MDSCs in pregnancy: Critical players for a balanced immune system at the feto-maternal interface.
Abstract Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have emerged as a new immune regulator at the feto-maternal interface. Although the phenotypes and functions of these cells were primarily studied in pathological conditions such as cancers and infections, new evidence has underscored their beneficial roles in homeostasis and physiological circumstances such as normal pregnancy. In this regard, studies have shown an increased number of MDSCs, particularly granulocytic MDSCs, at the feto-maternal interface. These cells participate in maintaining immunological tolerance between mother and semi-allograft fetus through...
Source: Cellular Immunology - November 12, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ahmadi M, Mohammadi M, Ali-Hassanzadeh M, Zare M, Gharesi-Fard B Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

TLR9 signaling mediates adaptive immunity following systemic AAV gene therapy.
Abstract An ongoing concern of in vivo gene therapy is adaptive immune responses against the protein product of a transgene, particularly for recessive diseases in which antigens are not presented to lymphocytes during central tolerance induction. Here we show that Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) signaling activates T cells against an epitope tagged mitochondria-targeted ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) following the administration of a systemic adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector. Using a transgenic mouse model system, we demonstrate that TLR9 signaling extrinsic to T cells induces a robust cytotoxic T-cell response ...
Source: Cellular Immunology - November 12, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ashley SN, Somanathan S, Giles AR, Wilson JM Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Matters of life and death: How estrogen and estrogen receptor binding to the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus may influence outcomes of infection, allergy, and autoimmune disease.
Abstract Sex hormones are best known for their influences on reproduction, but they also have profound influences on the immune response. Examples of sex-specific differences include: (i) the relatively poor control of influenza virus infections in males compared to females, (ii) allergic asthma, an IgE-associated hypersensitivity reaction that is exacerbated in adolescent females compared to males, and (iii) systemic lupus erythematosus, a life-threatening autoimmune disease with a 9:1 female:male bias. Here we consider how estrogen and estrogen receptor α (ERα) may influence the immune response by mo...
Source: Cellular Immunology - November 12, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jones BG, Penkert RR, Surman SL, Sealy RE, Pelletier S, Xu B, Neale G, Maul RW, Gearhart PJ, Hurwitz JL Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Signalling molecules and epigenetic targeting in cancer immunotherapy - Comments on "Epigenetic modulation enhances immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma".
Signalling molecules and epigenetic targeting in cancer immunotherapy - Comments on "Epigenetic modulation enhances immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma". Cell Immunol. 2019 Oct 18;:103957 Authors: Chen J, Vitetta L PMID: 31668739 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular Immunology)
Source: Cellular Immunology - October 18, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Chen J, Vitetta L Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Diminished immune responses with aging predispose older adults to common and uncommon influenza complications.
Abstract Influenza (flu) is a serious disease for older adults, with increased severity of infection and greater risk for hospitalization and death. Flu infection is limited to pulmonary epithelial cells, yet there are many systemic symptoms and older adults are more susceptible to flu-related complications. In older adults, flu rarely comes without additional complications and there is a perfect storm for enhanced disease due to multiple factors including existing co-morbidities, plus impaired lung function and dysregulated immune responses that occur with even healthy aging. Commonly, opportunistic secondary bac...
Source: Cellular Immunology - October 10, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Keilich SR, Bartley JM, Haynes L Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Regulatory T cells in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: From the lab to the clinic.
Abstract Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a curable strategy for the treatment of hematological malignancies and nonmalignant diseases. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and relapse are still two major causes of morbidity and mortality after allo-HSCT, and both restrict the improvement of transplant outcomes. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) has been successfully used in allo-SCT settings. In this review, we summarize recent advances in experimental studies that have evaluated the roles played by Tregs in the establishment of novel transplant modalities, the prevention of GVHD an...
Source: Cellular Immunology - October 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Gu G, Yang JZ, Zhang JQ, Sun LX Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Expression and regulation of telomerase in human T cell differentiation, activation, aging and diseases.
In conclusion, we discuss how controlled enhancement of telomerase activity could be a potential strategy to improve T cell function in the elderly and in immunotherapy. PMID: 31558266 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular Immunology)
Source: Cellular Immunology - September 19, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Patrick M, Weng NP Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Testosterone treatment of aged male mice improves some but not all aspects of age-associated increases in influenza severity.
Abstract The severity of influenza increases with age, with worse disease in aged males than females. Testosterone concentrations decline with age in males, which may impact influenza pathogenesis. Aged male mice were treated with testosterone or placebo and outcomes during influenza A virus (IAV) infection were compared with adult male mice. Aged males experienced greater morbidity and mortality than adult males, which was partially improved by testosterone treatment of aged males. Aged males cleared IAV from lungs slower than adult males, regardless of testosterone treatment. As compared with adult males, aged m...
Source: Cellular Immunology - September 14, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Vom Steeg LG, Attreed SE, Zirkin B, Klein SL Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Editorial.
PMID: 31447052 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular Immunology)
Source: Cellular Immunology - August 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lohmueller J, Cascio S Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

B cells from young and old mice switch isotypes with equal frequencies after ex vivo stimulation.
Abstract To determine whether old B cells have the same capacity to switch isotypes as young cells, we purified splenic follicular, marginal zone, and age-associated B cell subsets from C57BL/6 mice. Cells were stimulated in culture with interleukin 4 and either lipopolysaccharide or anti-CD40, and switching to IgG1 was measured by flow cytometry of surface immunoglobulin. The results show that switching was robust in follicular and marginal zone B cells from old mice and was comparable to their young counterparts. However, age-associated B cells from old mice switched poorly relative to the other subsets. Express...
Source: Cellular Immunology - August 19, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Russell Knode LM, Park HS, Maul RW, Gearhart PJ Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Conjugated CAR T cell one step beyond conventional CAR T cell for a promising cancer immunotherapy.
Abstract Cancer immunotherapy aims to enhance the immune system reactivity against tumour cells. Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR), presented on the surface of the T cells, specifically redirects the cell and demonstrates significant promises in treating patients with different types of haematologic malignancies. Although several cases of improvement have been reported, clinical experiences, such as excessive activity, poor control, toxicity and limited life span of conventional CAR T cells have emerged as treatment challenges associated with this therapeutic strategy. Recently, multiple switchable CAR T platforms h...
Source: Cellular Immunology - August 10, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hallaj S, Meshkini F, Chaleshtari MG, Ghorbani A, Namdar A, Soleimanpour H, Jadidi-Niaragh F Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Regulation of aquaporin 4 expression by lipoxin A4 in astrocytes stimulated by lipopolysaccharide.
In conclusion, LXA4 alleviated the LPS-induced increase in AQP4 expression and inflammatory cytokine secretion by astrocytes, possibly by inhibiting P38 phosphorylation. For the first time, we found that LXA4 may inhibit the expression of inflammatory factors by regulating the expression of AQP4. AQP4 on astrocytes is likely to be the target of anti-inflammatory effect of LXA4. PMID: 31383359 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular Immunology)
Source: Cellular Immunology - July 29, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Wu J, Ding D, Wang X, Li Q, Sun Y, Li L, Wang Y Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

TIGIT expression is upregulated in T cells and causes T cell dysfunction independent of PD-1 and Tim-3 in adult B lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
In this study, we analyzed the status of TIGIT expression in circulating T cells from patients with adult ALL. Compared to the data in healthy controls, the expression of TIGIT in CD4+CD25- T cells and CD8+ T cells in adult ALL patients presented a small but significant upregulation. Stimulation via the CD3/CD28 route increased TIGIT mRNA expression at 24 h, which peaked at 48 h and was maintained at 72 h post-stimulation. The frequency of TIGIT+ cells, on the other hand, consistently increased over time. ALL protein lysate or Wilms' Tumor 1 peptide could significantly increase the expression of TIGIT in ALL, but not...
Source: Cellular Immunology - July 24, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zhang X, Zhang H, Chen L, Feng Z, Gao L, Li Q Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Protease-activated receptor 4 protects mice from Coxsackievirus B3 and H1N1 influenza A virus infection.
Abstract PAR4 is expressed by a variety of cells, including platelets, cardiac, lung and immune cells. We investigated the contribution of PAR4 to viral infections of the heart and lung. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3-dependent immune responses were analyzed after co-stimulation of PAR4 in murine bone-marrow derived macrophages, embryonic fibroblasts and embryonic cardiomyocytes. In addition, we analyzed Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) or H1N1 influenza A virus (H1N1 IAV) infection of PAR4-/- (ΔPAR4) and wild-type (WT) mice. Lastly, we investigated the effect of platelet inhibition on H1N1 IAV infection. In vitro exper...
Source: Cellular Immunology - July 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tatsumi K, Schmedes CM, Houston ER, Butler E, Mackman N, Antoniak S Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

High iodine induces DNA damage in autoimmune thyroiditis partially by inhibiting the DNA repair protein MTH1.
In conclusion, HI treatment induces DNA damage in AIT, at least in part, by inhibiting the DNA repair protein MTH1. PMID: 31311621 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular Immunology)
Source: Cellular Immunology - July 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Li F, Wu Y, Chen L, Hu L, Zhu F, He Q Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Multi-modal image cytometry approach - From dynamic to whole organ imaging.
Abstract Optical imaging is a valuable tool to visualise biological processes in the context of the tissue. Each imaging modality provides the biologist with different types of information - cell dynamics and migration over time can be tracked with time-lapse imaging (e.g. intra-vital imaging); an overview of whole tissues can be acquired using optical clearing in conjunction with light sheet microscopy; finer details such as cellular morphology and fine nerve tortuosity can be imaged at higher resolution using the confocal microscope. Multi-modal imaging combined with image cytometry - a form of quantitative anal...
Source: Cellular Immunology - July 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Husna N, Gascoigne NRJ, Tey HL, Ng LG, Tan Y Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Balancing immunity and tolerance in gene therapy for inherited and acquired diseases.
PMID: 31229195 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular Immunology)
Source: Cellular Immunology - June 14, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Scott DW, Mingozzi F Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Dampening of mast cell secondary responses to allergen involves specific signalling and epigenetic changes.
Abstract Allergic diseases are increasing worldwide. Allergen and IgE dependent mast cell (MC) activation is the major initiator of these clinical symptoms. During this study, the effect of multiple exposures to the same allergen, on MC degranulation was studied. First, MC recovery in terms of surface expression of high affinity receptor FcεRI, and granule content after a primary allergen challenge was confirmed. Overall, previous exposure of MCs to allergen challenge led to a significant reduction in pre-stored mediator release during the secondary challenge at various time points and with various doses o...
Source: Cellular Immunology - June 8, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Varma R, Puri N Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Mal-deficiency impairs the tolerogenicity of dendritic cell of patients with allergic rhinitis.
In conclusion, Mal plays a critical role in the maintenance of decDC's immune tolerogenic function. The absence or insufficient Mal signal impairs decDC's tolerogenic property. Reconstitution of Mal in AR decDCs can restore the immune tolerogenic capacity, which may have translational potential in the treatment of AR and other allergic diseases. PMID: 31196568 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular Immunology)
Source: Cellular Immunology - June 6, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Shao JB, Yang G, Zhang YY, Ma F, Luo XQ, Mo LH, Liu ZQ, Liao WJ, Qiu QH, Li DC, Yang LT, Zhang XW, Liu DB, Yang PC Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Oral feeding of Lactobacillus bulgaricus N45.10 inhibits the lung inflammation and airway remodeling in murine allergic asthma: Relevance to the Th1/Th2 cytokines and STAT6/T-bet.
ire F Abstract Asthma is a chronic disease with impacts on public health. It affects the airways causing pulmonary inflammation mediated by CD4 T cells type Th2, eosinophilia, mucus hypersecretion, and elevated IgE. The unbalance between cytokines and transcription factors is an important feature in asthma. Probiotics has gaining highlight as a therapy for chronic diseases. Thus, we investigate the Lactobacillus bulgaricus (Lb) effect in murine allergic asthma. BALB/c-mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OA) on days 0 and 7 and were challenged from day 14-28 with OA. Mice received Lb seven days prior to sensitizatio...
Source: Cellular Immunology - May 23, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Anatriello E, Cunha M, Nogueira J, Carvalho JL, Sá AK, Miranda M, Castro-Faria-Neto H, Keller AC, Aimbire F Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Self-reactive IgG4 antibodies are associated with blocking of pathology in human lymphatic filariasis.
In this study, we measured the poly-specific IgG and IgA levels in different clinical categories of filariasis. Asymptomatic-carriers exhibited increased IgG4 antibodies against both filarial-antigens as well as auto-antigens compared to other clinical categories, although IgG against these auto-antigens remained lower. IgA levels against both filarial and auto-antigens were decreased in asymptomatic-carriers. A positive correlation between anti-filarial IgG4 and IgG4 against auto-antigens were observed, suggesting the synergistic role of poly-specific natural IgG4 with anti-filarial IgG4 in blocking the pathogenesis in as...
Source: Cellular Immunology - May 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Mishra R, Panda SK, Sahoo PK, Mishra S, Satapathy AK Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Special Issue: E3 ubiquitin ligases, the match makers and grim reapers of immune cells.
PMID: 31101325 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular Immunology)
Source: Cellular Immunology - May 10, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Moser E, Oliver PM Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) induced hyper-production of IgA from tonsillar mononuclear cells in patients with IgA nephropathy.
In this study, we focused on a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), homologous to BAFF. IgAN-TMCs produced more APRIL than non IgAN-TMCs in the presence of both CpG-ODN and control-ODN. TLR9 expression was higher in B-cells of IgAN-TMCs, and treatment with CpG-ODN enhanced transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI) expression. IgA production from IgAN-TMCs was inhibited by APRIL neutralization antibody or TACI blocking antibody, and enhanced by co-treatment of APRIL and CpG-ODN. Serum APRIL levels were higher in patients with IgAN, and decreased after tonsillectomy. These findings suggest that APRIL is involved i...
Source: Cellular Immunology - May 8, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Takahara M, Nagato T, Nozaki Y, Kumai T, Katada A, Hayashi T, Harabuchi Y Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Regulation of T cell differentiation and function by ubiquitin-specific proteases.
Abstract T cells play critical roles in immune responses to pathogens, autoimmunity, and antitumor immunity. During the past few decades, increasing numbers of studies have demonstrated the significance of protein ubiquitination in T cell-mediated immunity. Several E3 ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases (DUBs) have been identified as either positive or negative regulators of T cell development and function. In this review, we mainly focus on the roles of DUBs (especially ubiquitin-specific proteases (USPs)) in modulating T cell differentiation and function, as well as the molecular mechanisms. Understanding how ...
Source: Cellular Immunology - May 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Wang A, Zhu F, Liang R, Li D, Li B Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Gold induces a pseudo-allergic reaction via MRGPRX2 both in vitro and in vivo.
Abstract The traditional mast cell (MC) degranulation pathway is mediated by crossing-linking of high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI), whereas a non-traditional, but analogous, pseudo-allergic way was recently reported to occur via Mas-Related G Protein-Coupled Receptor X2 (MRGPRX2). Severe contact hypersensitivity to metallic gold, typically considered non-sensitizing, has been reported. However, whether gold induces IgE-independent allergy remains unclear. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of gold chloride (CA) on MC activation and its relation to MRGPRX2. Our data show that CA acted on MRGPRX2 to...
Source: Cellular Immunology - May 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zeng Y, Wang J, Zhang Y, Ge S, Wu Y, Fan T, Wang N Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Diabetes-mediated IL-17A enhances retinal inflammation, oxidative stress, and vascular permeability.
Abstract Diabetic retinopathy is a prevailing diabetes complication, and one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. IL-17A is a cytokine involved in the onset of diabetic complications. In the current study, we examined the role of IL-17A in the development of retinal inflammation and long-term vascular pathology in diabetic mice. We found IL-17A expressing T cells and neutrophils in the retinal vasculature. Further, the IL-17A receptor was expressed on Muller glia, retinal endothelial cells, and photoreceptors. Finally, diabetes-mediated retinal inflammation, oxidative stress, and vascular leakage were all...
Source: Cellular Immunology - May 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Sigurdardottir S, Zapadka TE, Lindstrom SI, Liu H, Taylor BE, Lee CA, Kern TS, Taylor PR Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

The role of WASp in T cells and B cells.
Abstract Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a form of primary immunodeficiency (PIDs) resulting from mutations of the gene that encodes Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp). WASp is the first identified and most widely studied protein belonging to the actin nucleation-promoting factor family and plays significant role in integrating and transforming signals from critical receptors on the cell surface to actin remodeling. WASp functions in immune defense and homeostasis through the regulation of actin cytoskeleton-dependent cellular processes as well as processes uncoupled with actin polymerization like nuclear t...
Source: Cellular Immunology - April 17, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Sun X, Wei Y, Lee PP, Ren B, Liu C Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Lactic acid suppresses IgE-mediated mast cell function in vitro and in vivo.
Abstract Mast cells have functional plasticity affected by their tissue microenvironment, which greatly impacts their inflammatory responses. Because lactic acid (LA) is abundant in inflamed tissues and tumors, we investigated how it affects mast cell function. Using IgE-mediated activation as a model system, we found that LA suppressed inflammatory cytokine production and degranulation in mouse peritoneal mast cells, data that were confirmed with human skin mast cells. In mouse peritoneal mast cells, LA-mediated cytokine suppression was dependent on pH- and monocarboxylic transporter-1 expression. Additionally, L...
Source: Cellular Immunology - April 12, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Abebayehu D, Spence AJ, Caslin H, Taruselli M, Haque TT, Kiwanuka KN, Kolawole EM, Chumanevich AP, Sell SA, Oskeritzian CA, Ryan J, Kee SA Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Advances in the pathogenesis and treatment of autoimmunity.
PMID: 31000174 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular Immunology)
Source: Cellular Immunology - April 8, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Moudgil KD Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Intravital imaging of skin infections.
Abstract Intravital imaging of cutaneous immune responses has revealed intricate links between the skin's structural properties, the immune cells that reside therein, and the carefully orchestrated migratory dynamics that enable rapid sensing and subsequent elimination of skin pathogens. In particular, the development of 2-photon intravital microscopy (2P-IVM), which enables the excitation of fluorescent molecules within deep tissue with minimal light scattering and tissue damage, has proven an invaluable tool in the characterization of different cell subset's roles in skin infection. The ability to visualize cell...
Source: Cellular Immunology - April 1, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zaid A Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein may be critical for CD8+ T cell function following MCMV infection.
Abstract Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) patients are characterized by immunodeficiency and viral infections. T cells derived from WAS patients and WAS protein (WASP)-deficient mice have various defects. However, whether WASP plays a role in immune control of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains unclear. We analyzed the distribution of CD8+ T subsets and the pathological damage to various organs and tissues in MCMV infected Was knockout (KO) mice. A relatively high number of MCMV-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) were observed in the spleen of Was KO mice. In MCMV infected Was KO mice, the late differentiated CD...
Source: Cellular Immunology - March 27, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Li S, Huang J, Zhang YL, Zhu Y, An YF, Du J, Zhang ZL, Xia Y, Liu L, Wang L, Luo XH Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Poly(acrylic acid)-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles interact with mononuclear phagocytes and decrease platelet aggregation.
This study evaluated: 1) The capacity of the PAC-IONs to induce platelet activation and aggregation, and 2) The effect of the PAC-IONs in two functions of Monocyte-Derived Macrophages (MDMs) when differentiated in their presence; that is, the removal of apoptotic cells (ACs) and the levels of cytokines induced by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the ACs. The PAC-IONs did not affect the platelet activation but antagonized their aggregation. On the other hand, the differentiation of MDMS in the presence of PAC-IONs did not inhibit the ability of these cells to phagocytose latex beads but decreased the number of apoptotic bodies ...
Source: Cellular Immunology - March 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Villegas MG, Ceballos MT, Urquijo J, Torres EY, Ortiz-Reyes BL, Olmos OLA, López MR Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

LPS enhances CTB-INSULIN induction of IDO1 and IL-10 synthesis in human dendritic cells.
Abstract Autoantigen-specific immunotherapy promises effective treatment for devastating tissue specific autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) and type 1 diabetes (T1D). Because activated dendritic cells (DCs) stimulate the differentiation of autoreactive T cells involved in the initiation of autoimmunity, blocking the activation of DCs may be an effective strategy for inhibiting tissue specific autoimmunity. Following this approach, immature DCs were shown to remain inactive after treatment with chimeric fusion proteins composed of the cholera toxin B subunit adjuvant linked to autoantigens like proins...
Source: Cellular Immunology - March 19, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kim NS, Torrez T, Langridge W Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Burn injury is associated with an infiltration of the wound site with myeloid-derived suppressor cells.
In conclusion, both M- and PMN-MDSCs infiltrate burn wound with after injury, however, they displayed decreased TLR expression, suggesting receptor down-regulation. PMID: 30902343 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular Immunology)
Source: Cellular Immunology - March 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Schwacha MG, Scroggins SR, Montgomery RK, Nicholson SE, Cap AP Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

E3 ubiquitin ligases in B-cell malignancies.
Abstract Ubiquitylation is a post-translational modification (PTM) that controls various cellular signaling pathways. It is orchestrated by a three-step enzymatic cascade know as the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). E3 ligases dictate the specificity to the substrates, primarily leading to proteasome-dependent degradation. Deregulation of the UPS components by various mechanisms contributes to the pathogenesis of cancer. This review focuses on E3 ligase-substrates pairings that are implicated in B-cell malignancies. Understanding the molecular mechanism of specific E3 ubiquitin ligases will present potential opp...
Source: Cellular Immunology - February 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Choi J, Busino L Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Toll-like receptor 2 deficiency promotes the generation of alloreactive Th17 cells after cardiac transplantation in mice.
In this study, we used a mouse model of cardiac allograft transplantation to investigate whether TLR2 signalling influences the development of Th17 cells. Here, we demonstrate that the TLR2-deficient recipient mice show high Th17 cells, both in spleens and allografts, as well as higher infiltrating inflammatory leukocytes in cardiac allografts compared to wild-type control recipient mice. mRNA expression of IL-17, IL-6, TNF-α, CCR6 and CCL20 within the allografts is markedly increased in TLR2-deficient recipient mice compared to wild-type recipient mice. In addition, TLR2 deficiency leads to upregulation of Signal tr...
Source: Cellular Immunology - February 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Li L, Chen X, Zhang Y, Li Q, Qi C, Fei X, Zheng F, Gong F, Fang M Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Dendritic cell line AP284 supports Th17 amplification.
In this study we characterized the cell line AP284 as a DC. AP284 cells express high levels of CD11b, MHC class II, 33D1 and CD209b. They also express high amounts of CD80 costimulatory molecule and different toll like receptors (TLR). After stimuli with TLR agonist they produce surprising amount of IL-12p40 related to IL-23 formation but not IL-12p70. They are also able to produce IL-6 and favor amplification of a Th17 but not Th1 profile. This DC line may be useful for a better understanding of factors and cellular interactions responsible for the induction of IL-12p40, IL-23 and Th17 generation. PMID: 30773217 [Pub...
Source: Cellular Immunology - February 10, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: de Oliveira PG, Gomes CM, Ávila LR, Ribeiro-Dias F, Leenen PJM, de Oliveira MAP Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Biological activities of interleukin (IL)-21 in human monocytes and macrophages.
We reported that IL-21 did not increase the production of IL-6 and the chemokines MIP-1α and GRO-α in HMDM. Therefore, IL-21 can increase functions other that phagocytosis, but this cytokine does not have a large spectrum of biological activities in monocytes and macrophages. PMID: 30765203 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular Immunology)
Source: Cellular Immunology - February 8, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Vallières F, Durocher I, Girard D Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Immunogenicity and protective potential of Bordetella pertussis biofilm and its associated antigens in a murine model.
Abstract The resurgence of whooping cough reflects novel genetic variants of Bordetella pertussis and inadequate protection conferred by current acellular vaccines (aP). Biofilm is a source of novel vaccine candidates, including membrane protein assembly factor (BamB) and lipopolysaccharide assembly protein (LptD). Responses of BALB/c mice to candidate vaccines included IFN-γ and IL-17a production by spleen and lymph node cells, and serum IgG1 and IgG2a reactive with whole bacteria or aP. Protection was determined using bacterial cultured from lungs of vaccinated mice challenged with virulent B. pertussis. M...
Source: Cellular Immunology - January 30, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Dorji D, Graham RM, Singh AK, Ramsay JP, Price P, Lee S Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Mesenteric lymph node CD4+ T lymphocytes migrate to liver and contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by altered intestinal microbiota and intestinal immune disorder. Here we investigated the role of mesenteric lymph node (MLN) CD4+ T lymphocytes in NAFLD. In high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, the percentage ratios of Th1 to Th2 cells and Th17 to Treg cells were imbalanced in MLNs. Co-culture assays showed MLN CD4+ T lymphocytes from HFD-fed mice tended to migrate to the liver and promoted hepatic inflammation. Adoptive transfer of MLN CD4+ T lymphocytes from NAFLD mice to HFD-fed mice resulted in higher transaminase, worse hepatic inflammation and lip...
Source: Cellular Immunology - January 28, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Su L, Wu Z, Chi Y, Song Y, Xu J, Tan J, Cong X, Liu Y Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Imaging the neutrophil: Intravital microscopy provides a dynamic view of neutrophil functions in host immunity.
Abstract Neutrophils are the first cellular responders of the immune system. They employ their impressive arsenal of microbicidal molecules to provide rapid and efficient defense against pathogens. However, the role of neutrophils extends far beyond microbial destruction to include tissue repair and remodeling, provision of signals to the adaptive immune system and body homeostasis. Intravital imaging has allowed the visualization of neutrophils in their native environment in both health and disease and provided crucial insights into their mechanisms of action. In the last few years the power of intravital imaging...
Source: Cellular Immunology - January 23, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yam AO, Chtanova T Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

The influence of maternal obesity on macrophage subsets in the human decidua.
This study aims to address the effects of maternal obesity on macrophage subsets in the decidua of women with term uncomplicated pregnancies. Macrophages were isolated from the decidua basalis and decidua parietalis of women with pre-gravid BMI  30 (obese). Macrophages were characterized and quantified using multi-color flow cytometry. Placentas of 10 obese and 10 control women after an uncomplicated term pregnancy were included. The decidua parietalis, but not decidua basalis, showed significantly lower levels of M1-type (HLA-DR+, CD163-) macrophages (p 
Source: Cellular Immunology - January 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Laskewitz A, van Benthem KL, Kieffer TEC, Faas MM, Verkaik-Schakel RN, Plösch T, Scherjon SA, Prins JR Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Dock5 controls the peripheral B cell differentiation via regulating BCR signaling and actin reorganization.
In this study, we generated a Dock5 knockout mouse model to study the effect of Dock5 deficiency on B cell development, differentiation and BCR signaling. We found that the absence of Dock5 leads to a moderate effect on B cell development in the bone marrow and reduces follicular (FO) and marginal zone (MZ) B cells. Mechanistically, the key positive upstream B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling molecules, CD19 and Brutons tyrosine kinase (Btk), whose activation determines the fate of FO and MZ B cells, is reduced in Dock5 KO B cells upon antigenic stimulation by using total internal reflection fluorscence microscopy (TIRF) and ...
Source: Cellular Immunology - January 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Chen A, Yang D, Xuan X, Miller H, Luo X, Yu J, Yang G, Wang H, Liu C Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Epigenetic modulation enhances immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that epigenetic modulation could be a novel potential strategy to augment immunotherapy for HCC by stimulating T cell trafficking into tumor microenvironment via activation of transcriptionally repressed chemokine genes responsible for T-cell trafficking, inducing previously silent neoantigens for immune targets, and allowing tumor regression as a result. A clinical trial of this feasible combination therapy of these clinically available agents is warranted. PMID: 30626493 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular Immunology)
Source: Cellular Immunology - January 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hong YK, Li Y, Pandit H, Li S, Pulliam Z, Zheng Q, Yu Y, Martin RCG Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Specific T-cell receptor gene transfer enhances immune response: A potential therapeutic strategy for the control of human cytomegalovirus infection in immunocompromised patients.
Abstract Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, but no specific therapeutic strategy is effective clinically, despite recent achievements. HCMV-specific T-cell therapy was thought to be helpful for the management of HCMV infection. To conduct a deep exploration, we investigated the possibility of engineering peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from immunocompetent and immunocompromised subjects with specific T-cell receptor (TCR) genes. CD8-positive T cells that specifically bind to NLV pentamers could be generated by transferring ...
Source: Cellular Immunology - January 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zhang R, Zhang Y, Hu J, Wu W, Chen X, Lu Z, Yang R, Huang Y, Fan J Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Noradrenaline through β-adrenoceptor contributes to sexual dimorphism in primary CD4+ T-cell response in DA rat EAE model?
Noradrenaline through β-adrenoceptor contributes to sexual dimorphism in primary CD4+ T-cell response in DA rat EAE model? Cell Immunol. 2018 Dec 26;: Authors: Vujnović I, Pilipović I, Jasnić N, Petrović R, Blagojević V, Arsenović-Ranin N, Stojić-Vukanić Z, Djordjević J, Leposavić G Abstract Males exhibit stronger sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, but weaker primary CD4+ T-cell (auto)immune responses. To test the role of catecholamines, major end-point SNS mediators, in this dimorphism, influence of propranolol (β-adrenoceptor blocker) on mitogen/neuroantigen-stimulated CD...
Source: Cellular Immunology - December 26, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Vujnović I, Pilipović I, Jasnić N, Petrović R, Blagojević V, Arsenović-Ranin N, Stojić-Vukanić Z, Djordjević J, Leposavić G Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

ER-stress regulates macrophage polarization through pancreatic EIF-2alpha kinase.
In this study, we found that the PA mediated ER-stress activation could induce M1-type polarization in macrophages, and this phenotype polarization could be inhibited by ER-stress inhibitor 4-PBA as well as GSK2656157, an inhibitor of PERK. Moreover, the knockdown of PERK altered the STAT1 and STAT6 pathways in macrophages, which then led to the M1-to-M2 phenotypic shift. In summary, we found that PERK could regulate the phenotypic polarization of macrophages. This finding may provide new insight into the suppression of pathological progression of fatty liver or liver ischemia reperfusion injury induced by M1-type macropha...
Source: Cellular Immunology - December 21, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yang F, Liu Y, Ren H, Zhou G, Yuan X, Shi X Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

CDR3 repertoire diversity of CD8+ T lymphocytes in patients with HCV.
In this study, we detected the CDR3 spectratypes by complexity scoring system to assess TCR repertoire diversity and further analyzed the correlation of CDR3 score with CD8+ T cell function and with the prognosis of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. The results demonstrated that CDR3 score was related to CD8+ T cell function and prognosis by analyzing the clinical indicators such as viral load (VL), rapid virologic response (RVR), early virologic response (EVR) and sustained virologic response (SVR). Importantly, we found that Vβ27, a member of CDR3 subfamily, might play an important role in the clear...
Source: Cellular Immunology - December 20, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ping Y, Song M, Wang M, Li Z, Zhang Y Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Targeting antigen presentation in autoimmunity.
Abstract Autoimmune diseases are heterogeneous group of disorders that together represent an enormous societal and medical problem. CD4+ T cells have critical roles in the initiation and pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. As such, modulation of T cell activity has proven to have significant therapeutic effects in multiple autoimmune settings. T cell activation is a complex process with multiple potential therapeutic targets, many of which have been successfully utilized to treat human disease. Current pharmacological treatment largely targets T cell intrinsic activities as a means of treating various autoimmune d...
Source: Cellular Immunology - December 11, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lees JR Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research

Immune response in the relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice: The role of the NF- κB signaling pathway.
Immune response in the relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice: The role of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Cell Immunol. 2018 Dec 08;: Authors: Lunin SM, Khrenov MO, Glushkova OV, Parfenyuk SB, Novoselova TV, Novoselova EG Abstract Characteristics of the mouse model of relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (rEAE) closely resemble manifestations of multiple sclerosis in humans. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of inflammatory response, focusing on NF-κB pathway activation. Cytokine response in rEAE mice was multiphasic:...
Source: Cellular Immunology - December 8, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lunin SM, Khrenov MO, Glushkova OV, Parfenyuk SB, Novoselova TV, Novoselova EG Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research