Current and emerging therapies in primary myelofibrosis.
Authors: Ayyappan S, Janakiram M, Raghupathy R Abstract Primary myelofibrosis is a clonal hematopoietic disorder characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and progressive bone marrow fibrosis. Patients with high risk myelofibrosis as determined by their advanced age, degree of anemia, leukocytosis, constitutional symptoms and high percentage of circulating blasts have a very short median survival of 2 years. In addition quality of life is significantly compromised due to cytokine induced constitutional symptoms, frequent transfusion for cytopenias and bulky splenomegaly. Progression to myelogenous leukemia occurs ...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Novel targeted therapies and combinations for the treatment of multiple myeloma.
Authors: Agarwal A, Mahadevan D Abstract Multiple myeloma is a B-cell neoplasm that is characterized by clonal proliferation of terminally differentiated plasma cells. Approximately 20,000 new cases are diagnosed each year with a prevalence of about 60,000. Characteristic clinical features include bone disease, hypercalcemia, renal disease, anemia and infections. Advancements in our understanding of multiple myeloma have led to a significant impact in the natural history of the disease. Despite these advances the disease remains incurable and most patients invariably relapse and die. Our understanding of the transf...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Modulation of cardiovascular function by adipokines.
Authors: DeClercq V, Enns JE, Yeganeh A, Taylor CG, Zahradka P Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated risk factors such as obesity remain at the forefront of health concerns. Adipose tissue has been well established as an endocrine organ that becomes dysfunctional with increased adipose tissue mass. The secretion of several adipokines is altered in subjects with abdominal adiposity and these changes to the endocrine balance may contribute to increased CVD risk. The identification and characterization of disease-specific proteins within the adipose tissue offers a novel therapeutic target for preventio...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Roles of SM22α in cellular plasticity and vascular diseases.
Roles of SM22α in cellular plasticity and vascular diseases. Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets. 2012 Dec;12(2):119-25 Authors: Dong LH, Lv P, Han M Abstract SM22α is a shape change and transformation sensitive 22 kDa actin-binding protein of the calponin family. It is ubiquitous to vascular and visceral smooth muscle, and is an early marker of smooth muscle differentiation. It is also present in fibroblasts, and some epithelium. SM22α may be involved in calcium-independent smooth muscle contraction. Recent evidence suggests that disruption of SM22α induces vascular inflamma...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Platelets in thrombosis and hemostasis: old topic with new mechanisms.
Authors: Wang Y, Andrews M, Yang Y, Lang S, Jin JW, Cameron-Vendrig A, Zhu G, Reheman A, Ni H Abstract Platelets are small anucleate cells generated from megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. After being released into the circulation, platelets play key roles in the surveillance of vascular injury, and can quickly adhere and aggregate at the site of injury, which are critical events for vascular repair and hemostasis. However, the same biological processes of platelet adhesion and aggregation may also cause thrombotic disorders. The formation of a platelet plug at sites of atherosclerotic lesion rupture is the most co...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Regulation of intestinal chylomicron production by glucagon-like peptides.
Authors: Hsieh J, Adeli K Abstract Apolipoprotein B48 (apoB48)-containing triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are atherogenic and therefore it is important to understand factors that regulate their metabolism in the intestine. Insulin resistant states are associated with increased intestinal output of apo B48, but the mechanistic studies explaining this overproduction have relied heavily on models of diet-induced insulin resistance. There is evidence that glucagon-like peptide (GLP) secretion is diminished in insulin resistant and diabetic states, which may have implications for postprandial lipid secretion. This review...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Citrus flavonoids and the prevention of atherosclerosis.
Authors: Mulvihill EE, Huff MW Abstract Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that diets rich in fruits and vegetables can prevent or delay the onset of many chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD). While more current research has begun to focus on the effects of specific polyphenol compounds found in fruits and vegetables, mechanistic insights have been hampered by the multiple simultaneous effects these compounds may have on the disease process. In this article, we review the basic research studies that have evaluated the effects of citrus flavonoids to: improve dyslipidemia, normalize glucose...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

A review of obesity and body fat distribution and its relationship to cardio-metabolic risk in men and women of Chinese origin.
Authors: Lear SA, Lesser IA Abstract Obesity is increasing in people of Chinese background whether in China or in other countries. The purpose of this review is to discuss the associations of obesity in men and women of Chinese background with cardio-metabolic risk with specific attention to body fat distribution. Evidence suggests that current BMI and WC targets may actually underestimate the cardio-metabolic risk in Chinese compared to European populations from which they were derived. Through a number of investigations, we and others have identified that Chinese men and women tend to have higher cardio-metabolic...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and diabetic cardiovascular disorders.
Authors: Shen GX Abstract The prevalence of diabetes has been rapidly increasing in world-wide countries. The dominant cause of mortality in diabetic patients is cardiovascular complications. Mechanism for the susceptibility of diabetic patients to cardiovascular disorders remains unclear. Elevated oxidative stress was detected in diabetic patients or in animal models. Mitochondria are one of major sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction and DNA mutations have been detected in diabetic patients. Diabetes-associated metabolic disorders, including hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridem...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Regulatory role of Brg1 and Brm in the vasculature: from organogenesis to stress-induced cardiovascular disease.
Authors: Xu Y, Fang F Abstract ATPase-dependent chromatin remodeling complex encompasses a group of evolutionarily conserved proteins that utilize energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to drive nucleosome movement contributing to transcriptional regulation. Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1) and Brahma (Brm) are the core components of the mammalian remodeling complex. The past decade has witnessed a great expansion in our knowledge regarding the role of Brg1 and Brm in modulating the function of the cardiovascular system (CVS) under both physiological conditions and disease states owing much to the availability of tissue-sp...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Human apolipoprotein C-III - a new intrahepatic protein factor promoting assembly and secretion of very low density lipoproteins.
Authors: Yao Z Abstract Apolipoprotein (apo) C-III is a small protein (79 amino acids) and a component of triacylglycerol (TAG)-rich very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and high density lipoproteins. We have unraveled a new intracellular role of apoCIII in promoting hepatic VLDL(1) (Sf> 100) assembly/secretion under lipid-rich conditions. Feeding apoc3-null mice with a high fat diet for two weeks or palm oil gavage failed to stimulate VLDL(1) production in vivo. Reconstitution of apoC-III expression using adenovirus encoding human apoC-III resulted in robust production of VLDL(1) containing apoB-100 or apoB-48....
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Cyclooxygenase-2 expression, prostacyclin production and endothelial protection of high-density lipoprotein.
Authors: Liu D, Ji L, Wang Y, Zheng L Abstract Atherosclerosis is a multi-factorial inflammatory disease with accumulation of lipids and recruitment of leukocytes into the subendothelial space. Due to the consistent inflammation in vessels, a subset of atherosclerotic plaques is even prone to physical disruption or producing thrombosis that triggers acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Cyclooxygenase (COX) and the downstream diverse prostanoids are involved in numerous physiological activities and inflammatory processes. Remarkably, prostanoids are a group of bioactive lipid mediators, and play a series of complicated a...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Outcomes of patients with chronic heart failure and iron deficiency treated with intravenous iron: a meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: Treatment of iron deficiency in patients with CHF reduces the risk of hospitalizations without increased adverse events, suggesting its role as a potential therapeutic target in this group of patients. PMID: 23030476 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets)
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

The effect of lead exposure on selected blood inflammatory biomarkers in guinea pigs.
This study was aimed to examine the effect of lead acetate on inflammatory biomarkers in blood of guinea pigs in comparison with sensitized animals. Thirty guinea pigs were randomly allocated into control (group C), sensitized (group S), and three Pb-exposed (groups 0.1M Pb, 0.2M Pb and 0.4M Pb). Animal sensitized after aerosolized-ovalbumin (OA) challenge. Pb-exposed groups inhaled 0.1M, 0.2M and 0.4M lead acetate for 1 h, three times a week for two weeks. Total and differential WBC counts, PLA2 activity and total protein levels were evaluated in blood of all animal groups. Serum PLA2 activity, total protein and total WBC...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Fc-independent phagocytosis: implications for IVIG and other therapies in immune-mediated thrombocytopenia.
Authors: Li J, van der Wal DE, Zhu L, Vadasz B, Simpson EK, Li C, Webster ML, Zhu G, Lang S, Chen P, Zeng Q, Ni H Abstract Phagocytes were first described by Dr. Metchnikoff in 1873. The roles of phagocytes in innate and adaptive immunity have been well established to date, although the molecular mechanisms involved in initiating phagocytosis (through Fc or other receptors) remain to be further explored. Phagocytes in the reticuloendothelial system, particularly macrophages, have been implicated in the clearance of senescent blood cells. The destruction of these cells may be primarily mediated via an Fc-independent...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Editorial: Proceeding for Chinese-Canada symposium in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. September 23-25, Beijing.
Authors: Liu G, Jiang Z, Shen GX PMID: 23339405 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets)
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Abstracts from the Chinese-Canada Symposium in Atherosclerosis and Cardiovascular Disease Conference, September 23-25, 2012, Beijing, China..
Authors: PMID: 23339406 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets)
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Targeting of NF-kappaB signaling pathway, other signaling pathways and epigenetics in therapy of multiple myeloma.
Authors: Fuchs O Abstract Multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable disease, at least for the big majority of patients, in spite of the great progress with new drugs in the last years. New treatment strategies are needed to improve the outcome of patients. NF-κB activation in MM is caused by mutations in the factors involved in the NF-κB pathways contributing to their dysregulation and by signals from the bone marrow microenvironment. Agents with NF-κB inhibitory activity enhance the anti-MM effects of conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Bortezomib was the first approved member of a new class o...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: disadvantages and possible benefits.
Authors: Manganelli G, Masullo U, Passarelli S, Filosa S Abstract We review here some recent data about Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the housekeeping X-linked gene encoding the first enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), a NADPH-producing dehydrogenase. This enzyme has been popular among clinicians, biochemists, geneticists and molecular biologists because it is the most common form of red blood cell enzymopathy. G6PD deficient erythrocytes do not generate NADPH in any other way than through the PPP and for this reason they are more susceptible than any other cells to oxidative damage. Moreove...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Updated role of nitric oxide in disorders of erythrocyte function.
Authors: Kahn MJ, Maley JH, Lasker GF, Kadowitz PJ Abstract Nitric oxide is a potent vasodilator that plays a critical role in disorders of erythrocyte function. Sickle cell disease, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and banked blood preservation are three conditions where nitric oxide is intimately related to dysfunctional erythrocytes. These conditions are accompanied by hemolysis, thrombosis and vasoocclusion. Our understanding of the interaction between nitric oxide, hemoglobin, and the vasculature is constantly evolving, and by defining this role we can better direct trials aimed at improving the treatments ...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Use of antiplatelet drugs in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes.
Authors: Aronow WS Abstract Patients with unstable angina pectoris/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) should be treated with dual antiplatelet therapy with the use of aspirin plus either clopidogrel, prasugrel, or ticagrelor depending on the clinical circumstances as discussed in this article. If ticagrelor is used, the dose of aspirin must not exceed 100 mg daily. Prasugrel must not be used in patients with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors should not be used as part of triple antiplatelet drug therapy if there is an increased risk for bleeding...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Serpins as therapeutics--a potential biologic source for unique protein-based therapeutics.
Authors: Lucas A PMID: 23987996 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets)
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Augmentation therapy with alpha1-antitrypsin: novel perspectives.
Authors: Sabina J, Tobias W Abstract SERPINA1, α-antitrypsin (AAT) is an acute phase protein, a member of the serpin (serine protease inhibitor) super family and one of the most abundant protease inhibitors in the circulation. The clinical importance of AAT is emphasized in persons with inherited AAT deficiency who exhibit high risk of developing early onset pulmonary emphysema, neonatal hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, which may appear at any age, and in rare cases panniculitis and vasculitis. The most common and severe AAT deficiency is associated with the Z (Glu342 to Lys) mutation. It is also well established ...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

The serpin solution; targeting thrombotic and thrombolytic serine proteases in inflammation.
In conclusion, these unique proteins, the serpin family, now have demonstrated therapeutic potential for a wide variety of inflammatory diseases in both animal and human studies and represent a new approach for drug development. PMID: 23987998 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets)
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Anti-apoptotic serpins as therapeutics in cardiovascular diseases.
Authors: Kuiper J, Quax PH, Bot I Abstract Acute cardiovascular syndromes such as myocardial infarction and stroke are a major cause of death in the Western society and are generally caused by rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque. Treatment of atherosclerosis, the main underlying cause of acute cardiovascular syndromes, is still inadequate for most of the patients. Therefore, there is a need for new therapeutic strategies in addition to the existing lipid-lowering drugs such as statins. Lipid accumulation, inflammation and matrix degradation are generally considered key processes in the pathogenesis of atherosclero...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Serpins for diagnosis and therapy in cancer.
Authors: Zheng D, Chen H, Davids J, Bryant M, Lucas A Abstract Serine protease inhibitors (Serpins) play an important role in regulating a wide array of diverse biological activities, representing up to 2-10% of circulating plasma proteins. The serpin suicide inhibitors regulate coagulation (thrombosis and thrombolysis), neurotrophic factors, hormone transport, complement and inflammation, angiogenesis, hormone transport, and blood pressure among many other biological reactions. Select serpins have been associated with progression or remission of selected cancers, making them valuable for therapeutic or diagnostic ...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Evaluation of B lymphocyte deficiencies.
Authors: Vickery JD, Michael CF, Lew DB Abstract The most common of the primary immunodeficiency diseases are those that involve inadequate antibody production. The characteristic presentation of these disorders is recurrent sinopulmonary infections. An arrest in B cell development at the pre-B cell stage leads to agammaglobulinemia and an insignificant number of B cells. X-linked agammaglobulinemia is the most common of these developmental arrests while the autosomal recessive agammaglobulinemias comprise a small minority of the total cases. Likewise, the most common form of the hyper-IgM syndromes (CD40 ligand de...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Plasminogen activator inhibitor with very long half-life (VLHL PAI-1) can reduce bleeding in PAI-1-deficient patients.
Authors: Jankun J, Skrzypczak-Jankun E Abstract This review summarizes our current knowledge of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) deficiency and proposes some novel treatments for this condition. PAI-1 is a fast acting inhibitor of tissue and urokinase plasminogen activators (tPA and uPA). PAI-1 controls/slows clot lysis triggered by tPA activated plasminogen. PAI-1 deficiency was once considered to be an extremely rare disorder characterized by frequent and prolonged bleeding episodes. PAI-1 deficiency is now thought to be more frequent than initially reported and is known to be caused by mutations in the PA...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

The development and progression of atherosclerosis: evidence supporting a role for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling.
Authors: McAlpine CS, Werstuck GH Abstract Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. A major underlying cause of cardiovascular disease is atherosclerosis--a chronic inflammatory disease of the large arteries. Despite substantial advances over the past few decades, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that link cardiovascular risk factors to the development and progression of atherosclerosis is incomplete. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a membranous organelle found in all eukaryotic cells that is responsible for protein processing and lipid biosynthesis. In recent years it has b...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Oxidative stress and transforming growth factor-β1-induced cardiac fibrosis.
Oxidative stress and transforming growth factor-β1-induced cardiac fibrosis. Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets. 2013 Aug;13(2):165-72 Authors: Purnomo Y, Piccart Y, Coenen T, Prihadi JS, Lijnen PJ Abstract A chronic increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a critical role in the development and progression of cardiac remodeling associated with heart failure. Oxidative stress is indeed increased in heart failure, hypertension, cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy. In vitro exposure of cardiac fibroblasts to superoxide anion stimulates their proliferation by increasing the production of tran...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury: potential of TRPV1 agonists as cardioprotective agents.
Authors: Vemula P, Gautam B, Abela GS, Wang DH Abstract Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) induced injury has widespread detrimental effects partially negating the benefits obtained from early revascularization in Acute Myocardial Infarction. Various complex mechanisms contribute to I/R injury and different agents targeting those specific mechanisms are being studied. Despite continued research and widespread interest, none of them have become incorporated into everyday practice. The TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) channel is a non selective cation channel predominantly expressed in sensory neur...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Effects of Cichorium intybus linn on blood glucose, lipid constituents and selected oxidative stress parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
In this study, the rats were divided into the control (C), diabetic (D), D + CIE- treated (125 mg/kg/day) groups. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 9 weeks (160 ± 15 g) were administered with streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (ip) to induce experimental diabetes. From 3 days after STZ administration to the end of the study (4 weeks) the ethanolic extract of CIE was administered (i.p) to diabetic rats. Body weight and blood glucose were measured weekly. At the end of the 4-week period, blood was drawn for biochemical assay, in order to determine the changes of cellular antioxidant defense system, serum oxi...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

A review of dietary influences on cardiovascular health: part 1: the role of dietary nutrients.
DISCUSSION: Evidence is presented on soy protein, fats, fish, nuts, fruit, vegetables, electrolytes, vitamins, and carbohydrate including fibre, glycaemic index, and wholegrains. Evidence from specific foods underpins current dietary CVD prevention guidelines, that advise on replacing saturated with unsaturated fat, consuming carbohydrate foods that are wholegrain or of low glycaemic index, increased consumption of fruit, vegetables (particularly cruciferous), nuts, and oily fish. Other nutrients (such as soya protein, or reducing sodium intake) reduce CVD risk via favourable effects on disease contributors (such as LDL-ch...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Proceedings of the Chinese-Canada Symposium in Atherosclerosis and Cardiovascular Disease, September 23-25, 2011, Beijing, China.
Authors: PMID: 24350343 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets)
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Antiplatelet therapies: aspirin at the heart of new directions.
Authors: Bunimov N, Laneuville O Abstract When introduced over 100 years ago, aspirin was prescribed as an analgesic drug to arthritic patients for pain relief. The prevalence of users grew quite rapidly and to this day, aspirin remains widely used in clinical practice. The popularity of aspirin resulted not only from its analgesic properties but also from a second benefit recognized later as an anti-platelet effect. It was this important activity of aspirin that made it one of the most recommended drugs for the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The anti-platelet effect of aspirin emerged from th...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Contemporary risk assessment and cardiovascular outcomes in peripheral arterial disease.
Authors: Das JR, Eberhardt RT Abstract The term peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is often used to describe atherosclerosis involving the arteries supplying the lower extremities. Risk factors that predispose to the development and progression of both symptomatic and asymptomatic PAD include age, ethnicity, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. In addition, emerging biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress, thrombosis and metabolism have also been discovered to be predictive of future PAD events. Since traditional risk factors for PAD predispose to the development of systemic atheroscler...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Role of α- and β-adrenergic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of pulmonary injuries characterized by edema, inflammation and fibrosis.
Role of α- and β-adrenergic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of pulmonary injuries characterized by edema, inflammation and fibrosis. Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets. 2013 Dec;13(3):197-207 Authors: Rassler B Abstract Adrenergic mechanisms are involved in the formation of several types of pulmonary edema (PE) such as neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) or PE in patients with pheochromocytoma, but also in the development of pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension. In severe cases of PE such as in the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), PE is typically accompanied by inflammati...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Iron supplementation therapy in end-stage renal disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis.
Authors: Shibata M, Taniguchi S Abstract Iron supplementation therapy seems almost indispensable in adequate management of the patients with end - stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis, since at least one and a half grams iron is considered to be required per year to keep sufficient erythropoiesis. Iron supplementation in conjunction with erythropoietic-stimulating agents is widely carried out as a standard therapy. However, definite diagnosis of iron deficiency in hemodialysis patients is often difficult since serum ferritin levels increase frequently by various reasons including inflammation and maligna...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Pre-hospital fibrinolysis in the management of patients with ST elevation acute coronary syndrome: review of the evidence, implementation and future directions.
Authors: Camuglia AC, Luis SA, Sengupta A, Bett JH, Walters DL Abstract Time to reperfusion is among the strongest predictors of clinical outcome in patients who present with ST elevation acute myocardial infarction. When time to access is equivalent, primary percutaneous coronary intervention has demonstrated superior outcomes to fibrinolysis. However, where significant delays exist in accessing percutaneous intervention, fibrinolysis has an important role. The potential for fibrinolysis delivery in the pre-hospital setting means that delays to primary percutaneous intervention need to be considered from the time ...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Vitamin D and vitamin D receptor activators in treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease.
Authors: Franczyk A, Stolarz-Skrzypek K, Wesołowska A, Czarnecka D Abstract Vitamin D plays an essential role in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism, but recent research has exposed a larger spectrum of biological actions that also includes induction of cell proliferation, immunomodulation, and control of other hormonal systems. Many cells that play an important role in the cardiovascular system express the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) and respond to 1,25-(OH)2D (the active product of vitamin D conversion by hydroxylase) with cell-specific function and gene regulation. These cells include cardiomyocytes, vascular ...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease: a focus on primary care.
Authors: Singh TK, Arya V, Navaratnarajah N Abstract The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the United States has increased in the last 20 years. As CKD and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are interrelated, it is important to note that trends in the prevalence of CKD and common risk factors it shares with CVD, such as hypertension and diabetes, are likely to affect the burden of both diseases in the future. While preventing and treating CVD is of high priority in the primary care setting, a major reason why CKD continues to burden the US healthcare system is because it remains under-recognized by primary ca...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Statins for early stage chronic kidney disease: an overview of reviews.
CONCLUSION: Statins reduce the incidence of death and other relevant outcomes in patients with early stage chronic kidney disease and should be considered for such individuals who also present hyperlipidemia. PMID: 24720455 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets)
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Prevention of sudden cardiac death in hemodialysis patients.
Authors: O'Shaughnessy MM, O'Regan JA, Lavin PJ Abstract One quarter of all hemodialysis patients will succumb to sudden cardiac death (SCD), a rate far exceeding that observed in the general population. A high prevalence of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease amongst patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) partly explains this exaggerated risk. However, uremia and dialysis related factors are also of critical importance. Interventions aimed at preventing SCD have been inadequately studied in patients with ESKD. Data extrapolated from non-renal populations cannot necessarily be applied to hemodialysis pat...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Cardiovascular disease burden and risk factors before and after kidney transplant.
Authors: Keddis MT, Bhutani G, El-Zoghby ZM Abstract Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the most common cause of mortality among kidney transplant candidates on the waiting-list and after kidney transplantation. The mechanisms of cardiovascular disease burden after transplant are multifactorial and the risk is largely determined by pre-transplant factors including CV disease and dialysis duration. Current pre-transplant cardiac evaluation protocols have proven to be inconsistent in predicting adverse cardiovascular outcome post-transplant. However, multiple biomarkers have been recognized as predictors of all-cause mor...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Pediatric CKD and cardiovascular disease.
Authors: Safder O, Al sharif S, Kari JA Abstract Children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the possible risk factors for early atherosclerosis in children with CKD. Endothelial dysfunction, a precursor of atherosclerosis, starts early in renal disease, as indicated by increased carotid artery intima media thickness, carotid arterial wall stiffness, impaired flow mediated dilatation, and coronary artery calcification, which are frequently present in children with CKD. Many risk factors for a...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Initiation of dialysis: a mini-review of a changing paradigm.
Authors: Bayliss G Abstract A paradigm shift is occurring in the way nephrologists evaluate patients with progressive chronic kidney disease for initiation of maintenance renal replacement therapy. Serum creatinine and serum creatinine-based equations used to calculate an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) are not accurate approximations of renal function at low levels. Further complicating matters is a trend toward early initiation of dialysis, once considered beneficial since patients had better outcomes if they started dialysis before the onset of protein malnutrition. But recent data, including results...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Renal endothelial dysfunction in diabetic nephropathy.
Authors: Cheng H, Harris RC Abstract Endothelial dysfunction has been posited to play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Due to the heterogeneity of endothelial cells (ECs), it is difficult to generalize about endothelial responses to diabetic stimuli. At present, there are limited techniques fordirectly measuring EC function in vivo, so diagnosis of endothelial disorders still largely depends on indirect assessment of mediators arising from EC injury. In the kidney microcirculation, both afferent and efferent arteries, arterioles and glomerular endothelial cells (GEnC) have all bee...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Connexins in renal endothelial function and dysfunction.
Authors: Abed A, Dussaule JC, Boffa JJ, Chatziantoniou C, Chadjichristos CE Abstract The renal endothelium plays a critical role in kidney physiopathology as it is implicated in various processes such as the regulation of vasomotor tone, the control of tissue inflammation and thrombosis. Recent evidence highlights direct implication of renal endothelial dysfunction in the progression of chronic kidney disease. Renal endothelial dysfunction is a multifaceted process in which chemokines, cytokines, prothrombotic factors and adhesion molecules are known to play a crucial role. Apart from paracrine cell-to-cell signali...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Frontiers in atherosclerosis, heart disease and diabetes.
Authors: Yao Z PMID: 24801722 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets)
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Glucagon-like peptide-1 as a key regulator of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in fasting and postprandial states.
Authors: Farr S, Taher J, Adeli K Abstract Insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome are associated with fasting and postprandial dyslipidemia. This involves the hepatic and intestinal overproduction of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and chylomicron particles, respectively, which give rise to atherogenic remnants upon lipolysis in the circulation. Recently, the insulin secretagogue glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has received attention not only as an anti-diabetic therapy for regulating glycaemia, but also as a regulator of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. In fact, agents that raise endogenous bioactive ...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research