Up-Regulation of SorCS1, an Important Sorting Receptor, in the Retina of a Form-Deprivation Rat Model.
Abstract Visually guided regulation is a sophisticated and active process, whereby sensory input helps to shape ocular development. Here, we sought to investigate the potential involvement of SorCS1, an important protein in synaptic transmission in neuron, in retinal development. A form-deprivation (FD) rat model was established. Ocular variations induced by FD were examined, including changes to eye axial length and retinal thickness. Scotopic electroretinogram (ERG) was used to examine retinal function. RD-PCR assays were screened for differentially expressed genes in FD rat eyes. Immunofluorescence staining ide...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - October 11, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Chen P, Xu L, Zhang J, Cai X, Yang Y, Yu J, Qiu J, Ge J, Yu K, Zhuang J Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Correction to: Role of Delayed Neuroglial Activation in Impaired Cerebral Blood Flow Restoration Following Comorbid Injury.
Abstract The original version of this article contained a random order of part labels for Fig. 4. The correct caption of Fig. 4 with correct order of part labels is given below. PMID: 31599387 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - October 10, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Amtul Z, Randhawa J, Najdat AN, Hill DJ, Arany EJ Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Correction to: Differences in Diurnal Variation of Immune Responses in Microglia and Macrophages: Review and Perspectives.
, Navarro L Abstract The original version of this article unfortunately contained an error in the author group. The given name and family name was interchanged for the two co-authors. The author name should be Anahí Chavarría and Luz Navarro instead it was published incorrectly as Chavarría Anahí and Navarro Luz. The original article has been corrected. PMID: 31599388 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - October 10, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Martínez-Tapia RJ, Chavarría A, Navarro L Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Elucidating Critical Proteinopathic Mechanisms and Potential Drug Targets in Neurodegeneration.
Abstract Neurodegeneration entails progressive loss of neuronal structure as well as function leading to cognitive failure, apathy, anxiety, irregular body movements, mood swing and ageing. Proteomic dysregulation is considered the key factor for neurodegeneration. Mechanisms involving deregulated processing of proteins such as amyloid beta (Aβ) oligomerization; tau hyperphosphorylation, prion misfolding; α-synuclein accumulation/lewy body formation, chaperone deregulation, acetylcholine depletion, adenosine 2A (A2A) receptor hyperactivation, secretase deregulation, leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - October 4, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Dar KB, Bhat AH, Amin S, Reshi BA, Zargar MA, Masood A, Ganie SA Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

FGF2 Stimulates the Growth and Improves the Melanocytic Commitment of Trunk Neural Crest Cells.
Abstract Neural crest cells (NCCs) comprise a population of multipotent progenitors and stem cells at the origin of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and melanocytes of skin, which are profoundly influenced by microenvironmental factors, among which is basic fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). In this work, we further investigated the role of this growth factor in quail trunk NC morphogenesis and demonstrated its huge effect in NCC growth mainly by stimulating cell proliferation but also reducing cell death, despite that NCC migration from the neural tube explant was not affected. Moreover, following FGF2 treatme...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - September 25, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Teixeira BL, Amarante-Silva D, Visoni SB, Garcez RC, Trentin AG Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Urokinase Plasminogen Activator: A Potential Thrombolytic Agent for Ischaemic Stroke.
Abstract Stroke continues to be one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Restoration of cerebral blood flow by recombinant plasminogen activator (rtPA) with or without mechanical thrombectomy is considered the most effective therapy for rescuing brain tissue from ischaemic damage, but this requires advanced facilities and highly skilled professionals, entailing high costs, thus in resource-limited contexts urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is commonly used as an alternative. This literature review summarises the existing studies relating to the potential clinical application of uPA in is...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - September 24, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Kadir RRA, Bayraktutan U Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Differences in Diurnal Variation of Immune Responses in Microglia and Macrophages: Review and Perspectives.
e; C, Luz N Abstract Biological rhythms, especially those that last close to 24 h, better known as circadian rhythms, are highly regulated phenomena, maintained throughout evolution in various organisms which allow organisms to predict, prepare for, and adapt to environmental changes. One of these phenomena that exhibit biological rhythms is the immune response to external agents. Immune cells (neutrophils, lymphocytes, macrophages, among others), as well as their mediators such as cytokines and chemokines, undergo variations in tissue and blood concentrations during the day. These rhythms are still being elu...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - September 23, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Martínez-Tapia RJ, Anahí C, Luz N Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Role of Delayed Neuroglial Activation in Impaired Cerebral Blood Flow Restoration Following Comorbid Injury.
Abstract Besides other causes, ischemia and Alzheimer's disease pathology is also linked to decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF). There is little or no consensus about the role of neuroglial cells in maintaining CBF in various neuropathologies. This consensus becomes scarcer when it comes to clinical and experimental cases of comorbid Abeta-amyloid (Aβ) toxicity and ischemia. Here, a comorbid rat model of Aβ toxicity and endothelin-1 induced ischemia (ET1) not only demonstrated the appearance of axotomized phagocytosed pyknotic neurons (NeuN) immediately after the injury, but also showed a diversity of co...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - September 14, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Amtul Z, Randhawa J, Najdat AN, Hill DJ, Arany EJ Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

PARK2 and PARK7 Gene Polymorphisms as Risk Factors Associated with Serum Element Concentrations and Clinical Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract Besides clinical and imaging techniques, there is a lack of molecular makers for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). There is an immense need to develop biomarkers associated with the phenotypes which may be valuable for individualized treatment. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (PARK2: Ser167Asn (G>A) and Val380Leu (G>C); PARK7: IVS4 + 46G>A and IVS4 + 30T>G) in PD-related genes were examined to elucidate its relationship with concentration of serum elements and clinical symptoms of PD. A total of 214 PD patients and 213 controls from Indian population were g...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - September 11, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Sanyal J, Anirudhan A, Banerjee TK, Guha G, Ramakrishnan Veerabathiran, Murugesan R, Ahmed SSJS, Rao VR Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

The Impact of Estradiol on Neurogenesis and Cognitive Functions in Alzheimer's Disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is described as cognitive and memory impairments with a sex-related epidemiological profile, affecting two times more women than men. There is emerging evidence that alternations in the hippocampal neurogenesis occur at the early stage of AD. Therapies that may effectively slow, stop, or regenerate the dying neurons in AD are being extensively investigated in the last few decades, but none has yet been found to be effective. The regulation of endogenous neurogenesis is one of the main therapeutic targets for AD. Mounting evidence indicates that the neurosteroid estradiol (17β...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - September 9, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Sahab-Negah S, Hajali V, Moradi HR, Gorji A Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Bcl-2 Overexpression Induces Neurite Outgrowth via the Bmp4/Tbx3/NeuroD1 Cascade in H19-7 Cells.
In this study, we aimed to determine the non-apoptotic functions of Bcl-2 during neuronal differentiation. First, we used microarrays to analyze the whole-genome expression patterns of rat neural stem cells overexpressing Bcl-2 and found that Bcl-2 overexpression induced the expression of various neurogenic genes. Moreover, Bcl-2 overexpression increased the neurite length as well as expression of Bmp4, Tbx3, and proneural basic helix-loop-helix genes, such as NeuroD1, NeuroD2, and Mash1, in H19-7 rat hippocampal precursor cells. To determine the hierarchy of these molecules, we selectively depleted Bmp4, Tbx3, and NeuroD1...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - September 6, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Lee YY, Choi HJ, Lee SY, Park SY, Kang MJ, Han J, Han JS Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

To be Wild or Mutant: Role of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and 2-Hydroxy Glutarate (2-HG) in Gliomagenesis and Treatment Outcome in Glioma.
Abstract Molecular and clinical research based on isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations is much sought after in glioma research since a decade of its discovery in 2008. IDH enzyme normally catalyzes isocitrate to α-keto-glutarate (α-KG), but once the gene is mutated it produces an 'oncometabolite', 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). 2-HG is proposed to inhibit α-KG-dependent dioxygenases and also blocks cellular differentiation. Here, we discuss the role of the IDH1 mutation in gliomagenesis. The review also focuses on the effect of 2-HG on glioma epigenetics, the cellular signaling involved in IDH1 m...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - September 4, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Bhavya B, Anand CR, Madhusoodanan UK, Rajalakshmi P, Krishnakumar K, Easwer HV, Deepti AN, Gopala S Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Genetic and Molecular Biology of Multiple Sclerosis Among Iranian Patients: An Overview.
Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one if the common types of autoimmune disorders in developed countries. Various environmental and genetic factors are associated with initiation and progression of MS. It is believed that the life style changes can be one of the main environmental risk factors. The environmental factors are widely studied and reported, whereas minority of reports have considered the role of genetic factors in biology of MS. Although Iran is a low-risk country in the case of MS prevalence, it has been shown that there was a dramatically rising trend of MS prevalence among Iranian population durin...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - September 3, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Moghbeli M Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Atropa belladonna Expresses a microRNA (aba-miRNA-9497) Highly Homologous to Homo sapiens miRNA-378 (hsa-miRNA-378); both miRNAs target the 3'-Untranslated Region (3'-UTR) of the mRNA Encoding the Neurologically Relevant, Zinc-Finger Transcription Factor ZNF-691.
Abstract Recent advances in ethnobotanical and neurological research indicate that ingested plants from our diet may not only be a source of nutrition but also a source of biologically relevant nucleic-acid-encoded genetic information. A major source of RNA-encoded information from plants has been shown to be derived from small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) such as microRNAs (miRNAs) that can transfer information horizontally between plants and humans. In human hosts, the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) is targeted by these miRNAs to effectively down-regulate expression of that mRNA target in...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - August 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Avsar B, Zhao Y, Li W, Lukiw WJ Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Glioprotective Effect of Chitosan-Coated Rosmarinic Acid Nanoemulsions Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Rat Astrocyte Primary Cultures.
hol E Abstract Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural polyphenolic compound with a well-documented neuroprotective effect mainly associated with its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Recently, our research group developed and optimized chitosan-coated RA nanoemulsions (RA CNE) intended to be used for nasal delivery as a new potential neuroprotective therapy. In this sense, the present study aimed to evaluate the protective and/or therapeutic potential of RA CNE in inflammation/oxidative stress induced by LPS (1 μg mL-1) in rat astrocyte primary cultures. In summary, pre-treatment with RA C...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - August 24, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Fachel FNS, Dal Prá M, Azambuja JH, Endres M, Bassani VL, Koester LS, Henriques AT, Barschak AG, Teixeira HF, Braganhol E Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Photobiomodulation Therapy Inhibit the Activation and Secretory of Astrocytes by Altering Macrophage Polarization.
In this study, a BALB/c mice model with standardized bilateral spinal cord compression and a macrophage-astrocyte co-culture model were applied to study effects of PBM on astrocytes. Results showed that PBM inhibit the expression of the astrocyte markers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the secretion of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) in the para-epicenter area, decrease the number of M1 macrophage in vivo. The in vitro experiments indicated M1 macrophages promote the cell viability of astrocytes and the expression of CSPG. However, PBM significantly inhibited the expression of GFAP, decreased activation...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - August 24, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Sun J, Zhang J, Li K, Zheng Q, Song J, Liang Z, Ding T, Qiao L, Zhang J, Hu X, Wang Z Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Pharmacological Effects of Melatonin as Neuroprotectant in Rodent Model: A Review on the Current Biological Evidence.
Abstract The progressive loss of structure and functions of neurons, including neuronal death, is one of the main factors leading to poor quality of life. Promotion of functional recovery of neuron after injury is a great challenge in neuroregenerative studies. Melatonin, a hormone is secreted by pineal gland and has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. Besides that, melatonin has high cell permeability and is able to cross the blood-brain barrier. Apart from that, there are no reported side effects associated with long-term usage of melatonin at both physiological and pharmacological d...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - August 21, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Tan HY, Ng KY, Koh RY, Chye SM Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Potential Use of Exfoliated and Cultured Olfactory Neuronal Precursors for In Vivo Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis: A Pilot Study.
ute;rdenas L, Benítez-King G Abstract Histopathological hallmarks of dementia have been described postmortem in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tau, a microtubule associated protein, is abnormally arranged in neurofibrillary tangles. In living AD patients, total tau (t-tau) and hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) levels are increased in the cerebrospinal fluid obtained by lumbar puncture. Herein, we studied the t-tau and p-tau levels as well as the subcellular distribution of t-tau in olfactory neuronal precursors obtained by exfoliation of the nasal cavity of AD patients and control partic...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - August 14, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Riquelme A, Valdés-Tovar M, Ugalde O, Maya-Ampudia V, Fernández M, Mendoza-Durán L, Rodríguez-Cárdenas L, Benítez-King G Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Pericytes Suppress Brain Metastasis from Lung Cancer In Vitro.
This study aimed to reveal the interaction between pericytes and cancer cells. We established in vitro BBB models with rat primary cultured BBB-related cells (endothelial cells, astrocytes, and pericytes) and investigated the relationship between BBB-related cells and metastatic cancer cell lines. We observed a significant decrease in transendothelial electrical resistance with metastatic cancer cells in monolayer and coculture models with astrocytes. In contrast, the coculture model with pericytes showed inhibition of the decrease in transendothelial electrical resistance with metastatic cancer cells. In addition, the exp...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - August 14, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Fujimoto T, Nakagawa S, Morofuji Y, Watanabe D, Ujifuku K, Horie N, Izumo T, Niwa M, Banks WA, Deli MA, Matsuo T Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Correction to: Mammalian Target of Rapamycin 2 (MTOR2) and C-MYC Modulate Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Synthesis in Glioblastoma (GBM) Cells Through Glutamine: Fructose-6-Phosphate Aminotransferase 1 (GFAT1).
Abstract The original version of this article unfortunately contained an error in author group. The authors Yi-Xiang See, Xin Chen, Zi-Kai Chen and Ze-Bin Huang were inadvertently included in the article. PMID: 31414301 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - August 14, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Liu B, Yao HK Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Experimental Autoimmune Prostatitis Induces Learning-Memory Impairment and Structural Neuroplastic Changes in Mice.
Abstract Patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) commonly experience learning and memory decline and the underlying pathogenesis remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to study the effects of CP/CPPS on cognitive function by using a mouse model of experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP). Non-obese diabetic mice were immunized subcutaneously by prostate antigen and adjuvant twice and tested for cognitive performance by Morris water maze and novel object recognition test after the EAP induction. Then, dendritic complexity and spine densities were measured by ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - August 10, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Du H, Chen X, Zhang L, Liu Y, Zhan C, Chen J, Wang H, Yu Z, Liang C Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Minimal Age-Related Alterations in Behavioral and Hematological Parameters in Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 (TAAR1) Knockout Mice.
In this study, we performed analysis of anxiety-related behaviors, a complete blood count (CBC), erythrocyte fragility, as well as FT3/FT4 thyroid hormones levels in adult and middle-aged TAAR1 knockout mice. Complete blood count analysis was performed on a Siemens Advia 2120i hematology analyzer and included more than 35 measured and calculated parameters. Erythrocyte fragility test evaluated spherocytosis pathologies of red blood cells (RBC). No significant alterations in essentially all these parameters were found in mice without TAAR1. However, comparative aging analysis has revealed a decreased neutrophils level in th...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - August 9, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Zhukov IS, Kubarskaya LG, Tissen IY, Kozlova AA, Dagayev SG, Kashuro VA, Vlasova OL, Sinitca EL, Karpova IV, Gainetdinov RR Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Melatonin and Parkinson Disease: Current Status and Future Perspectives for Molecular Mechanisms.
Abstract Parkinson disease (PD) is a chronic and neurodegenerative disease with motor and nonmotor symptoms. Multiple pathways are involved in the pathophysiology of PD, including apoptosis, autophagy, oxidative stress, inflammation, α-synuclein aggregation, and changes in the neurotransmitters. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that melatonin supplementation is an appropriate therapy for PD. Administration of melatonin leads to inhibition of some pathways related to apoptosis, autophagy, oxidative stress, inflammation, α-synuclein aggregation, and dopamine loss in PD. In addition, melatonin ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - August 6, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Tamtaji OR, Reiter RJ, Alipoor R, Dadgostar E, Kouchaki E, Asemi Z Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor Modulation by the Transcription Factor NRF2 is Specific in Microglial Cells.
In this study, we analyze whether NRF2 could modulate the transcription of CB2 in neuronal and microglial cells. Bioinformatics analysis revealed an antioxidant response element in the promoter sequence of the CB2 receptor gene. Further analysis by chemical and genetic manipulations of this transcription factor demonstrated that NRF2 is not able to modulate the expression of CB2 in neurons. On the other hand, at the level of microglia, the expression of CB2 is NRF2-dependent. These results are related to the differential levels of expression of both genes regarding the brain cell type. Since modulation of CB2 receptor sign...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - August 5, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Galán-Ganga M, Del Río R, Jiménez-Moreno N, Díaz-Guerra M, Lastres-Becker I Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Alternative Splicing of ALS Genes: Misregulation and Potential Therapies.
aro S Abstract Neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's disease affect a rapidly increasing population worldwide. Although common pathogenic mechanisms have been identified (e.g., protein aggregation or dysfunction, immune response alteration and axonal degeneration), the molecular events underlying timing, dosage, expression, and location of RNA molecules are still not fully elucidated. In particular, the alternative splicing (AS) mechanism is a crucial player in RNA processing and represents a fundamental de...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - August 5, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Perrone B, La Cognata V, Sprovieri T, Ungaro C, Conforti FL, Andò S, Cavallaro S Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Putative Trace-Amine  Associated Receptor 5 (TAAR5) Agonist α-NETA Increases Electrocorticogram Gamma-Rhythm in Freely Moving Rats.
In conclusion, putative TAAR5 agonist α-NETA can modulate striatal dopamine transmission and cause significant alterations of gamma rhythm of brain activity in a manner consistent with schizophrenia-related deficits described in humans and experimental animals. These observations suggest a role of TAAR5 in the modulation of cognitive functions affected in brain pathologies. PMID: 31385135 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - August 5, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Belov DR, Efimova EV, Fesenko ZS, Antonova KA, Kolodyazhny SF, Lakstygal AM, Gainetdinov RR Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

KDELR2 Promotes Glioblastoma Tumorigenesis Targeted by HIF1a via mTOR Signaling Pathway.
Abstract The KDEL (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu) receptors (KDELRs), proteins with seven transmembrane domains, are primarily responsible for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis. Recent studies have found additional function of KDELRs in growth, cellular secretory traffic, immune response, and autophagy; however, its role in tumorigenesis is still poorly understood. Here, we showed that KDELR2 is highly expressed in glioblastoma (GBM) tissues. Reviewing the expression of KDELR2 in TCGA and REMBRANDT database, we found that higher expression of KDELR2 is associated with shorter survival of GBM patients. We explored the effec...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 25, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Liao Z, She C, Ma L, Sun Z, Li P, Zhang X, Wang P, Li W Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Prognostic Value of Plasma Trimethylamine N-Oxide Levels in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke.
Abstract Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) has emerged as a newly identified gut microbiota-dependent metabolite contributing to a variety of diseases, such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of our study was to determine whether a relatively high TMAO level is associated with an increased risk of poor outcome in ischemic stroke patients. From June 2018 to December 2018, we prospectively recruited acute ischemic stroke patients diagnosed within 24 h of symptom onset. The plasma TMAO level was measured at admission for all patients. Functional outcome was evaluated at 3 months ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 22, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Zhai Q, Wang X, Chen C, Tang Y, Wang Y, Tian J, Zhao Y, Liu X Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Induction of Neuroinflammation and Neurotoxicity by Synthetic Hemozoin.
In this study, we determined whether a synthetic form of hemozoin (sHZ) produces neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity in cellular models. Incubation of BV-2 microglia with sHZ (200 and 400 µg/ml) induced significant elevation in the levels of TNFα, IL-6, IL-1β, NO/iNOS, phospho-p65, accompanied by an increase in DNA binding of NF-κB. Treatment of BV-2 microglia with sHZ increased protein levels of NLRP3 with accompanying increase in caspase-1 activity. In the presence of NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082 (10 µM), there was attenuation of sHZ-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 22, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Velagapudi R, Kosoko AM, Olajide OA Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

The PILRA G78R Variant Correlates with Higher HSV-1-Specific IgG Titers in Alzheimer's Disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive performance; Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is instead an objective decline in cognitive performance that does not reach pathology. Paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor alpha (PILRA) is a cell surface inhibitory receptor that was recently suggested to be involved in AD pathogenesis. In particular, the arginine-to-glycine substitution in position 78 (R78, rs1859788) was shown to be protective against AD. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection is suspected as well to be involved in AD. I...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 11, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Agostini S, Costa AS, Mancuso R, Guerini FR, Nemni R, Clerici M Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effect of Natural Alkaloid Fangchinoline Against Oxidative Glutamate Toxicity: Involvement of Keap1-Nrf2 Axis Regulation.
This study set out with the aim to investigate the beneficial effects of fangchinoline (FAN), a natural alkaloid, against glutamate-induced oxidative damage, and to clarify the underlying cellular and biochemical mechanisms. FAN prevented HT22 cells death from oxidative glutamate cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, and significantly attenuated the overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reversed the reduction of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity induced by glutamate. Further investigations on the underlying mechanisms demonstrated that FAN potently up-regulated the protein level of nuclear ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 3, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Bao F, Tao L, Zhang H Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

SIRT1 Activation Attenuates Bone Cancer Pain by Inhibiting mGluR1/5.
In this study, we detected the time course of SIRT1 expression and activity in the spinal cord of mice with BCP and examined whether SRT1720 alleviated BCP by inhibiting metabotropic glutamatergic receptor (mGluR) 1/5 expression. In addition, we downregulated spinal SIRT1 expression in normal mice through an intrathecal injection of AAV-SIRT1-shRNA and then assessed pain behavior and mGluR1/5 expression. Mice with BCP developed significant mechanical allodynia and spontaneous flinching, accompanied by decreased levels of the SIRT1 protein, mRNA, and activity in the spinal cord. The SRT1720 treatment produced an analgesic e...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 3, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Yang C, Kang F, Wang S, Han M, Zhang Z, Li J Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Inhibition of Reactive Astrocytes with Fluorocitrate Ameliorates Learning and Memory Impairment Through Upregulating CRTC1 and Synaptophysin in Ischemic Stroke Rats.
Abstract Ischemic stroke often causes motor and cognitive deficits. Deregulated glia gap junction communication, which is reflected by increased protein levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and connexin 43 (Cx43), has been observed in ischemic hippocampus and has been associated with cognitive impairment in animal stroke models. Here, we tested the hypothesis that reactive astrocytes-mediated loss of synaptophysin (SYP) and CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) contribute to dysfunction in glia gap junction communication and memory impairment after ischemic stroke. Male Sprague-Dawley rats...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 3, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Zhang X, Shen X, Dong J, Liu WC, Song M, Sun Y, Shu H, Towse CL, Liu W, Liu CF, Jin X Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

CeO2@PAA-LXW7 Attenuates LPS-Induced Inflammation in BV2 Microglia.
Abstract Microglia are the inherent immune effector cells in the central nervous system (CNS), are activated rapidly when the CNS is stimulated by ischaemia, infection, injury, etc. and participate in and aggravate the development of inflammatory reactions in the CNS. During the process of microglial activation, inflammatory factors such as TNF-α and IL-1β and an abundance of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS), are released by damaged nerve cells. LXW7 is a small molecule peptide and specifically binds with integrin αvβ3. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) are s...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 29, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Jia J, Li C, Zhang T, Sun J, Peng S, Xie Q, Huang Y, Yi L Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Estrogen Receptors Alpha and Beta in POA-AHA Region Regulate Asymmetrically Ovulation.
We examined the role of the estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) in of the preoptic-anterior hypothalamic area (POA-AHA) in the regulation of ovulation in rats. The number of ERα- and ERβ-immunoreactive (-ir) cells was determined at 09:00, 13:00, and 17:00 h of each stage of the estrous cycle in intact rats. Additionally, the effects of blocking ERα and ERβ on ovulation rate at 09:00 h on diestrus-2 or proestrus day through the microinjection of methyl-piperidino-pyrazole (MPP) or cyclofenil in either side of POA-AHA were evaluated. The number of ERα-ir and ERβ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Arrieta-Cruz I, Librado-Osorio R, Flores A, Mendoza-Garcés L, Chavira R, Cárdenas M, Gutiérrez-Juárez R, Domínguez R, Cruz ME Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Ca2+ Signaling in Oligodendrocyte Development.
Abstract Calcium signaling has essential roles in the development of the nervous system, from neural induction to the proliferation, migration, and differentiation of both neuronal and glia cells. The temporal and spatial dynamics of Ca2+ signals control the highly diverse yet specific transcriptional programs that establish the complex structures of the nervous system. Ca2+-signaling pathways are shaped by interactions among metabotropic signaling cascades, ion channels, intracellular Ca2+ stores, and a multitude of downstream effector proteins that activate specific genetic programs. Progress in the last decade ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 19, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Zhang M, Liu Y, Wu S, Zhao X Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Lidocaine Potentiates SOCS3 to Attenuate Inflammation in Microglia and Suppress Neuropathic Pain.
In this study, effects of lidocaine on the suppressors of cytokine-signaling protein 3 (SOCS3) in microglia are investigated in chronic constriction injury (CCI) rat model and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 cells. It was shown that intrathecal injection of lidocaine substantially alleviated CCI-induced neuropathic pain, as reflected by the decreased thermal latency and mechanical threshold. Lidocaine reduced the CCI-evoked spinal injury and cell apoptosis. CCI induced an significant increase of IBA1+ microglia accompanied by the increase of inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-1β, which were suppressed after l...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 17, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Zheng Y, Hou X, Yang S Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Cortisol and IgA are Involved in the Progression of Alzheimer's Disease. A Pilot Study.
ez FJ, García-Pardo MP Abstract It is known that stress and immune systems are related with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the relationship of both systems in the progression of disease is not clearly demonstrated. Hair cortisol and salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) were quantified in 49 patients with mild, moderate, and severe AD. A significant change was seen in both molecules as AD progressed from mild to moderate and severe. Low levels of cortisol were observed in mild AD patients compared with moderate and severe. However, IgA showed a contrary pattern. High levels were observed in mild AD patientes ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 15, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: de la Rubia Ortí JE, Prado-Gascó V, Sancho Castillo S, Julián-Rochina M, Romero Gómez FJ, García-Pardo MP Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Hypoxia Regulated Gene Network in Glioblastoma Has Special Algebraic Topology Structures and Revealed Communications Involving Warburg Effect and Immune Regulation.
Abstract Hypoxia regulated genes (HRGs) formed a complex molecular interaction network (MINW), contributing to many aspects of glioblastoma (GBM) tumor biology. However, little is known about the intrinsic structures of the HRGs-MINW, mainly due to a lack of analysis tools to decipher MINWs. By introducing general hyper-geometric distribution, we obtained a statistically reliable gene set of HRGs (SR-HRGs) from several datasets. Next, MINWs were reconstructed from several independent GBM expression datasets. Algebraic topological analysis was performed to quantitatively analyze the amount of equivalence classes of...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 15, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Mao XG, Xue XY, Wang L, Wang L, Li L, Zhang X Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

The Systemic Administration of the Chemokine CCL1 Evokes Thermal Analgesia in Mice Through the Activation of the Endocannabinoid System.
We describe here that the subcutaneous administration of CCL1 (1-10 µg/kg) produces dose-dependent and long-lasting increases in thermal withdrawal latencies measured by the unilateral hot plate test in mice. The antinociceptive nature of this effect is further supported by the reduction of spinal neurons expressing Fos protein in response to a noxious thermal stimulus observed after the administration of 10 µg/kg of CCL1. CCL1-induced antinociception was inhibited after systemic, but not spinal administration of the selective antagonist R243 (0.1-1 mg/kg), demonstrating the participation of peri...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 15, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: García-Domínguez M, Aguirre A, Lastra A, Hidalgo A, Baamonde A, Menéndez L Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Regulation of the Serotonergic System by Kainate in the Avian Retina.
In conclusion, our data suggest a highly selective effect of kainate receptors in the regulation of serotonin functions in the retinal cells. PMID: 31197744 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 13, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Passos ADCF, Herculano AM, Oliveira KRHM, de Lima SMA, Rocha FAF, Freitas HR, da Silva Sampaio L, Figueiredo DP, da Costa Calaza K, de Melo Reis RA, do Nascimento JLM Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

High-Mobility Group Box 1 Neutralization Prevents Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion-Induced Optic Tract Injuries in the White Matter Associated with Down-regulation of Inflammatory Responses.
Abstract Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH)-induced white matter lesions (WMLs) are region-specific with the optic tract (OT) displaying the most severe damages and leading to visual-based behavioral impairment. Previously we have demonstrated that anti-high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) neutralizing antibody (Ab) prevents CCH-induced hippocampal damages via inhibition of neuroinflammation. Here we tested the protective role of the Ab on CCH-induced OT injuries. Rats were treated with permanent occlusion of common carotid arteries (2-VO) or a sham surgery, and then administered with PBS, anti-HMGB1 Ab, or paired ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 13, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Hei Y, Zhang X, Chen R, Zhou Y, Gao D, Liu W Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Proteomics in Human Parkinson's Disease: Present Scenario and Future Directions.
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related, threatening neurodegenerative disorder with no reliable treatment till date. Identification of specific and reliable biomarker is a major challenge for disease diagnosis and designing effective therapeutic strategy against it. PD pathology at molecular level involves abnormal expression and function of several proteins, including alpha-synuclein. These proteins affect the normal functioning of neurons through various post-translational modifications and interaction with other cellular components. The role of protein anomalies during PD pathogenesis can be better...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 12, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Dixit A, Mehta R, Singh AK Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

The Effects of Maternal Atrazine Exposure and Swimming Training on Spatial Learning Memory and Hippocampal Morphology in Offspring Male Rats via PSD95/NR2B Signaling Pathway.
Abstract Atrazine (ATR), a widely used herbicide, has been previously shown to damage spatial memory capability and the hippocampus of male rats during the development. It has also been indicated that physical exercise can improve learning and memory in both humans and animals, as a neuroprotective method. Our aim here was to investigate the effect of maternal ATR exposure during gestation and lactation on spatial learning and memory function and hippocampal morphology in offspring and to further evaluate the neuroprotective effect of swimming training and identify possible related learning and memory signaling pa...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 11, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Wang D, Li B, Wu Y, Li B Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Expression of Concern.
Authors: PMID: 31175482 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 7, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Fractalkine Induces Hepcidin Expression of BV-2 Microglia and Causes Iron Accumulation in SH-SY5Y Cells.
We examined the relation between increased hepcidin secretion, the known hepcidin regulators and the signalling pathways controlled by fractalkine receptor. Our data revealed that TMPRSS6 and alpha 1-antitrypsin levels decreased due to fractalkine treatment, as well as the activity of NFκB pathway and the tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT5 factor. Moreover, fractalkine-induced hepcidin production of microglia initiated ferroportin internalisation of SH-SY5Y cells, which contributed to iron accumulation of neurons. Our results demonstrate that soluble form of fractalkine regulates hepcidin expression of BV-2 cells thro...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 6, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Pandur E, Tamási K, Pap R, Varga E, Miseta A, Sipos K Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Effect of Inhibiting p38 on HuR Involving in β-AChR Post-transcriptional Mechanisms in Denervated Skeletal Muscle.
In this study, we wanted to examine the effect of inhibiting p38 on HuR in denervated skeletal muscle. Denervation model was built and 10% DMSO or SB203580 were administered respectively follow denervation. Tibialis muscles were collected in 10% DMSO-administered contralateral (undenervated) leg, 10% DMSO-administered denervated leg, SB203580-administered contralateral (undenervated) leg, and SB203580-administered denervated leg, respectively. P38 protein, β-AChR mRNA and protein, HuR protein, β-AChR mRNA stability, and HuR binding with AChR β-subunit mRNAs were measured. Results demonstrated that the admini...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 6, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Wang H, Zhao X, Yun W, Chen LH, Li ST Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Enhancing the Astrocytic Clearance of Extracellular α-Synuclein Aggregates by Ginkgolides Attenuates Neural Cell Injury.
Enhancing the Astrocytic Clearance of Extracellular α-Synuclein Aggregates by Ginkgolides Attenuates Neural Cell Injury. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2019 Jun 05;: Authors: Hua J, Yin N, Xu S, Chen Q, Tao T, Zhang J, Ding J, Fan Y, Hu G Abstract The accumulation of aggregated forms of the α-Synuclein (α-Syn) is associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), and the efficient clearance of aggregated α-Syn represents a potential approach in PD therapy. Astrocytes are the most numerous glia cells in the brain and play an essential role in supporting brain functions in PD sta...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 5, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Hua J, Yin N, Xu S, Chen Q, Tao T, Zhang J, Ding J, Fan Y, Hu G Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

High-Fat Diets and LXRs Expression in Rat Liver and Hypothalamus.
ini H Abstract Disturbances on lipid metabolism are associated with health disorders. High-fat diets (HFDs) consumption promotes cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases where cholesterol plays an important role. Among regulators of this steroid homeostasis, the liver X receptors (LXRs) induce genes that protect cells from cholesterol overload. We previously described how both hypothalamic LXRα and LXRβ are sensitive to a high-fructose diet, suggesting that these receptors trigger responses related to control of energy and food intake. The present work's main objective was to study the effect of di...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 3, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Rey M, Kruse MS, Magrini-Huamán RN, Coirini H Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

CA1 LTP Attenuated by Corticosterone is Canceled by Effusol via Rescuing Intracellular Zn2+ Dysregulation.
Abstract Exposure to corticosterone attenuates hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP) via intracellular Zn2+ dysregulation. Here we report that effusol, a phenanthrene isolated from Chinese medicine Juncus effusus, rescues CA1 LTP attenuated by corticosterone. In vivo microdialysis experiment indicated that both increases in extracellular glutamate induced under perfusion with corticosterone and high K+ are suppressed in the hippocampus by co-perfusion with effusol. Because corticosterone and high K+ also increase extracellular Zn2+ level, followed by intracellular Zn2+ dysregulation, the effect of effusol o...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - May 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Tamano H, Sato Y, Takiguchi M, Murakami T, Fukuda T, Kawagishi H, Suzuki M, Takeda A Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research