E. DePasquale, Shanna B. Mliner, Megan R. Gunnar Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Examining Children's Implicit Racial Attitudes Using Exemplar and Category ‐Based Measures
The goal of this research was to examine children's implicit racial attitudes. Across three studies, a total of 359 White 5‐ to 12‐year‐olds completed child‐friendly exemplar (Affective Priming Task; Affect Misattribution Procedure) and category‐based (Implicit Association Test) implicit measures of racial attitudes. Younger children (5‐ to 8‐year‐olds) showed automatic ingroup positivity toward White child exemplars, whereas older children (9‐ to 12‐year‐olds) did not. Children also showed no evidence of automatic negativity toward Black exemplars, despite demonstrating consistent pro‐White versus ...
Source: Child Development - November 8, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Amanda Williams, Jennifer R. Steele Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Editorial Acknowledgments
(Source: Child Development)
Source: Child Development - November 7, 2017 Category: Child Development Tags: Editorial Acknowledgments Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Child Development)
Source: Child Development - November 7, 2017 Category: Child Development Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Bilingualism Narrows Socioeconomic Disparities in Executive Functions and Self ‐Regulatory Behaviors During Early Childhood: Evidence From the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study
Socioeconomic status (SES) and bilingualism have been shown to influence executive functioning during early childhood. Less is known, however, about how the two factors interact within an individual. By analyzing a nationally representative sample of approximately 18,200 children who were tracked from ages 5 to 7 across four waves, both higher SES and bilingualism were found to account for greater performance on the inhibition and shifting aspects of executive functions (EF) and self‐regulatory behaviors in classroom. However, only SES reliably predicted verbal working memory. Furthermore, bilingualism moderated the effe...
Source: Child Development - November 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Andree Hartanto, Wei X. Toh, Hwajin Yang Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Gaze Following Is Not Dependent on Ostensive Cues: A Critical Test of Natural Pedagogy
The theory of natural pedagogy stipulates that infants follow gaze because they are sensitive to the communicative intent of others. According to this theory, gaze following should be present if, and only if, accompanied by at least one of a set of specific ostensive cues. The current article demonstrates gaze following in a range of contexts, both with and without expressions of communicative intent in a between‐subjects design with a large sample of 6‐month‐old infants (n = 94). Thus, conceptually replicating prior results from Szufnarowska et al. (2014) and falsifying a central pillar of the natural...
Source: Child Development - November 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Gustaf Gredeb äck, Kim Astor, Christine Fawcett Tags: Empirical Report Source Type: research

Personality Traits Are Associated With Cortical Development Across Adolescence: A Longitudinal Structural MRI Study
In this study, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), estimated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), were investigated in 99 participants aged 8–19 years. Follow‐up MRI data were collected after on average 2.6 years for 74 individuals. The Big Five personality traits were related to longitudinal regional CT or SA development, but limited cross‐sectional relations were observed. Conscientiousness, emotional stability, and imagination were associated with more age‐expected cortical thinning over time. The results suggest that the substantial individual variability observed in personality trai...
Source: Child Development - November 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Lia Ferschmann, Anders M. Fjell, Margarete E. Vollrath, H åkon Grydeland, Kristine B. Walhovd, Christian K. Tamnes Tags: Special Section Source Type: research

Development of Social Working Memory in Preschoolers and Its Relation to Theory of Mind
Social working memory (WM) has distinct neural substrates from canonical cognitive WM (e.g., color). However, no study, to the best of our knowledge, has yet explored how social WM develops. The current study explored the development of social WM capacity and its relation to theory of mind (ToM). Experiment 1 had sixty‐four 3‐ to 6‐year‐olds memorize 1–5 biological motion stimuli, the processing of which is considered a hallmark of social cognition. The social WM capacity steadily increased between 3‐ and 6‐year‐olds, with the increase between 4 and 5 years being sharp. Furthermore, social WM capac...
Source: Child Development - November 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Jie He, Dong Guo, Shuyi Zhai, Mowei Shen, Zaifeng Gao Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

The Trouble With Quantifiers: Exploring Children's Deficits in Scalar Implicature
Adults routinely use the context of utterances to infer a meaning beyond the literal semantics of their words (e.g., inferring from “She ate some of the cookies” that she ate some, but not all). Contrasting children's (N = 209) comprehension of scalar implicatures using quantifiers with contextually derived ad hoc implicatures revealed that 4‐ to 5‐year‐olds reliably computed ad hoc, but not scalar, implicatures (Experiment 1). Unexpectedly, performance with “some” and “none” was correlated (Experiments 1 and 2). An individual differences study revealed a correlation betw...
Source: Child Development - November 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Alexandra C. Horowitz, Rose M. Schneider, Michael C. Frank Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Distinguishing Polemic From Commentary in Science: Some Guidelines Illustrated With the Case of Sage and Burgio (2017)
Exposure to nonionizing radiation used in wireless communication remains a contentious topic in the public mind—while the overwhelming scientific evidence to date suggests that microwave and radio frequencies used in modern communications are safe, public apprehension remains considerable. A recent article in Child Development has caused concern by alleging a causative connection between nonionizing radiation and a host of conditions, including autism and cancer. This commentary outlines why these claims are devoid of merit, and why they should not have been given a scientific veneer of legitimacy. The commentary als...
Source: Child Development - November 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: David Robert Grimes, Dorothy V. M. Bishop Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Interactive Contributions of Attribution Biases and Emotional Intensity to Child –Friend Interaction Quality During Preadolescence
Using data from a subsample of 913 study children and their friends who participated in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the interactive contributions of child‐reported attribution biases and teacher‐reported child emotional intensity (EI) at Grade 4 (M = 9.9 years) to observed child–friend interaction at Grade 6 (M = 11.9 years) were examined. Study children's hostile attribution bias, combined with high EI, predicted more negative child–friend interaction. In contrast, benign attribution bias, combined with high EI, predicted more positive child&ndas...
Source: Child Development - November 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Xi Chen, Nancy L. McElwain, Jennifer E. Lansford Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Impact of Contact With Grandparents on Children's and Adolescents ’ Views on the Elderly
Stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination against the elderly (ageism) may manifest themselves in children at an early age. However, the factors influencing this phenomenon are not well known. Using both explicit and open‐ended questions, this study analyzed the influence of personal and familial parameters on the views of 1,151 seven‐ to sixteen‐year‐old Belgian children and adolescents on the elderly. Four factors were found to affect these views: gender (girls had slightly more positive views than boys), age (ageism was lowest in 10‐ to 12‐year‐old, reminiscent of other forms of stereotypes and cognitive ...
Source: Child Development - November 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Allison Flamion, Pierre Missotten, Manon Marquet, St éphane Adam Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Creepiness Creeps In: Uncanny Valley Feelings Are Acquired in Childhood
The uncanny valley posits that very human‐like robots are unsettling, a phenomenon amply demonstrated in adults but unexplored in children. Two hundred forty 3‐ to 18‐year‐olds viewed one of two robots (machine‐like or very human‐like) and rated their feelings toward (e.g., “Does the robot make you feel weird or happy?”) and perceptions of the robot's capacities (e.g., “Does the robot think for itself?”). Like adults, children older than 9 judged the human‐like robot as creepier than the machine‐like robot—but younger children did not. Children's perceptions of robots’ me...
Source: Child Development - November 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Kimberly A. Brink, Kurt Gray, Henry M. Wellman Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Shyness and Trajectories of Functional Network Connectivity Over Early Adolescence
High shyness during early adolescence is associated with impaired peer relationships and risk for psychiatric disorders. Little is known, however, about the relation between shyness and trajectories of brain development over early adolescence. The current study longitudinally examined trajectories of resting‐state functional connectivity (rs‐fc) within four brain networks in 147 adolescents. Subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at three different time points, at average ages 10.5 (range = 7.8–13.0), 11.7 (range = 9.3–14.1), and 12.9 years (range = 10.1&...
Source: Child Development - November 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Chad M. Sylvester, Diana J. Whalen, Andy C. Belden, Shana L. Sanchez, Joan L. Luby, Deanna M. Barch Tags: Special Section Source Type: research

Learning to Individuate: The Specificity of Labels Differentially Impacts Infant Visual Attention
This study examined differences in visual attention as a function of label learning from 6 to 9 months of age. Before and after 3 months of parent‐directed storybook training with computer‐generated novel objects, event‐related potentials and visual fixations were recorded while infants viewed trained and untrained images (n = 23). Relative to a pretraining, a no‐training control group (n = 11), and to infants trained with category‐level labels (e.g., all labeled “Hitchel”), infants trained with individual‐level labels (e.g., “Boris,” “Jamar”) di...
Source: Child Development - November 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Charisse B. Pickron, Arjun Iyer, Eswen Fava, Lisa S. Scott Tags: Special Section Source Type: research

Development of Episodic Prospection: Factors Underlying Improvements in Middle and Late Childhood
This study examined age‐related differences in episodic prospection in 5‐ to 11‐year‐olds and adults (N = 157), as well as factors that may contribute to developmental improvements. Participants’ narratives of past, future, and make‐believe events were coded for episodic content, and self‐concept coherence (i.e., how coherently an individual sees himself or herself) and narrative ability were tested as predictors of episodic prospection. Although all ages provided less episodic content for future event narratives, age‐related improvements were observed across childhood, suggesting future event...
Source: Child Development - November 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Christine Coughlin, Richard W. Robins, Simona Ghetti Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Privacy Invasion and Adolescent Secrecy: An Illustration of Simpson's Paradox
Adolescents’ secrecy is intertwined with perception of parents’ behaviors as acts of privacy invasion. It is currently untested, however, how this transactional process operates at the within‐person level—where these causal processes take place. Dutch adolescents (n = 244, Mage = 13.84, 38.50% boys) reported three times on perceived parental privacy invasion and secrecy. Cross‐lagged panel models (CLPM) confirmed earlier findings. Privacy invasion predicted increased secrecy, but a reverse effect was found from increased secrecy to increased privacy invasion. Controlling for confou...
Source: Child Development - November 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Evelien Dietvorst, Marieke Hiemstra, Manon H.J. Hillegers, Loes Keijsers Tags: Empirical Report Source Type: research

A Within ‐Family Examination of Interparental Conflict, Cognitive Appraisals, and Adolescent Mood and Well‐Being
This study disentangled situational (within‐family) and global (between‐family) appraisal processes to better map hypothesized processes to adolescents’ experiences in the family. This 21‐day daily dairy study sampled 151 caregivers and their adolescents (61.5% female). Using multilevel mediation analyses indicated that, on days when IPC was elevated, adolescents experienced more threat and self‐blame. In turn, when adolescents experienced more threat appraisals, they experienced diminished positive well‐being; whereas days when adolescents felt more self‐blame, they experienced increased negative mood an...
Source: Child Development - November 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Gregory M. Fosco, David M. Lydon ‐Staley Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

The Costs and Benefits of Investing in Universal Preschool: Evidence From a Spanish Reform
This study provides a cost–benefit analysis of expanding access to universal preschool education, focusing on a Spanish reform that lowered the age of eligibility for publicly provided universal preschool from age 4 to age 3. Benefits in terms of child development and maternal employment are estimated using evidence on the causal effects of this reform. In the baseline estimation the benefit–cost ratio is over 4, indicating sizeable net societal benefits of the preschool investment. The results show that the child development effects are the major determinant of the cost–benefit ratio; the employment gain...
Source: Child Development - November 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Thomas Huizen, Lisa Dumhs, Janneke Plantenga Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Development of Gender Typicality and Felt Pressure in European French and North African French Adolescents
Trajectories of gender identity were examined from Grade 6 (Mage = 11.9 years) to Grade 9 in European French (n = 570) and North African French (n = 534) adolescents, and gender and ethnic group differences were assessed in these trajectories. In Grade 6, boys of both ethnic groups reported higher levels of gender typicality and felt pressure for gender conformity than girls. European French girls and boys and North African French girls reported decreasing gender typicality from Grade 6 to Grade 9, whereas North African French boys did not change. Felt pressure decreased among girls, did ...
Source: Child Development - November 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Adam J. Hoffman, Florence Dumas, Florence Loose, Annique Smeding, Beth Kurtz ‐Costes, Isabelle Régner Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Seeing Iconic Gestures While Encoding Events Facilitates Children's Memory of These Events
An experiment with 72 three‐year‐olds investigated whether encoding events while seeing iconic gestures boosts children's memory representation of these events. The events, shown in videos of actors moving in an unusual manner, were presented with either iconic gestures depicting how the actors performed these actions, interactive gestures, or no gesture. In a recognition memory task, children in the iconic gesture condition remembered actors and actions better than children in the control conditions. Iconic gestures were categorized based on how much of the actors was represented by the hands (feet, legs, or body). On...
Source: Child Development - November 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Suzanne Aussems, Sotaro Kita Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research

Parental Sexual Orientation and Children's Psychological Well ‐Being: 2013–2015 National Health Interview Survey
This study utilized information from the 2013 to 2015 U.S., population‐based National Health Interview Survey to examine associations between parental sexual orientation and children's well‐being. Parents reported their children's (aged 4–17 years old, N = 21,103) emotional and mental health difficulties using the short form Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Children of bisexual parents had higher SDQ scores than children of heterosexual parents. Adjusting for parental psychological distress (a minority stress indicator) eliminated this difference. Children of lesbian and gay parents ...
Source: Child Development - November 1, 2017 Category: Child Development Authors: Jerel P. Calzo, Vickie M. Mays, Charlotte Bj örkenstam, Emma Björkenstam, Kyriaki Kosidou, Susan D. Cochran Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research