The Effects of Serum Removal on Gene Expression and Morphological Plasticity Markers in Differentiated SH-SY5Y Cells
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2021 Mar 3. doi: 10.1007/s10571-021-01062-x. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDespite the widespread use of the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line in modeling human neurons in vitro, protocols for growth, differentiation and experimentation differ considerably across the literature. Many studies fully differentiate SH-SY5Y cells before experimentation, to investigate plasticity measures in a mature, human neuronal-like cell model. Prior to experimentation, serum is often removed from cell culture media, to arrest the cell growth cycle and synchronize cells. However, the exact effect of this serum remova...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - March 3, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Alix C Thomson Teresa Schuhmann Tom A de Graaf Alexander T Sack Bart P F Rutten Gunter Kenis Source Type: research

The Gut-Brain Axis: Two Ways Signaling in Parkinson's Disease
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2021 Mar 2. doi: 10.1007/s10571-021-01066-7. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTParkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive and second most prevalent neurological disorder affecting the motor system. Cardinal motor impairment and α-synucleinopathy are the characteristic features of PD. Recently, it has been identified that the gut-brain axis is substantially regulated by the gut microbiome (GM) through an immunological, neuroendocrine, and neural mechanism. However, disturbance in the gut-microbiome-brain axis in PD might proceed to gastrointestinal manifestations intermittently leading to the m...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - March 2, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Nitu Dogra Ruchi Jakhmola Mani Deepshikha Pande Katare Source Type: research

The Roles of Serotonin in Neuropsychiatric Disorders
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2021 Mar 2. doi: 10.1007/s10571-021-01064-9. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe serotonergic system extends throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In the CNS, serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) modulates a broad spectrum of functions, including mood, cognition, anxiety, learning, memory, reward processing, and sleep. These processes are mediated through 5-HT binding to 5-HT receptors (5-HTRs), are classified into seven distinct groups. Deficits in the serotonergic system can result in various pathological conditions, particularly depression, schizophrenia, moo...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - March 2, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Mahsa Pourhamzeh Fahimeh Ghasemi Moravej Mehrnoosh Arabi Elahe Shahriari Soraya Mehrabi Richard Ward Reza Ahadi Mohammad Taghi Joghataei Source Type: research

TTC3-Mediated Protein Quality Control, A Potential Mechanism for Cognitive Impairment
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2021 Feb 27. doi: 10.1007/s10571-021-01060-z. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe tetrapeptide repeat domain 3 (TTC3) gene falls within Down's syndrome (DS) critical region. Cognitive impairment is a common phenotype of DS and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and overexpression of TTC3 can accelerate cognitive decline, but the specific mechanism is unknown. The TTC3-mediated protein quality control (PQC) mechanism, similar to the PQC system, is divided into three parts: it acts as a cochaperone to assist proteins in folding correctly; it acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase (E3s) involved in protein degradation proces...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 27, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Xu Zhou Xiongjin Chen Tingting Hong Miaoping Zhang Yujie Cai Lili Cui Source Type: research

TTC3-Mediated Protein Quality Control, A Potential Mechanism for Cognitive Impairment
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2021 Feb 27. doi: 10.1007/s10571-021-01060-z. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe tetrapeptide repeat domain 3 (TTC3) gene falls within Down's syndrome (DS) critical region. Cognitive impairment is a common phenotype of DS and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and overexpression of TTC3 can accelerate cognitive decline, but the specific mechanism is unknown. The TTC3-mediated protein quality control (PQC) mechanism, similar to the PQC system, is divided into three parts: it acts as a cochaperone to assist proteins in folding correctly; it acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase (E3s) involved in protein degradation proces...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 27, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Xu Zhou Xiongjin Chen Tingting Hong Miaoping Zhang Yujie Cai Lili Cui Source Type: research

TTC3-Mediated Protein Quality Control, A Potential Mechanism for Cognitive Impairment
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2021 Feb 27. doi: 10.1007/s10571-021-01060-z. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe tetrapeptide repeat domain 3 (TTC3) gene falls within Down's syndrome (DS) critical region. Cognitive impairment is a common phenotype of DS and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and overexpression of TTC3 can accelerate cognitive decline, but the specific mechanism is unknown. The TTC3-mediated protein quality control (PQC) mechanism, similar to the PQC system, is divided into three parts: it acts as a cochaperone to assist proteins in folding correctly; it acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase (E3s) involved in protein degradation proces...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 27, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Xu Zhou Xiongjin Chen Tingting Hong Miaoping Zhang Yujie Cai Lili Cui Source Type: research

New Insights into Stroke Prevention and Treatment: Gut Microbiome
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2021 Feb 26. doi: 10.1007/s10571-021-01047-w. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTStroke, a lethal neurological disease, accounts for a grave economic burden on society. Despite extensive basic and clinical studies on stroke prevention, a precise effective treatment approach for stroke at this stage remains unavailable. The majority of our body's gut microbiota plays a vital role in food digestion, immune regulation, and nervous system development, which is highly associated with the development of some diseases. Multiple clinical studies have documented variation in the composition of gut microbiota between ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 26, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Linna Zhao Liji Yang Yuying Guo Jie Xiao Junping Zhang Shixin Xu Source Type: research

New Insights into Stroke Prevention and Treatment: Gut Microbiome
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2021 Feb 26. doi: 10.1007/s10571-021-01047-w. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTStroke, a lethal neurological disease, accounts for a grave economic burden on society. Despite extensive basic and clinical studies on stroke prevention, a precise effective treatment approach for stroke at this stage remains unavailable. The majority of our body's gut microbiota plays a vital role in food digestion, immune regulation, and nervous system development, which is highly associated with the development of some diseases. Multiple clinical studies have documented variation in the composition of gut microbiota between ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 26, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Linna Zhao Liji Yang Yuying Guo Jie Xiao Junping Zhang Shixin Xu Source Type: research

TNF α Triggers an Augmented Inflammatory Response in Brain Neurons from Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats Compared with Normal Sprague Dawley Rats
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1007/s10571-021-01056-9. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α is a proinflammatory cytokine (PIC) and has been implicated in a variety of illness including cardiovascular disease. The current study investigated the inflammatory response trigged by TNFα in both cultured brain neurons and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), a key cardiovascular relevant brain area, of the Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Our results demonstrated that TNFα treatment induces a dose- and time-dependent increase in mRNA expression of PICs including Interleukin...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 24, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Huanjia Gao Jeremy Bigalke Enshe Jiang Yuanyuan Fan Bojun Chen Qing-Hui Chen Zhiying Shan Source Type: research

Main Role of Antibodies in Demyelination and Axonal Damage in Multiple Sclerosis
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1007/s10571-021-01059-6. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAntibodies and oxidative stress are hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. We aimed to clarify the relation between them, their role in MS patients and to investigate their specificity, comparing MS with classical neurodegenerative diseases (ND). Brain samples from 14 MS cases, 6 with ND and 9 controls (without neurological diseases). Immunohistochemistry assays were used to detect oxidized lipids (EO6), IgG and IgM, oligodendrocytes (Olig2), axons (NF, neurofilament) and cellular (TUNEL) and axonal damage (APP, amyloid p...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 24, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Ursula Mu ñoz Cristina Sebal Esther Escudero Margaret Esiri John Tzartos Carolyn Sloan Mari Cruz Sadaba Source Type: research

Correction to: Recruitment of Plasma Membrane GABA-A Receptors by Submembranous Gephyrin/Collybistin Clusters
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1007/s10571-021-01061-y. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33625629 | DOI:10.1007/s10571-021-01061-y (Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 24, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Shanu George Tzu-Ting Chiou Karthik Kanamalla Angel L De Blas Source Type: research

TNF α Triggers an Augmented Inflammatory Response in Brain Neurons from Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats Compared with Normal Sprague Dawley Rats
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1007/s10571-021-01056-9. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α is a proinflammatory cytokine (PIC) and has been implicated in a variety of illness including cardiovascular disease. The current study investigated the inflammatory response trigged by TNFα in both cultured brain neurons and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), a key cardiovascular relevant brain area, of the Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Our results demonstrated that TNFα treatment induces a dose- and time-dependent increase in mRNA expression of PICs including Interleukin...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 24, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Huanjia Gao Jeremy Bigalke Enshe Jiang Yuanyuan Fan Bojun Chen Qing-Hui Chen Zhiying Shan Source Type: research

Main Role of Antibodies in Demyelination and Axonal Damage in Multiple Sclerosis
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1007/s10571-021-01059-6. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAntibodies and oxidative stress are hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. We aimed to clarify the relation between them, their role in MS patients and to investigate their specificity, comparing MS with classical neurodegenerative diseases (ND). Brain samples from 14 MS cases, 6 with ND and 9 controls (without neurological diseases). Immunohistochemistry assays were used to detect oxidized lipids (EO6), IgG and IgM, oligodendrocytes (Olig2), axons (NF, neurofilament) and cellular (TUNEL) and axonal damage (APP, amyloid p...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 24, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Ursula Mu ñoz Cristina Sebal Esther Escudero Margaret Esiri John Tzartos Carolyn Sloan Mari Cruz Sadaba Source Type: research

Correction to: Recruitment of Plasma Membrane GABA-A Receptors by Submembranous Gephyrin/Collybistin Clusters
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1007/s10571-021-01061-y. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33625629 | DOI:10.1007/s10571-021-01061-y (Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 24, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Shanu George Tzu-Ting Chiou Karthik Kanamalla Angel L De Blas Source Type: research

TNF α Triggers an Augmented Inflammatory Response in Brain Neurons from Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats Compared with Normal Sprague Dawley Rats
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1007/s10571-021-01056-9. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α is a proinflammatory cytokine (PIC) and has been implicated in a variety of illness including cardiovascular disease. The current study investigated the inflammatory response trigged by TNFα in both cultured brain neurons and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), a key cardiovascular relevant brain area, of the Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Our results demonstrated that TNFα treatment induces a dose- and time-dependent increase in mRNA expression of PICs including Interleukin...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 24, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Huanjia Gao Jeremy Bigalke Enshe Jiang Yuanyuan Fan Bojun Chen Qing-Hui Chen Zhiying Shan Source Type: research

Main Role of Antibodies in Demyelination and Axonal Damage in Multiple Sclerosis
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1007/s10571-021-01059-6. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAntibodies and oxidative stress are hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. We aimed to clarify the relation between them, their role in MS patients and to investigate their specificity, comparing MS with classical neurodegenerative diseases (ND). Brain samples from 14 MS cases, 6 with ND and 9 controls (without neurological diseases). Immunohistochemistry assays were used to detect oxidized lipids (EO6), IgG and IgM, oligodendrocytes (Olig2), axons (NF, neurofilament) and cellular (TUNEL) and axonal damage (APP, amyloid p...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 24, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Ursula Mu ñoz Cristina Sebal Esther Escudero Margaret Esiri John Tzartos Carolyn Sloan Mari Cruz Sadaba Source Type: research

Correction to: Recruitment of Plasma Membrane GABA-A Receptors by Submembranous Gephyrin/Collybistin Clusters
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1007/s10571-021-01061-y. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33625629 | DOI:10.1007/s10571-021-01061-y (Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 24, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Shanu George Tzu-Ting Chiou Karthik Kanamalla Angel L De Blas Source Type: research

Association of MicroRNA Biogenesis Genes Polymorphisms with Risk of Large Artery Atherosclerosis Stroke
This study aimed to examine whether miRNA biogenesis genes polymorphisms are associated with risk of large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) stroke. Three polymorphisms (DROSHA rs10719 T>C, RAN rs3803012 A>G, and PIWIL1 rs10773771 C>T) were screened by certain criteria. A total of 1,785 (710 cases and 1,075 controls) study subjects were included in this study. We found that rs10773771 CC genotype was associated with a decreased risk of LAA stroke (CC vs. TT/CT: OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.46-0.86, P = 3 × 10-3). In silico analysis suggested that rs10773771 can change the mRNA secondary structure of PIWIL1 and affect the bi...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 23, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Mengmeng Wang Jinyu Gu Chong Shen Wuzhuang Tang Xiaoru Xing Zhizhong Zhang Xinfeng Liu Source Type: research

MircoRNA-29a in Astrocyte-derived Extracellular Vesicles Suppresses Brain Ischemia Reperfusion Injury via TP53INP1 and the NF- κB/NLRP3 Axis
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2021 Feb 23. doi: 10.1007/s10571-021-01040-3. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBrain ischemia reperfusion injury (BIRI) is defined as a series of brain injury accompanied by inflammation and oxidative stress. Astrocyte-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are importantly participated in BIRI with involvement of microRNAs (miRs). Our study aimed to discuss the functions of miR-29a from astrocyte-derived EVs in BIRI treatment. Thus, astrocyte-derived EVs were extracted. Oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) cell models and BIR rat models were established. Then, cell and rat activities and pyroptosis-related p...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 23, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Xin Liu Xinghua Lv Zhenzhen Liu Mengjie Zhang Yufang Leng Source Type: research

FOXO3 Regulates Sevoflurane-Induced Neural Stem Cell Differentiation in Fetal Rats
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2021 Feb 19. doi: 10.1007/s10571-021-01055-w. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWith the increase in fetal surgeries, the effect of maternal anesthesia on progeny has attracted much attention. Our previous studies have demonstrated that 3.5% sevoflurane maternal exposure resulted in over-activated autophagy and cognitive impairment in the offspring. The autophagy activation resulted in increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation. However, the effects of sevoflurane on neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation is unclear. There is evidence that autophagy might participate in anesthesia-induced NSC different...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 19, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Xingyue Li Xi Jiang Qiushi Gao Ping Zhao Source Type: research

FOXO3 Regulates Sevoflurane-Induced Neural Stem Cell Differentiation in Fetal Rats.
Abstract With the increase in fetal surgeries, the effect of maternal anesthesia on progeny has attracted much attention. Our previous studies have demonstrated that 3.5% sevoflurane maternal exposure resulted in over-activated autophagy and cognitive impairment in the offspring. The autophagy activation resulted in increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation. However, the effects of sevoflurane on neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation is unclear. There is evidence that autophagy might participate in anesthesia-induced NSC differentiation. Firstly, we examined the effects of sevoflurane on NSC differentiation...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 19, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Li X, Jiang X, Gao Q, Zhao P Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

REV-ERB Agonist SR9009 Regulates the Proliferation and Neurite Outgrowth/Suppression of Cultured Rat Adult Hippocampal Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells in a Concentration-Dependent Manner.
In this study, SR9009, a synthetic REV-ERB agonist that produces anxiolytic effects in mice, was used to treat undifferentiated and neuronally differentiated cultured rat adult hippocampal neural stem/progenitor cells (AHPs). The expression of Rev-erbβ was upregulated during neurogenesis in cultured rat AHPs, and Rev-erbβ knockdown analysis indicated that REV-ERBβ regulates the proliferation and neurite outgrowth of cultured rat AHPs. The application of a low concentration (0.1 µM) of the REV-ERB agonist SR9009 enhanced neurite outgrowth during neurogenesis in cultured rat AHPs, whereas the additi...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 18, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Shimozaki K Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

EphA4 Obstructs Spinal Cord Neuron Regeneration by Promoting Excessive Activation of Astrocytes.
This study focuses on the effect and mechanism of EphA4-regulated astrocyte function in neuronal regeneration after SCI. Our research found that EphA4 expression increased significantly after SCI and peaked at 3 days post-injury; accordingly, we identified the cellular localization of EphA4 and ephrin-B ligands in neurons and astrocytes after SCI. EphA4 was mainly expressed on the surface of neurons, ephrin-B1 and ephrin-B3 were mainly localized on astrocytes, and ephrin-B2 was distributed on both neurons and astrocytes. To further elucidate the effect of EphA4 on astrocyte function after SCI, we detected the related ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 17, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Chen X, Zhang L, Hua F, Zhuang Y, Liu H, Wang S Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Association of SHANK Family with Neuropsychiatric Disorders: An Update on Genetic and Animal Model Discoveries.
Abstract The Shank family proteins are enriched at the postsynaptic density (PSD) of excitatory glutamatergic synapses. They serve as synaptic scaffolding proteins and appear to play a critical role in the formation, maintenance and functioning of synapse. Increasing evidence from genetic association and animal model studies indicates a connection of SHANK genes defects with the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this review, we first update the current understanding of the SHANK family genes and their encoded protein products. We then denote the literature relating their alterations to the risk of neur...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 17, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Wan L, Liu D, Xiao WB, Zhang BX, Yan XX, Luo ZH, Xiao B Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and the Gastrointestinal Epithelium: Implications for the Gut-Brain Axis and Hypertension.
We present a model for the role of TNFα in regulating bacterial metabolite transport and neuropeptide signaling in the gastrointestinal system, highlighting the complexity of host-microbiota interactions in hypertension. PMID: 33594519 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 16, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Souders CL, Zubcevic J, Martyniuk CJ Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Cdc42 Facilitates Axonogenesis by Enhancing Microtubule Stabilization in Primary Hippocampal Neurons.
Abstract The establishment of polarity is an essential process in early neuronal development. Cdc42, a GTPase of the Rho family, is a key regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics and neuronal polarity. However, the mechanisms underlying the action of cdc42 in regulating axonogenesis have not been elucidated. Here, we expressed wild-type cdc42, a constitutively active cdc42 mutant (cdc42F28L) and a dominant negative cdc42 mutant (cdc42N17), respectively, in the primary hippocampal neurons to alter the activity of cdc42. We found that cdc42 activities were paralleled with the capacities to promote axonogenesis in the cult...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 11, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Li A, Zhu HM, Chen Y, Yan F, Liu ZY, Li ZL, Dong WR, Zhang L, Wang HH Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Proteomic Profiling of Cerebrum Mitochondria, Myelin Sheath, and Synaptosome Revealed Mitochondrial Damage and Synaptic Impairments in Association with 3  × Tg-AD Mice Model.
Proteomic Profiling of Cerebrum Mitochondria, Myelin Sheath, and Synaptosome Revealed Mitochondrial Damage and Synaptic Impairments in Association with 3 × Tg-AD Mice Model. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2021 Feb 09;: Authors: Shen L, Yang A, Chen X, Xiao S, Liu X, Lin J, Zhao Y, Zhang K, Li C, Ke J, Zhang H, Khan NU Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-associated dementia with complex pathological hallmarks. Mitochondrion, synaptosome, and myelin sheath appear to be vulnerable and play a key role in the pathogenesis of AD. To clarify the early mechanism associated with A...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 9, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Shen L, Yang A, Chen X, Xiao S, Liu X, Lin J, Zhao Y, Zhang K, Li C, Ke J, Zhang H, Khan NU Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

The GFAP Monoclonal Antibody GA-5 Identifies Astrocyte Remodeling and Glio-Vascular Uncoupling During the Evolution of EAE.
Abstract To examine how astrocyte activation is regulated at different phases of relapsing-remitting EAE, we performed an immunofluorescent analysis of the spinal cord using the anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) monoclonal antibody GA-5. In keeping with previous studies, gray matter astrocytes showed strongly increased GFAP expression during the peak phase of disease (14 days post-immunization), which remained elevated during the remission phase (21-28 days post-immunization). In sharp contrast, during the peak phase of disease, the GA-5 signal in sub-meningeal white matter transiently disappea...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 5, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Halder SK, Milner R Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Obligatory Activation of SRC and JNK by GDNF for Survival and Axonal Outgrowth of Postnatal Intestinal Neurons.
Abstract The neurotrophin GDNF acts through its co-receptor RET to direct embryonic development of the intestinal nervous system. Since this continues in the post-natal intestine, co-cultures of rat enteric neurons and intestinal smooth muscle cells were used to examine how receptor activation mediates neuronal survival or axonal extension. GDNF-mediated activation of SRC was essential for neuronal survival and axon outgrowth and activated the major downstream signaling pathways. Selective inhibition of individual pathways had little effect on survival but JNK activation was required for axonal maintenance, extens...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 5, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Blennerhassett MG, Lourenssen SR Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

The Characterization of Sex Differences in Hypoglycemia-Induced Activation of HPA Axis on the Transcriptomic Level.
Abstract Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis using an insulin tolerance test (ITT) is a medical diagnostic procedure that is frequently used in humans to assess the HPA and growth-hormone (GH) axes. Whether sex differences exist in the response to ITT stress is unknown. Thus, investigations into the analysis of transcripts during activation of the HPA axis in response to hypoglycemia have revealed the underlying influences of sex in signaling pathways that stimulate the HPA axis. We assessed four time points of ITT application in Balb/c mice. After insulin injection, expression levels of 19...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 5, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Taheri S, Karaca Z, Rassoulzadegan M, Mehmetbeyoglu E, Zararsiz G, Sener EF, Bayram KK, Tufan E, Sahin MC, Marasli MK, Memis M, Canatan H, Ozturk F, Tanriverdi F, Unluhizarci K, Kelestimur F Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Recruitment of Plasma Membrane GABA-A Receptors by Submembranous Gephyrin/Collybistin Clusters.
Abstract It has been shown that subunit composition is the main determinant of the synaptic or extrasynaptic localization of GABAA receptors (GABAARs). Synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAARs are involved in phasic and tonic inhibition, respectively. It has been proposed that synaptic GABAARs bind to the postsynaptic gephyrin/collybistin (Geph/CB) lattice, but not the typically extrasynaptic GABAARs. Nevertheless, there are no studies of the direct binding of various types of GABAARs with the submembranous Geph/CB lattice in the absence of other synaptic proteins, some of which are known to interact with GABAARs. We ha...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 5, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: George S, Chiou TT, Kanamalla K, De Blas AL Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Mitophagy, a Form of Selective Autophagy, Plays an Essential Role in Mitochondrial Dynamics of Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder caused by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and affects millions of people. Currently, mitochondrial dysfunction is considered as a central role in the pathogenesis of both sporadic and familial forms of PD. Mitophagy, a process that selectively targets damaged or redundant mitochondria to the lysosome for elimination via the autophagy devices, is crucial in preserving mitochondrial health. So far, aberrant mitophagy has been observed in the postmortem of PD patients and genetic or toxin-induced models of PD...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - February 2, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Wang XL, Feng ST, Wang YT, Yuan YH, Li ZP, Chen NH, Wang ZZ, Zhang Y Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Upregulation of KIF11 in TP53 Mutant Glioma Promotes Tumor Stemness and Drug Resistance.
Abstract Glioma is the most common type of primary brain malignancy with high morbidity and mortality, but little is known about its pathological mechanisms. Kinesin family member 11 (KIF11) is a key driver of malignancy in glioblastoma, a grade IV glioma, but its involvement in glioma chemoresistance remains to be determined. We accessed the TCGA open datasets, collected glioma tumor tissue samples, and analyzed the expression of KIF11 in glioma patients. Meanwhile, the correlation between KIF11 and survival outcomes was determined by the Kaplan-Meier analysis. The role of KIF11 in glioma tumor cell function was ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - January 25, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Liu B, Zhang G, Cui S, Du G Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Glutamatergic System is Affected in Brain from an Hyperthermia-Induced Seizures Rat Model.
ín M Abstract One of the most frequent neurological disorders in children is febrile seizures (FS), a risk for epilepsy in adults. Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in CNS acting through ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Excess of glutamate in the extracellular space elicits excitotoxicity and has been associated with neurological disorders, such as epilepsy. The removal of extracellular glutamate by excitatory amino acid transporters (EATT) plays an important neuroprotective role. GLT-1 is the main EAAT present in the cortex brain. On the other hand, an increase in metabotropic glutama...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - January 25, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Crespo M, León-Navarro DA, Martín M Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Enhances Motoneuron Survival and Inhibits Neuroinflammation After Spinal Cord Transection in Zebrafish.
In this study, we used the zebrafish spinal transection model to investigate whether IGF-1 plays an important role in the recovery of motor function. Unlike mammals, zebrafish can regenerate axons and restore mobility in remarkably short period after spinal cord transection. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunofluorescence showed decreased IGF-1 expression in the lesion site. Double immunostaining for IGF-1 and Islet-1 (motoneuron marker)/GFAP (astrocyte marker)/Iba-1 (microglia marker) showed that IGF-1 was mainly expressed in motoneurons and was surrounded by astrocyte and microglia. Following administration of IGF-1 mo...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - January 22, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Zhao L, Zhang B, Huang S, Zhou Z, Jia X, Qiao C, Wang F, Sun M, Shi Y, Yao L, Cui C, Shen Y Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Lentiviral Expression of Rabies Virus Glycoprotein in the Rat Hippocampus Strengthens Synaptic Plasticity.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of RVG on synaptic function in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of rat. Two μl (108 T.U./ml) of the lentiviral vector containing RVG gene was injected into the DG of rat hippocampus. After 2 weeks, the rat's brain was cross-sectioned and RVG-expressing cells were detected by fluorescent microscopy. Hippocampal synaptic activity of the infected rats was then examined by recording the local field potentials from DG after stimulation of the perforant pathway. Short-term synaptic plasticity was also assessed by double pulse stimulation. Expression of RVG in DG i...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - January 19, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Ghassemi S, Asgari T, Mirzapour-Delavar H, Aliakbari S, Pourbadie HG, Prehaud C, Lafon M, Gholami A, Azadmanesh K, Naderi N, Sayyah M Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Identifying the Neurodevelopmental Differences of Opioid Withdrawal.
Abstract Stopping opioid medications can result in a debilitating withdrawal syndrome in chronic users. Opioid withdrawal can occur at all ages, but mechanistic understanding of this condition is predominantly derived from adult studies. Here, we examined whether there are age-dependent differences in the behavioural phenotype and cellular indices of opioid withdrawal. We tested this by assessing the behavioural and cFos response (a surrogate marker for neuronal activation) to morphine withdrawal in C57BL/6J mice across key developmental stages-neonatal, adolescent, and adulthood. Mice in all age groups recei...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - January 12, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: van den Hoogen NJ, Kwok CHT, Trang T Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Kratom Alkaloids, Natural and Semi-Synthetic, Show Less Physical Dependence and Ameliorate Opioid Withdrawal.
In conclusion, while retaining some liabilities, kratom, mitragynine, and mitragynine pseudoindoxyl produced significantly less physical dependence and ameliorated precipitated withdrawal in morphine-dependent animals, suggesting some clinical value. PMID: 33433723 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - January 12, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Wilson LL, Chakraborty S, Eans SO, Cirino TJ, Stacy HM, Simons CA, Uprety R, Majumdar S, McLaughlin JP Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Sarm1 is Essential for Anesthesia-Induced Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Impairment in Aged Mice.
This study aims to test the hypothesis that Sarm1 is involved in POCD through regulating Calpain activity. Wild type and Sarm1 knock out mice were exposed to isoflurane. Mouse cognitive function was determined by Morris water maze test. Neuroinflammation was determined by Iba1 and GFAP protein levels and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Calpain activation was determined by αII-spectrin degradation and TrkB cleavage. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling was determined by c-Jun N-terminal kinase and cJun phosphorylation both in vivo and in vitro by Western blot and immunofluorescence staining....
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - January 12, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Lin H, Kang Z, Li S, Zeng J, Zhao J Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Sidestream Smoke Affects Dendritic Complexity and Astrocytes After Model Mild Closed Head Traumatic Brain Injury.
This study provides useful context for the importance of lifestyle changes, such as reducing or eliminating cigarette smoking, during recovery from TBI. PMID: 33417143 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Ratliff WA, Saykally JN, Keeley KL, Driscoll DC, Murray KE, Okuka M, Mervis RF, Delic V, Citron BA Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Dysbiosis and Alzheimer's Disease: Cause or Treatment Opportunity?
las M Abstract Recent investigations have increased the interest on the connection between the microorganisms inhabiting the gut (gut microbiota) and human health. An imbalance of the intestinal bacteria representation (dysbiosis) could lead to different diseases, ranging from obesity and diabetes, to neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The term "gut-brain axis" refers to a crosstalk between the brain and the gut involving multiple overlapping pathways, including the autonomic, neuroendocrine, and immune systems as well as bacterial metabolites and neuromodulatory molecules. Throug...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - January 5, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Janeiro MH, Ramírez MJ, Solas M Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Aversive Stress Reduces Mu Opioid Receptor Expression in the Intercalated Nuclei of the Rat Amygdala.
Abstract The amygdala plays an important role in the integration of responses to noxious and fearful stimuli. Sensory information from many systems is integrated in the lateral and basolateral amygdala and transmitted to the central amygdala, the major output nucleus of the amygdala regulating both motor and emotional responses. The network of intercalated cells (ITC) which surrounds the lateral and basolateral amygdala and serves to modulate information flow from the lateral amygdala to the central nucleus, express a very high local concentration of mu-type opioid receptors. Loss of the ITC neurons impairs fear e...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - January 5, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Gouty S, Silveira JT, Cote TE, Cox BM Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Concurrent Akt, ERK1/2 and AMPK Activation by Obestatin Inhibits Apoptotic Signaling Cascades on Nutrient-Deprived PC12 Cells.
JP, Pazos Y Abstract Targeting apoptosis in the ischemic penumbra is a rational therapeutic approach for restricting cerebral infarct volume after clinical stroke. The present work explored the capability of the obestatin peptide, as a novel approach to inhibit apoptotic signaling cascades on PC12 cells. According to the results, obestatin treatment significantly reduced nutrient deprivation-induced apoptotic cell death. The protective effects were related to the regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein, BCL-2, and the apoptotic protein caspase-3. This encompasses the control of apoptosis by the interplay between ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - January 5, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Sánchez-Temprano A, Relova JL, Camiña JP, Pazos Y Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

SHARPIN: Role in Finding NEMO and in Amyloid-Beta Clearance and Degradation (ABCD) Pathway in Alzheimer's Disease?
Abstract SHANK- associated RH domain-interacting protein (SHARPIN) is a multifunctional protein associated with numerous physiological functions and many diseases. The primary role of the protein as a LUBAC-dependent component in regulating the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB accounts to its role in inflammation and antiapoptosis. Hence, an alteration of SHARPIN expression or genetic mutations or polymorphisms leads to the alteration of the above-mentioned primary physiological functions contributing to inflammation-associated diseases and cancer, respectively. However, there are complications o...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - January 5, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Krishnan D, Menon RN, Gopala S Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Distinct Effects of BDNF and NT-3 on the Dendrites and Presynaptic Boutons of Developing Olfactory Bulb GABAergic Interneurons In Vitro.
, Vicario C Abstract Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) are known to regulate neuronal morphology and the formation of neural circuits, yet the neuronal targets of each neurotrophin are still to be defined. To address how these neurotrophins regulate the morphological and synaptic differentiation of developing olfactory bulb (OB) GABAergic interneurons, we analyzed the effect of BDNF and NT-3 on GABA+-neurons and on different subtypes of these neurons: tyrosine hydroxylase (TH+); calretinin (Calr+); calbindin (Calb+); and parvalbumin (PVA+). These cells were generated from cultured ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - January 4, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Nieto-Estévez V, Defterali Ç, Vicario C Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Expression of NLRP3 Inflammasomes in Neurogenic Niche Contributes to the Effect of Spatial Learning in Physiological Conditions but Not in Alzheimer's Type Neurodegeneration.
Abstract A common feature of neurodegenerative disorders, in particular Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a chronic neuroinflammation associated with aberrant neuroplasticity. Development of neuroinflammation affects efficacy of stem and progenitor cells proliferation, differentiation, migration, and integration of newborn cells into neural circuitry. However, precise mechanisms of neurogenesis alterations in neuroinflammation are not clear yet. It is well established that expression of NLRP3 inflammasomes in glial cells marks neuroinflammatory events, but less is known about contribution of NLRP3 to deregulation of ne...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - January 4, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Komleva YK, Lopatina OL, Gorina YV, Chernykh AI, Trufanova LV, Vais EF, Kharitonova EV, Zhukov EL, Vahtina LY, Medvedeva NN, Salmina AB Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

GSK-3 β Disrupts Neuronal Oscillatory Function to Inhibit Learning and Memory in Male Rats.
GSK-3β Disrupts Neuronal Oscillatory Function to Inhibit Learning and Memory in Male Rats. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2021 Jan 03;: Authors: Albeely AM, Williams OOF, Perreault ML Abstract Alterations in glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) activity have been implicated in disorders of cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Cognitive dysfunction is also characterized by the dysregulation of neuronal oscillatory activity, macroscopic electrical rhythms in brain that are critical to systems communication. A direct functional relationship between GSK-3β and ne...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - January 3, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Albeely AM, Williams OOF, Perreault ML Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Effects of Thrombin on the Neurovascular Unit in Cerebral Ischemia.
Abstract Cerebral ischemia is a cerebrovascular disease with high morbidity and mortality that poses a significant burden on society and the economy. About 60% of cerebral ischemia is caused by thrombus, and the formation of thrombus proceeds from insoluble fibrin, following its transformation from liquid fibrinogen. In thrombus-induced ischemia, increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), followed by the extravasation of blood components into the brain results in an altered brain microenvironment. Changes in the brain microenvironment affect brain function and the neurovascular unit (NVU), the workin...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - January 3, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Cao H, Seto SW, Bhuyan DJ, Chan HH, Song W Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Prostaglandin E2 Increases Neurite Length and the Formation of Axonal Loops, and Regulates Cone Turning in Differentiating NE4C Cells Via PKA.
In this study, we further examine whether PGE2 can influence actin-dependent neuronal morphology in later stages (day 8-12) of NE4C cell differentiation. We show that exposure to PGE2 from the initiation of differentiation increased neurite length and the proportion of neurites that formed axonal loops. We also observed changes in the proportion of turning growth cones as the differentiation progressed, with a reduced likelihood of observing turning (or asymmetrical) growth cones on day 8 and increased odds on days 10 and 12. Moreover, we showed for the first time that the observed changes in cytoskeletal morphology were P...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - January 3, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Kissoondoyal A, Crawford DA Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Chronic Pain Causes Peripheral and Central Responses in MIA-Induced TMJOA Rats.
This study aimed to investigate chronic pain and the peripheral and central responses in monoiodoacetate (MIA)-induced TMJOA rats. First, the appropriate dose of MIA was determined based on pain behavior assessment in rats. Alterations of the condylar structure in TMJOA rats were evaluated by histological staining and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Second, the period of TMJOA chronic pain was further explored by assessing the numbers of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA-1)-positive microglia in the trigeminal spinal nucleus (TSN) and perfor...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - January 2, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Jiang H, Xu L, Liu W, Xiao M, Ke J, Long X Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research