Transient lamellipodia predict sites of dendritic branch formation in hippocampal neurons
AbstractExtensive branching creates the complex dendritic arbor of mammalian CNS neurons but capturing the complete process of branch formation with time-lapse recordings has been challenging. Here, we report that application of BMP7 to cultured hippocampal neurons accelerated dendritic growth sufficiently to document branches forming in less than 20  h via frequent time-lapse imaging (10-min intervals). In these recordings, most branches emerged as collateral sprouts from the shaft of a parent branch. Analysis of the recordings showed that filopodia were abundant and formed transiently throughout the length of dendri...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - April 7, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

BXSB/MpJ- Yaa mouse model of systemic autoimmune disease shows increased apoptotic germ cells in stage XII of the seminiferous epithelial cycle
In this study, the morpho-function of the testes in BXSB/MpJ-Yaa mice was analyzed as a representative mouse model for systemic autoimmune diseases to investigate the effect of excessive autoimmunity on spermatogenesis. At 12 and 24  weeks of age, BXSB/MpJ-Yaa mice showed splenomegaly and increased levels of serum autoantibodies, whereas no controls showed a similar autoimmune condition. In histological analysis, the enlarged lumen of the seminiferous tubules accompanied with scarce spermatozoa in the epididymal ducts were observed in some of the BXSB/MpJ-Yaa and BXSB/MpJ mice but not in C57BL/6N mice. Histoplanimetri...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - April 4, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Functional morphology of the primary olfactory centers in the brain of the hermit crab Coenobita clypeatus (Anomala, Coenobitidae)
AbstractTerrestrial hermit crabs of the genusCoenobita display strong behavioral responses to volatile odors and are attracted by chemical cues of various potential food sources. Several aspects of their sense of aerial olfaction have been explored in recent years including behavioral aspects and structure of their peripheral and central olfactory pathway. Here, we use classical histological methods and immunohistochemistry against the neuropeptides orcokinin and allatostatin as well as synaptic proteins and serotonin to provide insights into the functional organization of their primary olfactory centers in the brain, the ...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - April 2, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Neuropilin-1 receptor in the rapid and selective estrogen estrogen-induced neurovascular remodeling of rat uterus
AbstractSympathetic nerves innervate most organs and regulate organ blood flow. Specifically, in the uterus, estradiol (E2) elicits rapid degeneration of sympathetic axons and stimulates the growth of blood vessels. Both physiological remodeling processes, critical for reproduction, have been extensively studied but as independent events and are still not fully understood. Here, we examine the neuropilin-1 (NRP1), a shared receptor for axon guidance and angiogenic factors. Systemic estradiol or vehicle were chronically injected to prepubertal rats and uterine and sympathetic chain sections immunostained for NRP1. Uterine s...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - April 2, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

The roles of neuron-NG2 glia synapses in promoting oligodendrocyte development and remyelination
AbstractNG2 immunopositive progenitor cells, also simply termed as NG2 glia and thought mainly to be oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), form synaptic connections with neurons in gray and white matters of brain. One of the most classical features of oligodendrocyte lineage cells is myelination, which will favor neuronal signaling transmission. Thus, is there a causal link between the specific synapses of neuron-NG2 glia and myelination? Building on this, here, we will discuss several relevant issues. First, in order to understand the synapses, it is necessary to integrate the definite inputs onto NG2 glia. We show that...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - March 31, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Sensory nerve endings arising from single spinal afferent neurons that innervate both circular muscle and myenteric ganglia in mouse colon: colon-brain axis
AbstractThere is considerable interest in understanding how contents within the gut wall (including microbiome) can activate sensory nerve endings in the gut that project to the central nervous system. However, we have only recently begun to understand the location and characteristics of extrinsic spinal afferent nerve endings that innervate the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Our aim is to identify the nerve endings in the mouse distal colon that arise from single spinal afferent neurons. C57BL/6 mice were anaesthetised and single dorsal root ganglia (DRG) between lumbosacral L6 –S1 were injected with dextran bio...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

The role of Piezo proteins and cellular mechanosensing in tuning the fate of transplanted stem cells
AbstractDifferentiation of stem cells can be modulated by a combination of internal and external signals, including mechanical cues from the surrounding microenvironment. Although numerous chemical and biological agents have been recognized in regulating stem cells ’ fate, little is known about their potential to directly sense the mechanical signals to choose differentiation into a specific lineage. The success of any stem cell transplantation effort, however, hinges on thorough understanding of the fate of these cells under different signals, including mec hanical cues. Various proteins are involved in the mechanic...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

FERM domain –containing protein 6 identifies a subpopulation of varicose nerve fibers in different vertebrate species
AbstractFERM domain –containing protein 6 (FRMD6) is a member of the FERM protein superfamily, which is evolutionary highly conserved and has recently been identified as an upstream regulator of the conserved growth-promoting Hippo signaling pathway. In clinical studies, the FRMD6 gene is correlated with high signifi cance to Alzheimer’s disease and cognitive impairment implicating a wider role of this protein in the nervous system. Scare data are available on the localization of endogenous FRMD6 in neural tissues. Using a FRMD6-directed antiserum, we detected specific immunoreactivity in varicose nerve fibers ...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - March 21, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Inhibition of oxygen-sensing prolyl hydroxylases increases lipid accumulation in human primary tubular epithelial cells without inducing ER stress
AbstractThe role of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) pathway in renal lipid metabolism is largely unknown. As HIF stabilizing prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) inhibitors are currently investigated in clinical trials for the treatment of renal anemia, we studied the effects of genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of PHDs on renal lipid metabolism in transgenic mice and human primary tubular epithelial cells (hPTEC). Tubular cell-specific deletion of HIF prolyl hydroxylase 2(Phd2) increased the size of Oil Red-stained lipid droplets in mice. In hPTEC, the PHD inhibitors (PHDi) DMOG and ICA augmented lipid ...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - March 18, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

The association between increasing levels of O -GlcNAc and galectins in the liver tissue of hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels ( Ictidomys tridecemlineatus )
AbstractPost-translational glycosylation of proteins withO-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation) and changes of galectin expression profiles are essential in many cellular stress responses. We examine this regulation in the liver tissue of hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) representing a biological model of hypometabolism and physiological stress resistance. The tissue levels ofO-GlcNAcylated proteins as well as galectin-1 and galectin-3 proteins detected by immunodot blot assay were significantly lower by 4.6 –5.4-, 2.2–2.3- and 2.5–2.9-fold, respectiv...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - March 10, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Evidence that TNF- β suppresses osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and resveratrol reverses it through modulation of NF-κB, Sirt1 and Runx2
In this report, we examine the effect of TNF-β on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and its modulation by resveratrol. Monolayer and high-density cultures of MSCs were treated with osteogen ic induction medium with/without TNF-β, Sirt1 inhibitor nicotinamide (NAM), antisense oligonucleotides against Sirt1 (ASO) and/or Sirt1 stimulator resveratrol. We found that TNF-β inhibits, in a similar way to NAM or Sirt1-ASO, the early stage of osteogenic differentiation of MSCs and this was acc ompanied with downregulation of bone-specific matrix, β1-integrin, Runx2 and with upregulation ...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - March 6, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Porcine model for the study of sperm capacitation, fertilization and male fertility
AbstractMammalian fertilization remains a poorly understood event with the vast majority of studies done in the mouse model. The purpose of this review is to revise the current knowledge about semen deposition, sperm transport, sperm capacitation, gamete interactions and early embryonic development with a focus on the porcine model as a relevant, alternative model organism to humans. The review provides a thorough overview of post-ejaculation events inside the sow ’s reproductive tract including comparisons with humans and implications for human fertilization and assisted reproductive therapy (ART). Porcine methodolo...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - March 5, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Evolving challenges to model human diseases for translational research
AbstractAnimal models are a significant component of biomedical research and play an important role in translational studies. Traditionally, rodent models have been the mainstay and principal choice of researchers but in recent years, there have been significant changes in the landscape of animal modeling. For example, newer techniques have greatly expanded the use and successful application of large animal models such as pigs for translational studies. The evolving types and species of animal models can influence the research landscape in terms of facilities, expertise, reproducibility and funding streams, which creates n...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - March 4, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Hormone-regulated PKA activity in porcine oviductal epithelial cells
AbstractThe oviduct is a dynamic organ that suffers changes during the oestrous cycle and modulates gamete and embryo physiology. We analyse the possible existence of Protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent hormone-regulated pathways in porcine ampulla and primary cell cultures by 2D-electrophoresis/Western blot using anti-phospho PKA substrate antibodies. Differential phosphorylation was observed for ten proteins that were identified by mass spectrometry. The results were validated for five of the proteins: Annexin A5, Calumenin, Glyoxalase I and II and Enolase I. Immunofluorescence analyses show that Calumenin, Glyoxalase II an...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - February 28, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Influence of the integrin alpha-1 subunit and its relationship with high-fat diet upon extracellular matrix synthesis in skeletal muscle and tendon
In conclusion, HFD induced a significant increase i n expression of ECM genes in muscle. On the protein level, HFD resulted in a lower collagen content in muscle. Tendons were unaffected by the diet. Deletion of the integrin α1 subunit did not affect collagen protein or gene expression in muscle or tendon. (Source: Cell and Tissue Research)
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - February 28, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Novel imaging and related techniques for studies of diseases of the central nervous system: a review
AbstractImaging technologies for the analysis of the central nervous system are rapidly developing. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry imaging, tracer-based magnetic resonance imaging, CLARITY technology and optogenetics can be used to visualize small molecules in brain tissues, the interstitial system of the brain and neuronal circuits in whole-brain samples. These tools serve as powerful technical means to explore the mechanisms underlying disease models and to evaluate the effects of drugs. Here, we review the constituting principles of these imaging techniques and describe thei...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - February 19, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Neural stem cell therapy of foetal onset hydrocephalus using the HTx rat as experimental model
AbstractFoetal onset hydrocephalus is a disease starting early in embryonic life; in many cases it results from a cell junction pathology of neural stem (NSC) and neural progenitor (NPC) cells forming the ventricular zone (VZ) and sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) of the developing brain. This pathology results in disassembling of VZ and loss of NSC/NPC, a phenomenon known as VZ disruption. At the cerebral aqueduct, VZ disruption triggers hydrocephalus while in the telencephalon, it results in abnormal neurogenesis. This may explain why derivative surgery does not cure hydrocephalus. NSC grafting appears as a therapeutic opportun...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - February 17, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Beta-cell β1 integrin deficiency affects in utero development of islet growth and vascularization
AbstractThe β1 integrin subunit contributes to pancreatic beta cell growth and function through communication with the extracellular matrix (ECM). The effects of in vitro and in vivo β1 integrin knockout have been extensively studied in mature islets, yet no study to date has examined how the loss of β1 inte grin during specific stages of pancreatic development impacts beta cell maturation. Beta-cell-specific tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase (MIP-CreERT) mice were crossed with mice containing floxedItgb1 ( β1 integrin) to create an inducible mouse model (MIPβ1KO) at the second transition stage (...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - February 15, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Bone marrow stem cells accelerate lung maturation and prevent the LPS-induced delay of morphological and functional fetal lung development in the presence of ErbB4
AbstractErbB4 is a regulator in lung development and disease. Prenatal infection is an important risk factor for the delay of morphologic lung development, while promoting the maturation of the surfactant system. Bone marrow –derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have the potential to prevent lung injury. We hypothesized that BMSCs in comparison with hematopoietic control stem cells (HPSCs) minimize the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury only when functional ErbB4 receptor is present. We injected LPS and/or murine green fluorescent protein–labeled BMSCs or HPSCs into the amniotic cavity of transgenic...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - February 13, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Recombinant Hv RNASET2 protein induces marked connective tissue remodelling in the invertebrate model Hirudo verbana
AbstractThe RNASET2 ribonuclease, belonging to the highly conserved RH/T2/s RNase gene family, has been recently shown to modulate inflammatory processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Indeed, the RNASET2 protein acts as a chemoattractor for macrophages in both in vitro and in vivo experimental settings and its expression significantly increases following bacterial infections. Moreover, we recently observed that injection of human recombinant RNASET2 protein in the body wall of the medicinal leech (a consolidated invertebrate model for both immune response and tissue regeneration) not only induced immune cell recru...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - February 11, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Attenuated regenerative properties in human periodontal ligament –derived stem cells of older donor ages with shorter telomere length and lower SSEA4 expression
AbstractPeriodontal ligament (PDL) stem cell properties are critical in the periodontal tissue regeneration for periodontitis. Previously, we have demonstrated that cigarette smoking attenuates PDL-derived stem cell (PDLSC) regenerative properties. Here, we report the findings on the regenerative properties of human PDLSCs with different donor ages and the underlying mechanisms. Human PDLSCs from 18 independent donors were divided into different age groups ( ≤ 20, 20–40, and>  40 years old). The proliferation of PDLSCs with donor age of ≤ 20 years old was significantly higher t...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - February 11, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Novel therapeutic approaches of tissue engineering in male infertility
AbstractMale reproductive organ plays an important role in sperm production, maintenance and entry to the female reproductive tract, as well as generation and secretion of male sex hormones responsible for the health of male reproductive system. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the experimental and clinical evidence on the utilization of tissue engineering techniques in treating male infertility. Tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine have developed new approaches to treat patients with reproductive disorders such as iatrogenic injuries, congenital abnormalities, and trauma. In some cases, including conge...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - February 11, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Multimodal imaging of hair follicle bulge-derived stem cells in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury
In this study, we apply in vivo multimodal, optical and magnetic resonance imaging techniques to investigate the behavior of mouse HFBSCs in a mouse model of TBI. HFBSCs expressed Luc2 and copGFP and were examined for their differentiation capacity in vitro. Subsequently, transduced HFBSCs, preloaded with ferumoxytol, were transplanted next to the TBI lesion (cortical region) in nude mice, 2  days after injury. Brains were fixed for immunohistochemistry 58 days after transplantation. Luc2- and copGFP-expressing, ferumoxytol-loaded HFBSCs showed adequate neuronal differentiation potential in vitro. Bioluminescence...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - February 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Altered ciliary morphofunction in the oviductal infundibulum of systemic autoimmune disease-prone MRL/MpJ- Fas lpr/lpr mice
This study examines the relationship between AD and infundibulum morphofunction by focusing on the epithelial cilia. Healthy MRL/MpJ and AD-prone MRL/MpJ-Faslpr/lpr mice were examined at 3 and 6  months of age, representing early and late disease stages, respectively. Oocyte pickup indices decreased with AD progression indicated by splenomegaly, autoantibody production and increased T cell counts of infundibulum mucosa in MRL/MpJ-Faslpr/lpr mice. Ciliary beating frequency (CBF) and height in the infundibulum were faster and higher in MRL/MpJ-Faslpr/lpr mice than in MRL/MpJ mice at the early AD stages, although the abs...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - February 5, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

From bedside to bench: lung ultrasound for the assessment of pulmonary edema in animal models
AbstractTraditionally, the lung has been excluded from the ultrasound organ repertoire and, hence, the application of lung ultrasound (LUS) was largely limited to a few enthusiastic clinicians. Yet, in the last decades, the recognition of the previously untapped diagnostic potential of LUS in intensive care medicine has fueled its widespread use as a rapid, non-invasive and radiation-free bedside approach with excellent diagnostic accuracy for many of the most common causes of acute respiratory failure, e.g., cardiogenic pulmonary edema, pneumonia, pleural effusion and pneumothorax. Its increased clinical use has also inci...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - February 3, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

M2 macrophages promote vasculogenesis during retinal neovascularization by regulating bone marrow-derived cells via SDF-1/VEGF
AbstractMacrophages promote vasculogenesis during retinal neovascularization (RNV) by increasing the recruitment and differentiation of bone marrow-derived cells (BMCs). Different subtypes of macrophages (M1 and M2 macrophages) are associated with RNV. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of BMCs by different macrophage subtypes during RNV remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role and mechanism of action of different macrophage subtypes that regulate BMCs during the development of RNV. The retinal avascular area and neovascularization (NV) tuft area in M2 macrophage group in vivo were the ...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 27, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Distinct differences between cultured podocytes and parietal epithelial cells of the Bowman ’s capsule
AbstractPhenotypic changes in culture hamper the identification and characterization of cultured podocytes and parietal epithelial cells of the Bowman ’s capsule (PECs). We have recently established culture conditions that restore podocytes to their differentiated phenotypes. We compared podocytes and PECs cultured under the same conditions to determine the unique characteristics of the two cell types. Performing this comparison under the same c onditions accentuated these differences. Podocytes behaved like non-epithelial cells by extending cell processes even at confluence. By contrast, PECs behaved like typical ep...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 27, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Control of cell migration by the novel protein phosphatase-2A interacting protein inka2
AbstractCell migration is essential for many physiological and pathological processes, including embryonic development, wound healing, immune response and cancer metastasis.Inka2 transcripts are observed in migrating cells during embryonic development, suggesting the involvement of inka2 in cell migration. However, its precise role remains unclear. Here, we found that inka2 controlled focal adhesion dynamics and cell migration, likely by regulating protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) function. A scratch assay revealed that inka2 shRNA-transfected NIH3T3 cells showed rapid wound closure, indicating an inhibitory effect by inka2 o...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 23, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

High-resolution imaging of living gut mucosa: lymphocyte clusters beneath intestinal M cells are highly dynamic structures
AbstractIn the Peyer ’s patches of the small intestine, specialized epithelial cells, the membranous (M) cells, sample antigenic matter from the gut lumen and bring it into contact with cells of the immune system, which are then capable of initiating specific immune reactions. Using autofluorescence 2-photon (A2P) mic roscopy, we imaged living intestinal mucosa at a 0.5-μm resolution. We identified individual M cells without the aid of a marker and in vivo analyzed their sampling function over hours. Time-lapse recordings revealed that lymphocytes associated with M cells display a remarkable degree of motility w i...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 22, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Distinct expression patterns of aquaporin 3 and 5 in ductal and alveolar epithelial cells in mouse mammary glands before and after parturition
In this study, we focus on two types of water channels, aquaporin 3 (AQP3) and AQP5, in alveolar and ductal MECs before and after parturition. AQP3 showed diffuse localization in the cytoplasm of ductal MECs but concentrated localization in the basolateral membrane of alveolar MECs during the late pregnancy and lactation periods. Translocation of AQP5 from the cytoplasm toward the apical membrane occurred in ductal MECs immediately before parturition. Subsequently, we examined the hormonal influences on the expression of AQP3 and AQP5 in cultured MECs in vitro. Progesterone and estrogen distinctly increased AQP3 and AQP5 i...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 18, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Foxn1 and Prkdc genes are important for testis function: evidence from nude and scid adult mice
AbstractMutations inFoxn1 andPrkdc genes lead to nude and severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) phenotypes, respectively. Besides being immunodeficient, previous reports have shown that nude mice have lower gonadotropins and testosterone levels, while scid mice present increased pachytene spermatocyte (PS) apoptosis. Therefore, these specific features make them important experimental models for understandingFoxn1 andPrkdc roles in reproduction. Hence, we conducted an investigation of the testicular function in nude and scid BALB/c adult male mice and significant differences were observed, especially in Leydig cell (LC) p...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 16, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Interaction with ectopic cochlear crista sensory epithelium disrupts basal cochlear sensory epithelium development in Lmx1a mutant mice
AbstractThe LIM homeodomain transcription factorLmx1a shows a dynamic expression in the developing mouse ear that stabilizes in the non-sensory epithelium. Previous work showed thatLmx1a functional null mutants have an additional sensory hair cell patch in the posterior wall of a cochlear duct and have a mix of vestibular and cochlear hair cells in the basal cochlear sensory epithelium. In E13.5 mutants,Sox2-expressing posterior canal crista is continuous with an ectopic “crista sensory epithelium” located in the outer spiral sulcus of the basal cochlear duct. The medial margin of cochlear crista is in contact ...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 13, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Porcine models for studying complications and organ crosstalk in diabetes mellitus
This article provides an overview of concepts for the development of porcine models for diabetes and obesity research, with a focus on genetically engineered models. Diabetes-associated ocular, cardiovascular and renal alterations observed in diabetic pig models are summarized and their similarities with complications in diabetic patients are discussed. Systematic multi-organ biobanking of porcine models of diabetes and obesity and molecular profiling of representative tissue samples on different levels, e.g., on the transcriptome, proteome, or metabolome level, is proposed as a strategy for discovering tissue-specific pat...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 13, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Vitamin D strengthens the bladder epithelial barrier by inducing tight junction proteins during E. coli urinary tract infection
AbstractTight junction proteins are pivotal to prevent bacterial invasion of the epithelial barrier. We here report that supplementation with vitamin D can strengthen the urinary bladder lining. Vitamin D deficient and sufficient mice were infected withEscherichia coli (E. coli) transurethrally to cause urinary tract infection. In addition, bladder biopsies were obtained from postmenopausal women before and after a 3-month period of supplementation with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D3) and ex vivo infected withE. coli. In biopsies, obtained beforeE. coli infection, vitamin D had no impact on tight junction proteins. However, du...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 13, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Patient-specific neural progenitor cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells offer a promise of good models for mitochondrial disease
AbstractMitochondria are the primary generators of ATP in eukaryotic cells through the process of oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria are also involved in several other important cellular functions including regulation of intracellular Ca2+, cell signaling and apoptosis. Mitochondrial dysfunction causes disease and since it is not possible to perform repeated studies in humans, models are essential to enable us to investigate the mechanisms involved. Recently, the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), made by reprogramming adult somatic cells (Takahashi and Yamanaka2006; Yamanaka and Blau2010), has provi...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 10, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Stress or injury induces cellular plasticity in salivary gland acinar cells
AbstractSalivary gland function is severely disrupted by radiation therapy used to treat patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer and by Sj ögren’s syndrome. The resulting condition, which results in xerostomia or dry mouth, is due to irreversible loss of the secretory acinar cells within the major salivary glands. There are presently no treatments for the resolution of xerostomia. Cell-based approaches could be employed to repopulat e acinar cells in the salivary gland but investigations into potential therapeutic strategies are limited by the challenges of maintaining and expanding acinar cells in vitro. W...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 4, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Histological differentiation of mucus cell subtypes suggests functional compartmentation in the eel esophagus
AbstractWe investigated the morphological and histological changes in eel esophagus during the course of freshwater (FW) to seawater (SW) transfer and identified multiple types of mucus cells from tissues that were fixed using Carnoy ’s solution to retain the mucus structure. The FW esophageal epithelium is stratified and composed of superficial cells, mucus cells, club cells (exocrine cells with a large vacuole), and basal cells. Two types of periodic acid–Schiff (PAS)-positive mucus cells were identified, and they can be f urther distinguished by the periodic acid-thionin Schiff/KOH/PAS (PAT) method, indicati...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 3, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

A reduction of primary cilia but not hedgehog signaling disrupts morphogenesis in testicular organoids
AbstractMost mammalian cells possess a single, non-motile primary cilium that plays an important role in mediating cellular signaling pathways, such as Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Primary cilia are present on testicular somatic cells and demonstrate a temporal expression during development; however, their role in testicular morphogenesis is not well characterized. To investigate the role of primary cilia and Hh signaling in Sertoli cells on morphogenesis, we inhibited assembly of primary cilia through CRISPR Cas9 –mediated gene editing ofODF2, a structural component of primary cilia and siRNA-mediated gene silencing ofI...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 3, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Combining the lack of chromogranins with chronic L-DOPA treatment affects motor activity in mice
AbstractWe have tested whether the lack of chromogranins (Cgs) A and B could provoke CNS disorders when combined with an excess of dopamine. We chronically treated (over 6  months) mice lacking both chromogranins A and B (Cgs-KO) with a low oral dosage of L-DOPA/benserazide (10/2.5 mg/kg). Motor performance in the rota-rod test, open field activity, and metabolic cages indicated a progressive impairment in motor coordination in these mice, and an increase in rearing behavior, which was accompanied by an increase in DA within the substantia nigra. We conclude that mild chronic L-DOPA treatment does not produce nig...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 3, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Potential of mesenchymal stem cells for bioengineered blood vessels in comparison with other eligible cell sources
In conclusion, MSCs represent a preference in making autologous tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) as well as off-the-shelf TEVGs for emergency vascular surgery cases. (Source: Cell and Tissue Research)
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 3, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

The implications of hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescent rats after status epilepticus: a novel role of notch signaling pathway in regulating epileptogenesis
AbstractSeizure-induced neurogenesis has a widely recognized pro-epileptogenic function. Given the critical role of Notch signaling during the maintenance and neurogenesis of neural stem cells, we hypothesized that Notch may affect epileptogenesis and its progression through its role in neurogenesis in the adolescent rat brain. We used the lithium-pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model in adolescent Sprague –Dawley rats in order to evaluate hippocampal neurogenesis and epileptogenesis following the onset of status epilepticus (SE). We used western blotting analyses and qPCR to measure levels of Notch signaling at differe...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 3, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Professor Werner Franke, an inspired and inspiring personality. Forever young, forever friends
(Source: Cell and Tissue Research)
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 3, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Reciprocal surface expression of arylsulfatase A and ubiquitin in normal and defective mammalian spermatozoa
AbstractDefective mammalian spermatozoa are marked on their surface by proteolytic chaperone ubiquitin. To identify potential ubiquitinated substrates in the defective spermatozoa, we resolved bull sperm protein extracts on a two-dimensional gel and isolated a 64 –65-kDa spot (p64) corresponding to one of the major ubiquitin-immunoreactive bands observed in the one-dimensional Western blots. Immune serum raised against this protein recognized a prominent, possibly glycosylated band/spot in the range of 55–68 kDa, consistent with the original spot used f or immunization. Internal sequences obtained by Edman...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 2, 2020 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Evaluation of growth, stemness, and angiogenic properties of dental pulp stem cells cultured in cGMP xeno-/serum-free medium
This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cGMP xeno-/serum-free medium (XSF, Irvine Scientific) on the properties of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). DPSCs, from passage 2, were cultured in XSF or fetal bovine serum (FBS)-supplemented medium, and sub-cultured up to passage 8. Cumulative population doublings (PDs) and the number of colony-forming-units (CFUs) were determined. qRT-PCR, ELISA, and in vitro assays were used to assess angiogenic capacity. Flow cytometry was used to measure CD73, CD90, and CD105 expression. Differentiation into osteo-, adipo-, and chondrogenic cell lineages was performed. DPSCs sho...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - December 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Melatonin modulates airway smooth muscle cell phenotype by targeting the STAT3/Akt/GSK-3 β pathway in experimental asthma
AbstractAmong the troika of clinicopathologic features of asthma, airway remodelling has gained sufficient attention for its contribution to progressive airway narrowing. Much effort has been directed at the management of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs), but few attempts have proven to prevent the progression of remodelling. Recently, accumulating data have shown the anti-inflammatory/anti-proliferative potency of melatonin (a crucial neurohormone involved in many physiological and pathological processes) in diverse cells. However, no evidence has confirmed its effect on ASMCs. The present study investigates the benefit...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - December 23, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Werner W. Franke: Congratulations on the occasion of his eightieth birthday
(Source: Cell and Tissue Research)
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - December 23, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

The nervous system component of the mesentery of the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima in normal and regenerating animals
AbstractThe mesenterial tissues play important roles in the interactions between the viscera and the rest of the organism. Among these roles, they serve as the physical substrate for nerves connecting the visceral nervous components to the central nervous system. Although the mesenterial nervous system component has been described in vertebrates, particularly in mammals, a description in other deuterostomes is lacking. Using immunohistochemistry in tissue sections and whole mounts, we describe here the nervous component of the intestinal mesentery in the sea cucumberHolothuria glaberrima. This echinoderm has the ability to...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - December 21, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Formation and degradation of lipid droplets in human adipocytes and the expression of aldehyde oxidase (AOX)
AbstractLipid droplet (LD) binding proteins in mammary glands and in adipocytes were previously compared and striking similar sets of these specific proteins demonstrated. Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) together with perilipins and the lactating mammary gland protein butyrophilin play an important role in the secretion process of LDs into milk ducts. In contrast, in adipose tissue and in adipocytes, mainly perilipins have been described. Moreover, XOR was reported in mouse adipose tissue and adipocyte culture cells as “novel regulator of adipogenesis”. This obvious coincidence of protein sets prompted us to revi...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - December 19, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

The cell –cell junctions of mammalian testes—a summary
(Source: Cell and Tissue Research)
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - December 19, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Distribution of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH)-like immunoreactivity in the brain and pituitary of the frog ( Pelophylax esculentus ) during development
We report here for the first time, the ontogenetic description of GnIH-like immunoreactivity in the brain, olfactory system, and pituitary of the frog,Pelophylax esculentus. GnIH-like immunoreactive (GnIH-ir) elements were first observed in larvae at stage 24 in the olfactory mucosa, ventral telencephalon, and diencephalon. GnIH-ir-positive staining progressively increased in frequency and intensity during larval growth and other ir perikarya appeared in the medial septum, anterior commissure, dorsal hypothalamus, and posterior tuberculum. A decline in GnIH-ir neurons was seen along the olfactory/vomeronasal/terminal nerve...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - December 17, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research