Use of Electroconvulsive Therapy in Autism
The mechanism of action of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is not fully elucidated, with prevailing theories ranging from neuroendocrinological to neuroplasticity effects of ECT or epileptiform brain plasticity. Youth with autism can present with catatonia. ECT is a treatment that can safely and rapidly resolve catatonia in autism and should be considered promptly. The literature available for ECT use in youth with autism is consistently growing. Under-recognition of the catatonic syndrome and delayed diagnosis and implementation of the anticatatonic treatment paradigms, including ECT, as well as stigma and lack of knowled...
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - May 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sa Eun Park, Marco Grados, Lee Wachtel, Sanjay Kaji Source Type: research

Autism Spectrum Disorder and Substance Use Disorder
This article explores connections between ASD and SUD and the impact on development, screening and treatment. The article proposes culturally constructed narratives associated with both diagnoses may be responsible for the dearth of research and literature. Constructed narratives of ASD and SUD do not naturally intersect and the resulting disconnect can create a cognitive dissonance that could allow the medical and general community to neglect this life-threatening dual diagnosis. (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - April 29, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Elizabeth Kunreuther Source Type: research

The Impact of Applied Behavior Analysis to Address Mealtime Behaviors of Concern Among Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder
This article details the application of the basic principles of ABA, reinforcement, extinction, and punishment to treat feeding difficulties. (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - April 29, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Benjamin Sarcia Source Type: research

Acts of Medical Kindness for People with Autism
“Autism spectrum disorder across the lifespan: part I” was published to coincide with World Autism Awareness Month in April 2020, to begin a “Year of Kindness” with a call for “one million acts of kindness, big and small.”1 As we go to press, acts of kindness are more needed than ever fo r our patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) amid the increased anxiety, uncertainty, and even terror inflicted by a pandemic that has dramatically altered daily routines and mandated social distancing. For physicians and other mental health clinicians, medical acts of kindness must be underpi nned...
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - April 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Robert Wisner-Carlson, Scott R. Pekrul, Thomas Flis, Robert Schloesser Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Facial Expression Production and Recognition in Autism Spectrum Disorders
Social “difficulties” associated with ASD may be a product of neurotypical-autistic differences in emotion expression and recognition. Research suggests that neurotypical and autistic individuals exhibit expressive differences, with autistic individuals displaying less frequent expressions that are rat ed lower in quality by non-autistic raters. Autistic individuals have difficulties recognizing neurotypical facial expressions; neurotypical individuals have difficulties recognizing autistic expressions. However, findings are mixed. Task-related factors (e.g., intensity of stimuli) and participant characteristic...
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - April 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Connor Tom Keating, Jennifer Louise Cook Source Type: research

Bipolar Disorder and Psychosis in Autism
Autism seldom occurs in its pure form. Often labeled as behavioral disorders or psychological reactions, comorbid psychiatric disorders are common. Bipolar disorder is one of the most common psychiatric disorders that occur in persons with autism across their life spans. It can be comorbid with and mistaken for several other conditions. Similarly, psychosis occurs in several psychiatric disorders. Schizophrenia is the prototype psychotic disorder that has a close but controversial relationship with autism. Assessment and treatment of bipolar disorder and psychosis should be based on their individual characteristics, family...
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - April 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mohammad Ghaziuddin, Neera Ghaziuddin Source Type: research

Seizures and Epilepsy in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Epilepsy and autism frequently co-occur. Epilepsy confers an increased risk of autism and autism confers an increased risk of epilepsy. Specific epilepsy syndromes, intellectual disability, and female gender present a particular risk of autism in individuals with epilepsy. Epilepsy and autism are likely to share common etiologies, which predispose individuals to either or both conditions. Genetic factors, metabolic disorders, mitochondrial disorders, and immune dysfunction all can be implicated. (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - April 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Frank M.C. Besag, Michael J. Vasey Source Type: research

Assessment and Treatment of Emotion Regulation Impairment in Autism Spectrum Disorder Across the Life Span
This article summarizes the current state of science in ER assessment and treatment and identifies the most promising measurement options and treatments. (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - April 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kelly B. Beck, Caitlin M. Conner, Kaitlyn E. Breitenfeldt, Jessie B. Northrup, Susan W. White, Carla A. Mazefsky Source Type: research

Sexuality and Gender Issues in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder
This article reviews relevant literature on sexuality in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Findings reveal a growing awareness of desire for sexual and intimate relationships in individuals with ASD. However, core impairments of ASD lead to difficulties establishing requisite knowledge and skills necessary to attain a healthy sexuality and facilitate relationships. Consequently, individuals with ASD present with increased risk of engaging in inappropriate sexual behaviors and sexual victimization than their typically developing peers. The literature asserts the need to implement effective sexual education pr...
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - April 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Laura A. Pecora, Merrilyn Hooley, Laurie Sperry, Gary B. Mesibov, Mark A. Stokes Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal Issues and Autism Spectrum Disorder
This article discusses the gastrointestinal disorders commonly associated with autism spectrum disorders, how they present, and studied risk factors. (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - April 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Moneek Madra, Roey Ringel, Kara Gross Margolis Source Type: research

Erratum
For the article on “The Prodrome of Psychotic Disorders: Identification, Prediction, and Preventive Treatment” in the January 2020 issue of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America (Volume 29, Issue 1), an error occurred on page 61. In the first full paragraph, the first sentence should read, “A t long-term follow-up, UHR patients have been reported to have mild-moderate psychosocial functioning on the group level (a social and occupational functioning assessment scale score of ∼68)”. (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - March 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Autism Spectrum Disorder Grows Up
Imagine arriving at early adulthood and yearning for independence, yet still struggling to comprehend what it means when someone raises their eyebrows or rolls their eyes, or even worse, being baffled when a coworker is offended by your bluntness. Most young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) lack an understanding of basic social cues and the nuances of communication. They may find it difficult or impossible to behave in acceptable ways at a time of their life when societal expectations are rising and support services are declining. (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - March 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Robert Wisner-Carlson, Scott R. Pekrul, Thomas Flis, Robert Schloesser Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Autism Spectrum Disorder Across the Lifespan: Part I
CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - March 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Robert Wisner-Carlson, Scott R. Pekrul, Thomas Flis, Robert Schloesser Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - March 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Contributors
TODD E. PETERS, MD, FAPA (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - March 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Contents
Robert Wisner-Carlson, Scott R. Pekrul, Thomas Flis, and Robert Schloesser (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - March 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Autism Spectrum Disorder Across the Lifespan: Part II (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - March 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Autism and Education
This article discusses current methods, techniques, evidence, and controversies for educating individuals diagnosed with autism. (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - February 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kathleen A. Flannery, Robert Wisner-Carlson Source Type: research

Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder Across the Lifespan
We present those elements that should be included in any assessment for ASD and describe the ways in which ASD typically manifests itself at various developmental stages. The implications and challenges for assessment at different ages and levels of functioning are discussed. (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - February 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Cory Shulman, Amy Esler, Michael J. Morrier, Catherine E. Rice Source Type: research

The Role of Diagnostic Instruments in Dual and Differential Diagnosis in Autism Spectrum Disorder Across the Lifespan
The heterogeneity inherent in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) makes the identification and diagnosis of ASD complex. We survey a large number of diagnostic tools, including screeners and tools designed for in-depth assessment. We also discuss the challenges presented by overlapping symptomatology between ASD and other disorders and the need to determine whether a diagnosis of ASD or another diagnosis best explains the individual ’s symptoms. We conclude with a call to action for the next steps necessary for meeting the diagnostic challenges presented here to improve the diagnostic process and to help understand each i...
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - February 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Cory Shulman, Catherine E. Rice, Michael J. Morrier, Amy Esler Source Type: research

Competitive Integrated Employment for Youth and Adults with Autism
A scoping review was conducted to map existing literature on effective interventions for competitive employment for individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Empirical database searches were conducted. A filter for level of methodological rigor was implemented. A total of 25 articles met inclusion criteria. Findings were categorized by level of evidence. Findings revealed strong empirical support for a transition-to-work program called Project SEARCH plus ASD Supports and traditional supported employment services. Receipt of specific vocational rehabilitation and transition services in high school were also identified as ...
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - January 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Carol Schall, Paul Wehman, Lauren Avellone, Joshua P. Taylor Source Type: research

The Transition to Adulthood for Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorder
The transition to adulthood for individuals with autism spectrum disorder is difficult and outcomes are suboptimal. Social cognition deficits and executive dysfunction continue to be barriers to young people ’s success, lack of societal acceptance and loss of previous support can exacerbate the condition, and mental health issues increase. All areas of adult functioning are affected. To help manage the transition and improve outcomes for this population, psychiatrists and other health care providers n eed to be aware of the issues and possible interventions, including social skills training, educational transition pr...
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - January 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Robert Wisner-Carlson, Sara Uram, Thomas Flis Source Type: research

Obsessive –Compulsive Disorder in Autism Spectrum Disorder Across the Lifespan
This article is a review of the current literature with the goal of helping the clinician to diagnose and treat obsessive–compulsive disorder in a patient with autism spectrum disorder. (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - January 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Markian Pazuniak, Scott R. Pekrul Source Type: research

Current Approaches to the Pharmacologic Treatment of Core Symptoms Across the Lifespan of Autism Spectrum Disorder
There are no approved medications for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) core symptoms. However, given the significant clinical need, children and adults with ASD are prescribed medication off label for core or associated conditions, sometimes based on limited evidence for effectiveness. Recent developments in the understanding of biologic basis of ASD have led to novel targets with potential to impact core symptoms, and several clinical trials are underway. Heterogeneity in course of development, co-occurring conditions, and age-related treatment response variability hampers study outcomes. Novel measures and approaches to AS...
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - January 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gahan Pandina, Robert H. Ring, Abigail Bangerter, Seth Ness Source Type: research

Social Skills Training in Autism Spectrum Disorder Across the Lifespan
Social skills training programs for individuals with autism spectrum disorder are effective in improving social competence, although effects are frequently not robust across all outcomes measured. When aggregating across the social skills training programs with the strongest evidence, common elements can be identified in both the treatment delivery method and the social skills content targeted. However, social skills training programs continue to remain limited in their generalizability and scope. Existing research has primarily tested programs designed for school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder, who have avera...
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - January 29, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Christine T. Moody, Elizabeth A. Laugeson Source Type: research

Transitioning from Adolescence to Adulthood with Autism Spectrum Disorder
This article discusses how existing legal and social constructs may exacerbate rather than diminish barriers and access for autistic adults and identifies current and potential legal and policy solutions to reducing current systemic barriers. This article ultimately supports a supported decision-making model for autistic adolescents transitioning into adulthood. (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - January 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Nanette Elster, Kayhan Parsi Source Type: research

Intersection of Eating Disorders and the Female Profile of Autism
There is a moderate degree of comorbidity between autism and eating disorders, particularly anorexia nervosa in female individuals. Research indicates that up to 30% of patients with anorexia are autistic, or display high levels of autistic traits. Frequently, an autism diagnosis is secondary to an eating disorder diagnosis, which brings concomitant issues into treatment efficacy and outcomes for both conditions. Less is known about comorbidity with other eating disorder subtypes. Autistic traits can impede standard approaches to eating disorder treatment. Treatment options and settings may need to be modified to better ac...
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - January 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Claire M. Brown, Mark A. Stokes Source Type: research

First Episode Psychosis Medical Workup
This article presents some of the diagnostic considerations for a patient presenting with psychosis with an emphasis on the secondary causes and proposes a tiered approach to the workup of FEP that is clinically guided. (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - November 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Maja Skikic, Jose Alberto Arriola Source Type: research

Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia and Early-onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders
The clinical severity, impact on development, and poor prognosis of childhood-onset schizophrenia may represent a more homogeneous group. Positive symptoms in children are necessary for the diagnosis, and hallucinations are more often multimodal. In healthy children and children with a variety of other psychiatric illnesses, hallucinations are not uncommon and diagnosis should not be based on these alone. Childhood-onset schizophrenia is an extraordinarily rare illness that is poorly understood but seems continuous with the adult-onset disorder. Once a diagnosis is confirmed, aggressive medication treatment combined with f...
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - November 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: David I. Driver, Shari Thomas, Nitin Gogtay, Judith L. Rapoport Source Type: research

Psychosis in Children and Adolescents: A Guide for Clinicians
CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - November 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ellen M. House, John W. Tyson Jr Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - November 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Contributors
TODD E. PETERS, MD, FAPA (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - November 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Contents
Ellen M. House and John W. Tyson Jr (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - November 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Autism Spectrum Disorder Across the Lifespan: Part I (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - November 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Genetics of Childhood-onset Schizophrenia 2019  Update
This article discusses key findings from genetic studies of childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) and the more common adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS), including studies of familial aggregation and common, rare, and copy number variants. Extant literature suggests that COS is a rare variant of AOS involving greater familial aggregation of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and a potentially higher occurrence of pathogenic copy number variants. The direct utility of genetics to clinical practice for COS is currently limited; however, identifying common pathways through which risk genes affect brain function offers promise for no...
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - October 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jennifer K. Forsyth, Robert F. Asarnow Source Type: research

Psychosis in Children and Adolescents: A Guide for Clinicians
Children and adolescents presenting with psychosis create challenging diagnostic and treatment dilemmas for mental health clinicians. Psychotic experiences (PEs) in youth lie on a continuum from developmentally appropriate, nonpathologic phenomena; to schizophrenia spectrum disorders; to markers of other mental health conditions. Despite the diagnostic complexity of youth with PEs, these are relatively frequent phenomena in children and adolescents, with almost 10% of youth in community samples reporting PEs. (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - October 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ellen M. House, John W. Tyson Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Psychopharmacologic Treatment of Schizophrenia in Adolescents and Children
An increasing number of antipsychotic medications have demonstrated efficacy in randomized placebo-controlled trials in the treatment of children and adolescents with schizophrenia. This review summarizes and synthesizes relevant antipsychotic medication studies, with particular emphasis on second-generation agents, and discusses other clinical considerations that may influence medication selection. With the exception of clozapine demonstrating superior efficacy in the improvement of psychotic symptoms in treatment-resistant patients, many antipsychotic agents have been shown to be similarly efficacious, including first-ge...
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - October 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Esther S. Lee, Hal Kronsberg, Robert L. Findling Source Type: research

The Prodrome of Psychotic Disorders
Twenty-five years ago “at risk” for psychosis criteria were introduced to the field. Prediction studies have identified a range of risk factors involved in transition from “at risk” status to first episode psychotic illness, with recent interest in dynamic and multimodal prediction models. Treatment studies have indicated that risk of transition to psychotic disorder can at least be delayed in this clinical population. Although the strongest evidence to date is for cognitive behavioral therapy, the optimal type and sequence of treatment remains an active area of research. (Source: Child and Adolesce...
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - October 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Barnaby Nelson, Patrick McGorry Source Type: research

Medical Etiologies of Secondary Psychosis in Children and Adolescents
This is an updated review of child and adolescent somatic disorders associated with psychosis/psychotic symptoms, organized into neurologic, infectious, genetic, inborn errors of metabolism, autoimmune, rheumatologic, endocrine, nutritional, metabolic, and iatrogenic categories. When possible clinical manifestations or types of psychotic symptoms and proposed neuropathogenesis causing the neuropsychiatric symptoms are included. In some cases, the psychiatric symptoms may be the first presentation of the disease. The authors hope that this review will aid child and adolescent psychiatrists in considering alternative etiolog...
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - October 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jessica Merritt, Yasas Tanguturi, Catherine Fuchs, Allyson Witters Cundiff Source Type: research

Affective Disorders with Psychosis in Youth
Mood disorders, including major depression and mania, can present with psychotic features. In youth psychotic-like phenomena such as “seeing faces in the dark” or “hearing noises” are fairly common. Rates of lifetime psychotic symptoms are much higher than rates of psychosis during a “current” episode of mania or depression in youth. Psychotic phenomena can be mood congruent or incongruent. A detailed mental status ex amination and clinical history include questioning to ensure the informants understand the questions being asked. There are interviews that structure how questions are aske...
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - October 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gabrielle A. Carlson, Caroly Pataki Source Type: research

Community Rehabilitation for Youth with Psychosis Spectrum Disorders
Recovery-oriented treatment for youth with psychosis goes beyond a symptom and deficit-amelioration model, promoting engagement and functioning within the community. Given the challenges young people with psychosis face, early psychosis treatment programs often integrate rehabilitative components targeting functional outcomes. The current article reviews 4 community rehabilitation programs in early psychosis: care coordination, cognitive rehabilitation, supported education and employment, and peer support. For each of these rehabilitative intervention programs, we discuss challenges faced by youth with psychosis, clinical ...
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - October 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Pamela Rakhshan Rouhakhtar, Jason Schiffman Source Type: research

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatment for Individuals with Early Psychosis
Coordinated specialty care (CSC) first-episode models are an evidence-based practice in the treatment of first-episode psychosis. Group, individual, and family therapies in CSC aim to help the client and family understand and cope with the experience of psychosis, promote symptomatic and functional recovery and improve quality of life, and support the pursuit of personally meaningful goals of the client. Common elements to these interventions include building a therapeutic alliance, recovery orientation, education, and skills training, which can be directed to a range of targets, including problem-solving, communication, s...
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - October 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Abigail Wright, Julia Browne, Kim T. Mueser, Corinne Cather Source Type: research

School-Based Approaches in Youth with Psychosis
This article discusses how providers can guide school teams and their institutions to identify psychosis in their student populations along with a delineation of key educational programming that helps youth reintegrate back into school and achieve academic success. (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - October 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Samantha Hines, Drew C. Coman Source Type: research

Violence and Suicide Risk Assessment in Youth with Psychotic Disorders
This article presents a careful review of the literature on violence risk and psychosis and suicide risk and psychosis as it pertains to youth or those who have been newly diagnosed with or are at high risk for psychotic disorders. Each topic is covered in reference to general considerations and specific psychotic symptoms (eg, hallucinations, delusions, paranoia). The reader can refer to practical boxes to assist in identifying relevant risk factors and examples of questions to ask the patient and family. (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - October 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Charles L. Scott, Anne B. McBride Source Type: research

The Changing Legal Landscape of Cannabis Use and Its Role in Youth-onset Psychosis
The rapidly changing landscape of cannabis in terms of availability, potency, and routes of administration, as well as the decrease in risk perception and changing norms, have contributed to an increase in the popularity of cannabis. Cannabis use is associated with a poorer recovery from a psychotic disorder, increasing the risk of relapse, rehospitalization, and lower social functioning. Data are mixed regarding cannabis use as a component cause of psychosis in people at risk for psychotic disorder. Care providers, parents, and schools must educate youth and adolescents about the risks of cannabis use. (Source: Child and ...
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - October 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Abigail Wright, Corinne Cather, Jodie Gilman, Anne Eden Evins Source Type: research

Assessing Youth with Psychotic Experiences: A Phenomenological Approach
This article shows how a systematic, domain-based, phenomenological approach to assessing psychotic symptoms in youth facilitates the gathering of the nuanced clinical information necessary to understand a child ’s specific experience. Mapping this information onto a narrative timeline, while understanding the evolution and developmental context of psychotic experiences, is essential in making an accurate diagnostic formulation and appropriate treatment plan for youth presenting with psychotic experiences . (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - September 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: John W. Tyson, Ellen M. House, Abigail L. Donovan Source Type: research

Childhood Trauma and Psychosis
There is growing evidence to support the link between childhood trauma and psychosis. Childhood trauma increases the risk for psychosis and affects severity and type of psychotic symptoms, and frequency of comorbid conditions, including depression and substance use. Childhood trauma is linked to more severe functional impairment in individuals with psychosis. There is evidence to support gender differences in the influence of childhood trauma on the course of psychotic illnesses, appearing to be more profound in girls and women. Other biological markers that may explain the link between childhood trauma and psychosis inclu...
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - September 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kate J. Stanton, Brian Denietolis, Brien J. Goodwin, Yael Dvir Source Type: research

Substance-induced Psychosis in Youth
This article presents practical considerations related to differentiating SIP from PPD, including information on substances associated with symptoms of psychosis. Recommendations for management of SIP are also reviewed, including screening for and treating comorbid substance use disorders and using evidence-based medication and psychosocial interventions. (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - September 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: David Beckmann, Kelsey Leigh Lowman, Jessica Nargiso, James McKowen, Lisa Watt, Amy M. Yule Source Type: research

Cognition, Social Cognition, and Functional Capacity in Early-Onset Schizophrenia
Cognitive impairments are a central feature of schizophrenia. These impairments are present across the course of the illness, from prodromal to more chronic patients. Social cognitive deficits, now known to be related to social outcomes in the real world, are also impaired in cases with early-onset psychosis. Similarly, disability in everyday functions is present and is correlated with impairments in performance on measures of the ability to perform everyday functional and social skills. This constellation of impairments leads to wide-ranging social and functional deficits. Treatments offered for adult-onset cases should b...
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - September 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Philip D. Harvey, Elizabeth C. Isner Source Type: research

Autism, Psychosis, or Both? Unraveling Complex Patient Presentations
This article describes the epidemiologic features and clinical manifestations of psychosis in individuals with ASDs, while also discussing shared genetic risk factors and affected brain regions. Components of a diagnostic assessment, including a thorough developmental, behavioral, medical, and psychiatric history, will be reviewed. The authors highlight the manifestations of catatonia in this population and note the shared features between catatonia and ASDs. Finally, treatment approaches and areas for future study are suggested. (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America - September 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tara Chandrasekhar, John Nathan Copeland, Marina Spanos, Linmarie Sikich Source Type: research