Reducing macrophage numbers alleviates temporomandibular joint ankylosis
AbstractTemporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is a severe joint disease mainly caused by trauma that leads to a series of oral and maxillofacial function disorders and psychological problems. Our series of studies indicate that TMJ ankylosis development is similar to fracture healing and that severe trauma results in bony ankylosis instead of fibrous ankylosis. Macrophages are early infiltrating inflammatory cells in fracture and play a critical role in initiating fracture repair. We hypothesize that the large numbers of macrophages in the early phase of TMJ ankylosis trigger ankylosed bone mass formation and that the de...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - September 14, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

The domestic pig as a model for the study of mitochondrial inheritance
AbstractMaternal mitochondrial inheritance is a fundamental paradigm within reproductive biology, yet the molecular mechanisms which underlie this process remain poorly understood. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and branches of the autophagic pathway have been implicated in taking part in the active degradation of sperm mitochondria post-fertilization. Despite this knowledge, there remains much unknown about this process, including the cofactors and substrates involved, as well as the implications of what occurs when these systems of degradation fail. Mitochondrial inheritance research has utilized a variety of anim...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - September 11, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

No head regeneration here: regeneration capacity and stem cell dynamics of Theama mediterranea (Polycladida, Platyhelminthes)
AbstractResearch on the regeneration potential of flatworms (Platyhelminthes) has been mainly undertaken with planarians (Tricladida), where most species can regenerate a head and no proliferation takes place in the blastema, i.e. the early undifferentiated regenerative tissue. Only few studies are available for an early-branching group within the Platyhelminthes, the Polycladida. Head regeneration in polyclads is not possible, with a single exception from a study performed more than 100 years ago:Cestoplana was reported to be able to regenerate a head if cut a short distance behind the brain. Here, we show that ‘Ces...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - September 11, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Sertoli cell –conditioned medium restores spermatogenesis in azoospermic mouse testis
AbstractThe current study evaluates potential applications of Sertoli cell (SC) –conditioned medium (CM) and explores the effects of the conditioned medium on the spermatogenesis process in azoospermic mice. For this study, 40 adult mice (28–30 g) were divided into 4 experimental groups: (1) control, (2) DMSO 2% (10 μl), (3) busulfan (40 mg/kg single dose) and (4) busul fan/CM (10 μl). SCs were isolated from 4-week-old mouse testes. After using anesthetics, 10 μl of CM was injected over 3–5 min into each testis and subsequently, sperm samples were collected from the ...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - September 7, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Applications and considerations for the use of genetically engineered mouse models in drug development
AbstractConsidering high drug attrition rates in clinical studies and the overall complexity and challenging environment of drug development, it is increasingly important to understand the therapeutic molecule and target and how they intersect with disease biology as fully as possible. This requires one to use numerous tools and investigative approaches in combination. Genetically engineered mouse models are a critical component to the drug development toolbox as they can provide key insights across multiple steps of the drug development process. While knock-out and knock-in mice can inform questions of basic biology, gene...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - September 5, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Phagocytosis in cellular defense and nutrition: a food-centered approach to the evolution of macrophages
AbstractThe uptake of macromolecules and larger energy-rich particles into the cell is known as phagocytosis. Phagocytosed material is enzymatically degraded in membrane-bound vesicles of the endosome/lysosome system (intracellular digestion). Whereas most, if not all, cells of the animal body are equipped with the molecular apparatus for phagocytosis and intracellular digestion, a few cell types are specialized for a highly efficient mode of phagocytosis. These are the ( “professional”) macrophages, motile cells that seek out and eliminate pathogenic invaders or damaged cells. Macrophages form the backbone of ...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - September 4, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Synthetic cathelicidin LL-37 reduces Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis internalization and pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages
AbstractMycobacterium avium subsp.paratuberculosis (MAP) causes chronic diarrheic intestinal infections in domestic and wild ruminants (paratuberculosis or Johne ’s disease) for which there is no effective treatment. Critical in the pathogenesis of MAP infection is the invasion and survival into macrophages, immune cells with ability to carry on phagocytosis of microbes. In a search for effective therapeutics, our objective was to determine whether human c athelicidin LL-37, a small peptide secreted by leuckocytes and epithelial cells, enhances the macrophage ability to clear MAP infection. In murine (J774A.1) macrop...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - September 2, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Structure and function of the digestive system in molluscs
AbstractThe phylum Mollusca is one of the largest and more diversified among metazoan phyla, comprising many thousand species living in ocean, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. Mollusc-feeding biology is highly diverse, including omnivorous grazers, herbivores, carnivorous scavengers and predators, and even some parasitic species. Consequently, their digestive system presents many adaptive variations. The digestive tract starting in the mouth consists of the buccal cavity, oesophagus, stomach and intestine ending in the anus. Several types of glands are associated, namely, oral and salivary glands, oesophageal glands,...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - September 2, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Quantitation and chemical coding of enteroendocrine cell populations in the human jejunum
In this study, jejunal samples, with no histologically identifiable pathology, from patients undergoing Whipple ’s procedure were investigated for the presence of gastrointestinal hormones using double- and triple-labelling immunohistochemistry and high-resolution confocal microscopy. Ten hormones (5-HT, CCK, secretin, proglucagon-derived peptides, PYY, GIP, somatostatin, neurotensin, ghrelin and motilin) w ere localised in EEC of the human jejunum. If only single staining is considered, the most numerous EEC were those containing 5-HT, CCK, ghrelin, GIP, motilin, secretin and proglucagon-derived peptides. All hormon...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - September 2, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Structure, development and evolution of the digestive system
(Source: Cell and Tissue Research)
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - September 2, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Antiangiogenic therapy with Nintedanib affects hypoxia, angiogenesis and apoptosis in the ventral prostate of TRAMP animals
AbstractThe antiangiogenic therapy for prostate cancer with Nintedanib, a potent inhibitor of important growth factor receptors, has been proven to delay tumor progression and arrest tumor growth; thus, the aim herein is to evaluate Nintedanib effects on tumor cells, besides  angiogenesis and apoptosis processes, metalloproteinases and hypoxia factor in an animal model. Nintedanib promoted growth inhibition and cell death in a dose-dependent manner, showing no tumor selectivity. Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) were treated with Nintedanib (10 m g/kg/day) in different stages of tumor develo...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - August 31, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Presence of MrgprD within the gastrointestinal wall: reality or fake?
AbstractDue to their pivotal role in nociception and mast cell biology, the family of Mas-related G protein-coupled receptors (Mrgprs) has recently gained attention for their possible expression and role(s) in the gastrointestinal tract. In this context, based on immunocytochemical stainings using a commercial antibody, a recent study by Zhou et al. reported that the murine Mrgprd member is expressed in mouse gut lamina propria immune cells and in the outer smooth muscle layers pointing to a potential role for MrgprD in inflammatory responses and intestinal immunity. Immunohistochemical staining for G protein-coupled recep...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - August 31, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Distribution of Kiss2 receptor in the brain and its localization in neuroendocrine cells in the zebrafish
AbstractKisspeptin is a hypothalamic neuropeptide, which acts directly on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-secreting neurons via its cognate receptor (GPR54 or Kiss-R) to stimulate GnRH secretion in mammals. In non-mammalian vertebrates, there are multiple kisspeptins (Kiss1 and Kiss2) and Kiss-R types. Recent gene knockout studies have demonstrated that fish kisspeptin systems are not essential in the regulation of reproduction. Studying the detailed distribution of kisspeptin receptor in the brain and pituitary is important for understanding the multiple action sites and potential functions of the kisspeptin system....
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - August 31, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Immune activity at the gut epithelium in the larval sea urchin
AbstractThe embryo of the purple sea urchin has been a fruitful model for the study of developmental gene regulatory networks. For similar reasons, the feeding sea urchin larva provides a gene regulatory model to investigate immune interactions at the gut epithelium. Here we describe what is known of the gut structure and immune cells of the sea urchin larva, and the cellular and gene expression response of the larva to gut-associated immune challenge. As a focused example of how the sea urchin larva can be compared with vertebrate systems, we discuss the expression and function of the IL-17 signalling system in the course...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - August 28, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Effect of thyroid dysfunction on NOS expression in the female rat
AbstractThyroid hormones (THs) are vital for normal reproductive function and dysregulation of TH impairs follicular development. Although the functions of THs on female reproduction are of great interest, the mechanisms still remain unclear. Many studies have shown that NO plays important roles in female reproduction. In the present study, we investigate the effects of TH dysregulation on nitric oxide synthase types (NOS) expression in rats. Propylthiouracil (PTU) and L-thyroxine were administered to rats to induce hypo- and hyperthyroidism, respectively. Ovarian histology was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and pr...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - August 28, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Development and evolution of gut structures: from molecules to function
AbstractThe emergence of a specialized system for food digestion and nutrient absorption was a crucial innovation for multicellular organisms. Digestive systems with different levels of complexity evolved in different animals, with the endoderm-derived one-way gut of most bilaterians to be the prevailing and more specialized form. While the molecular events regulating the early phases of embryonic tissue specification have been deeply investigated in animals occupying different phylogenetic positions, the mechanisms underlying gut patterning and gut-associated structures differentiation are still mostly obscure. In this re...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - August 24, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Contractile elements and their sympathetic regulations in the pig urinary bladder: a species and regional comparative study
AbstractContractile behaviour of the urinary bladder and its sympathetic inhibition during storage phases are not well understood. Here, we explore muscularis mucosae (MM) as a predominant mucosal contractile element and the capability of sympathetic nerves to relax detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) or MM. Distribution of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)-immunoreactive cells was compared in pig, human, guinea pig, rat and mouse bladders by immunohistochemistry, while contractility of the bladder mucosa was compared in these species by isometric tension recordings. In pig, human and guinea pig bladders, DSM and MM loca ...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - August 24, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Ready for the journey: a comparative proteome profiling of porcine cauda epididymal fluid and spermatozoa
AbstractIn the present study, we describe the proteome of porcine cauda epididymis fluid and spermatozoa by means of Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT). Ten sexually mature healthy boars were surgically castrated and epididymides were dissected to obtain the cauda epididymal content. Polled protein extracts of cauda epididymal fluid (CEF) and spermatozoa (CESperm) were loaded in an Agilent 1100 quaternary HPLC and peptides eluted from the microcapillary column were electro-sprayed directly into a LTQ Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer. Using bioinformatics, identified proteins were classified by their m...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - August 23, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Immune-associated renal disease found in caspase 3-deficient mice
AbstractCaspase (CASP) 3 is known as a representative effector CASP of apoptosis and recently as a mediator in inflammatory cell death called pyroptosis. Interestingly, homozygotes ofCasp3 knockout (KO) mice with 129-background show complete embryonic lethality; however, some of those with C57BL/6 (B6)-background (B6.129S1-Casp3tm1Flv/J) survived at a lower rate (KO, 11%; WT, 22%), developing immune abnormality-associated renal phenotypes. Homozygotes ofCasp3 KO mice with B6-background that survived for 8 –12 months showed abnormality in the kidney and spleen but not in other organs. Briefly, theseCasp3 KO kidne...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - August 22, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Species- and size-related differences in dopamine-like immunoreactive clusters in the brain of Nasonia vitripennis and N. giraulti
AbstractAn extreme reduction in body size has been shown to negatively impact the memory retention level of the parasitic waspNasonia vitripennis. In addition,N. vitripennis andNasonia giraulti, closely related parasitic wasps, differ markedly in the number of conditioning trials required to form long-term memory. These differences in memory dynamics may be associated with differences in the dopaminergic neurons in theNasonia brains. Here, we used dopamine immunoreactivity to identify and count the number of cell bodies in dopaminergic clusters of normal- and small-sizedN. vitripennis and normal-sizedN. giraulti. We counte...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - August 22, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

SNMP1 and odorant receptors are co-expressed in olfactory neurons of the labial and maxillary palps from the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae)
AbstractIn insects, pheromones are detected by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) of the antennae that co-express pheromone receptors (PRs) and the “sensory neuron membrane protein 1” (SNMP1). Beyond its relevance for pheromone detection via the antenna, little is known about a potential expression and functional role of SNMP1 in cells of other chemosensory appendages. Here, we report that in the desert locustSchistocerca gregaria, SNMP1 is also expressed in the labial and maxillary palps of the mouthparts. In the palps, the SNMP1-positive cells were situated next to the so-called terminal sensilla that are consi...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - August 19, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Antler stem cells as a novel stem cell source for reducing liver fibrosis
In this study, we investigate the therapeutic effects of ASCs in a rat model of CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. Rats were treated with ASCs for 4  weeks in vivo, then biochemical and histopathological analyses were performed. Furthermore, we established cell co-culture systems of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and ASCs and of M1 macrophages and ASCs in vitro. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were used as a positive control. The results showed th at ASC transplantation alleviated liver fibrosis effectively as evidenced by reduced collagen accumulation, decreased fatty degeneration, increased hepatocyte regeneration, decreased...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - August 19, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Co-expression network analysis identified key genes in association with mesenchymal stem cell osteogenic differentiation
This study will provide important targets of MSC osteogenic differentiation that will help us understand the mechanism of osteogenic differentiation in MSCs. (Source: Cell and Tissue Research)
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - August 15, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Expression patterns of l -amino acid receptors in the murine STC-1 enteroendocrine cell line
AbstractRegulation of gut function depends on the detection and response to luminal contents. Luminall-amino acids (l-AA) are detected by several receptors including metabotropic glutamate receptors 1 and 4 (mGluR1 and mGluR4), calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), GPRC family C group 6 subtype A receptor (GPRC6A) and umami taste receptor heterodimer T1R1/T1R3. Here, we show that murine mucosal homogenates and STC-1 cells, a murine enteroendocrine cell line, express mRNA for alll-AA receptors. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of alll-AA receptors on STC-1 with CaSR being most commonly expressed and T1R1 le...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - August 13, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Characterization of the olfactory system of the giant honey bee, Apis dorsata
AbstractApis dorsata is an open-nesting, undomesticated, giant honey bee found in southern Asia. We characterized a number of aspects of olfactory system ofApis dorsata and compared it with the well-characterized, western honeybee,Apis mellifera, a domesticated, cavity-nesting species.A. dorsata differs fromA. mellifera in nesting behavior, foraging activity, and defense mechanisms. Hence, there can be different demands on its olfactory system. We elucidated the glomerular organization ofA. dorsata by creating a digital atlas for the antennal lobe and visualized the antennal lobe tracts and localized their innervations. We...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - August 13, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Oxytetracycline reduces inflammation and treponeme burden whereas vitamin D 3 promotes β-defensin expression in bovine infectious digital dermatitis
AbstractDigital dermatitis (DD), a common ulcerative disease of the bovine foot causing lameness and reducing productivity and animal welfare, is associated with infection by spirocheteTreponema bacteria. Topical tetracycline, the most common treatment, has inconsistent cure rates; therefore, new therapeutic options are needed. We compared effects of topical oxytetracycline and vitamin D3 on innate immunity in DD-affected skin. Cows with active DD lesions were treated topically with oxytetracycline or vitamin D3 and skin biopsies were collected from lesions. Tissue samples were examined histologically, transcriptional expr...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - August 13, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

A novel homozygous nonsense mutation in CAST associated with PLACK syndrome
This study further supports a key role for calpastatin in the tight regulation of proteolytic pathways within the skin. (Source: Cell and Tissue Research)
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - August 7, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

A non-bilaterian perspective on the development and evolution of animal digestive systems
AbstractDigestive systems and extracellular digestion are key animal features, but their emergence during early animal evolution is currently poorly understood. As the last common ancestor of non-bilaterian animal groups (sponges, ctenophores, placozoans and cnidarians) dates back to the beginning of animal life, their study and comparison provides important insights into the early evolution of digestive systems and functions. Here, I have compiled an overview of the development and cell biology of digestive tissues in non-bilaterian animals. I will highlight the fundamental differences between extracellular and intracellu...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - August 7, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Human orbital adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells possess neuroectodermal differentiation and repair ability
AbstractMesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used extensively in cell therapy for repair and regeneration of several organs and tissues. Cell therapy is a valuable option to treat neurodegenerative diseases and MSCs have been shown to improve neuronal function through direct differentiation or secretion of neurotrophic factors. In the present study, we isolated and characterized stem cells from medial and central orbital adipose tissue and found that they could be grown in a monolayer culture. The orbital adipose tissue-derived cells were identical to bone marrow-derived MSCs in their cell surface marker expression, gene expr...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - August 3, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Effect of silencing HIF-1 α gene on testicle spermatogenesis function in varicocele rats
This study uses the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technique to silence the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α (HIF-1α) gene and investigate its effect on testicle spermatogenesis function in varicocele (VC) rats. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups; the control, VC model, VC+HIF-1α-lentivirus and VC+Luciferase-lentivirus group. The sperm count and survival rate were analyzed using compute r-aided sperm analysis. The morphological changes of seminiferous tubules were observed by a microscope. Expressions of HIF-1α, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and Bcl-2 were detected via Western blot, immu...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - August 3, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Correction to: The efficacy of different sources of mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis
There is an error in the Original Publication of this paper. The author names were incorrectly presented. (Source: Cell and Tissue Research)
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - August 3, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Protective role of exogenous recombinant peroxiredoxin 6 under ischemia-reperfusion injury of kidney
AbstractPeroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6) is an important antioxidant enzyme with various functions in the cell. Prx6 reduces a wide range of peroxide substrates, playing a leading role in maintaining the redox homeostasis of mammalian cells. In addition to the peroxidase activity, a phospholipase A2-like activity was demonstrated for Prx6, which plays an important role in the metabolism of membrane phospholipids. Besides that, due to its peroxidase and phospholipase activities, Prx6 participates in intracellular and intercellular signal transduction, thus triggering regenerative processes in the cell, suppressing apoptosis caused by...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - July 31, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

The amazing complexity of insect midgut cells: types, peculiarities, and functions
AbstractThe insect midgut epithelium represents an interface between the internal and the external environment and it is the almost unique epithelial tissue by which these arthropods acquire nutrients. This epithelium is indeed able to produce digestive enzymes and to support vectorial transport of small organic nutrients, ions, and water. Moreover, it plays a key role in the defense against pathogenic microorganisms and in shaping gut microbiota. Another important midgut function is the ability to produce signaling molecules that regulate its own physiology and the activity of other organs. The two main mature cell types ...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - July 29, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Autophagy in periodontal ligament fibroblasts under biomechanical loading
AbstractAutophagy (cellular self-consumption) is an adaptive stress response and an important aspect of adaption to mechanical loading. If mechanical forces are associated with autophagy regulation in periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts is still unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of force magnitude on autophagy regulation and subsequently on cell death in human PDL fibroblasts. Autophagy-associated genes were analyzed with a specific PrimePCR assay after 24  h of stimulation with high (STSH) and low magnitudes (STSL) of static tensile strain applied to PDL fibroblasts. Based on the results,...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - July 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

The role of oxidative stress in ovarian toxicity induced by haloperidol and clozapine —a histological and biochemical study in albino rats
This study aims to further investigate the role of AP-induced oxidative stress in reproductive dysfunction. Thirty adult female albino rats were divided into three groups including a control group (n = 10) receiving distilled water, HAL group (n = 10) receiving haloperidol (HAL) (2 mg/kg/day), and CLZ group (n = 10) receiving clozapine (CLZ) (20 mg/kg/day). After 28 days, the rats were anesthetized, blood was withdrawn from their hearts, and ovaries were removed before they were sacrificed. Serum prolactin concentrations were measured. For each rat, one ovary was use...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - July 24, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Immunolocalization of calcium sensing and transport proteins in the murine endolymphatic sac indicates calciostatic functions within the inner ear
AbstractAn exceptionally low calcium (Ca2+) concentration in the inner ear endolymph ([Ca2+]endolymph) is crucial for proper auditory and vestibular function. The endolymphatic sac (ES) is believed to critically contribute to the maintenance of this low [Ca2+]endolymph. Here, we investigated the immunohistochemical localization of proteins that are presumably involved in the sensing and transport of extracellular Ca2+ in the murine ES epithelium. Light microscopic and fluorescence immunolabeling in paraffin-embedded murine ES tissue sections (male C57BL/6 mice, 6 –8 weeks old) demonstrated the presence of the ca...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - July 23, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

The expression patterns of SNMP1 and SNMP2 underline distinct functions of two CD36-related proteins in the olfactory system of the tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens
AbstractIn insects, male and female pheromone signals are detected by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) expressing the “sensory neuron membrane protein type 1”. SNMP1 is supposed to function as a co-receptor involved in the transfer of pheromones to adjacent pheromone receptors. In the mothHeliothis virescens, we previously found OSNs that project their dendrites into pheromone-responsive trichoid sensilla and are associated with cells containing transcripts for the HvirSNMP1-related protein HvirSNMP2. Like HvirSNMP1, HvirSNMP2 belongs to the CD36-family of two-transmembrane domain receptors and transporters for...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - July 18, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Co-expression of C/EBP γ and ATF5 in mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons during early postnatal development
We examined the trans-acting effects of C/EBPγ and ATF5 on V2r transcription and found that the co-expression of C/EBPγ and ATF5, but not C/EBPγ or ATF5 alone, increased Vmn2r66 promoter reporter activity via the C/EBP:ATF response element (CARE) in Neuro2a cells. These results suggest the role of C/EBPγ on ATF5-regulated VSN differentiation in early postnatal development. (Source: Cell and Tissue Research)
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - July 16, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Distribution and co-expression patterns of specific cell markers of enteroendocrine cells in pig gastric epithelium
In this study, we have investigated markers for each of the classes of gastric endocrine cells, gastrin, ghrelin, somatostatin, 5-hydroxytryptamine, histidine decarboxylase, and PYY cells in pig stomach. The lining of the proximal stomach consisted of a collar of stratified squamous epithelium surrounded by gastric cardiac glands in the fundus. This differs considerably from human that has only a narrow band of cardiac glands at its entrance, surrounded by a fundic mucosa consisting of oxyntic glands. However, the linings of the corpus and antrum are similar in pig and human. Likewise, the endocrine cell types are similar ...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - July 15, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

The efficacy of different sources of mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis
AbstractOsteoarthritis (OA) is a common cause of chronic pain and disability. Regenerative therapies using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) provide an option for OA treatment as it could potentially regenerate the damaged cartilage. Bone marrow, adipose tissue and synovium are common MSC sources. The aim is to compare the therapeutic effect of MSCs from bone marrow, adipose tissue and synovium; combining its differentiation potential and accessibility, to decide the optimal source of MSCs for the treatment of knee OA. A comparison of preclinical and clinical studies using MSCs has been made with regard to treatment outcomes, ...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - July 15, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

A population of nonneuronal GFR α3-expressing cells in the bone marrow resembles nonmyelinating Schwann cells
In conclusion, there is a close association between peripheral nerve terminals and a population of nonneuronal cells that express GFR α3 in the bone marrow. The nonneuronal cells have characteristics consistent with a neural crest-derived, nonmyelinating Schwann cell phenotype. Our findings provide a better understanding of the expression pattern of GFRα3 in the bone marrow microenvironment. (Source: Cell and Tissue Research)
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - July 14, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Focus on dedifferentiated adipocytes: characteristics, mechanisms, and possible applications
AbstractIt is largely believed that after undergoing differentiation, adipocytes can no longer divide. Yet, using ceiling culture, it was demonstrated in vitro that some adipocytes are able to regain proliferative abilities by becoming fibroblast-like cells called dedifferentiated adipocytes. Mature adipocytes are abundant, can be easily isolated, and represent a homogenous cell population. Because of these advantageous characteristics, dedifferentiated adipocytes are clinically attractive in tissue engineering as a potential treatment resource for conditions such as type 2 diabetes, cardiac and kidney diseases, as well as...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - July 9, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Observations on the retina and ‘optical fold’ of a mesopelagic sabretooth fish, Evermanella balbo
AbstractThe ‘optical fold’ ofEvermanella balbo covers the ventro-lateral cornea and is presumed to capture illumination that would otherwise remain undetected by the tubular eye of this mesopelagic teleost. It contains alternating bands of cellular and acellular material, running approximately perpendicular to the lateral surface of the eye. Only parts of this lamellar body lie within the eyelid-like structure. The cellular lamellae are 2 –2.5 μm thick centrally and composed of fibroblast-like cells. The extracellular bands (4.5–5 μm thick) contain regular arrays of collagen fibrils,...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - July 5, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Structure, function and development of the digestive system in malacostracan crustaceans and adaptation to different lifestyles
AbstractThe digestive system of the malacostracan crustaceans, namely the decapods, isopods, amphipods and mysids, is among the most complex organ systems of the animal kingdom serving multiple functions such as food processing, absorption and storage of nutrients, synthesis of digestive enzymes and blood proteins, detoxification of xenobiotics and osmoregulation. It is rather well investigated compared to other invertebrates because the Malacostraca include many ecological keystone species and food items for humans. The Decapoda and Peracarida share food processing with chewing and filtering structures of the stomach but ...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - July 4, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Insights into the evolution of digestive systems from studies of Trichoplax adhaerens
AbstractTrichoplax, a member of the phylum Placozoa, is a tiny ciliated marine animal that glides on surfaces feeding on algae and cyanobacteria. It stands out from other animals in that it lacks an internal digestive system and, instead, digests food trapped under its lower surface. Here we review recent work on the phenotypes of its six cell types and their roles in digestion and feeding behavior. Phylogenomic analyses place Placozoa as sister to Eumetazoa, the clade that includes Cnidaria and Bilateria. Comparing the phenotypes of cells inTrichoplax to those of cells in the digestive epithelia of Eumetazoa allows us to ...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - July 3, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Dietary DHA/EPA supplementation ameliorates diabetic nephropathy by protecting from distal tubular cell damage
AbstractThe aim was to explore the influence of experimental diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) and potential protective/deleterious effects of different dietary n −6/n−3 PUFA ratios on renal phospholipid composition and pathological changes caused by DM1. Male Wistar rats were injected with 55 mg/kg streptozotocin or citrate buffer (control group). Control (C) and diabetic groups (STZ) were fed with n−6/n−3 ratio of ≈ 7, STZ + N6 with n−6/n −3 ratio ≈ 60 and STZ + DHA with n−6/n−3 ratio of ≈ 1 contain...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - June 29, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Expression of prostaglandin (PG) D synthase lipocalin and hematopoietic type and PG D receptor during restart of spermatogenesis following downregulation using a slow release GnRH agonist implant in the dog
AbstractProstaglandin D and the associated prostaglandin D synthases (PGDS) and receptor (DP) are considered to be involved in spermatogenesis. However, the interplay of the PGDS-DP system in male reproduction is far from being understood. The expression of PGDS lipocalin (L) and hematopoietic (H) type and DP was studied in the GnRH agonist –downregulated canine testis (week, w 0) and during recrudescence of spermatogenesis after implant removal (w 3, 6, 9, 12). H-PGDS, L-PGDS and DP were present in the adult (CG), juvenile (JG) and downregulated canine testis at the mRNA level. PGDS immunohistochemistry revealed pos...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - June 29, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Immunofluorescent characterization of innervation and nerve-immune cell neighborhood in mouse thymus
AbstractThe central nervous system impacts the immune system mainly by regulating the systemic concentration of humoral substances, whereas the peripheral nervous system (PNS) communicates with the immune system specifically according to local “hardwiring” of sympathetic/parasympathetic (efferent) and sensory (afferent) nerves to the primary and secondary lymphoid tissue/organs (e.g., thymus spleen and lymph nodes). In the present study, we use immunofluorescent staining of neurofilament-heavy to reveal the distribution of nerve fiber s and the nerve-immune cell neighborhood inside the mouse thymus. Our results...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - June 22, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Placental cell death patterns exhibit differences throughout gestation in two strains of laboratory mice
AbstractCell death is an essential physiological process required for the proper development and function of the human placenta. Although the mouse is a commonly used animal model for development studies, little is known about the extent and distribution of cell death in the mouse placenta throughout development and its physiological relevance. In the present study, we report the results of a systematic and quantitative assessment of cell death patterns in the placentae of two strains of laboratory mice commonly used for developmental studies —ICR and C57Bl/6. TUNEL staining revealed that ICR and C57Bl/6 placentae ex...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - June 21, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Enteroendocrine cells in the Echinodermata
AbstractEnteroendocrine cells are endocrine-like cells found in the luminal epithelia of the digestive tract. These cells have been described in most animal phyla. In echinoderms, the cells have been described mainly in organisms of the class Asteroidea (sea stars) and Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers). Here, we describe what is known about the enteroendocrine cells of the Echinodermata, including the cell types, their distribution in the digestive tract, their neuropeptide content and their regeneration and compare them to what has been found in other animal species, mainly in vertebrates. We also discuss the newly described ...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - June 20, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research