Functional Genomics of Epileptogenesis in Animal Models and Humans.
In this study, I carried out meta-analyses and analyses of convergence for available GWES for epileptogenesis in humans and in mouse, rat, zebrafish and fruit fly models. Multiple lines of evidence (such as genome-wide association data and known druggable genes) were integrated to prioritize top candidate genes for epileptogenesis and a functional enrichment analysis was carried out. Several top candidate genes, which are supported by multiple lines of genomic evidence, such as GRIN1, KCNAB1 and STX1B, were identified. Druggable genes of potential interest (such as GABRA2, GRIK1, KCNAB1 and STX4) were also identified. An e...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 28, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Forero DA Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Valproic Acid: A Potential Therapeutic for Spinal Cord Injury.
This report reviewed the correlation between mTOR and autophagy, as well as autophagy's role and the therapeutic effects of VPA in SCI. VPA regulates autophagy by potentially inhibiting mTORC1, a complex of mTOR, while also hindering inflammatory response. Conclusively, an effective treatment for SCI could lie in the timely regulation of mTOR signaling pathway, and VPA could be the potential drug that improves SCI owing to its propensity to regulate the mTOR signaling pathway. PMID: 32725456 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 28, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Zhou C, Hu S, Botchway BOA, Zhang Y, Liu X Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

The Mechanistic Role of Bridging Integrator 1 (BIN1) in Alzheimer's Disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia. The majority of AD cases are late-onset, multifactorial cases. Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 30 loci associated with sporadic AD (SAD), one of which is Bridging integrator 1 (BIN1). For the past few years, there has been a consensus that BIN1 is second only to APOE as the strongest genetic risk factor for SAD. Therefore, many researchers have put great effort into studying the mechanism by which BIN1 might be involved in the pathogenetic process of AD. To date, plenty of evidence has shown that BIN1 may participate in s...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 27, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Gao P, Ye L, Cheng H, Li H Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Valproic Acid Sensitizes Glioma Cells to Luteolin Through Induction of Apoptosis and Autophagy via Akt Signaling.
In this study, three glioma cell lines including U251, LN229 and SNB19 were selected for evaluation of combined anti-tumor effects of VPA and luteolin via Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, colony formation assay, wound-healing assay, flow cytometry and western blot assay. The results disclosed that VPA sensitized glioma cells to luteolin by repressing cell viability, colony formation and migration. Mechanically, VPA boosted cellular apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest by increased level of cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3, cleaved PARP/PARP and Bax/Bcl-2. In addition, VPA also facilitated cellular autophagy via the decline of p62,...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 27, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Han W, Yu F, Wang R, Guan W, Zhi F Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

HBO-PC Promotes Locomotor Recovery by Reducing Apoptosis and Inflammation in SCI Rats: The Role of the mTOR Signaling Pathway.
Abstract Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBO-PC) has beneficial effects on the promotion of locomotor recovery by reducing apoptosis and inflammation after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway has been implicated in apoptosis and inflammation in many pathophysiological conditions. However, whether HBO-PC improves traumatic SCI-induced locomotor dysfunction by regulating the mTOR signaling pathway and its downstream molecules remains unknown. In the present study, we found that HBO-PC significantly promoted SCI-induced hind-limb locomotor recovery and inc...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 26, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Chen H, Xu G, Wu Y, Wang X, Wang F, Zhang Y Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Time-Dependent Changes in the Serum Levels of Neurobiochemical Factors After Acute Methadone Overdose in Adolescent Male Rat.
Abstract Acute methadone toxicity is a major public health concern which has adverse effects on brain tissue and results in recurrent or delayed respiratory arrest. Our study aimed to investigate the time-dependent changes in several serum biochemical markers of brain damage, spatial working memory, and the brain tissue following acute methadone overdose. Adolescent male rats underwent an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 15 mg/kg methadone. In case of apnea occurrence, resuscitation was performed by a ventilatory pump and administrating naloxone (2 mg/kg; i.p.). The animals were classified into groups...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 25, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Ahmad-Molaei L, Pourhamzeh M, Ahadi R, Khodagholi F, Hassanian-Moghaddam H, Haghparast A Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

HIF1 α and p53 Regulated MED30, a Mediator Complex Subunit, is Involved in Regulation of Glioblastoma Pathogenesis and Temozolomide Resistance.
We report that MED30, a core subunit of the head module, is overexpressed in GBM tissues and cell lines. MED30 was found to be induced by conditions present in the tumor microenvironment such as hypoxia, serum, and glucose deprivation. MED30 harbors hypoxia response elements (HREs) and p53 binding site in its promoter and is induced in a HIF1α and p53 dependent manner. Further, MED30 levels also significantly positively correlated with p53 and HIF1α levels in GBM tissues. Using both MED30 overexpression and knockdown approach, we show that MED30 promotes cell proliferation while reduces the migration capabiliti...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 23, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Shukla A, Srivastava S, Darokar J, Kulshreshtha R Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

The Interplay of Tau Protein and β-Amyloid: While Tauopathy Spreads More Profoundly Than Amyloidopathy, Both Processes Are Almost Equally Pathogenic.
The Interplay of Tau Protein and β-Amyloid: While Tauopathy Spreads More Profoundly Than Amyloidopathy, Both Processes Are Almost Equally Pathogenic. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2020 Jul 22;: Authors: Pourhamzeh M, Joghataei MT, Mehrabi S, Ahadi R, Hojjati SMM, Fazli N, Nabavi SM, Pakdaman H, Shahpasand K Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, in which amyloid precursor protein (APP) misprocessing and tau protein hyperphosphorylation are well-established pathogenic cascades. Despite extensive considerations, the central mediator of neuronal cell death upon AD remains under deb...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 22, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Pourhamzeh M, Joghataei MT, Mehrabi S, Ahadi R, Hojjati SMM, Fazli N, Nabavi SM, Pakdaman H, Shahpasand K Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Building a Bridge Between NMDAR-Mediated Excitotoxicity and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Chronic and Acute Diseases.
Abstract Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and it is widely accepted to play a role in synaptic plasticity and excitotoxic cell death. Glutamate binds to several receptors, including ionotropic N-methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR), which is essential in synaptic plasticity and excitotoxicity. This receptor is a calcium channel that is located in synaptic and extrasynaptic sites, triggering different signalling cascades in each case. The calcium entry through extrasynaptic NMDARs is linked to calcium overload in the mitochondria in neurons in vitro. The mitochondria, besides their ro...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 22, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Mira RG, Cerpa W Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Microglial TLR9: Plausible Novel Target for Therapeutic Regime Against Glioblastoma Multiforme.
Abstract An understanding of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and immunomodulatory approach based on activation of these receptors has provided insights critical for the management of neurological health disorders. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of the most widely explored PRRs and have been exploited in the recent past for development of novel immunomodulatory therapeutic agents. Glioblastoma multiforme is characterized by significant infiltration of resident microglia and expresses all the members of the TLR family. The present report is focused on exciting findings pertaining to probable implications of...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 20, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Tiwari RK, Singh S, Gupta CL, Bajpai P Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Dynamic Foot Stimulations During Short-Term Hindlimb Unloading Prevent Dysregulation of the Neurotransmission in the Hippocampus of Rats.
Abstract Spaceflight and simulated microgravity both affect learning and memory, which are mostly controlled by the hippocampus. However, data about molecular alterations in the hippocampus in real or simulated microgravity conditions are limited. Adult Wistar rats were recruited in the experiments. Here we analyzed whether short-term simulated microgravity caused by 3-day hindlimb unloading (HU) will affect the glutamatergic and GABAergic systems of the hippocampus and how dynamic foot stimulation (DFS) to the plantar surface applied during HU can contribute in the regulation of hippocampus functioning. The resul...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 18, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Berezovskaya AS, Tyganov SA, Nikolaeva SD, Naumova AA, Merkulyeva NS, Shenkman BS, Glazova MV Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

SIRT1 Activation by Polydatin Alleviates Oxidative Damage and Elevates Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Experimental Diabetic Neuropathy.
In this study, polydatin (25 and 50 mg/kg, oral) was administered for last 2 weeks of 8-week study to diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-300 g (post 6-weeks of streptozotocin 55 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). Treatment with polydatin significantly attenuated mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in diabetic rats. Treated diabetic rats also showed improvement in motor/sensory nerve conduction velocities and nerve blood flow. For in vitro studies, Neuro2a cells were exposed to high-glucose (30 mM) condition to simulate short-term hyperglycemia. Polydatin was evaluated for its role in SIRT1 and Nrf2 ac...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 18, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Bheereddy P, Yerra VG, Kalvala AK, Sherkhane B, Kumar A Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Effects of Hyperthermia on TRPV1 and TRPV4 Channels Expression and Oxidative Markers in Mouse Brain.
The objective of this study is to examine the effect of general heat stress on the expression of TRPV1 and TRPV4 channels. Furthermore, oxidative markers were measured in the brain of the same heat-stressed mice. Our results show that heat stress leads to a significant upregulation of TRPV1 expression within 21-42 days, while TRPV4 expression decreased significantly in a time-dependent manner. Alterations in the oxidative markers were also observed in the heat-stressed mice. PMID: 32661579 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Aghazadeh A, Feizi MAH, Fanid LM, Ghanbari M, Roshangar L Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Direct Administration and Gene Modulation Using Antisense Oligonucleotides Within the CNS.
Abstract Besides his vast contribution to the opioid receptor studies, Dr. G. W. Pasternak was among the early pioneers in the antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) field at the time when the crucial in vivo studies using ASO-mediated gene knockdown in the CNS were still impeded by the ASO's inability to cross the blood-brain barrier. This changed at the start of 1990s, when administration of oligonucleotides through intracerebroventricular or, later, intrathecal injection was undertaken at Cornell University Medical College and further developed in close collaboration with Pasternak lab. These early studies eventually ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 12, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Wahlestedt C, Khorkova O Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Altered lncRNAs Transcriptomic Profiles in Atherosclerosis-Induced Ischemic Stroke.
Abstract Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can not only regulate gene transcription and translation, but also participate in the development of central nervous system diseases as epigenetic modification factors. However, their functional significance in atherosclerosis-induced ischemic stroke (AIIS) is unclear. The study aimed to screen out differentially expressed lncRNAs (delncRNAs), and to elucidate their potential regulatory mechanisms in the pathophysiology of AIIS. Based on the clinicopathological features and clinical images, we screened out 10 patients with AIIS and recruited 10 healthy volunteers. Then we us...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 11, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Ruan W, Wu J, Su J, Jiang Y, Pang T, Li J Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Defective Function of the Blood-Brain Barrier in a Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat: Evaluation in an In Vitro Cell Culture Model.
Abstract The blood-brain barrier (BBB) comprises three cell types: brain capillary endothelial cells (BECs), astrocytes, and pericytes. Abnormal interaction among these cells may induce BBB dysfunction and lead to cerebrovascular diseases. The stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) harbors a defective BBB, so we designed the present study to examine the role of these three cell types in a functional disorder of the BBB in SHRSP in order to elucidate the role of these cells in the BBB more generally. To this end, we employed a unique in vitro model of BBB, in which various combinations of the cells cou...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 9, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Nakagawa S, Ohara H, Niwa M, Yamagata K, Nabika T Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Microdose Lithium Treatment Reduced Inflammatory Factors and Neurodegeneration in Organotypic Hippocampal Culture of Old SAMP-8 Mice.
Abstract It was already shown that microdoses of lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) promoted memory stabilization in humans and mice. Prolonged treatment also reduced neuronal loss and increased the density of the neurotrophin BDNF in transgenic mice for Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether lithium ions affect inflammatory profiles and neuronal integrity in an animal model of accelerated senescence (SAMP-8). Organotypic hippocampal cultures obtained from 11 to 12-month-old SAMP-8 mice were treated with 2 µM, 20 µM and 200 µM Li2CO3. 2 µM Li2CO3...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Toricelli M, Evangelista SR, Buck HS, Viel TA Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Exogenous Adenosine Antagonizes Excitatory Amino Acid Toxicity in Primary Astrocytes.
In this study, astrocytes were pretreated with adenosine, and the effects of an A2a receptor (A2aR) inhibitor (SCH58261) and A2b receptor (A2bR) inhibitor (PSB1115) on excitatory glutamate were investigated. An oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) and glutamate model was generated in vitro. Post-model assessment included expression levels of glutamate transporters (glt-1), gap junction protein (Cx43) and glutamate receptor (AMPAR), Na+-K+-ATPase activity, and diffusion distance of dyes. Glutamate and glutamine contents were determined at different time points. The results showed that (1) adenosin...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 6, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Liu Y, Chu S, Hu Y, Yang S, Li X, Zheng Q, Ai Q, Ren S, Wang H, Gong L, Xu X, Chen NH Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

LncRNA MEG8 Attenuates Cerebral Ischemia After Ischemic Stroke Through Targeting miR-130a-5p/VEGFA Signaling.
Abstract MEG8 is involved in ischemia stroke, however, its role in ischemia stroke remains unknown. The current research aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of MEG8 in ischemic stroke. Mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) were treated by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Then, the expressions of MEG8 and miR-130a-5p were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), wound-healing, tube formation, Western blot, and q-PCR assays were performed to detect the effects of MEG8 and miR-130a-5p on cell viability, migration, and ang...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 5, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Sui S, Sun L, Zhang W, Li J, Han J, Zheng J, Xin H Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Expression of ACE2 in Human Neurons Supports the Neuro-Invasive Potential of COVID-19 Virus.
Abstract The recent outbreak of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by a novel coronavirus, has now spread quickly worldwide. Like the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), this novel type of coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has been demonstrated to utilize angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as an entry point to the cells. There is a growing body of reports indicating that COVID-19 patients, especially those in severe condition, exhibit neurological symptoms, thus supporting the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 could infect and damage neurons within the central nervous system in humans. Using hu...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 4, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Xu J, Lazartigues E Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Parkin, an E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, Plays an Essential Role in Mitochondrial Quality Control in Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD), as one of the complex neurodegenerative disorders, affects millions of aged people. Although the precise pathogenesis remains mostly unknown, a significant number of studies have demonstrated that mitochondrial dysfunction acts as a major role in the pathogeny of PD. Both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA mutations can damage mitochondrial integrity. Especially, mutations in several genes that PD-linked have a closed association with mitochondrial dysfunction (e.g., Parkin, PINK1, DJ-1, alpha-synuclein, and LRRK2). Parkin, whose mutation causes autosomal-recessive juvenile parkinsoni...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 4, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Wang XL, Feng ST, Wang ZZ, Yuan YH, Chen NH, Zhang Y Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Regulation of PGE2 Pathway During Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rat.
In this study, qRT-PCR and immunoblotting demonstrated that the key enzymes in PGE2 synthesis, including COX-1, COX-2, mPGES-1 and mPGES-2, were upregulated during cerebral I/R injury, but 15-PGDH, the main PGE2 degradation enzyme, was downregulated. In addition, two of PGE2 receptors, EP3 and EP4, were also increased. Meanwhile, immunohistochemistry demonstrated the localization of these molecules in ischemic areas, including cortex, striatum and hippocampus, and reflected their expression patterns in different regions. Combining the results of PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, we can determine where the inc...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - July 3, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Xu Y, Liu Y, Li K, Miao S, Lv C, Wang C, Zhao J Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Correction to: Environmental Circadian Disruption Worsens Neurologic Impairment and Inhibits Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Adult Rats After Traumatic Brain Injury.
Abstract The original version of this article unfortunately contained an error in Fig. 4a. PMID: 32607895 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 30, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Li D, Ma S, Guo D, Cheng T, Li H, Tian Y, Li J, Guan F, Yang B, Wang J Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Roles and Interaction of the MAPK Signaling Cascade in A β25-35-Induced Neurotoxicity Using an Isolated Primary Hippocampal Cell Culture System.
Roles and Interaction of the MAPK Signaling Cascade in Aβ25-35-Induced Neurotoxicity Using an Isolated Primary Hippocampal Cell Culture System. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2020 Jun 29;: Authors: Iloun P, Hooshmandi E, Gheibi S, Kashfi K, Ghasemi R, Ahmadiani A Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized with increased formation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain. Aβ peptide toxicity is associated with disturbances of several intracellular signaling pathways such as mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of MAPKs and their interaction...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 29, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Iloun P, Hooshmandi E, Gheibi S, Kashfi K, Ghasemi R, Ahmadiani A Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

MicroRNA-137-3p Protects PC12 Cells Against Oxidative Stress by Downregulation of Calpain-2 and nNOS.
Abstract The imbalance between excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and insufficient antioxidant defenses contribute to a range of neurodegenerative diseases. High ROS levels damage cellular macromolecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids, leading to neuron vulnerability and eventual death. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of the ROS regulation is not fully elucidated. Recently, an increasing number of studies suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) emerge as the targets in regulating oxidative stress. We recently reported the neuroprotective effect of miR-137-3p for brachial plexus avulsion-induced ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 27, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Tang Y, Li Y, Yu G, Ling Z, Zhong K, Zilundu PLM, Li W, Fu R, Zhou LH Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorate Cuprizone-Induced Demyelination by Targeting Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.
Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The main causes of MS disease progression, demyelination, and tissue damage are oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Hence, the latter are considered as important therapeutic targets. Recent studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess antioxidative properties and are able to target mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, we investigated the effect of transplanting Wharton's jelly-derived MSCs in a demyelination mouse model of MS in which mice were fed cuprizone (CPZ) for 12&nbs...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 27, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Shiri E, Pasbakhsh P, Borhani-Haghighi M, Alizadeh Z, Nekoonam S, Mojaverrostami S, Pirhajati Mahabadi V, Mehdi A, Zibara K, Kashani IR Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Expression and Functional Study of Single Mutations of Carbonic Anhydrase 8 in Neuronal Cells.
In this study, we examined the expressions and functions of CA8-S100P and CA8-G162R in neuroblastoma cells lines, compared with those of WT CA8. Our results show that the protein expressions of mutant CA8-S100P and CA8-G162R were significantly decreased in Neuro-2a and SK-N-SH cells. Interestingly, CA8-S100P demonstrated a significant increase in cell proliferation in both Neuro-2a and SK-N-SH cells. However, both CA8 mutations showed significantly decreased effects on cell protection and migration in SK-N-SH cells. Surprisingly, a significant increase of invasive ability was observed in SK-N-SH cells with overexpression o...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 24, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Chi TH, Hsieh BY, Liang PS, Han TH, Hsieh M Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Abscisic Acid-Induced Autophagy Selectively via MAPK/JNK Signalling Pathway in Glioblastoma.
This report is the first to describe autophagy induced by ABA and mediated by the MAPK/JNK pathway in human cancer cells and tumour-bearing mice. These results may shed some light in new therapeutic strategies of glioma. PMID: 32577848 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 23, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Zhou N, Wei Z, Qi Z, Chen L Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Alcohol Enhances Responses to High Frequency Stimulation in Hippocampus from Transgenic Mice with Increased Astrocyte Expression of IL-6.
Abstract Recent studies show that alcohol exposure can induce glial production of neuroimmune factors in the CNS. Of these, IL-6 has gained attention because it is involved in a number of important physiological and pathophysiological processes that could be affected by alcohol-induced CNS production of IL-6, particularly under conditions of excessive alcohol use. For example, IL-6 has been shown to play a role in hippocampal behaviors and synaptic plasticity (long-term potentiation; LTP) associated with memory and learning. Surprisingly, in our in vitro studies of LTP at the Schaffer collateral to CA1 pyramidal n...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 19, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Gruol DL, Hernandez RV, Roberts A Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Proinflammatory Extracellular Vesicle-Mediated Signaling Contributes to  the Induction of Neuroinflammation in Animal Models of Endotoxemia and Peripheral Surgical Stress.
Proinflammatory Extracellular Vesicle-Mediated Signaling Contributes to the Induction of Neuroinflammation in Animal Models of Endotoxemia and Peripheral Surgical Stress. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2020 Jun 18;: Authors: Fricke F, Gebert J, Kopitz J, Plaschke K Abstract Peripheral inflammation induced by endotoxemia or surgical stress induces neuroinflammation thereby causing neurological symptoms ranging from sickness behavior to delirium. Thus, proinflammatory signaling must be operative between the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, we tested whether nanometer-sized...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 18, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Fricke F, Gebert J, Kopitz J, Plaschke K Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Therapeutic Potential of Berberine in the Treatment of Glioma: Insights into Its Regulatory Mechanisms.
Abstract Glioma is known as one of the most common primary intracranial tumors accounting for four-fifths of malignant brain tumors. There are several biological pathways that play a synergistic, pathophysiological role in glioma, including apoptosis, autophagy, oxidative stress, and cell cycle arrest. According to previous rese arches, the drugs used in the treatment of glioma have been associated with significant limitations. Therefore, improved and/or new therapeutic platforms are required. In this regard, multiple flavonoids and alkaloids have been extensively studied in the treatment of glioma. Berberine is a...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 18, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Asemi Z, Behnam M, Pourattar MA, Mirzaei H, Razavi ZS, Tamtaji OR Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Spinal Cord Injury Leads to Hippocampal Glial Alterations and Neural Stem Cell Inactivation.
Abstract The hippocampus encodes spatial and contextual information involved in memory and learning. The incorporation of new neurons into hippocampal networks increases neuroplasticity and enhances hippocampal-dependent learning performances. Only few studies have described hippocampal abnormalities after spinal cord injury (SCI) although cognitive deficits related to hippocampal function have been reported in rodents and even humans. The aim of this study was to characterize in further detail hippocampal changes in the acute and chronic SCI. Our data suggested that neurogenesis reduction in the acute phase after...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 14, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Jure I, De Nicola AF, Encinas JM, Labombarda F Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Correction to: [Pt(O,O'-acac)( γ-acac)(DMS)]: Alternative Strategies to Overcome Cisplatin-Induced Side Effects and Resistance in T98G Glioma Cells.
Correction to: [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)]: Alternative Strategies to Overcome Cisplatin-Induced Side Effects and Resistance in T98G Glioma Cells. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2020 Jun 13;: Authors: Astesana V, Faris P, Ferrari B, Siciliani S, Lim D, Biggiogera M, De Pascali SA, Fanizzi FP, Roda E, Moccia F, Bottone MG Abstract The original version of the article unfortunately contained a typo in co-author name. The author name should be Francesco Paolo Fanizzi instead it was published incorrectly as Franco Paolo Fanizzi. The original article has been corrected. PMID: 32535721 [PubMed - as supplied...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 13, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Astesana V, Faris P, Ferrari B, Siciliani S, Lim D, Biggiogera M, De Pascali SA, Fanizzi FP, Roda E, Moccia F, Bottone MG Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Landscape of Germline Genetic Variants in AGT, MGMT, and TP53 in Mexican Adult Patients with Astrocytoma.
In this study, we assessed the risk of astrocytoma associated with variants in AGT, known by its role in angiogenesis, TP53, a well-known tumor suppressor and the DNA repair gene MGMT in a Mexican population. A case-control study was performed in 49 adult Mexican patients with grade II-IV astrocytoma. Sequencing of exons and untranslated regions of AGT, MGMT, and TP53 from was carried in an Ion Torrent platform. Individuals with Mexican Ancestry from the 1000 Genomes Project were used as controls. Variants found in our cohort were then assessed in a The Cancer Genome Atlas astrocytoma pan-ethnic validation cohort. Variants...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 13, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Carlos-Escalante JA, Gómez-Flores-Ramos L, Bian X, Perdomo-Pantoja A, de Andrade KC, Mejía-Pérez SI, Cacho-Díaz B, González-Barrios R, Reynoso-Noverón N, Soto-Reyes E, Sánchez-Correa TE, Guerra-Calderas L, Yan C, Chen Q, Castro-Hernández C, Vidal- Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Protein Aggregation in the Pathogenesis of Ischemic Stroke.
Abstract Despite the distinction between ischemic stroke and neurodegenerative disorders, they share numerous pathophysiologies particularly those mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Although protein aggregation is considered to be a hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases, the formation of protein aggregates can be also induced within a short time after cerebral ischemia, aggravating cerebral ischemic injury. Protein aggregation uncovers a previously unappreciated molecular overlap between neurodegenerative diseases and ischemic stroke. Unfortunately, compared with neurodegenerative disease, mechanism o...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 11, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Wu S, Du L Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Autophagic Pathways to Clear the Tau Aggregates in Alzheimer's Disease.
Abstract Tau is a microtubule-associated protein with an intrinsically unstructured conformation. Tau is subjected to several pathological post-translational modifications (PTMs), leading to its loss of interaction with microtubules and accumulation as neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in neurons. Tau aggregates impede functions of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria leading to the generation of oxidative stress and in turn amplifying the Tau aggregation. Tau is channelled to chaperones for folding into their native form, which otherwise causes its degradation and clearance. Cellular response triggers the activati...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 11, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Gorantla NV, Chinnathambi S Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

LncRNA MIR155HG Promotes Temozolomide Resistance by Activating the Wnt/ β-Catenin Pathway Via Binding to PTBP1 in Glioma.
LncRNA MIR155HG Promotes Temozolomide Resistance by Activating the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway Via Binding to PTBP1 in Glioma. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2020 Jun 11;: Authors: He X, Sheng J, Yu W, Wang K, Zhu S, Liu Q Abstract Temozolomide (TMZ) is widely used for glioma therapy in the clinic. Currently, the development of TMZ resistance has largely led to poor prognosis. However, very little is understood about the role of MIR155HG, as a long noncoding RNA, in TMZ resistance. In our study, MIR155HG level was markedly higher in glioma patients than in normal controls and that poor survival was positivel...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 11, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: He X, Sheng J, Yu W, Wang K, Zhu S, Liu Q Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Sigma1 Receptor Inhibits TRPC1-Mediated Ca2+ Entry That Promotes Dopaminergic Cell Death.
Abstract Regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis is essential for neuronal function and its survival. Recent data suggest that TRPC1 function as the endogenous store-mediated Ca2+ entry channel in dopaminergic cells, and loss of TRPC1 function leads to neurodegeneration; however, its regulation is not fully identified. Here we provide evidence that the sigma 1 receptor contributes to the loss of dopaminergic cells by blocking TRPC1-mediated Ca2+ entry. Importantly, downregulation of sigma 1 receptor expression significantly decreased neurotoxin-induced loss of dopaminergic cells as measured by MTT assays and caspase activi...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 9, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Sun Y, Sukumaran P, Singh BB Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Opioid Receptor Regulation of Neuronal Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels.
Abstract Neuronal voltage-gated calcium channels play a pivotal role in the conversion of electrical signals into calcium entry into nerve endings that is required for the release of neurotransmitters. They are under the control of a number of cellular signaling pathways that serve to fine tune synaptic activities, including G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and the opioid system. Besides modulating channel activity via activation of second messengers, GPCRs also physically associate with calcium channels to regulate their function and expression at the plasma membrane. In this mini review, we discuss the mechan...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Weiss N, Zamponi GW Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Missense Variants in Hypoxia-Induced VEGFA/VEGFR2 Signaling Predict the Outcome of Large Artery Atherosclerotic Stroke.
Abstract Collateral density variations are a major determinant of stroke outcome. Here, we explored the association of missense variants in hypoxia-induced VEGFA/VEGFR2 signaling and stroke outcome. We recruited 683 large artery atherosclerotic (LAA) stroke patients as the training set from Nanjing Stroke Registry Program between August 2013 and January 2016. To validate the findings from the training set, we recruited an additional 333 LAA stroke patients between February 2016 and January 2017 as the validation set. Genotyping of target SNPs (rs11549465 [HIF-1α], rs11549467 [HIF-1α], rs1870377 [VEGFR2...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 6, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Li Z, Wang M, Gu J, Zhao L, Guo Y, Zhang Z, Liu X Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

GANT-61 Induces Autophagy and Apoptosis in Glioblastoma Cells despite their heterogeneity.
Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common adult primary tumor of the CNS characterized by rapid growth and diffuse invasiveness into the brain parenchyma. The GBM resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs may be due to the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs). The CSCs activate the same molecular pathways as healthy stem cells such as WNT, Sonic hedgehog (SHH), and Notch. Mutations or deregulations of those pathways play a key role in the proliferation and differentiation of their surrounding environment, leading to tumorigenesis. Here we investigated the effect of SHH signaling pathway inhibition in human GBM cel...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 5, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Carballo GB, Ribeiro JH, Lopes GPF, Ferrer VP, Dezonne RS, Pereira CM, Spohr TCLSE Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

The Regulatory Role of Reticulons in Neurodegeneration: Insights Underpinning Therapeutic Potential for Neurodegenerative Diseases.
Abstract In the last few decades, cytoplasmic organellar dysfunction, such as that of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), has created a new area of research interest towards the development of serious health maladies including neurodegenerative diseases. In this context, the extensively dispersed family of ER-localized proteins, i.e. reticulons (RTNs), is gaining interest because of its regulative control over neural regeneration. As most neurodegenerative diseases are pathologically manifested with the accretion of misfolded proteins with subsequent induction of ER stress, the regulatory role of RTNs in neural dysfun...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 5, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Pradhan LK, Das SK Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Miro1 Regulates Neuronal Mitochondrial Transport and Distribution to Alleviate Neuronal Damage in Secondary Brain Injury After Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Rats.
Abstract Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a primary cause of death and disability in adults worldwide. Secondary brain injury (SBI) induced by ICH can lead to impaired mitochondrial function, which ultimately contributes to apoptosis and necrosis. Mitochondrial Rho GTPase 1 (Miro1) is a key regulator of mitochondrial movement and motor protein binding. Although Miro1 has been demonstrated to be implicated in various types of central nervous system damage, its potential effect on ICH-induced SBI has not been studied in detail. Hence, in the present new study, we explored the effect of Miro1 on SBI in vivo and in v...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 4, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Li B, Zhang Y, Li H, Shen H, Wang Y, Li X, Cui G, Chen G Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Sirt3 Protects Against Ischemic Stroke Injury by Regulating HIF-1 α/VEGF Signaling and Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity.
Sirt3 Protects Against Ischemic Stroke Injury by Regulating HIF-1α/VEGF Signaling and Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2020 Jun 04;: Authors: Yang X, Zhang Y, Geng K, Yang K, Shao J, Xia W Abstract Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) is a member of the Sirtuin family proteins and known to regulate multiple physiological processes such as metabolism and aging. As stroke is an aging-related disease, in this work, we attempt to examine the role and potential mechanism of Sirt3 in regulating ischemic stroke by using a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) model in wild type (WT) and Sir...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 4, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Yang X, Zhang Y, Geng K, Yang K, Shao J, Xia W Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Valproate-Induced Epigenetic Upregulation of Hypothalamic Fto Expression Potentially Linked with Weight Gain.
Abstract Valproate (VPA), a widely-used antiepileptic drug, is a selective inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) that play important roles in epigenetic regulation. The patient with different diseases receiving this drug tend to exhibit weight gain and abnormal metabolic phenotypes, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we show that VPA increases the Fto mRNA and protein expression in mouse hypothalamic GT1-7 cells. Interestingly, VPA promotes histone H3/H4 acetylation and the FTO expression which could be reversed by C646, an inhibitor for histone acetyltransferase. Furthermore, VPA weakens...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - June 4, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Zhang H, Lu P, Tang HL, Yan HJ, Jiang W, Shi H, Chen SY, Gao MM, Zeng XD, Long YS Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Astrocytes Regulate Differentiation and Glutamate Uptake of Glioma Stem Cells via Formyl Peptide Receptor.
Abstract The role of astrocytes on glutamate release and differentiation of glioma stem cells (GSCs) remains unknown. We investigated glutamate release, proliferation, and differentiation of GSCs after indirect incubation with astrocytes in vitro, including morphology change, GFAP expression, glutamine synthetase, and EAAT1 expression. The role of formyl peptide receptor (FPR) agonist and antagonist on interaction between astrocytes and GSCs in co-culture model was analyzed. We found: (1) After incubation of astrocytes and GSCs, differentiated GSCs present the morphology of astrocytes and express GFAP. (2) GSCs re...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - May 30, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Xu YW, Yang JS, Kang DZ, Yao PS Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Harsh Parenting Predicts Novel HPA Receptor Gene Methylation and NR3C1 Methylation Predicts Cortisol Daily Slope in Middle Childhood.
Abstract Adverse experiences in childhood are associated with altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and negative health outcomes throughout life. It is now commonly accepted that abuse and neglect can alter epigenetic regulation of HPA genes. Accumulated evidence suggests harsh parenting practices such as spanking are also strong predictors of negative health outcomes. We predicted harsh parenting at 2.5 years old would predict HPA gene DNA methylation similarly to abuse and neglect, and cortisol output at 8.5 years old. Saliva samples were collected three times a day across 3 days t...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - May 29, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Lewis CR, Breitenstein RS, Henderson A, Sowards HA, Piras IS, Huentelman MJ, Doane LD, Lemery-Chalfant K Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Role of Microglia in Regulating Cholesterol and Tau Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease.
Abstract Cholesterol, a principal constituent of the cell membrane, plays a crucial role in the brain by regulating the synaptic transmission, neuronal signaling, as well as neurodegenerative diseases. Defects in the cholesterol trafficking are associated with enhanced generation of hyperphosphorylated Tau and Amyloid-β protein. Tau, a major microtubule-associated protein in the brain, is the key regulator of the mature neuron. Abnormally hyperphosphorylated Tau hampers the major functions related to microtubule assembly by promoting neurofibrillary tangles of paired helical filaments, twisted ribbons, and st...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - May 28, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Nanjundaiah S, Chidambaram H, Chandrashekar M, Chinnathambi S Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Melatonin Provides Neuroprotection Following Traumatic Brain Injury-Promoted Mitochondrial Perturbation in Wistar Rat.
Abstract Excessive mitochondrial fission has been implicated in the etiology of neuronal cell death in traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the present study, we examined the efficacy of melatonin (Mel) as a neuroprotective agent against TBI-induced oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. We assessed the impact of Mel post-treatment (10 mg/kg b.wt., i.p.) at different time intervals in TBI-subjected Wistar rats. We found that the Mel treatment significantly attenuated brain edema, oxidative damage, mitochondrial fission, and promoted mitochondrial fusion. Additionally, Mel-treated rats showed restoration ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - May 28, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Salman M, Kaushik P, Tabassum H, Parvez S Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Autism Spectrum Disorder: Signaling Pathways and Prospective Therapeutic Targets.
Abstract The Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) consists of a prevalent and heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental diseases representing a severe burden to affected individuals and their caretakers. Despite substantial improvement towards understanding of ASD etiology and pathogenesis, as well as increased social awareness and more intensive research, no effective drugs have been successfully developed to resolve the main and most cumbersome ASD symptoms. Hence, finding better treatments, which may act as "disease-modifying" agents, and novel biomarkers for earlier ASD diagnosis and disease stage determin...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - May 28, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Baranova J, Dragunas G, Botellho MCS, Ayub ALP, Bueno-Alves R, Alencar RR, Papaiz DD, Sogayar MC, Ulrich H, Correa RG Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research