If Artificial In Vitro Microenvironment Can Influence Tumor Drug Resistance Network via Modulation of lncRNA Expression?-Comparative Analysis of Glioblastoma-Derived Cell Culture Models and Initial Tumors In Vivo.
raj J Abstract The tumor resistance of glioblastoma cells in vivo is thought to be enhanced by their heterogeneity and plasticity, which are extremely difficult to curb in vitro. The external microenvironment shapes the molecular profile of tumor culture models, thus influencing potential therapy response. Our study examines the expression profile of selected lncRNAs involved in tumor resistance network in three different glioblastoma-derived models commonly utilized for testing drug response in vitro. Differential expression analysis revealed significant divergence in lncRNA profile between parental tumors and tu...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - November 27, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Witusik-Perkowska M, Jaskólski DJ, Liberski PP, Szemraj J Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Oxycodone in the Opioid Epidemic: High 'Liking', 'Wanting', and Abuse Liability.
Abstract It is estimated that nearly a third of people who abuse drugs started with prescription opioid medicines. Approximately, 11.5 million Americans used prescription drugs recreationally in 2016, and in 2018, 46,802 Americans died as the result of an opioid overdose, including prescription opioids, heroin, and illicitly manufactured fentanyl (National Institutes on Drug Abuse (2020) Opioid Overdose Crisis. https://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/opioids/opioid-overdose-crisis . Accessed 06 June 2020). Yet physicians will continue to prescribe oral opioids for moderate-to-severe pain in the absence of alternativ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - November 27, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Kibaly C, Alderete JA, Liu SH, Nasef HS, Law PY, Evans CJ, Cahill CM Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Supporting Evidence of Human Enteric Nervous System Adult Neurogenesis: Presence of Primary Cilia and Adult Neurogenesis Markers.
era C Abstract Adult neurogenesis has been profusely studied in central nervous system. However, its presence in enteric nervous system remains elusive although it has been recently demonstrated in mice and intimately linked to glial cells. Moreover, primary cilium is an important organelle in central adult neurogenesis. In the present study, we analysed some parallelisms between central and enteric nervous system (ENS) in humans based on ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. Thus, we described the presence of primary cilia in some subtypes of glial cells and Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICCs) and we...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - November 25, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Iruzubieta P, Cantarero I, Monzón M, Lahoz M, Junquera C Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Nerve Growth Factor is a Potential Treated Target in Tg(SOD1*G93A)1Gur Mice.
In this study, we observed and analyzed the expression and distribution of NGF, as well as the possible relationship between the NGF expression and distribution and the neural cell death in both SOD1 wild-type (WT) and Tg(SOD1*G93A)1Gur (TG) mice applying the fluorescence immunohistochemistry method. The results showed that the expression and distribution of NGF in the anterior horn (AH), the lateral horn (LH), and the surrounding central canal (CC) significantly increased at the supper early stage of ALS (Pre-onset stage) and the early stage (Onset stage), but the NGF expression and distribution in the AH, the LH, and the...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - November 24, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Xu Z, Jiang J, Xu S, Xie Z, He P, Jiang S, Xu R Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Non-visual Opsins and Novel Photo-Detectors in the Vertebrate Inner Retina Mediate Light Responses Within the Blue Spectrum Region.
Abstract In recent decades, a number of novel non-visual opsin photopigments belonging to the family of G protein- coupled receptors, likely involved in a number of non-image-forming processes, have been identified and characterized in cells of the inner retina of vertebrates. It is now known that the vertebrate retina is composed of visual photoreceptor cones and rods responsible for diurnal/color and nocturnal/black and white vision, and cells like the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) and photosensitive horizontal cells in the inner retina, both detecting blue light and expressing the...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - November 24, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Guido ME, Marchese NA, Rios MN, Morera LP, Diaz NM, Garbarino-Pico E, Contin MA Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Protective Impact of Edaravone Against ZnO NPs-induced Oxidative Stress in the Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cell Line.
This study is designed to explore, how edaravone would avert mitochondrial impairment in human neuronal cells against ZnO NPs-induced toxicity. Accordingly, we analyzed here whether a pretreatment (for 24 h) with edaravone (10-100 μM) would enhance mitochondrial protection in the human neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y against ZnO NPs-induced toxicity. We found that edaravone at 25 μM averted the ZnO NPs-induced decrease in the amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), just as on the activity of the complexes I and V. Also, edaravone induced an antioxidant activity by diminishing the levels of lipid peroxidat...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - November 21, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Singh S, Gautam U, Manvi FV Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Targeting Caveolin-1 and Claudin-5 with AY9944, Improve Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability; Computational Simulation and Experimental Study.
Abstract The current study aimed to determine the protective effect of AY9944 related to Caveolin-1 and Claudin-5 role in lipid raft, which can rescue the blood-brain barrier from enhanced permeability. Therefore, in vivo analyses were performed following ischemia in normal, ischemic, and AY9944-treated animal groups. The results revealed that AY9944 reduced the infarct size, edema, and brain water content. The extravasation of Alb-Alexa 594 and biocytin-TMR was minimum in the AY9944-treated animals. The results showed a significant decrease in the expression level of Caveolin-1 over 8 h and 48 h and a r...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - November 21, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Gholami L, Jokar S, Fatahi Y, Samandari H, Hamzehalipour Almaki J, Hosseini M, Parviz M Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effect of 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl Borate (2-APB) in Amyloid β-Induced Memory Dysfunction: A Mechanistic Study.
In this study, neuroprotective potential of 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), a broad-spectrum calcium channels blocker was investigated in Aβ-induced memory deficits in rats. In addition, effect of 2-APB on TRPM2 channels gene and protein expressions and also on calcium and memory related proteins was investigated in the hippocampus. Intracerebroventricular (I.C.V.) administration of Aβ (Aβ25-35, 10 μg) markedly induced cognitive impairment and upregulation of mRNA and protein expression of TRPM2 in the hippocampus. In addition, AChE activity was also increased in the cortex of the Aβ admin...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - November 21, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Thapak P, Khare P, Bishnoi M, Sharma SS Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Purinergic Receptors Crosstalk with CCR5 to Amplify Ca2+ Signaling.
Abstract Many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signal through more than one subtype of heterotrimeric G proteins. For example, the C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5), which serves as a co-receptor to facilitate cellular entry of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), normally signals through the heterotrimeric G protein, Gi. However, CCR5 also exhibits G protein signaling bias and certain chemokine analogs can cause a switch to Gq pathways to induce Ca2+ signaling. We want to understand how much of the Ca2+ signaling from Gi-coupled receptors is due to G protein promiscuity and how much is due to transactiva...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - November 20, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Horioka M, Ceraudo E, Lorenzen E, Sakmar TP, Huber T Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Involvement of α7nAChR in the Protective Effects of Genistein Against β-Amyloid-Induced Oxidative Stress in Neurons via a PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 Pathway-Related Mechanism.
Involvement of α7nAChR in the Protective Effects of Genistein Against β-Amyloid-Induced Oxidative Stress in Neurons via a PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 Pathway-Related Mechanism. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2020 Nov 19;: Authors: Guo J, Yang G, He Y, Xu H, Fan H, An J, Zhang L, Zhang R, Cao G, Hao D, Yang H Abstract Abnormal excessive production and deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in selectively susceptible brain regions are thought to be a key pathogenic mechanism underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD), resulting in memory deficits and cognitive impairment. Genistein is a phytoestrogen with great pro...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - November 19, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Guo J, Yang G, He Y, Xu H, Fan H, An J, Zhang L, Zhang R, Cao G, Hao D, Yang H Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Recovery of Human Embryonic Stem Cells-Derived Neural Progenitors Exposed to Hypoxic-Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury by Indirect Exposure to Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells Through Phosphatidyl-inositol-3-Kinase Pathway.
Abstract Increasing evidence suggests that mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) have beneficial effects in hypoxic ischemic reperfusion injury, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we first examined the effect of OGD reperfusion injury on the vulnerability of human NPs derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) with regard to cell survival and oxidative stress. Cellular deregulation was assessed by measuring glutathione levels, basal calcium and intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i response under KCl stimulation, as well as the key parameters of proliferation, glial progenitor marker expression and migration. Ne...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - November 18, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Sowmithra S, Jain NK, Bhonde R, Datta I Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Understanding Abnormal SMO-SHH Signaling in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Potential Drug Target and Therapeutic Goals.
Abstract Autism is a multifactorial neurodevelopmental condition; it demonstrates some main characteristics, such as impaired social relationships and increased repetitive behavior. The initiation of autism spectrum disorder is mostly triggered during brain development by the deregulation of signaling pathways. Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling is one such mechanism that influences neurogenesis and neural processes during the development of the central nervous system. SMO-SHH signaling is also an important part of a broad variety of neurological processes, including neuronal cell differentiation, proliferation, and s...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - November 18, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Rahi S, Mehan S Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Oxytocin Prevents the Development of 3-NP-Induced Anxiety and Depression in Male and Female Rats: Possible Interaction of OXTR and mGluR2.
Abstract Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive neurological disorder with dominant motor symptoms. It also has psychiatric manifestations, like anxiety and depression, that can emerge themselves before motor symptoms and impose a major burden on patients. Oxytocin (OXT) is a newly emerged treatment for disorders like autism and schizophrenia and recently is using to alleviate depression and anxiety. In the current study, we investigated the behavioral and molecular effects of OXT on the development of anxiety and depression in 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced model of HD. Anxiety- and depression-like behavi...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - November 17, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Khodagholi F, Maleki A, Motamedi F, Mousavi MA, Rafiei S, Moslemi M Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Predator Scent-Induced Sensitization of Hypertension and Anxiety-like Behaviors.
Abstract Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), an anxiety-related syndrome, is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated whether predator scent (PS) stress, a model of PTSD, induces sensitization of hypertension and anxiety-like behaviors and underlying mechanisms related to renin-angiotensin systems (RAS) and inflammation. Coyote urine, as a PS stressor, was used to model PTSD. After PS exposures, separate cohorts of rats were studied for hypertensive response sensitization (HTRS), anxiety-like behaviors, and changes in plasma levels and mRNA expression of se...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - November 17, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Xue B, Xue J, Yu Y, Wei SG, Beltz TG, Felder RB, Johnson AK Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

p75NTR Promotes Astrocyte Proliferation in Response to Cortical Stab Wound.
In conclusion, our results suggested that p75NTR upregulation in astrocytes after brain injury induces cell cycle entry by promoting CDK2 expression and promoting astrocyte proliferation. Our findings provided a better understanding of astrocytic responses after cortical stab wound injury in mice. PMID: 33201418 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - November 17, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Chen M, Guo L, Hao J, Ni J, Lv Q, Xin X, Liao H Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Correction to: Alternative Splicing of Opioid Receptor Genes Shows a Conserved Pattern for 6TM Receptor Variants.
iatchenko L Abstract The article "Alternative Splicing of Opioid Receptor Genes Shows a Conserved Pattern for 6TM Receptor Variants", written by Marjo Piltonen, Andrey Krokhotin, Marc Parisien, Pierre Bérubé, Haig Djambazian, Rob Sladek, Nikolay V. Dokholyan, Svetlana A. Shabalina and Luda Diatchenko was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal on October 3, 2020 without open access. With the author(s)' decision to opt for Open Choice the copyright of the article changed on October 27, 2020 to © The Author(s) 2020 and the article is forthwith distributed u...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - November 17, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Piltonen M, Krokhotin A, Parisien M, Bérubé P, Djambazian H, Sladek R, Dokholyan NV, Shabalina SA, Diatchenko L Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Mitochondria-ER Tethering in Neurodegenerative Diseases.
Abstract Organelles juxtaposition has been detected for decades, although only recently gained importance due to a pivotal role in the regulation of cellular processes dependent on membrane contact sites. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria interaction is a prime example of organelles contact sites. Mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM) are proposed to harbor ER-mitochondria tether complexes, mainly when these organelles are less than 30 nm apart. Dysfunctions of proteins located at the MAM are associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and amyotrophic lateral sclero...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - November 16, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Raeisossadati R, Ferrari MFR Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

The Opioid Interactions of the Antipsychotic Medications Risperidone and Amisulpride in Mice and Their Potential Use in the Treatment of Other Non-Psychotic Medical Conditions.
Abstract Pain is defined as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. The opioid epidemic in the USA has highlighted the need for alternative treatments for pain. Following reports on the opioid interactions of various antipsychotic medications, we speculated that the involvement of the opioid system in some of the antipsychotics' mechanism of action may suggest their potential use in the treatment of pain. Risperidone is a neuroleptic with a potent dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2 receptor-blocking activity as well as a high affinity for adrenergic and histam...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - November 13, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Schreiber S, Pick CG Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Remote and Persistent Alterations in Glutamate Receptor Subunit Composition Induced by Spreading Depolarizations in Rat Brain.
This study is the first to show prolonged effects of SDs on glutamate signaling and has implications for neuroprotection strategies aimed at SD suppression. PMID: 33184769 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - November 12, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Barhorst KA, Alfawares Y, McGuire JL, Danzer SC, Hartings JA, Ngwenya LB Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Systematic Analysis of Protein-Protein and Gene-Environment Interactions to Decipher the Cognitive Mechanisms of Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder resulting from both genetic and environmental risk factors, is manifested by deficits in cognitive function. Elucidating the cognitive disorder-relevant biological mechanisms may open up promising therapeutic approaches. In this work, we mined ASD cognitive phenotype proteins to construct and analyze protein-protein and gene-environment interaction networks. Incorporating the protein-protein interaction (PPI), human cognition proteins, and connections of autism-cognition proteins enabled us to generate an autism-cognition network ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - November 9, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Farahani M, Rezaei-Tavirani M, Zali A, Zamanian-Azodi M Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Ischemic Postconditioning Reduces NMDA Receptor Currents Through the Opening of the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore and KATP Channel in Mouse Neurons.
We examined the involvement of the mito-KATP channel and the mPTP in the PostC mechanism. Ischemic PostC consisted of three cycles of 15 s reperfusion and 15 s re-ischemia, and was started 30 s after the 7.5 min ischemic load. We recorded N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR)-mediated currents and measured cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations, and mitochondrial membrane potentials in mouse hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Both ischemic PostC and the application of a mito-KATP channel opener, diazoxide, reduced NMDAR-mediated currents, and suppressed cytosolic Ca2+ elevations during the early reperfusion period....
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - November 7, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Morisaki Y, Nakagawa I, Ogawa Y, Yokoyama S, Furuta T, Saito Y, Nakase H Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

LncRNA H19 Promotes Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Angiogenesis of Glioma by Regulating Wnt5a/ β-Catenin Pathway via Targeting miR-342.
LncRNA H19 Promotes Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Angiogenesis of Glioma by Regulating Wnt5a/β-Catenin Pathway via Targeting miR-342. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2020 Nov 07;: Authors: Zhou Q, Liu ZZ, Wu H, Kuang WL Abstract Glioma is the most common malignant brain tumor and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to play an important role in the growth and angiogenesis of glioma. However, the potential mechanisms of lncRNA H19 in glioma remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of lncRNA H19 on glioma cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis were evaluated. The expression ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - November 7, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Zhou Q, Liu ZZ, Wu H, Kuang WL Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Past Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Aggravates Cognitive Impairment in a Rat Model of Vascular Dementia via Neuroinflammation.
Abstract Smoking is a risk factor for dementia. Cognitive function can be partially restored after quitting smoking, but still lower than never smoked group. The underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. The effects of smoking cessation combined with cerebral chronic hypoperfusion (CCH) on cognitive function have never been described. Here, we established a cigarette smoking cessation model, a CCH model, and a cigarette smoking cessation plus CCH model. We investigated cognitive function in these models and the mechanisms of the neuroinflammation, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family py...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - November 6, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Meng N, Dong Y, Huo T, Song M, Jiang X, Xiao Y, Lv P Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Epidermal Growth Factor in the CNS: A Beguiling Journey from Integrated Cell Biology to Multiple Sclerosis. An Extensive Translational Overview.
This article reviews the wealth of papers dealing with the different effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, neurons, and neural stem cells (NSCs). EGF induces the in vitro and in vivo proliferation of NSCs, their migration, and their differentiation towards the neuroglial cell line. It interacts with extracellular matrix components. NSCs are distributed in different CNS areas, serve as a reservoir of multipotent cells, and may be increased during CNS demyelinating diseases. EGF has pleiotropic differentiative and proliferative effects on the main CNS cell types, particularly oligodendrocy...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - November 5, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Scalabrino G Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

High  Glucose and Hypoxia-Mediated Damage to Human Brain Microvessel Endothelial Cells Induces an Altered, Pro-Inflammatory Phenotype in BV-2 Microglia In Vitro.
High Glucose and Hypoxia-Mediated Damage to Human Brain Microvessel Endothelial Cells Induces an Altered, Pro-Inflammatory Phenotype in BV-2 Microglia In Vitro. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2020 Nov 02;: Authors: Iannucci J, Rao HV, Grammas P Abstract Diabetes is strongly linked to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), though the mechanisms for this enhanced risk are unclear. Because vascular inflammation is a consistent feature of both diabetes and AD, the cerebral microcirculation could be a key target for the effects of diabetes in the brain. The goal of this study is to explore whether brain en...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - November 2, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Iannucci J, Rao HV, Grammas P Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Exploration of Pericyte-Derived Factors Implicated in Lung Cancer Brain Metastasis Protection: A Pilot Messenger RNA Sequencing Using the Blood-Brain Barrier In Vitro Model.
Abstract Metastatic brain tumors have poor prognoses and pose unmet clinical problems for the patients. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) implication is supposed to play a major role in brain metastasis. However, the role of pericytes remains to be elucidated in the brain metastasis. This pilot study described the expression profile of interactions between pericytes, endothelial cells, and cancer cells. We applied an in vitro BBB model with rat primary cultured BBB-related cells (endothelial cells and pericytes), and performed the gene expression analyses of pericytes under the lung cancer cells coculture conditions. ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - November 2, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Ujifuku K, Fujimoto T, Sato K, Morofuji Y, Muto H, Masumoto H, Nakagawa S, Niwa M, Matsuo T Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Extracellular Matrix in Neural Plasticity and Regeneration.
Abstract The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a fundamental component of biological tissues. The ECM in the central nervous system (CNS) is unique in both composition and function. Functions such as learning, memory, synaptogenesis, and plasticity are regulated by numerous ECM molecules. The neural ECM acts as a non-specific physical barrier that modulates neuronal plasticity and axon regeneration. There are two specialized types of ECM in the CNS, diffuse perisynaptic ECM and condensed ECM, which selectively surround the perikaryon and initial part of dendritic trees in subtypes of neurons, forming perineuronal nets...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - October 31, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Chelyshev YA, Kabdesh IM, Mukhamedshina YO Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Correction to: Mu Opioids Induce Biased Signaling at the Full-Length Seven Transmembrane C-Terminal Splice Variants of the mu Opioid Receptor Gene, Oprm1.
Abstract The original version of this article unfortunately contained a typo in co-author name. PMID: 33128690 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - October 31, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Narayan A, Hunkele A, Xu J, Bassoni DL, Pasternak GW, Pan YX Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Hemorrhagic Transformation After Tissue Plasminogen Activator Treatment in Acute Ischemic Stroke.
Abstract Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a common complication after thrombolysis with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in ischemic stroke. In this article, recent research progress of HT in vivo and in vitro studies was reviewed. We have discussed new potential mechanisms and possible experimental models of HT development, as well as possible biomarkers and treatment methods. Meanwhile, we compared and analyzed rodent models, large animal models and in vitro BBB models of HT, and the limitations of these models were discussed. The molecular mechanism of HT was investigated in terms of BBB ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - October 30, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Liu C, Xie J, Sun S, Li H, Li T, Jiang C, Chen X, Wang J, Le A, Wang J, Li Z, Wang J, Wang W Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

A Progressive Loss of phosphoSer138-Profilin Aligns with Symptomatic Course in the R6/2 Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease: Possible Sex-Dependent Signaling.
Abstract The R6/2 transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD) carries several copies of exon1 of the huntingtin gene that contains a highly pathogenic 120 CAG-repeat expansion. We used kinome analysis to screen for kinase activity patterns in neural tissues from wildtype (WT) and R6/2 mice at a pre-symptomatic (e.g., embryonic) and symptomatic (e.g., between 3 and 10 weeks postnatal) time points. We identified changes in several signaling cascades, for example, the Akt/FoxO3/CDK2, mTOR/ULK1, and RAF/MEK/CREB pathways. We also identified the Rho-Rac GTPase cascade that contributes to cytoskeleton organ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - October 27, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Baharani A, Wei Z, Roesler WJ, Mousseau DD Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Context-Dependent Role of miR-124 in Retinoic Acid-Induced Growth Cone Attraction of Regenerating Motorneurons.
Abstract During development and regeneration, growth cones at the tips of extending axons navigate through a complex environment to establish accurate connections with appropriate targets. Growth cones can respond rapidly to classical and non-classical guidance cues in their environment, often requiring local protein synthesis. In vertebrate growth cones, local protein synthesis in response to classical cues can require regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small, conserved, non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. However, less is known of how miRNAs mediate growth cone respons...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - October 23, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Walker SE, Senatore A, Carlone RL, Spencer GE Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Knocking Out Sigma-1 Receptors Reveals Diverse Health Problems.
Abstract Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is a protein present in several organs such as brain, lung, and heart. In a cell, Sig-1R is mainly located across the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and more specifically at the mitochondria-associated membranes. Despite numerous studies showing that Sig-1R could be targeted to rescue several cellular mechanisms in different pathological conditions, less is known about its fundamental relevance. In this review, we report results from various studies and focus on the importance of Sig-1R in physiological conditions by comparing Sig-1R KO mice to wild-type mice in order to ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - October 23, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Couly S, Goguadze N, Yasui Y, Kimura Y, Wang SM, Sharikadze N, Wu HE, Su TP Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Sulforaphane Induces Glioprotection After LPS Challenge.
es-Santos A Abstract Sulforaphane is a natural compound that presents anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, including in the central nervous system (CNS). Astroglial cells are involved in several functions to maintain brain homeostasis, actively participating in the inflammatory response and antioxidant defense systems. We, herein, investigated the potential mechanisms involved in the glioprotective effects of sulforaphane in the C6 astrocyte cell line, when challenged with the inflammogen, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Sulforaphane prevented the LPS-induced increase in the expression and/or release of pro-inf...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - October 20, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Bobermin LD, Weber FB, Dos Santos TM, Belló-Klein A, Wyse ATS, Gonçalves CA, Quincozes-Santos A Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Epigenetic Changes and Its Intervention in Age-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases.
Abstract Epigenetic mechanisms involving the modulation of gene activity without modifying the DNA bases are reported to have lifelong effects on mature neurons in addition to their impact on synaptic plasticity and cognition. Histone methylation and acetylation are involved in synchronizing gene expression and protein function in neuronal cells. Studies have demonstrated in experimental models of neurodegenerative disorders that manipulations of these two mechanisms influence the susceptibility of neurons to degeneration and apoptosis. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the expression of presenilin 1 (PSEN1) is markedl...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - October 19, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Mohd Murshid N, Aminullah Lubis F, Makpol S Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Histamine H3 Receptor Activation Modulates Glutamate Release in the Corticostriatal Synapse by Acting at CaV2.1 (P/Q-Type) Calcium Channels and GIRK (KIR3) Potassium Channels.
In this study, in sagittal slices from the rat dorsal striatum, excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were recorded in MSNs after electrical stimulation of corticostriatal axons. The effect of H3R activation and blockers of calcium and potassium channels was evaluated with the paired-pulse facilitation protocol. In the presence of the H3R antagonist/inverse agonist clobenpropit (1 μM), the H3R agonist immepip (1 μM) had no effect on the paired-pulse ratio (PPR), but in the absence of clobenpropit, immepip induced a significant increase in PPR, accompanied by a reduction in EPSP amplitude, suggesting pr...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - October 17, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Vázquez-Vázquez H, Gonzalez-Sandoval C, Vega AV, Arias-Montaño JA, Barral J Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Expression Pattern of ALOXE3 in Mouse Brain Suggests Its Relationship with Seizure Susceptibility.
Abstract Arachidonic acid (AA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid, is involved in the modulation of neuronal excitability in the brain. Arachidonate lipoxygenase 3 (ALOXE3), a critical enzyme in the AA metabolic pathway, catalyzes the derivate of AA into hepoxilins. However, the expression pattern of ALOXE3 and its role in the brain has not been described until now. Here we showed that the levels of Aloxe3 mRNA and protein kept increasing since birth and reached the highest level at postnatal day 30 in the mouse hippocampus and temporal cortex. Histomorphological analyses indicated that ALOXE3 was enriched in adult hip...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - October 15, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Tang HL, Chen SY, Zhang H, Lu P, Sun WW, Gao MM, Zeng XD, Su T, Long YS Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Girl  Power in Glaucoma: The Role of Estrogen in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma.
Girl Power in Glaucoma: The Role of Estrogen in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2020 Oct 11;: Authors: Fotesko K, Thomsen BSV, Kolko M, Vohra R Abstract Estrogen is essential in maintaining various physiological features in women, and a decline in estrogen levels are known to give rise to numerous unfortunate symptoms associated with menopause. To alleviate these symptoms hormone replacement therapy with estrogen is often used, and has been shown to be fruitful in improving quality of life in women suffering from postmenopausal discomforts. An often forgotten condition associated...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - October 11, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Fotesko K, Thomsen BSV, Kolko M, Vohra R Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Redox Homeostasis Impairment as Pathomechanisms of Brain Damage in Ethylmalonic Encephalopathy: Insights from Animal and Human Studies.
Abstract Ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE) is a severe intoxication disorder caused by mutations in the ETHE1 gene that encodes a mitochondrial sulfur dioxygenase involved in the catabolism of hydrogen sulfide. It is biochemically characterized by tissue accumulation of hydrogen sulfide and its by-product thiosulfate, as well as of ethylmalonic acid due to hydrogen sulfide-induced inhibition of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Patients usually present with early onset severe brain damage associated to encephalopathy, chronic hemorrhagic diarrhea and vascular lesions with petechial purpura and orthostatic acrocya...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - October 9, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Grings M, Wajner M, Leipnitz G Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Mu Opioids Induce Biased Signaling at the Full-Length Seven Transmembrane C-Terminal Splice Variants of the mu Opioid Receptor Gene, Oprm1.
Abstract The biased signaling has been extensively studied in the original mu opioid receptor (MOR-1), particularly through G protein and β-arrestin2 signaling pathways. The concept that the G protein pathway is often linked to the therapeutic effect of the drug, while the β-arrestin pathway is associated to the side effects has been proposed to develop biased analgesic compounds with limited side-effects associated with traditional opiates. The mu opioid receptor gene, OPRM1, undergoes extensive alternative pre-mRNA splicing, generating multiple splice variants or isoforms that are conserved from rodent...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - October 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Narayan A, Hunkle A, Xu J, Bassoni DL, Pasternak GW, Pan YX Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Supraspinal Mechanisms of Intestinal Hypersensitivity.
Abstract Gut inflammation or injury causes intestinal hypersensitivity (IHS) and hyperalgesia, which can persist after the initiating pathology resolves, are often referred to somatic regions and exacerbated by psychological stress, anxiety or depression, suggesting the involvement of both the spinal cord and the brain. The supraspinal mechanisms of IHS remain to be fully elucidated, however, over the last decades the series of intestinal pathology-associated neuroplastic changes in the brain has been revealed, being potentially responsible for the phenomenon. This paper reviews current clinical and experimental d...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - October 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Lyubashina OA, Sivachenko IB, Panteleev SS Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Glioma Pericytes Promote Angiogenesis by Producing Periostin.
Abstract Glioma is the prevalent aggressive primary brain tumor, with a very poor prognosis. The absence of advanced understanding of the roles played by the cells within the glioma microenvironment limits the development of effective drugs. A recent study indicates that periostin expressed by pericytes is crucial for glioma angiogenesis. Here, we describe succinctly the results and implications of this discovery in what we know about pericytes within the glioma microenvironment. The emerging knowledge from this work will benefit the development of therapies for gliomas. PMID: 33010018 [PubMed - as supplied b...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - October 2, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Bernardes SS, Pinto MCX, Amorim JH, Azevedo VAC, Resende RR, Mintz A, Birbrair A Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Alternative Splicing of Opioid Receptor Genes Shows a Conserved Pattern for 6TM Receptor Variants.
In this study, we have built a comprehensive map of alternative splicing events that produce 6TM receptor variants in all the OPRs and demonstrated their evolutionary conservation. We then obtained evidence for their translation through ribosomal footprint analysis. We discovered that N-terminally truncated 6TM GPCRs are rare in the human genome and OPRs are overrepresented in this group. Finally, we also observed a significant enrichment of 6TM GPCR genes among genes associated with pain, psychiatric disorders, and addiction. Understanding the biology of 6TM receptors and leveraging this knowledge for drug development sho...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - October 2, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Piltonen M, Krokhotin A, Parisien M, Bérubé P, Djambazian H, Sladek R, Dokholyan NV, Shabalina SA, Diatchenko L Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Plasma Leptin Reflects Progression of Neurofibrillary Pathology in Animal Model of Tauopathy.
Abstract The close relationship between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and obesity was recognized many years ago. However, complete understanding of the pathological mechanisms underlying the interactions between degeneration of CNS and fat metabolism is still missing. The leptin a key adipokine of white adipose tissue has been suggested as one of the major mediators linking the obesity and AD. Here we investigated the association between peripheral levels of leptin, general metabolic status and stage of the pathogenesis in rat transgenic model of AD. We demonstrate significantly decreased levels of plasma leptin in ani...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - September 29, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Cente M, Zorad S, Smolek T, Fialova L, Paulenka Ivanovova N, Krskova K, Balazova L, Skrabana R, Filipcik P Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Role of DAMPs and of Leukocytes Infiltration in Ischemic Stroke: Insights from Animal Models and Translation to the Human Disease.
Abstract Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Several mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke (IS). The contributory role of the inflammatory and immunity processes was demonstrated both in vitro and in animal models, and was confirmed in humans. IS evokes an immediate inflammatory response that involves complex cellular and molecular mechanisms. All components of the innate and adaptive immunity systems are involved in several steps of the ischemic cascade. In the early phase, inflammatory and immune mechanisms contribute to the brain tissue damage, whereas, in the l...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - September 28, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Stanzione R, Forte M, Cotugno M, Bianchi F, Marchitti S, Rubattu S Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Naloxone Facilitates Contextual Learning and Memory in a Receptor-Independent and Tet1-Dependent Manner.
Abstract Opioids, like morphine and naloxone, regulate the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in a receptor-independent and ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET1)-dependent manner in vitro. Whether naloxone regulates hippocampal NSCs and contextual learning in vivo in a similar manner was determined. Naloxone infusion increased the Ki67 and Doublecortin positive cells in subgranular zone of wild type mice, which suggested the increased proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal NSCs in vivo and was consistent with the in vitro functions of naloxone. In ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - September 27, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Meng F, Li Y, Sun H, Li C, Li Q, Law PY, Loh HH, Liang L, Zheng H Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Apelin Receptor Signaling Protects GT1-7 GnRH Neurons Against Oxidative Stress In Vitro.
maz B, Doğan A Abstract Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulates stress response in the body and abnormal increase in oxidative stress contributes to the various disease pathogenesis. Although hypothalamic distribution of Apelin receptor (APLNR) has been studied, the potential regulatory role in hormone releasing function of hypothalamus in response to stress is not well elucidated yet. To determine whether APLNR is involved in the protection of the hypothalamus against oxidative stress, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) cells were used as an in vitro model system. GT1-7 mouse hypothalamic neuronal...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - September 27, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Şişli HB, Hayal TB, Şenkal S, Kıratlı B, Sağraç D, Seçkin S, Özpolat M, Şahin F, Yılmaz B, Doğan A Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Interactive Mechanisms of Supraspinal Sites of Opioid Analgesic Action: A Festschrift to Dr. Gavril W. Pasternak.
Abstract Almost a half century of research has elaborated the discoveries of the central mechanisms governing the analgesic responses of opiates, including their receptors, endogenous peptides, genes and their putative spinal and supraspinal sites of action. One of the central tenets of "gate-control theories of pain" was the activation of descending supraspinal sites by opiate drugs and opioid peptides thereby controlling further noxious input. This review in the Special Issue dedicated to the research of Dr. Gavril Pasternak indicates his contributions to the understanding of supraspinal mediation of o...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - September 23, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Rossi GC, Bodnar RJ Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

LncRNA HOTAIR Promotes Neuronal Damage Through Facilitating NLRP3 Mediated-Pyroptosis Activation in Parkinson's Disease via Regulation of miR-326/ELAVL1 Axis.
In this study, we established PD models in vivo and in vitro by using 1-methyl-4-phenyl-2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) to assess the role of HOTAIR in pyroptotic cell death and neuronal damage. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) and dual luciferase reporter assay were used to verify the interaction between miR-326 and HOTAIR or ELAV like RNA binding protein 1 (ELAVL1). LncRNA HOTAIR was upregulated in PD mice and MPP+ induced SH-SY5Y cells. Additionally, knockdown of HOTAIR notably attenuated the symptom of PD in vivo. Downregulation of HOTAIR could obviously promoted cell viability and...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - September 22, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Zhang Q, Huang XM, Liao JX, Dong YK, Zhu JL, He CC, Huang J, Tang YW, Wu D, Tian JY Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Exacerbated Headache-Related Pain in the Single Prolonged Stress Preclinical Model of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.
Abstract Chronic headache pain is one of the most commonly reported comorbid pain conditions with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients and resistant to effective treatment, yet no combined preclinical model of the two disorders has been reported. Here, we used a modified chronic headache pain model to investigate the contribution of single prolonged stress (SPS) model of PTSD with sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced hyperalgesia. Injection of SNP (2 mg/kg, i.p.) occurred every other day from day 7 to day 15 after initiation of SPS in rats. Paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) to von Frey stimuli and tail f...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - September 14, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Zhang Y, Standifer KM Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

What Happened in the Hippocampal Axon in a Rat Model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.
Abstract Studies from postmortem and animal models have revealed altered synapse morphology and function in the brain of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). And the effects of PTSD on dendrites and spines have been reported, however, the effection on axon include microtubule (MT) and synaptic vesicles of presynaptic elements remains unknown. Hippocampus is involved in abnormal memory in PTSD. In the present study, we used the single prolonged stress (SPS) model to mimic PTSD. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and high-throughput sequencing (GSE153081) were utilized to analyze differentia...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - September 14, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Guan Y, Chen X, Zhao B, Shi Y, Han F Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research