Helminths are positively AMPing up gut de-bugging
Cell Host Microbe. 2022 Jan 12;30(1):1-2. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.016.ABSTRACTIn recently published work, Hu, Zhang, and colleagues identify SPRR2A as a novel intestinal antimicrobial protein (AMP) that targets Gram-positive bacteria (Hu et al., 2021). Unexpectedly, the authors show that SPRR2A is induced by helminth-elicited type 2 immunity to restrict pathogenic bacteria translocation across the helminth-infection-damaged epithelium.PMID:35026130 | DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.016 (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - January 13, 2022 Category: Microbiology Authors: William G C Horsnell Menno J Oudhoff Source Type: research

Microbial Cgr2 will let your Th17 cells ROR( γT)
Cell Host Microbe. 2022 Jan 12;30(1):10-12. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.014.ABSTRACTIn this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Alexander et al. show that the enzyme cardiac glycoside reductase 2 (cgr2), which is produced by Eggerthella lenta, metabolizes RORγT inhibitors, resulting in an increased Th17 response and more severe inflammation in colitis models. The effect of cgr2 can be neutralized by a diet rich in arginine.PMID:35026131 | DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.014 (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - January 13, 2022 Category: Microbiology Authors: Naomi Rodriguez-Marino Luisa Cervantes-Barragan Source Type: research

Turning CRISPR on with antibiotics
Cell Host Microbe. 2022 Jan 12;30(1):12-14. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.013.ABSTRACTCRISPR-Cas systems have the ability to integrate invasive DNA sequences to build adaptive immunity in bacteria. In this issue Dimitriu et al. show bacteriostatic antibiotics prompt CRISPR acquisition events, illustrating how environmental conditions affect complex dynamics between host and virus and the corresponding biological and genetic arms race.PMID:35026132 | DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.013 (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - January 13, 2022 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rodolphe Barrangou Luciano A Marraffini Source Type: research

Location matters in RSV protection
Cell Host Microbe. 2022 Jan 12;30(1):15-16. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.012.ABSTRACTIn this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Zohar et al., 2022 show that immunization of non-human primates with six different candidate respiratory syncytial virus vaccines resulted in distinct antibody profiles and variable levels of protection. Using a systems serology approach, they identified compartment-specific antibody-mediated correlates of protection.PMID:35026133 | DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.012 (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - January 13, 2022 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rik L de Swart Source Type: research

Unique symbiont-derived sphingolipids: Dietary amino acids source branch formation
Cell Host Microbe. 2022 Jan 12;30(1):3-5. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.015.ABSTRACTMetabolites derived from symbionts have the potential to regulate host pathophysiological conditions, especially in the gut. In a recent issue of Nature, Oh et al. clarify unique molecular structures of α-galactosylceramides derived from B. fragilis and their immune-modulatory functions against host natural killer T (NKT) cells.PMID:35026134 | DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.015 (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - January 13, 2022 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yoshiyuki Goto Source Type: research

Diet, microbe, and autism: Cause or consequence?
Cell Host Microbe. 2022 Jan 12;30(1):5-7. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.018.ABSTRACTNumerous studies have shown the possible contributions of the gut microbiome to the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, recently in Cell, Yap et al. found that autism-related dietary preferences may mediate the ASD-microbiome associations, while the direct associations between ASD and gut microbiota are negligible.PMID:35026135 | DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.018 (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - January 13, 2022 Category: Microbiology Authors: Guanjian Li Bing Song Chao Wang Dongdong Tang Kuokuo Li Xiaojin He Yunxia Cao Source Type: research

En garde! The duel functions of MORC3
Cell Host Microbe. 2022 Jan 12;30(1):8-9. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.017.ABSTRACTEffector-triggered immunity involves "guarded" host processes that, when perturbed by pathogen factors, prompt a secondary response. A recent study published in Nature by Gaidt et al. demonstrates that MORC3 serves as both the guard and the guarded antiviral host factor-creating a "heads, I win; tails, you lose!" scenario.PMID:35026136 | DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.017 (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - January 13, 2022 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lindsey E Fox Deborah J Lenschow Source Type: research

Helminths are positively AMPing up gut de-bugging
Cell Host Microbe. 2022 Jan 12;30(1):1-2. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.016.ABSTRACTIn recently published work, Hu, Zhang, and colleagues identify SPRR2A as a novel intestinal antimicrobial protein (AMP) that targets Gram-positive bacteria (Hu et al., 2021). Unexpectedly, the authors show that SPRR2A is induced by helminth-elicited type 2 immunity to restrict pathogenic bacteria translocation across the helminth-infection-damaged epithelium.PMID:35026130 | DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.016 (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - January 13, 2022 Category: Microbiology Authors: William G C Horsnell Menno J Oudhoff Source Type: research

Microbial Cgr2 will let your Th17 cells ROR( γT)
Cell Host Microbe. 2022 Jan 12;30(1):10-12. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.014.ABSTRACTIn this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Alexander et al. show that the enzyme cardiac glycoside reductase 2 (cgr2), which is produced by Eggerthella lenta, metabolizes RORγT inhibitors, resulting in an increased Th17 response and more severe inflammation in colitis models. The effect of cgr2 can be neutralized by a diet rich in arginine.PMID:35026131 | DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.014 (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - January 13, 2022 Category: Microbiology Authors: Naomi Rodriguez-Marino Luisa Cervantes-Barragan Source Type: research

Turning CRISPR on with antibiotics
Cell Host Microbe. 2022 Jan 12;30(1):12-14. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.013.ABSTRACTCRISPR-Cas systems have the ability to integrate invasive DNA sequences to build adaptive immunity in bacteria. In this issue Dimitriu et al. show bacteriostatic antibiotics prompt CRISPR acquisition events, illustrating how environmental conditions affect complex dynamics between host and virus and the corresponding biological and genetic arms race.PMID:35026132 | DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.013 (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - January 13, 2022 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rodolphe Barrangou Luciano A Marraffini Source Type: research

Location matters in RSV protection
Cell Host Microbe. 2022 Jan 12;30(1):15-16. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.012.ABSTRACTIn this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Zohar et al., 2022 show that immunization of non-human primates with six different candidate respiratory syncytial virus vaccines resulted in distinct antibody profiles and variable levels of protection. Using a systems serology approach, they identified compartment-specific antibody-mediated correlates of protection.PMID:35026133 | DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.012 (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - January 13, 2022 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rik L de Swart Source Type: research

Unique symbiont-derived sphingolipids: Dietary amino acids source branch formation
Cell Host Microbe. 2022 Jan 12;30(1):3-5. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.015.ABSTRACTMetabolites derived from symbionts have the potential to regulate host pathophysiological conditions, especially in the gut. In a recent issue of Nature, Oh et al. clarify unique molecular structures of α-galactosylceramides derived from B. fragilis and their immune-modulatory functions against host natural killer T (NKT) cells.PMID:35026134 | DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.015 (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - January 13, 2022 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yoshiyuki Goto Source Type: research

Diet, microbe, and autism: Cause or consequence?
Cell Host Microbe. 2022 Jan 12;30(1):5-7. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.018.ABSTRACTNumerous studies have shown the possible contributions of the gut microbiome to the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, recently in Cell, Yap et al. found that autism-related dietary preferences may mediate the ASD-microbiome associations, while the direct associations between ASD and gut microbiota are negligible.PMID:35026135 | DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.018 (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - January 13, 2022 Category: Microbiology Authors: Guanjian Li Bing Song Chao Wang Dongdong Tang Kuokuo Li Xiaojin He Yunxia Cao Source Type: research

En garde! The duel functions of MORC3
Cell Host Microbe. 2022 Jan 12;30(1):8-9. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.017.ABSTRACTEffector-triggered immunity involves "guarded" host processes that, when perturbed by pathogen factors, prompt a secondary response. A recent study published in Nature by Gaidt et al. demonstrates that MORC3 serves as both the guard and the guarded antiviral host factor-creating a "heads, I win; tails, you lose!" scenario.PMID:35026136 | DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.017 (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - January 13, 2022 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lindsey E Fox Deborah J Lenschow Source Type: research

Genotype-specific features reduce the susceptibility of South American yellow fever virus strains to vaccine-induced antibodies
Cell Host Microbe. 2022 Jan 6:S1931-3128(21)00580-1. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.009. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe resurgence of yellow fever in South America has prompted vaccination against the etiologic agent, yellow fever virus (YFV). Current vaccines are based on a live-attenuated YF-17D virus derived from a virulent African isolate. The capacity of these vaccines to induce neutralizing antibodies against the vaccine strain is used as a surrogate for protection. However, the sensitivity of genetically distinct South American strains to vaccine-induced antibodies is unknown. We show that antiviral potency of the p...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - January 9, 2022 Category: Microbiology Authors: Denise Haslwanter Gorka Lasso Anna Z Wec Nath ália Dias Furtado Lidiane Menezes Souza Raphael Alexandra L Tse Yan Sun Stephanie Stransky N úria Pedreño-Lopez Carolina Argondizo Correia Zachary A Bornholdt Mrunal Sakharkar Vivian I Avelino-Silva Crystal Source Type: research

Genotype-specific features reduce the susceptibility of South American yellow fever virus strains to vaccine-induced antibodies
Cell Host Microbe. 2022 Jan 6:S1931-3128(21)00580-1. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.009. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe resurgence of yellow fever in South America has prompted vaccination against the etiologic agent, yellow fever virus (YFV). Current vaccines are based on a live-attenuated YF-17D virus derived from a virulent African isolate. The capacity of these vaccines to induce neutralizing antibodies against the vaccine strain is used as a surrogate for protection. However, the sensitivity of genetically distinct South American strains to vaccine-induced antibodies is unknown. We show that antiviral potency of the p...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - January 9, 2022 Category: Microbiology Authors: Denise Haslwanter Gorka Lasso Anna Z Wec Nath ália Dias Furtado Lidiane Menezes Souza Raphael Alexandra L Tse Yan Sun Stephanie Stransky N úria Pedreño-Lopez Carolina Argondizo Correia Zachary A Bornholdt Mrunal Sakharkar Vivian I Avelino-Silva Crystal Source Type: research

Genotype-specific features reduce the susceptibility of South American yellow fever virus strains to vaccine-induced antibodies
Cell Host Microbe. 2022 Jan 6:S1931-3128(21)00580-1. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.009. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe resurgence of yellow fever in South America has prompted vaccination against the etiologic agent, yellow fever virus (YFV). Current vaccines are based on a live-attenuated YF-17D virus derived from a virulent African isolate. The capacity of these vaccines to induce neutralizing antibodies against the vaccine strain is used as a surrogate for protection. However, the sensitivity of genetically distinct South American strains to vaccine-induced antibodies is unknown. We show that antiviral potency of the p...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - January 9, 2022 Category: Microbiology Authors: Denise Haslwanter Gorka Lasso Anna Z Wec Nath ália Dias Furtado Lidiane Menezes Souza Raphael Alexandra L Tse Yan Sun Stephanie Stransky N úria Pedreño-Lopez Carolina Argondizo Correia Zachary A Bornholdt Mrunal Sakharkar Vivian I Avelino-Silva Crystal Source Type: research

Genotype-specific features reduce the susceptibility of South American yellow fever virus strains to vaccine-induced antibodies
Cell Host Microbe. 2022 Jan 6:S1931-3128(21)00580-1. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.009. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe resurgence of yellow fever in South America has prompted vaccination against the etiologic agent, yellow fever virus (YFV). Current vaccines are based on a live-attenuated YF-17D virus derived from a virulent African isolate. The capacity of these vaccines to induce neutralizing antibodies against the vaccine strain is used as a surrogate for protection. However, the sensitivity of genetically distinct South American strains to vaccine-induced antibodies is unknown. We show that antiviral potency of the p...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - January 9, 2022 Category: Microbiology Authors: Denise Haslwanter Gorka Lasso Anna Z Wec Nath ália Dias Furtado Lidiane Menezes Souza Raphael Alexandra L Tse Yan Sun Stephanie Stransky N úria Pedreño-Lopez Carolina Argondizo Correia Zachary A Bornholdt Mrunal Sakharkar Vivian I Avelino-Silva Crystal Source Type: research

Anatomy promotes neutral coexistence of strains in the human skin microbiome
Cell Host Microbe. 2022 Jan 5:S1931-3128(21)00578-3. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.007. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWhat enables strains of the same species to coexist in a microbiome? Here, we investigate whether host anatomy can explain strain co-residence of Cutibacterium acnes, the most abundant species on human skin. We reconstruct on-person evolution and migration using whole-genome sequencing of C. acnes colonies acquired from healthy subjects, including from individual skin pores, and find considerable spatial structure at the level of pores. Although lineages (sets of colonies separated by
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - January 7, 2022 Category: Microbiology Authors: Arolyn Conwill Anne C Kuan Ravalika Damerla Alexandra J Poret Jacob S Baker A Delphine Tripp Eric J Alm Tami D Lieberman Source Type: research

Polysaccharide utilization loci in Bacteroides determine population fitness and community-level interactions
Cell Host Microbe. 2022 Jan 4:S1931-3128(21)00577-1. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.006. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPolysaccharide utilization loci (PULs) are co-regulated bacterial genes that sense nutrients and enable glycan digestion. Human gut microbiome members, notably Bacteroides, contain numerous PULs that enable glycan utilization and shape ecological dynamics. To investigate the role of PULs on fitness and inter-species interactions, we develop a CRISPR-based genome editing tool to study 23 PULs in Bacteroides uniformis (BU). BU PULs show distinct glycan-degrading functions and transcriptional coordination that e...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - January 7, 2022 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jun Feng Yili Qian Zhichao Zhou Sarah Ertmer Eugenio I Vivas Freeman Lan Joshua J Hamilton Federico E Rey Karthik Anantharaman Ophelia S Venturelli Source Type: research

Discovery of ultrapotent broadly neutralizing antibodies from SARS-CoV-2 elite neutralizers
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 18:S1931-3128(21)00581-3. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.010. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTA fraction of COVID-19 convalescent individuals mount a potent antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 with cross-reactivity to SARS-CoV-1. To uncover their humoral response in detail, we performed single B cell analysis from 10 SARS-CoV-2 elite neutralizers. We isolated and analyzed 126 monoclonal antibodies, many of which were sarbecovirus cross-reactive, with some displaying merbecovirus- and embecovirus-reactivity. Several isolated broadly neutralizing antibodies were effective against B.1.1.7, B.1.351, B.1.429,...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - January 1, 2022 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kanika Vanshylla Chengcheng Fan Marie Wunsch Nareshkumar Poopalasingam Matthijs Meijers Christoph Kreer Franziska Kleipass Denis Ruchnewitz Meryem S Ercanoglu Henning Gruell Friederike M ünn Kai Pohl Hanna Janicki Tobias Nolden Simone Bartl Saskia C Stei Source Type: research

Discovery of ultrapotent broadly neutralizing antibodies from SARS-CoV-2 elite neutralizers
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 18:S1931-3128(21)00581-3. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.010. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTA fraction of COVID-19 convalescent individuals mount a potent antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 with cross-reactivity to SARS-CoV-1. To uncover their humoral response in detail, we performed single B cell analysis from 10 SARS-CoV-2 elite neutralizers. We isolated and analyzed 126 monoclonal antibodies, many of which were sarbecovirus cross-reactive, with some displaying merbecovirus- and embecovirus-reactivity. Several isolated broadly neutralizing antibodies were effective against B.1.1.7, B.1.351, B.1.429,...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - January 1, 2022 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kanika Vanshylla Chengcheng Fan Marie Wunsch Nareshkumar Poopalasingam Matthijs Meijers Christoph Kreer Franziska Kleipass Denis Ruchnewitz Meryem S Ercanoglu Henning Gruell Friederike M ünn Kai Pohl Hanna Janicki Tobias Nolden Simone Bartl Saskia C Stei Source Type: research

Discovery of ultrapotent broadly neutralizing antibodies from SARS-CoV-2 elite neutralizers
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 18:S1931-3128(21)00581-3. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.010. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTA fraction of COVID-19 convalescent individuals mount a potent antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 with cross-reactivity to SARS-CoV-1. To uncover their humoral response in detail, we performed single B cell analysis from 10 SARS-CoV-2 elite neutralizers. We isolated and analyzed 126 monoclonal antibodies, many of which were sarbecovirus cross-reactive, with some displaying merbecovirus- and embecovirus-reactivity. Several isolated broadly neutralizing antibodies were effective against B.1.1.7, B.1.351, B.1.429,...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - January 1, 2022 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kanika Vanshylla Chengcheng Fan Marie Wunsch Nareshkumar Poopalasingam Matthijs Meijers Christoph Kreer Franziska Kleipass Denis Ruchnewitz Meryem S Ercanoglu Henning Gruell Friederike M ünn Kai Pohl Hanna Janicki Tobias Nolden Simone Bartl Saskia C Stei Source Type: research

The Mouse Gastrointestinal Bacteria Catalogue enables translation between the mouse and human gut microbiotas via functional mapping
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 22:S1931-3128(21)00568-0. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.003. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHuman health and disease have increasingly been shown to be impacted by the gut microbiota, and mouse models are essential for investigating these effects. However, the compositions of human and mouse gut microbiotas are distinct, limiting translation of microbiota research between these hosts. To address this, we constructed the Mouse Gastrointestinal Bacteria Catalogue (MGBC), a repository of 26,640 high-quality mouse microbiota-derived bacterial genomes. This catalog enables species-level analyses for map...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 31, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Benjamin S Beresford-Jones Samuel C Forster Mark D Stares George Notley Elisa Viciani Hilary P Browne Daniel J Boehmler Amelia T Soderholm Nitin Kumar Kevin Vervier Justin R Cross Alexandre Almeida Trevor D Lawley Virginia A Pedicord Source Type: research

Pre-existing humoral immunity to human common cold coronaviruses negatively impacts the protective SARS-CoV-2 antibody response
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 7:S1931-3128(21)00570-9. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.005. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSARS-CoV-2 infection causes diverse outcomes ranging from asymptomatic infection to respiratory distress and death. A major unresolved question is whether prior immunity to endemic, human common cold coronaviruses (hCCCoVs) impacts susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection or immunity following infection and vaccination. Therefore, we analyzed samples from the same individuals before and after SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination. We found hCCCoV antibody levels increase after SARS-CoV-2 exposure, demonstrating c...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 29, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chun-Yang Lin Joshua Wolf David C Brice Yilun Sun Macauley Locke Sean Cherry Ashley H Castellaw Marie Wehenkel Jeremy Chase Crawford Veronika I Zarnitsyna Daniel Duque Kim J Allison E Kaitlynn Allen Scott A Brown Alexandra H Mandarano Jeremie H Estepp SJT Source Type: research

Pre-existing humoral immunity to human common cold coronaviruses negatively impacts the protective SARS-CoV-2 antibody response
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 7:S1931-3128(21)00570-9. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.005. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSARS-CoV-2 infection causes diverse outcomes ranging from asymptomatic infection to respiratory distress and death. A major unresolved question is whether prior immunity to endemic, human common cold coronaviruses (hCCCoVs) impacts susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection or immunity following infection and vaccination. Therefore, we analyzed samples from the same individuals before and after SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination. We found hCCCoV antibody levels increase after SARS-CoV-2 exposure, demonstrating c...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 29, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chun-Yang Lin Joshua Wolf David C Brice Yilun Sun Macauley Locke Sean Cherry Ashley H Castellaw Marie Wehenkel Jeremy Chase Crawford Veronika I Zarnitsyna Daniel Duque Kim J Allison E Kaitlynn Allen Scott A Brown Alexandra H Mandarano Jeremie H Estepp SJT Source Type: research

Pre-existing humoral immunity to human common cold coronaviruses negatively impacts the protective SARS-CoV-2 antibody response
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 7:S1931-3128(21)00570-9. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.005. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSARS-CoV-2 infection causes diverse outcomes ranging from asymptomatic infection to respiratory distress and death. A major unresolved question is whether prior immunity to endemic, human common cold coronaviruses (hCCCoVs) impacts susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection or immunity following infection and vaccination. Therefore, we analyzed samples from the same individuals before and after SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination. We found hCCCoV antibody levels increase after SARS-CoV-2 exposure, demonstrating c...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 29, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chun-Yang Lin Joshua Wolf David C Brice Yilun Sun Macauley Locke Sean Cherry Ashley H Castellaw Marie Wehenkel Jeremy Chase Crawford Veronika I Zarnitsyna Daniel Duque Kim J Allison E Kaitlynn Allen Scott A Brown Alexandra H Mandarano Jeremie H Estepp SJT Source Type: research

Strong humoral immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 Spike after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination with a 16-week interval between doses
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 3:S1931-3128(21)00569-2. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe standard regimen of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 includes two doses administered three weeks apart. However, some public health authorities spaced these doses, raising questions about efficacy. We analyzed longitudinal humoral responses against the D614G strain and variants of concern for SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of SARS-CoV-2-naive and previously infected individuals who received the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine with sixteen weeks between doses. While administering a second dose to previously infected...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Alexandra Tauzin Shang Yu Gong Guillaume Beaudoin-Bussi ères Dani V ézina Romain Gasser Lauriane Nault Lorie Marchitto Mehdi Benlarbi Debashree Chatterjee Manon Nayrac Annemarie Laumaea J érémie Prévost Marianne Boutin G érémy Sannier Alexandre Nic Source Type: research

Strong humoral immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 Spike after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination with a 16-week interval between doses
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 3:S1931-3128(21)00569-2. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe standard regimen of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 includes two doses administered three weeks apart. However, some public health authorities spaced these doses, raising questions about efficacy. We analyzed longitudinal humoral responses against the D614G strain and variants of concern for SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of SARS-CoV-2-naive and previously infected individuals who received the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine with sixteen weeks between doses. While administering a second dose to previously infected...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Alexandra Tauzin Shang Yu Gong Guillaume Beaudoin-Bussi ères Dani V ézina Romain Gasser Lauriane Nault Lorie Marchitto Mehdi Benlarbi Debashree Chatterjee Manon Nayrac Annemarie Laumaea J érémie Prévost Marianne Boutin G érémy Sannier Alexandre Nic Source Type: research

Strong humoral immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 Spike after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination with a 16-week interval between doses
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 3:S1931-3128(21)00569-2. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe standard regimen of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 includes two doses administered three weeks apart. However, some public health authorities spaced these doses, raising questions about efficacy. We analyzed longitudinal humoral responses against the D614G strain and variants of concern for SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of SARS-CoV-2-naive and previously infected individuals who received the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine with sixteen weeks between doses. While administering a second dose to previously infected...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Alexandra Tauzin Shang Yu Gong Guillaume Beaudoin-Bussi ères Dani V ézina Romain Gasser Lauriane Nault Lorie Marchitto Mehdi Benlarbi Debashree Chatterjee Manon Nayrac Annemarie Laumaea J érémie Prévost Marianne Boutin G érémy Sannier Alexandre Nic Source Type: research

Virulence factors perforate the pathogen-containing vacuole to signal efferocytosis
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 20:S1931-3128(21)00566-7. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.001. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIntracellular pathogens commonly reside within macrophages to find shelter from humoral defenses, but host cell death can expose them to the extracellular milieu. We find intracellular pathogens solve this dilemma by using virulence factors to generate a complement-dependent find-me signal that initiates uptake by a new phagocyte through efferocytosis. During macrophage death, Salmonella uses a type III secretion system to perforate the membrane of the pathogen-containing vacuole (PCV), thereby triggering co...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 24, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hirotaka Hiyoshi Bevin C English Vladimir E Diaz-Ochoa Tamding Wangdi Lillian F Zhang Miako Sakaguchi Takeshi Haneda Ren ée M Tsolis Andreas J B äumler Source Type: research

Virulence factors perforate the pathogen-containing vacuole to signal efferocytosis
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 20:S1931-3128(21)00566-7. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.001. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIntracellular pathogens commonly reside within macrophages to find shelter from humoral defenses, but host cell death can expose them to the extracellular milieu. We find intracellular pathogens solve this dilemma by using virulence factors to generate a complement-dependent find-me signal that initiates uptake by a new phagocyte through efferocytosis. During macrophage death, Salmonella uses a type III secretion system to perforate the membrane of the pathogen-containing vacuole (PCV), thereby triggering co...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 24, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hirotaka Hiyoshi Bevin C English Vladimir E Diaz-Ochoa Tamding Wangdi Lillian F Zhang Miako Sakaguchi Takeshi Haneda Ren ée M Tsolis Andreas J B äumler Source Type: research

Enteric virome negatively affects seroconversion following oral rotavirus vaccination in a longitudinally sampled cohort of Ghanaian infants
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 16:S1931-3128(21)00567-9. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.002. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRotavirus vaccines (RVVs) have substantially diminished mortality from severe rotavirus (RV) gastroenteritis but are significantly less effective in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), limiting their life-saving potential. The etiology of RVV's diminished effectiveness remains incompletely understood, but the enteric microbiota has been implicated in modulating immunity to RVVs. Here, we analyze the enteric microbiota in a longitudinal cohort of 122 Ghanaian infants, evaluated over the course of 3 Rota...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Andrew HyoungJin Kim George Armah Francis Dennis Leran Wang Rachel Rodgers Lindsay Droit Megan T Baldridge Scott A Handley Vanessa C Harris Source Type: research

Bacteriostatic antibiotics promote CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity by enabling increased spacer acquisition
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 14:S1931-3128(21)00520-5. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.11.014. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPhages impose strong selection on bacteria to evolve resistance against viral predation. Bacteria can rapidly evolve phage resistance via receptor mutation or using their CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems. Acquisition of CRISPR immunity relies on the insertion of a phage-derived sequence into CRISPR arrays in the bacterial genome. Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its phage DMS3vir as a model, we demonstrate that conditions that reduce bacterial growth rates, such as exposure to bacteriostatic antibiotics (w...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tatiana Dimitriu Elena Kurilovich Urszula Łapińska Konstantin Severinov Stefano Pagliara Mark D Szczelkun Edze R Westra Source Type: research

Enteric virome negatively affects seroconversion following oral rotavirus vaccination in a longitudinally sampled cohort of Ghanaian infants
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 16:S1931-3128(21)00567-9. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.002. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRotavirus vaccines (RVVs) have substantially diminished mortality from severe rotavirus (RV) gastroenteritis but are significantly less effective in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), limiting their life-saving potential. The etiology of RVV's diminished effectiveness remains incompletely understood, but the enteric microbiota has been implicated in modulating immunity to RVVs. Here, we analyze the enteric microbiota in a longitudinal cohort of 122 Ghanaian infants, evaluated over the course of 3 Rota...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Andrew HyoungJin Kim George Armah Francis Dennis Leran Wang Rachel Rodgers Lindsay Droit Megan T Baldridge Scott A Handley Vanessa C Harris Source Type: research

Bacteriostatic antibiotics promote CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity by enabling increased spacer acquisition
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 14:S1931-3128(21)00520-5. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.11.014. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPhages impose strong selection on bacteria to evolve resistance against viral predation. Bacteria can rapidly evolve phage resistance via receptor mutation or using their CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems. Acquisition of CRISPR immunity relies on the insertion of a phage-derived sequence into CRISPR arrays in the bacterial genome. Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its phage DMS3vir as a model, we demonstrate that conditions that reduce bacterial growth rates, such as exposure to bacteriostatic antibiotics (w...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tatiana Dimitriu Elena Kurilovich Urszula Łapińska Konstantin Severinov Stefano Pagliara Mark D Szczelkun Edze R Westra Source Type: research

Enteric virome negatively affects seroconversion following oral rotavirus vaccination in a longitudinally sampled cohort of Ghanaian infants
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 16:S1931-3128(21)00567-9. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.002. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRotavirus vaccines (RVVs) have substantially diminished mortality from severe rotavirus (RV) gastroenteritis but are significantly less effective in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), limiting their life-saving potential. The etiology of RVV's diminished effectiveness remains incompletely understood, but the enteric microbiota has been implicated in modulating immunity to RVVs. Here, we analyze the enteric microbiota in a longitudinal cohort of 122 Ghanaian infants, evaluated over the course of 3 Rota...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Andrew HyoungJin Kim George Armah Francis Dennis Leran Wang Rachel Rodgers Lindsay Droit Megan T Baldridge Scott A Handley Vanessa C Harris Source Type: research

Bacteriostatic antibiotics promote CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity by enabling increased spacer acquisition
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 14:S1931-3128(21)00520-5. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.11.014. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPhages impose strong selection on bacteria to evolve resistance against viral predation. Bacteria can rapidly evolve phage resistance via receptor mutation or using their CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems. Acquisition of CRISPR immunity relies on the insertion of a phage-derived sequence into CRISPR arrays in the bacterial genome. Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its phage DMS3vir as a model, we demonstrate that conditions that reduce bacterial growth rates, such as exposure to bacteriostatic antibiotics (w...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tatiana Dimitriu Elena Kurilovich Urszula Łapińska Konstantin Severinov Stefano Pagliara Mark D Szczelkun Edze R Westra Source Type: research

Transcriptional modification of host cells harboring Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoites prevents IFN gamma-mediated cell death
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 16:S1931-3128(21)00518-7. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.11.012. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTToxoplasma gondii develops a latent infection in the muscle and central nervous system that acts as a reservoir for acute-stage reactivation in vulnerable patients. Little is understood about how parasites manipulate host cells during latent infection and the impact this has on survival. We show that bradyzoites impart a unique transcriptional signature on infected host cells. Many of these transcriptional changes rely on protein export and result in the suppression of type I interferon (IFN) and IFNγ ...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 18, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Simona Seizova Ushma Ruparel Alexandra L Garnham Stefanie M Bader Alessandro D Uboldi Michael J Coffey Lachlan W Whitehead Kelly L Rogers Christopher J Tonkin Source Type: research

The antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 Beta underscores the antigenic distance to other variants
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Nov 27:S1931-3128(21)00519-9. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.11.013. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAlpha-B.1.1.7, Beta-B.1.351, Gamma-P.1, and Delta-B.1.617.2 variants of SARS-CoV-2 express multiple mutations in the spike protein (S). These may alter the antigenic structure of S, causing escape from natural or vaccine-induced immunity. Beta is particularly difficult to neutralize using serum induced by early pandemic SARS-CoV-2 strains and is most antigenically separated from Delta. To understand this, we generated 674 mAbs from Beta-infected individuals and performed a detailed structure-function analysi...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 18, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chang Liu Daming Zhou Rungtiwa Nutalai Helen M E Duyvesteyn Aekkachai Tuekprakhon Helen M Ginn Wanwisa Dejnirattisai Piyada Supasa Alexander J Mentzer Beibei Wang James Brett Case Yuguang Zhao Donal T Skelly Rita E Chen Sile Ann Johnson Thomas G Ritter Ch Source Type: research

Transcriptional modification of host cells harboring Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoites prevents IFN gamma-mediated cell death
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 16:S1931-3128(21)00518-7. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.11.012. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTToxoplasma gondii develops a latent infection in the muscle and central nervous system that acts as a reservoir for acute-stage reactivation in vulnerable patients. Little is understood about how parasites manipulate host cells during latent infection and the impact this has on survival. We show that bradyzoites impart a unique transcriptional signature on infected host cells. Many of these transcriptional changes rely on protein export and result in the suppression of type I interferon (IFN) and IFNγ ...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 18, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Simona Seizova Ushma Ruparel Alexandra L Garnham Stefanie M Bader Alessandro D Uboldi Michael J Coffey Lachlan W Whitehead Kelly L Rogers Christopher J Tonkin Source Type: research

The antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 Beta underscores the antigenic distance to other variants
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Nov 27:S1931-3128(21)00519-9. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.11.013. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAlpha-B.1.1.7, Beta-B.1.351, Gamma-P.1, and Delta-B.1.617.2 variants of SARS-CoV-2 express multiple mutations in the spike protein (S). These may alter the antigenic structure of S, causing escape from natural or vaccine-induced immunity. Beta is particularly difficult to neutralize using serum induced by early pandemic SARS-CoV-2 strains and is most antigenically separated from Delta. To understand this, we generated 674 mAbs from Beta-infected individuals and performed a detailed structure-function analysi...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 18, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chang Liu Daming Zhou Rungtiwa Nutalai Helen M E Duyvesteyn Aekkachai Tuekprakhon Helen M Ginn Wanwisa Dejnirattisai Piyada Supasa Alexander J Mentzer Beibei Wang James Brett Case Yuguang Zhao Donal T Skelly Rita E Chen Sile Ann Johnson Thomas G Ritter Ch Source Type: research

Transcriptional modification of host cells harboring Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoites prevents IFN gamma-mediated cell death
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 16:S1931-3128(21)00518-7. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.11.012. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTToxoplasma gondii develops a latent infection in the muscle and central nervous system that acts as a reservoir for acute-stage reactivation in vulnerable patients. Little is understood about how parasites manipulate host cells during latent infection and the impact this has on survival. We show that bradyzoites impart a unique transcriptional signature on infected host cells. Many of these transcriptional changes rely on protein export and result in the suppression of type I interferon (IFN) and IFNγ ...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 18, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Simona Seizova Ushma Ruparel Alexandra L Garnham Stefanie M Bader Alessandro D Uboldi Michael J Coffey Lachlan W Whitehead Kelly L Rogers Christopher J Tonkin Source Type: research

The antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 Beta underscores the antigenic distance to other variants
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Nov 27:S1931-3128(21)00519-9. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.11.013. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAlpha-B.1.1.7, Beta-B.1.351, Gamma-P.1, and Delta-B.1.617.2 variants of SARS-CoV-2 express multiple mutations in the spike protein (S). These may alter the antigenic structure of S, causing escape from natural or vaccine-induced immunity. Beta is particularly difficult to neutralize using serum induced by early pandemic SARS-CoV-2 strains and is most antigenically separated from Delta. To understand this, we generated 674 mAbs from Beta-infected individuals and performed a detailed structure-function analysi...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 18, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chang Liu Daming Zhou Rungtiwa Nutalai Helen M E Duyvesteyn Aekkachai Tuekprakhon Helen M Ginn Wanwisa Dejnirattisai Piyada Supasa Alexander J Mentzer Beibei Wang James Brett Case Yuguang Zhao Donal T Skelly Rita E Chen Sile Ann Johnson Thomas G Ritter Ch Source Type: research

Engineered bacteria recycle tumor metabolic waste to boost immunotherapy
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 8;29(12):1725-1727. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.11.008.ABSTRACTA recent study published in Nature by Canale et al. (2021) shows that engineered probiotic bacteria can be used to augment the availability of nutrients required for optimal immune cell function in tumors. This approach enhances anti-tumor immunity and improves the efficacy of immunotherapy in mouse models of cancer.PMID:34883059 | DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2021.11.008 (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Juan R Cubillos-Ruiz Andres Cubillos-Ruiz Source Type: research

Gut symbionts dial up RA to prime host defense
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 8;29(12):1727-1729. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.11.011.ABSTRACTIn this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Woo et al. (2021) show that retinoic acid generated by symbiotic segmented filamentous bacteria in the intestine primes host intestinal epithelial defense and mediates early innate immune protection against Citrobacter rodentium infection.PMID:34883060 | DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2021.11.011 (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jitender Yadav Nayanan Nathan Dana J Philpott Source Type: research

Salmonella "RecAmends" self-healing
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 8;29(12):1729-1731. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.11.009.ABSTRACTPersistent bacteria contribute to antibiotic treatment failure, potentially fueling resistance. Persisters must survive host defenses while retaining infective capacity after antibiotic cessation. In this issue of Cell Host and Microbe, Hill et al. identify bacterial RecA as a DNA repair factor that allows intracellular bacteria survival, regrowth, and relapse.PMID:34883061 | DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2021.11.009 (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Marisa S Egan Beatrice I Herrmann Igor E Brodsky Source Type: research

Compensating P.  falciparum artemisinin resistance
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 8;29(12):1732-1734. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.11.007.ABSTRACTAmino acid deprivation from reduced hemoglobin degradation in Pfkelch13 artemisinin-resistant parasites reduces fitness. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Mesén-Ramírez et al. decipher the role of nutrient permeable channel activity within the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane to compensate for this fitness cost in asexual blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites.PMID:34883062 | DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2021.11.007 (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lucien Platon Jun Cao Didier M énard Source Type: research

On track to tackle dengue: History and future of NS4B ligands
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 8;29(12):1735-1737. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.11.010.ABSTRACTA recent publication in Nature (Kaptein et al., 2021) reports a highly potent antiviral compound against dengue with promising efficacy in mice. Here, we track the history of this compound class, its pharmacology, and its chemistry, with insights into its potential as orally available drugs to prevent and treat dengue.PMID:34883063 | DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2021.11.010 (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mira A M Behnam Christian D Klein Source Type: research

Engineered bacteria recycle tumor metabolic waste to boost immunotherapy
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Dec 8;29(12):1725-1727. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.11.008.ABSTRACTA recent study published in Nature by Canale et al. (2021) shows that engineered probiotic bacteria can be used to augment the availability of nutrients required for optimal immune cell function in tumors. This approach enhances anti-tumor immunity and improves the efficacy of immunotherapy in mouse models of cancer.PMID:34883059 | DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2021.11.008 (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Juan R Cubillos-Ruiz Andres Cubillos-Ruiz Source Type: research