Immunohistochemical study of dissociation and association of adherens junctions in splenic sinus endothelial cells
AbstractIt is not yet clear whether cellular junctions between splenic sinus endothelial cells are open or closed. In order to clarify this, immunolocalization of thrombomodulin (TM), endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1), β-catenin phosphorylated at Try142 (β-catenin Y142) and β-catenin phosphorylated at Try654 (β-catenin Y654), which are related proteins that regulate dissociation and association of the adherens junctions of endothelial cells, are examined in rats using laser microscopy and electron microscopy. TM, EPCR, ...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - March 3, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

One step forward: extracellular mitochondria transplantation
AbstractMitochondria play a key role in cellular energy production and contribute to cell metabolism, homeostasis, intracellular signalling and organelle ’s quality control, among other roles. Viable, respiratory-competent mitochondria exist also outside the cells. Such extracellular/exogenous mitochondria occur in the bloodstream, being released by platelets, activated monocytes and endothelial progenitor cells. In the nervous system, the cerebros pinal fluid contains mitochondria discharged by astrocytes. Various pathologies, including the cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, are associated with mitochond...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - March 3, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Attractin deficiency causes metabolic and morphological abnormalities in slow-twitch muscle
AbstractSkeletal muscle fibers are classified as slow-twitch and fast-twitch fibers, which have different reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently,Attractin (Atrn), which encodes secreted (sAtrn) and transmembrane (mAtrn)-type proteins, has been shown to be involved in free radical scavenging. AlthoughAtrn has been found in skeletal muscle, little is known about the expression levels and function ofAtrn in each muscle fiber type. Therefore, we investigate  sAtrn andmAtrn expression levels in the slow-twitch soleus (sol) and fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles as w...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - March 3, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Cell-based endometrial regeneration: current status and future perspectives
AbstractEndometrial-related disorders including Asherman ’s syndrome, thin endometrium, pelvic organ prolapse, and cesarean scar pregnancies can be accompanied by different symptoms such as amenorrhea, infertility, abnormal placental implantation and recurrent miscarriage. Different methods have been introduced to overcome these problems such as surgery and hormonal therapy but none of them has shown promising outcomes. On the other hand, the development of novel regenerative therapeutic strategies has opened new avenues for the treatment of endometrial-related deficiencies. In this regard, different types of scaffol...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - March 2, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Flow-dependent differentiation of cultured adrenal cells under different stimuli
AbstractIt still remains unclear how the functional organisation of the adrenal cortex arises. One aim of this study was to create a setup which allows for the establishment of a concentration gradient in vitro. This was achieved by a continuous flow of medium through the culture flask which caused differences in glucose and cortisol concentrations as well as in pH values between the sites of inflow and outflow of medium. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction, we found that a continuous supply of 1  ml medium per hour significantly increased the expression ofMC2R,CYP11B1 andCYP17A1 genes of NCI-H295R cells in the ...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - March 2, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Zonula occludens-1 demonstrates a unique appearance in buccal mucosa over several layers
AbstractTight junctions (TJs) firmly seal epithelial cells and are key players in the epithelial barrier. TJs consist of several proteins, including those of the transmembrane claudin family and the scaffold zonula occludens (ZO) family. Epithelial tissues are exposed to different conditions: to air in the stratified epithelium of the skin and to liquids in the monolayer of the intestine. The TJs in stratified oral mucosal epithelium have remained insufficiently elucidated in terms of distributions, appearances and barrier functions of TJ proteins in normal buccal mucosa. We investigated these and ZO-1 and claudin-1 were f...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - February 26, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Development of epithelial cholinergic chemosensory cells of the urethra and trachea of mice
AbstractCholinergic chemosensory cells (CCC) are infrequent epithelial cells with immunosensor function, positioned in mucosal epithelia preferentially near body entry sites in mammals including man. Given their adaptive capacity in response to infection and their role in combatting pathogens, we here addressed the time points of their initial emergence as well as their postnatal development from first exposure to environmental microbiota (i.e., birth) to adulthood in urethra and trachea, utilizing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-eGFP reporter mice, mice with genetic deletion of MyD88, toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), TLR4, T...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - February 22, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Cell proliferation in the central nervous system of an adult semiterrestrial crab
This study adds to the understanding of neurogenesis in a brachyuran semiterrestrial crustacean and encourages comparative studies between crustaceans and vertebrates, including mammals, based on shared aspects of both mechanisms of neurogenesis and regenerative potentials. (Source: Cell and Tissue Research)
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - February 18, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

T helper cell trafficking in autoimmune kidney diseases
AbstractCD4+ T cells are key drivers of autoimmune diseases, including crescentic GN. Many effector mechanisms employed by T cells to mediate renal damage and repair, such as local cytokine production, depend on their presence at the site of inflammation. Therefore, the mechanisms regulating the renal CD4+ T cell infiltrate are of central importance. From a conceptual point of view, there are four distinct factors that can regulate the abundance of T cells in the kidney: (1) T cell infiltration, (2) T cell proliferation, (3) T cell death and (4) T cell retention/egress. While a substantial amount of data on the recruitment...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - February 17, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

MicroRNA-194 inhibits PRC1 activation of the Wnt/ β-catenin signaling pathway to prevent tumorigenesis by elevating self-renewal of non-side population cells and side population cells in esophageal cancer stem cells
AbstractEsophageal cancer (EC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Recent studies highlight roles for microRNAs (miRNAs) in EC. Microarray analysis identified miR-194 as downregulated in EC. However, little is known about the role of miR-194 in regulating self-renewal or other biological properties of EC stem cells. RT-qPCR and Western blot confirmed the downregulation of miR-194 in EC stem cells and revealed the upregulation of protein regulator of cytokinesis 1 (PRC1) in EC. Dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed miR-194 targeting of PRC1 resulting in its downregulation. MiR-194 overexpression or PRC...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - February 16, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Evidence for existence of insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) hormone-receptor system in the ovarian corpus luteum and extra-ovarian reproductive organs during pregnancy in goats
This study explores the function of INSL3 in pregnant Saanen goats by characterizing the expression dynamics of INSL3 and its receptor, relaxin family peptide receptor 2 (RXFP2) and by demonstrating specific INSL3 binding in reproductive organs, using molecular and immunological approaches and ligand-receptor interaction assays. We demonstrate that the corpus luteum (CL) acts as both a source and target of INSL3 in pregnant goats, while extra-ovarian reproductive organs serve as additional INSL3 targets. The expression of INSL3 and RXFP2 in the CL reached maximum levels in middle pregnancy, followed by a decrease in late p...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - February 15, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Optimized culture system to maximize ovarian cell growth and functionality in vitro
The objective of this study is to develop an optimized culture system for maintaining ovarian cell growth and functionality. Granulosa cells (GCs) and theca cells (TCs) were isolated from female rats. The addition of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or luteinizing hormone (LH) to the basal culture media significantly enhanced the secretion of estradiol from GCs and androstenedione from TCs. Serum concentrations of 5% and 10% had a similar role in promoting ovarian cell expansion and secretion of estradiol and androstenedione hormones from both types of cells. Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), bone morphogenic prote...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - February 13, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Niacin stimulates EPH4EV mammary epithelial cell proliferation and mammary gland development in pubertal mice through activation of AKT/mTOR and ERK1/2 signaling pathways
AbstractPrevious studies have shown the effects of vitamins on the development of the mammary gland. However, the role of niacin in this process has not been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of niacin on mammary gland development in pubertal mice and to use a mouse mammary epithelial cell line to study the underlying mechanism. The results showed that niacin could activate the AKT/mTOR and ERK signaling pathways and increase phosphorylation of 4EBP1 to promote the synthesis of cell proliferation markers, leading to the dissociation of the Rb-E2F1 complex in mMECs. In addition, 0.5% n...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - February 12, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Morphologies and distributions of 5-HT containing enteroendocrine cells in the mouse large intestine
AbstractSerotonin (5-HT)-containing gastrointestinal endocrine cells contribute to regulation of numerous bodily functions, but whether these functions are related to differences in cell shape is not known. The current study identified morphologies and localization of subtypes of 5-HT-containing enteroendocrine cells in the mouse large intestine. 5-HT cells were most frequent in the proximal colon compared with cecum and distal colon. The large intestine harbored both open (O) cells, with apical processes that reached the lumen, and closed (C) cells, not contacting the lumen, classified into O1, O2, and O3 and C1, C2, and ...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - February 6, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Recent progress in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived 3D cultures for cardiac regeneration
AbstractCardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the world due to the high incidence of the diseases coupled with the limited therapeutic options. In recent years, advances in regenerative medicine have emerged as a promising treatment. Differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into cardiac cells and emerging technologies allowing arrangement of cells into complex 3D tissue-like structures open new frontiers for transplantation and engraftment of these tissue patches onto the damaged heart. Despite the cells integrating and presenting initial neovascularization, the functional and electric ...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - February 5, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Genetic influences of autism candidate genes on circuit wiring and olfactory decoding
AbstractOlfaction supports a multitude of behaviors vital for social communication and interactions between conspecifics. Intact sensory processing is contingent upon proper circuit wiring. Disturbances in genetic factors controlling circuit assembly and synaptic wiring can lead to neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), where impaired social interactions and communication are core symptoms. The variability in behavioral phenotype expression is also contingent upon the role environmental factors play in defining genetic expression. Considering the prevailing clinical diagnosis of ASD, research...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 30, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Spatial information from the odour environment in mammalian olfaction
AbstractThe sense of smell is an essential modality for many species, in particular nocturnal and crepuscular mammals, to gather information about their environment. Olfactory cues provide information over a large range of distances, allowing behaviours ranging from simple detection and recognition of objects, to tracking trails and navigating using odour plumes from afar. In this review, we discuss the features of the natural olfactory environment and provide a brief overview of how odour information can be sampled and might be represented and processed by the mammalian olfactory system. Finally, we discuss recent behavio...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 30, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Dopamine modulation of sensory processing and adaptive behavior in flies
AbstractBehavioral flexibility for appropriate action selection is an advantage when animals are faced with decisions that will determine their survival or death. In order to arrive at the right decision, animals evaluate information from their external environment, internal state, and past experiences. How these different signals are integrated and modulated in the brain, and how context- and state-dependent behavioral decisions are controlled are poorly understood questions. Studying the molecules that help convey and integrate such information in neural circuits is an important way to approach these questions. Many year...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 30, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Neural pathways of olfactory kin imprinting and kin recognition in zebrafish
AbstractTeleost fish exhibit extraordinary cognitive skills that are comparable to those of mammals and birds. Kin recognition based on olfactory and visual imprinting requires neuronal circuits that were assumed to be necessarily dependent on the interaction of mammalian amygdala, hippocampus, and isocortex, the latter being a structure that teleost fish are lacking. We show that teleosts —beyond having a hippocampus and pallial amygdala homolog—also have subpallial amygdalar structures. In particular, we identify the medial amygdala and neural olfactory central circuits related to kin imprinting and kin recog...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 30, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Gene expressions in cerebral palsy subjects reveal structural and functional changes in the gastrocnemius muscle that are closely associated with passive muscle stiffness
AbstractCerebral palsy (CP) is a non-progressive motor disorder that affects posture and gait due to contracture development. The purpose of this study is to analyze a possible relation between muscle stiffness and gene expression levels in muscle tissue of children with CP. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of gene transcripts was carried out in muscle biopsies from gastrocnemius muscle (n = 13 children with CP andn = 13 typical developed (TD) children). Passive stiffness of the ankle plantarflexors was measured. Structural changes of the basement membranes and the sarcomere length were measured. Twelve...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 30, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Odor hedonics coding in the vertebrate olfactory bulb
AbstractWhether an odorant is perceived as pleasant or unpleasant (hedonic value) governs a range of crucial behaviors: foraging, escaping danger, and social interaction. Despite its importance in olfactory perception, little is known regarding how odor hedonics is represented and encoded in the brain. Here, we review recent findings describing how odorant hedonic value is represented in the first olfaction processing center, the olfactory bulb. We discuss how olfactory bulb circuits might contribute to the coding of innate and learned odorant hedonics in addition to the odorant ’s physicochemical properties. (Source...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 30, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Transcriptomic profile of VEGF-regulated genes in human cervical epithelia
AbstractCervical epithelial cells play a central role in cervical remodeling (CR) during pregnancy and cervical events during menstrual cycle, including mounting physical and immunological barriers, proliferation and differentiation, maintenance of fluid balance, and likely in withstanding the mechanical force exerted by the growing fetus prior to term. In the present study, we attempt to decipher the specific roles of VEGF in fetal human cervical epithelial cells by delineating VEGF signature genes using RNA sequencing in order to characterize the specific biological effects of VEGF in these cells.Out of a total of 25,000...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 29, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Phosphorylated Tau protein in the myenteric plexus of the ileum and colon of normothermic rats and during synthetic torpor
In conclusion, our findings suggest an adaptive response of ENS to very low core body temperatures, with changes involving PP-tau expression in enteric neurons, especially the ileal nitrergic subpopulation. In addition, the high presence of PP-Tau in cholinergic neurons, specifically, is very interesting and deserves further investigation. Altogether, these data strengthen the hypothesis of a common cellular mechanism triggered by ST, natural hibernation and tauopathies occurring in ENS neurons. (Source: Cell and Tissue Research)
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 29, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

CCN2/CTGF promotor activity in the developing and adult mouse eye
AbstractCCN2/CTGF is a matricellular protein that is known to enhance transforming growth factor- β signaling and to induce a myofibroblast-like phenotype in a variety of cell types. Here, we investigatedCcn2/Ctgf promotor activity during development and in the adult mouse eye, usingCTGFLacZ/+ mice in which the β-galactosidase reporter geneLacZ had been inserted into the open reading frame ofCcn2/Ctgf. Promotor activity was assessed by staining for β-galactosidase activity and by immunolabeling using antibodies against β-galactosidase. Co-immunostaining using antibodies against glutamine synthetase, gli...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 29, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Learning-dependent plasticity in the antennal lobe improves discrimination and recognition of odors in the honeybee
AbstractHoneybees are extensively used to study olfactory learning and memory processes thanks to their ability to discriminate and remember odors and because of their advantages for optophysiological recordings of the circuits involved in memory and odor perception. There are evidences that the encoding of odors in areas of primary sensory processing is not rigid, but undergoes changes caused by olfactory experience. The biological meaning of these changes is focus of intense discussions. Along this review, we present evidences of plasticity related to different forms of learning and discuss its function in the context of...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 29, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Identification of CXCL11 as part of chemokine network controlling skeletal muscle development
AbstractThe chemokine, CXCL12, and its receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7, play pivotal roles during development and maintenance of limb muscles. CXCR7 additionally binds CXCL11, which uses CXCR3 as its prime receptor. Based on this cross-talk, we investigate whether CXCL11 would likewise affect development and/or function of skeletal muscles. Western blotting and immunolabelling demonstrated the developmentally restricted expression of CXCL11 in rat limb muscles, which was contrasted by the continuous expression of its receptors in proliferating and differentiating C2C12 cells as well as in late embryonic to adult rat limb muscle...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 27, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Aloin antagonizes stimulated ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage and inflammatory response in cardiomyocytes by activating the Nrf2/HO-1 defense pathway
AbstractMyocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/RI) frequently incurs in acute myocardial infarction with high morbidity and mortality worldwide and is characterized with cardiomyocyte apoptosis and inflammatory response. Aloin is a major anthraquinone fromAloe species and fulfills pleiotropic protective functions in several disease models including hepatic injury. Nevertheless, the potential of aloin in MI/RI remains elusive. Intriguingly, aloin had modest cytotoxicity in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Importantly, aloin dose-dependently ameliorated cell viability that was inhibited in response to simulated ischemia/reperfusion (...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 27, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Functional properties of insect olfactory receptors: ionotropic receptors and odorant receptors
AbstractThe majority of insect olfactory receptors belong to two distinct protein families, the ionotropic receptors (IRs), which are related to the ionotropic glutamate receptor family, and the odorant receptors (ORs), which evolved from the gustatory receptor family. Both receptor types assemble to heteromeric ligand-gated cation channels composed of odor-specific receptor proteins and co-receptor proteins. We here present in short the current view on evolution, function, and regulation of IRs and ORs. Special attention is given on how their functional properties can meet the environmental and ecological challenges an in...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 27, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Human olfactory dysfunction: causes and consequences
AbstractThe sense of smell essentially contributes to social communication, guides nutrition behaviour and elicits avoidance towards environmental hazards. Olfactory smell impairment may hence entail severe consequences for affected individuals. Compared with sensory loss in other modalities, reduced olfactory function is often unnoticed by those affected and diagnosed late. Those patients seeking help frequently suffer from long-term impairments resulting in reduced well-being and quality of life. The current review provides an overview of aetiology, prevalence and specifics of diagnostics in acquired and congenital olfac...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 26, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Peritoneal macrophages are impaired in cathelicidin-deficient mice systemically challenged with Escherichia coli
This study demonstrates that fewer macrophages were recruited in mice genetically deficient in cathelicidin (Camp−/−) during acuteEscherichia coli–induced peritonitis and those macrophages had impaired phagocytosis. These defects seem due to endogenous functions of murine cathelicidin (CRAMP) as phagocytosis was not improved by synthetic human cathelicidin (LL-37) in a murine phagocytic cell line. This knowledge contributes to understanding the function of cathelicidins in the recruitment and function of phagocytic cells and differential roles between endogenous and exogenous cathelicidins. (Source: Cell and Tissue Research)
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 26, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Characterization of the structure, vascularity, and stem/progenitor cell populations in porcine Achilles tendon (PAT)
This study aimed to characterize porcine Achilles tendon (PAT) in terms of its structural components, vascularity, and resident tendon cells. We found that PAT is composed of a paratenon sheath, a core of fascicles, and an endotenon/interfascicular matrix (IFM) that encases the fascicle bundles. We analyzed each of these three tendon components structurally using tissue sections and by isolating cells from each component and analyzing in vitro. Many blood vessel-like tissues were present in the paratenon and IFM but not in fascicles, and the vessels in the paratenon and IFM appeared to be inter-connected. Cells isolated fr...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 26, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Immune regulation in renal inflammation
AbstractRenal inflammation, induced by autoantigen recognition or toxic drugs, leads to renal tissue injury and decline in kidney function. Recent studies have demonstrated the crucial role for regulatory T cells in suppressing pathogenic adaptive but also innate immune responses in the inflamed kidney. However, there is also evidence for other immune cell populations with immunosuppressive function in renal inflammation. This review summarizes mechanisms of immune cell regulation in immune-mediated glomerulonephritis and acute and chronic nephrotoxicity. (Source: Cell and Tissue Research)
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 26, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Olfaction across the water –air interface in anuran amphibians
We describe the structure of the peripheral olfactory organ, the olfactory bulb, and higher olfactory centers on a tissue, cellular, and molecular levels. Differences and similarities between the olfactory systems of anurans and other vertebrates are reviewed. Special emphasis lies on adaptations that are connected to the distinct demands of olfaction in water and air environment. These particular adaptations are discussed in light of evolutionary trends, ontogenetic development, and ecological demands. (Source: Cell and Tissue Research)
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 26, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Mesenchymal stromal cells can repair radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis via a DKK-1-mediated Wnt/ β-catenin pathway
In conclusion, Ad-MSCs medium can contain DKK-1 and inhibit the induction of EMT via Wnt/β-catenin signalling in vitro and in vivo. (Source: Cell and Tissue Research)
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 26, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Odor response adaptation in Drosophila —a continuous individualization process
AbstractOlfactory perception is very individualized in humans and also inDrosophila. The process that individualize olfaction is adaptation that across multiple time scales and mechanisms shape perception and olfactory-guided behaviors. Olfactory adaptation occurs both in the central nervous system and in the periphery. Central adaptation occurs at the level of the circuits that process olfactory inputs from the periphery where it can integrate inputs from other senses, metabolic states, and stress. We will here focus on the periphery and how the fast, slow, and persistent (lifelong) adaptation mechanisms in the olfactory ...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 25, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Correction to: Elucidating the processes and pathways enriched in buffalo sperm proteome in regulating semen quality
The published online version contains an incorrect Fig.  5 image. The correct figure is given below. (Source: Cell and Tissue Research)
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 25, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

The glomerular network of the zebrafish olfactory bulb
This study provides the first specific associations between uni- and multiglomerular mitral cells with known zebrafish glomeruli. Our results suggest that glomeruli are distinguishable based on their postsynaptic compartment and that distinct input–output computations occur in different types of zebrafish glomeruli. (Source: Cell and Tissue Research)
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 23, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Odor processing in the cockroach antennal lobe —the network components
AbstractHighly interconnected neural networks perform olfactory signal processing in the central nervous system. In insects, the first synaptic processing of the olfactory input from the antennae occurs in the antennal lobe, the functional equivalent of the olfactory bulb in vertebrates. Key components of the olfactory network in the antennal lobe are two main types of neurons: the local interneurons and the projection (output) neurons. Both neuron types have different physiological tasks during olfactory processing, which accordingly require specialized functional phenotypes. This review gives an overview of important cel...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 23, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Modulation of odour-guided behaviour in mosquitoes
AbstractMosquitoes are emerging as model systems with which to study innate behaviours through neuroethology and functional genomics. Decades of work on these disease vectors have provided a solid behavioural framework describing the distinct repertoire of predominantly odour-mediated behaviours of female mosquitoes, and their dependence on life stage (intrinsic factors) and environmental cues (extrinsic factors). The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of how intrinsic factors, including adult maturation, age, nutritional status, and infection, affect the attraction to plants and feeding on plant fluids, host...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 23, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Olfactory systems across mosquito species
AbstractThere are 3559 species of mosquitoes in the world (Harbach2018) but, so far, only a handful of them have been a focus of olfactory neuroscience and neurobiology research. Here we discuss mosquito olfactory anatomy and function and connect these to mosquito ecology. We highlight the least well-known and thus most interesting aspects of mosquito olfactory systems and discuss promising future directions. We hope this review will encourage the insect neuroscience community to work more broadly across mosquito species instead of focusing narrowly on the main disease vectors. (Source: Cell and Tissue Research)
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 21, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Olfactory processing in the lateral horn of Drosophila
AbstractSensing olfactory signals in the environment represents a crucial and significant task of sensory systems in almost all organisms to facilitate survival and reproduction. Notably, the olfactory system of diverse animal phyla shares astonishingly many fundamental principles with regard to anatomical and functional properties. Binding of odor ligands by chemosensory receptors present in the olfactory peripheral organs leads to a neuronal activity that is conveyed to first and higher-order brain centers leading to a subsequent odor-guided behavioral decision. One of the key centers for integrating and processing innat...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 21, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Effective decellularization of human nerve matrix for regenerative medicine with a novel protocol
AbstractInjuries to the peripheral nerves represent a frequent cause of permanent disability in adults. The repair of large nerve lesions involves the use of autografts, but they have several inherent limitations. Overcoming these limitations, the use of decellularized nerve matrix has emerged as a promising treatment in tissue regenerative medicine. Here, we generate longer human decellularized nerve segments with a novel decellularization method, using nonionic, zwitterionic, and enzymatic incubations. Efficiency of decellularization was measured by DNA quantification and cell remnant analysis (myelin, S100, neurofilamen...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 20, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Endoglin and TGF- β signaling in glioblastoma
AbstractMicrovascular proliferation is a key feature of glioblastoma and neovascularization has been implicated in tumor progression. Glioblastomas use pro-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for new blood vessel formation. Yet, anti-VEGF therapy does not prolong overall survival so that alternative angiogenic pathways may need to be explored as drug targets. Both glioma cells and glioma-associated endothelial cells produce TGF- β superfamily ligands which bind TGF-β receptors (TGF-βR). The TGF-βR type III endoglin (CD105), is a marker of proliferating endothelium that h...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 20, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Lithium alleviated spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced apoptosis and inflammation in rats via BDNF-AS/miR-9-5p axis
In conclusion, our data demonstrated that lithium reduced SCI-induced apoptosis and inflammation in rats via the BDNF-AS/miR-9-5p axis. (Source: Cell and Tissue Research)
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 19, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Activation of toll-like receptor signaling in endothelial progenitor cells dictates angiogenic potential: from hypothesis to actual state
AbstractHuman endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were isolated from cord blood samples and enriched by magnetic activated cell sorting method based on the CD133 marker. Cells were incubated with different doses of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, ranging from 2, 5, 10, 50, 100, 200, 250, 500, to 1000  µg/ml, for 48 h. The cell survival rate was determined by using MTT assay. To confirm activation of the toll-like receptor signaling pathway, PCR array analysis was performed. Protein levels of ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, NF-ƙB and TRIF proteins were measured using western blotting. The content of TNF-α and lipopro...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 18, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

From immune to olfactory expression: neofunctionalization of formyl peptide receptors
Abstract Variations  in gene expression patterns represent a powerful source of evolutionary innovation. In a rodent living about 70 million years ago, a genomic accident led an immune formyl peptide receptor (FPR) gene to hijack a vomeronasal receptor regulatory sequence. This gene shuffling event forced an immune pathogen sensor to transition into an olfactory chemoreceptor, which thus moved from sensing the internal world to probing the outside world. We here discuss the evolution of the FPR gene family, the events that led to their neofunctionalization in the vomeronasal organ and the functions of immune a nd...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 16, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Editorial for the special issue & quot;Olfactory Coding and Circuitries & quot;
(Source: Cell and Tissue Research)
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 15, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

MiR-150-5p regulate T cell activation in severe aplastic anemia by targeting Bach2
This study aims to explore the role of miR-150-5p inT cell activation of SAA. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression of mRNA and protein. The cell proportion was detected by flow cytometry. The lentiviruses expressing miR-150-5p inhibitor and Bach2 shRNA were respectively infected to produce stable miR-150-5p or Bach2 knockout cells. Brdu incorporation method was used to detect T cell proliferation. SAA mouse model was induced with cyclophosphamide and busulfan, and intravenous injection of LV inhibitor NC and LV-miR-150-5p inhibitor. The miR-150-5p expression is up-regulated in SAA, which is negatively...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 15, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

The neuroethology of olfactory sex communication in the honeybee Apis mellifera L.
AbstractThe honeybeeApis mellifera L. is a crucial pollinator as well as a prominent scientific model organism, in particular for the neurobiological study of olfactory perception, learning, and memory. A wealth of information is indeed available about how the worker bee brain detects, processes, and learns about odorants. Comparatively, olfaction in males (the drones) and queens has received less attention, although they engage in a fascinating mating behavior that strongly relies on olfaction. Here, we present our current understanding of the molecules, cells, and circuits underlying bees ’ sexual communication. Ma...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 15, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Fibronectin-integrin signaling regulates PLVAP localization at endothelial fenestrae by microtubule stabilization
In conclusion, the endomembrane transport pathway from the Golgi apparatus to sieve plates requires microtubule cytoskeletons, which are regulated by fibronectin-integrin α5β1 signaling. (Source: Cell and Tissue Research)
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - January 15, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research