Increased mortality in octogenarians treated for lifestyle limiting claudication
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, EarlyView. (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 6, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Transcatheter pledget ‐assisted suture tricuspid annuloplasty (PASTA) to create a double‐orifice valve
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, EarlyView. (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 6, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Tricuspid regurgitation as a complication of Edwards Sapien XT valve implantation in pulmonary position a problem to deal with
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, EarlyView. (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 6, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Heparin use for diagnostic cardiac catheterization with a radial artery approach: An international survey of practice patterns
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, EarlyView. (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 6, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

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Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, Ahead of Print. (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 6, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Intra ‐cardiac echo for left atrial appendage occlusion
Key Points Left atrial appendage occlusion using the Amulet device can be accomplished with fluoroscopic and intra‐cardiac echo (ICE) imaging for guidance, obviating the need for general anesthesia and trans‐esophageal echo. The ICE device can be placed directly into the left atrium, parallel to the occluder delivery system, using a single transseptal puncture, rather than via double transseptal puncture. The ideal methods for left atrial appendage imaging and procedure guidance have yet to be defined. The utility of CT evaluation is increasingly recognized. The emergence of three‐dimensional ICE is likely to furthe...
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 6, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Ted Feldman, Jose Nazari Tags: Valvular and Structural Heart Diseases Source Type: research

Maximal efficiency is required to minimize complications and hospital stay after TAVR
Key Points When TAVR is performed with transfemoral percutaneous approach, local anesthesia, no routine post‐procedural intensive care admission, an early discharge (
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 6, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Carlo Di Mario, Carlotta Sorini Dini Tags: Valvular and Structural Heart Diseases Source Type: research

Conscious sedation for TAVR: A wave of the future?
Key Points As indications for TAVR continue to grow, experienced centers strive to adopt further minimally invasive techniques and continue to improve outcomes. Meta‐analysis of the available data demonstrate that conscious sedation is associated with decreased ICU and hospitalization time, and is not associated with decreased procedural efficacy or safety. Randomized Controlled clinical Trial data will be needed to confirm observational findings suggesting decreased mortality with conscious sedation versus general anesthesia. (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 6, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Christina Tan, Larry S. Dean Tags: Valvular and Structural Heart Diseases Source Type: research

Perforations and how to manage: The coronary interventionalist and peripheral interventionalist working together for a solution
Key Points Perforations can occur in both peripheral and coronary interventional procedures potentially resulting in severe morbidity A readily available therapeutic option to treat perforations should be present in every cath lab that does coronary and peripheral procedures The use of a coagulated thrombus injection can be an effective treatment option, but if a major vessel is affected that must remain patent, one viable option is to administer the patients’ own clotted blood to recanalize the vessel without permanent sequelae (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 6, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Richard R. Heuser Tags: Peripheral Vascular Disease Source Type: research

If not now, why are you waiting?
Key Points There is some surrogate outcome data supporting deferring PCI in STEMI No hard data to support deferring PCI in STEMI No hard data to refute deferring PCI in STEMI Current national quality measures do not offer a method to adequately document appropriateness of deferring PCI (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 6, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Samuel M. Butman Tags: Coronary Artery Disease Source Type: research

The promise of effective P2Y12 platelet receptor pretreatment: Not crushed yet
Key Points Pre‐treatment with intact oral clopidogrel and prasugrel tablets in a representative observational study is not associated with altered ischemic or bleeding outcomes in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. Limited by cost, cangrelor, a rapidly acting intravenous P2Y12 platelet receptor inhibitor, achieved meaningful reductions in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and stent thrombosis (ST) compared to oral clopidogrel pretreatment. Crushed prasugrel and ticagrelor (CP&T) administered orally achieve accepted thresholds of therapeutic platelet inhibition in one hour in approximately 2/3rds of pat...
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 6, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Arka Chatterjee, William B. Hillegass Tags: Coronary Artery Disease Source Type: research

Cardiac enzyme elevation after coronary revascularization
Key Points CK‐MB elevation post‐PCI correlates with procedural complications, diffuse atherosclerosis, and adverse long‐term prognosis. Troponin elevation has an earlier pattern of rise than CK‐MB and can be used as a surrogate. High sensitivity troponin can enable ruling out enzymatic elevation very early after PCI and facilitate discharge timing. (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 6, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Anna Plitt, George Dangas Tags: Coronary Artery Disease Source Type: research

Hybrid coronary revascularization: Time for a new comparator?
Key Points The present meta‐analysis found no significant difference between hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR) and bypass surgery (CABG) regarding intermediate‐term major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events. HCR is feasible, historically with higher revascularization rates but less perioperative morbidity With a comparable frequency of repeat revascularization between current‐generation drug‐eluting stents and CABG, future trials of HCR are considering multi‐vessel PCI as the new comparator. (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 6, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Naoki Misumida, David J. Moliterno Tags: Coronary Artery Disease Source Type: research

Wanted: Expert operators for coronary chronic total occlusion interventions
Key Points Coronary chronic total occlusions can be recanalized by expert operators with high success and acceptable complication rates. Developing a procedural plan (using the hybrid or another algorithm) is critical for success. Live case demonstrations appear safe and can be of high educational value. The key factor for achieving good outcomes in chronic total occlusion interventions remains operator expertise. Development of more expert operators will improve the treatment options for this challenging group of lesions and patients. (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 6, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Emmanouil S. Brilakis, Oleg Krestyaninov Tags: Coronary Artery Disease Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ TOC
(Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 6, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Tags: Issue Information ‐ TOC Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ Editorial Board
(Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 6, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Tags: Issue Information ‐ Editorial Board Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ Copyright
(Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 6, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Tags: Issue Information ‐ Copyright Source Type: research

Heparin use for diagnostic cardiac catheterization with a radial artery approach: An international survey of practice patterns
ConclusionsDespite the lack of firm evidence, the majority of interventional cardiologists who participated in the survey use UFH to prevent RAO for diagnostic transradial coronary angiography. However, there exist large practice disparities with regards to dose and route of administration. Given this knowledge gap, a dedicated randomized trial is warranted. (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 6, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Matthias Bossard, Shahar Lavi, Sunil V. Rao, David J. Cohen, Warren J. Cantor, Kevin R. Bainey, Nicholas Valettas, Sanjit S. Jolly, Shamir R. Mehta Tags: CAD ‐ CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE Source Type: research

Tricuspid regurgitation as a complication of Edwards Sapien XT valve implantation in pulmonary position a problem to deal with
Abstract Nowadays, percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation (PPVI) is a suitable alternative to surgical procedure in patients with right ventricle outflow tract dysfunction. Two valves are currently available for PPVI: the Melody valve and the Edwards Sapien valve. The following complications may occur: coronary artery compression, deformation of the aortic root, stent or valve embolization, damage of distal pulmonary arteries, access site injuries. Here, we report on three cases of severe tricuspid regurgitation due to valvular and subvalvular apparatus damage during Edwards Sapien XT valve implantation. (Source: Cathet...
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 6, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Alessia Faccini, Gianfranco Butera Tags: PED ‐CHD ‐ PEDIATRIC AND CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE Source Type: research

Fractional flow reserve guided percutaneous coronary intervention results in reduced ischemic myocardium and improved outcomes
Abstract ObjectivesTo determine if fractional flow reserve guided percutaneous coronary intervention (FFR‐guided PCI) is associated with reduced ischemic myocardium compared with angiography‐guided PCI. BackgroundAlthough FFR‐guided PCI has been shown to improve outcomes, it remains unclear if it reduces the extent of ischemic myocardium at risk compared with angiography‐guided PCI. MethodsWe evaluated 380 patients (190 FFR‐guided PCI cases and 190 propensity‐matched controls) who underwent PCI from 2009 to 2014. Clinical, laboratory, angiographic, stress testing, and major adverse cardiac events [MACE] (all‐...
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 6, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Abhishek C. Sawant, Aishwarya Bhardwaj, Kinjal Banerjee, Yash Jobanputra, Arnav Kumar, Parth Parikh, Krishna C. Kandregula, Kanhaiya Poddar, Stephen G. Ellis, Ravi Nair, John Corbelli, Samir Kapadia Tags: CAD ‐ CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE Source Type: research

Transcatheter pledget ‐assisted suture tricuspid annuloplasty (PASTA) to create a double‐orifice valve
Abstract ObjectivesPledget‐assisted suture tricuspid valve annuloplasty (PASTA) is a novel technique using marketed equipment to deliver percutaneous trans‐annular sutures to create a double‐orifice tricuspid valve. BackgroundTricuspid regurgitation is a malignant disease with high surgical mortality and no commercially available transcatheter solution in the US. MethodsTwo iterations of PASTA were tested using trans‐apical or trans‐jugular access in swine. Catheters directed paired coronary guidewires to septal and lateral targets on the tricuspid annulus under fluoroscopic and echocardiographic guidance. Guidew...
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 6, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Jaffar M. Khan, Toby Rogers, William H. Schenke, Adam B. Greenbaum, Vasilis C. Babaliaros, Gaetano Paone, Rajiv Ramasawmy, Marcus Y. Chen, Daniel A. Herzka, Robert J. Lederman Tags: VSD ‐ VALVULAR AND STRUCTURAL HEART DISEASES Source Type: research

Increased mortality in octogenarians treated for lifestyle limiting claudication
Abstract ObjectiveTreatment for lifestyle limiting claudication (LLC) that is due to infra‐inguinal peripheral artery disease relies on either bypass, angioplasty, and/or stenting. Given the enthusiasm and shift toward more endovascular therapy for treatment of LLC, we sought to analyze whether octogenarians benefit from infra‐inguinal interventions in the same manner as their younger counterparts. MethodsWe identified all patients admitted for elective treatment of LLC from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2003 to 2012, who received open surgical or endovascular intervention for infra‐inguinal peripheral arteria...
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 6, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Y. Erben, C. I. Mena ‐Hurtado, S. M. Miller, R. A. Jean, B. J. Sumpio, C. A. Velasquez, H. Mojibian, J. Aruny, A. Dardik, B. E. Sumpio Tags: PVD ‐ PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE Source Type: research

Association of stent ‐induced changes in coronary geometry with late stent failure: Insights from three‐dimensional quantitative coronary angiographic analysis
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, EarlyView. (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 5, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Bu ChunZhangMD, PhD , Sheng XianTuPhD , AntoniosKaranasosMD, PhD , Robert ‐Janvan GeunsMD , Peterde JaegereMD , FelixZijlstraMD , EvelynRegarMD Source Type: research

Supra ‐annular structure assessment for self‐expanding transcatheter heart valve size selection in patients with bicuspid aortic valve
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, EarlyView. (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 5, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Association of stent ‐induced changes in coronary geometry with late stent failure: Insights from three‐dimensional quantitative coronary angiographic analysis
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, EarlyView. (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 5, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

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Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, Ahead of Print. (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 5, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Techniques for trans ‐catheter retrieval of embolized Nit‐Occlud® PDA‐R and ASD‐R devices
ConclusionASD‐R and PDA‐R devices can be successfully retrieved in the catheterization lab. It is critical to grab the center portion of the right atrial disc of the ASD‐R device or pulmonary portion of the PDA‐R device and to use adequately sized sheathes. (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 5, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Sanjay Sinha, Daniel Levi, Alejandro Peirone, Carlos Pedra Tags: Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease Source Type: research

Association of stent ‐induced changes in coronary geometry with late stent failure: Insights from three‐dimensional quantitative coronary angiographic analysis
ConclusionsOur study suggests that a change in the natural tortuous course of the coronaries by stent implantation with the decrease in coronary bending angle is a potentially major contributor in stent failure. (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 5, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Bu Chun Zhang, Sheng Xian Tu, Antonios Karanasos, Robert ‐Jan van Geuns, Peter de Jaegere, Felix Zijlstra, Evelyn Regar Tags: ORIGINAL STUDIES Source Type: research

Supra ‐annular structure assessment for self‐expanding transcatheter heart valve size selection in patients with bicuspid aortic valve
ConclusionsA supra‐annular structure based sizing strategy is feasible for TAVR in patients with bicuspid AS. (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 5, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Xianbao Liu, Yuxin He, Qifeng Zhu, Feng Gao, Wei He, Lei Yu, Qijing Zhou, Minjian Kong, Jian'an Wang Tags: ORIGINAL STUDIES Source Type: research

One ‐year clinical outcomes and multislice computed tomography angiographic results following implantation of the NeoVas bioresorbable sirolimus‐eluting scaffold in patients with single de novo coronary artery lesions
ConclusionsThis study demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the NeoVas scaffold for patients with single de novo coronary artery lesions at 1 year of follow‐up. Noninvasive MSCT data confirmed vessel patency and the maintenance of vessel dimensions following implantation of the NeoVas bioresorbable sirolimus‐eluting scaffold. (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 2, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Xiao ‐Zeng Wang, Yao‐Jun Zhang, Guo‐Sheng Fu, Quan‐Min Jing, Bo Xu, Ya‐Ling Han Tags: CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE Source Type: research

Prospective, randomized comparison of 3 ‐dimensional computed tomography guidance versus TEE data for left atrial appendage occlusion (PRO3DLAAO)
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, EarlyView. (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 1, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Marvin H.EngMD , Dee DeeWangMD , Adam B.GreenbaumMD , NeilGheewalaMD , DanielKupskyMD , TongwaAkaBS , ThomasSongMD , Bradley JamesKendallMS PhD(c) , JanetWymanDNP , EricMyersBFA , MichaelForbesBFA , William W.O'NeillMD Source Type: research

Long ‐term survival after transcatheter versus surgical aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis: A meta‐analysis of observational comparative studies with a propensity‐score analysis
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, EarlyView. (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 1, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: HisatoTakagiMD, PhD , ShoheiMittaMD , TomoAndoMD , Source Type: research

Transcatheter versus surgical aortic valve replacement in patients at low surgical risk: A meta ‐analysis of randomized trials and propensity score matched observational studies
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, EarlyView. (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 1, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: GuyWitbergMD , AdiLadorMD , DafnaYahavMD , RanKornowskiMD Source Type: research

Safety and efficacy of ulnar artery approach for percutaneous cardiac catheterization: Systematic review and meta ‐analysis
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, EarlyView. (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 1, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: RitinFernandezRN, PhD , FadyZakyMD , AvedisEkmejianMD , ElizabethCurtisRN , AstinLeeMD Source Type: research

Prospective, randomized comparison of 3 ‐dimensional computed tomography guidance versus TEE data for left atrial appendage occlusion (PRO3DLAAO)
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, EarlyView. (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 1, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Long ‐term survival after transcatheter versus surgical aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis: A meta‐analysis of observational comparative studies with a propensity‐score analysis
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, EarlyView. (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 1, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Transcatheter versus surgical aortic valve replacement in patients at low surgical risk: A meta ‐analysis of randomized trials and propensity score matched observational studies
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, EarlyView. (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 1, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

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Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, Ahead of Print. (Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions)
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 1, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Long ‐term survival after transcatheter versus surgical aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis: A meta‐analysis of observational comparative studies with a propensity‐score analysis
Abstract ObjectivesTo synthesize evidence regarding long‐term survival after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) versus surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) for severe aortic stenosis (AS) from real‐world clinical practice, we performed a meta‐analysis of observational studies with a propensity‐score analysis and ≥3‐year follow‐up. MethodsDatabases including MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched through April 2017 using PubMed and OVID. Eligible studies were observational comparative studies with a propensity‐score analysis of TAVI versus SAVR enrolling patients with severe AS and reporting ≥3...
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 1, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Hisato Takagi, Shohei Mitta, Tomo Ando, Tags: VALVULAR AND STRUCTURAL HEART DISEASES Source Type: research

Safety and efficacy of ulnar artery approach for percutaneous cardiac catheterization: Systematic review and meta ‐analysis
Abstract BackgroundTrans‐radial access has rapidly become the standard for percutaneous coronary procedures in the last decade. As proceduralists overcome the learning curve and become more competent in trans‐radial access, alternative safe access sites such as the ulnar artery have been increasingly used for emergent and elective procedures. The aim of this study was to synthesize the best available evidence of the impact on major adverse cardiac events (MACE) of ulnar artery compared to radial artery cardiac catheterization. MethodsThis review considered randomized controlled trials that included adult patients who h...
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 1, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Ritin Fernandez, Fady Zaky, Avedis Ekmejian, Elizabeth Curtis, Astin Lee Tags: NON ‐INVASIVE ANGIOGRAPHY Source Type: research

Prospective, randomized comparison of 3 ‐dimensional computed tomography guidance versus TEE data for left atrial appendage occlusion (PRO3DLAAO)
Abstract BackgroundPreliminary data comparing 3‐dimensional computed tomography (3D‐CT) to transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) indicates that 3D‐CT provides more accurate measurements and improves case planning. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study comparing 3D‐CT to TEE in occluder selection accuracy and procedural efficiency. MethodsFrom May 2016 to February 2017, 24 patients were prospectively randomized to undergo LAAO using either TEE or 3D‐CT. The primary endpoint was device accuracy while the secondary endpoints included # devices per case, # guide catheters u...
Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions - February 1, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Marvin H. Eng, Dee Dee Wang, Adam B. Greenbaum, Neil Gheewala, Daniel Kupsky, Tongwa Aka, Thomas Song, Bradley James Kendall, Janet Wyman, Eric Myers, Michael Forbes, William W. O'Neill Tags: VALVULAR AND STRUCTURAL HEART DISEASES Source Type: research