Glucose modulates copper induced changes in photosynthesis, ion uptake, antioxidants and proline in Cucumis sativus plants
This study revealed the effect of exogenously sourced glucose on Cucumber plants exposed to increasing concentration of copper. Glucose mediated response on growth performance, photosynthetic efficiency, antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress markers, ion uptake were analyzed in the presence and absence of copper. Glucose alone and in combination with lower concentration of copper improved the growth, photosynthetic performance, and antioxidant capacity of cucumber plants. However, higher concentrations of copper alone showed oxidative damage through increased electrolyte leakage, H2O2 accumulation, lipid peroxidation and r...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - February 26, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mohammad Yusuf Alia S Saeed Almehrzi Alya J Nasir Alnajjar Pravej Alam Nesma Elsayed Radwan Khalil Shamsul Hayat Source Type: research

Synthesis and chelation study of a fluoroionophore and a glycopeptide based on an aza crown iminosugar structure
Carbohydr Res. 2021 Feb 10;501:108258. doi: 10.1016/j.carres.2021.108258. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCapitalizing on a recently reported iminosugar-based aza-crown (ISAC) accessed by a double Staudinger azaWittig coupling reaction, we have expanded the structural diversity of this new family of sweet cyclam analogs. Replacement of the two secondary amines linking the iminosugar units by two amide bonds obtained a cyclodimerization by with BOP and DIPEA led to a macrocycle that did not demonstrate efficient Zn2+ chelation unlike the parent ISAC. Introduction of two pyrene moieties on the secondary amines of the parent IS...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - February 22, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Alexandra Bordes Ana Poveda Nathalie Fontelle Ana Ard á J érôme Guillard Yi Bin Ruan J érôme Marrot Shuki Imaeda Atsushi Kato J érôme Désiré Juan Xie Jes ús Jiménez-Barbero Yves Bl ériot Source Type: research

Synthesis and chelation study of a fluoroionophore and a glycopeptide based on an aza crown iminosugar structure
Carbohydr Res. 2021 Feb 10;501:108258. doi: 10.1016/j.carres.2021.108258. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCapitalizing on a recently reported iminosugar-based aza-crown (ISAC) accessed by a double Staudinger azaWittig coupling reaction, we have expanded the structural diversity of this new family of sweet cyclam analogs. Replacement of the two secondary amines linking the iminosugar units by two amide bonds obtained a cyclodimerization by with BOP and DIPEA led to a macrocycle that did not demonstrate efficient Zn2+ chelation unlike the parent ISAC. Introduction of two pyrene moieties on the secondary amines of the parent IS...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - February 22, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Alexandra Bordes Ana Poveda Nathalie Fontelle Ana Ard á J érôme Guillard Yi Bin Ruan J érôme Marrot Shuki Imaeda Atsushi Kato J érôme Désiré Juan Xie Jes ús Jiménez-Barbero Yves Bl ériot Source Type: research

Synthesis and chelation study of a fluoroionophore and a glycopeptide based on an aza crown iminosugar structure
Carbohydr Res. 2021 Feb 10;501:108258. doi: 10.1016/j.carres.2021.108258. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCapitalizing on a recently reported iminosugar-based aza-crown (ISAC) accessed by a double Staudinger azaWittig coupling reaction, we have expanded the structural diversity of this new family of sweet cyclam analogs. Replacement of the two secondary amines linking the iminosugar units by two amide bonds obtained a cyclodimerization by with BOP and DIPEA led to a macrocycle that did not demonstrate efficient Zn2+ chelation unlike the parent ISAC. Introduction of two pyrene moieties on the secondary amines of the parent IS...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - February 22, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Alexandra Bordes Ana Poveda Nathalie Fontelle Ana Ard á J érôme Guillard Yi Bin Ruan J érôme Marrot Shuki Imaeda Atsushi Kato J érôme Désiré Juan Xie Jes ús Jiménez-Barbero Yves Bl ériot Source Type: research

Two new iridoid glycosides from Gardeniae Fructus
Carbohydr Res. 2021 Feb 15;501:108259. doi: 10.1016/j.carres.2021.108259. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTwo new iridoid glycosides, genipin 1,10-di-O-α-l-rhamnoside (1) and genipin 1,10-di-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (2), along with thirteen known compounds (3-15) were isolated from Gardeniae Fructus. Their structures were elucidated by physical data analyses such as NMR, UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, as well as chemical hydrolysis. All compounds were tested for their tyrosinase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. At a concentration of 25 μM, compound 13 showed obvious mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity with % inhibiti...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - February 21, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Penghua Shu Mengzhu Yu Huiqing Zhu Yuehui Luo Yamin Li Nianci Li Hui Zhang Jialong Zhang Guangwei Liu Xialan Wei Wenhan Yi Source Type: research

Magnesium-mediated Wittig reagent-promoted Stereoselective synthesis of L-Sorbopyranoses from D-Glucopyranoses
Carbohydr Res. 2021 Feb 6;501:108257. doi: 10.1016/j.carres.2021.108257. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTl-Sorbose is an important rare sugar that exists in some natural products and widely used in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Herein, two simple and practical routes were developed using cheap magnesium (II) for the synthesis of 1,3,4,5-tetra-O-benzyl-l-sorbopyranose from 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-d-glucopyranose with high stereoselectivity and yield. The first route involved the intramolecular hydride shift from C5 to the C1 of the glucopyranose precursor. Wittig reagent (PPh3CHCOOBn) was used to combined with Mg(II)...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - February 15, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Karim Ullah Ming Li Yubin Zheng Wangze Song Source Type: research

Experimental and molecular docking investigation of the inclusion complexes between 20(S)-protopanaxatriol and four modified β-cyclodextrins
Carbohydr Res. 2021 Feb;500:108256. doi: 10.1016/j.carres.2021.108256. Epub 2021 Feb 4.ABSTRACT20(S)-Protopanaxatriol (PPT) is a type of ginsenoside isolated from panax notoginseng or ginseng, which is an essential ingredient in functional food, healthcare products and traditional medicine. However, the research and development of PPT are restricted due to its poor solubility. To circumvent the associated problems, a novel bridged-bis [6-(2,2'-(ethylenedioxy) bis (ethylamine))-6-deoxy-β-CD] (H4) was successfully synthesized. The four inclusion complexes of the mono-[6-(1,4-butanediamine)-6-deoxy-β-CD] (H1), mono-...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - February 9, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Fang-Dao Zhu Zhao-Hua Zhang Shao-Ming Chi Si-Ling Chen Yu-Fei Wang Hong-You Zhu Ze Lei Yan Zhao Source Type: research

Influence of substitution at the 5 α-Position on the side chain conformation of glucopyranosides
We describe the preparation of methyl 5α-methyl-α-d-glucopyranoside and of 5α-fluoro-β-d-glucopyranose per acetate and the NMR-based conformational analysis of their side chains. Both the 5α-methyl and 5α-fluoro substituents increase the population of the gauche,gauche side chain conformer to the extent that it becomes the predominant conformation. In the 5α-methyl series this is attributed to steric effects, whereas in the 5α-fluoro series the optimization of attractive gauche effects is the more likely reason.PMID:33561715 | DOI:10.1016/j.carres.2021.108254 (Source: Carbohydrate Research)
Source: Carbohydrate Research - February 9, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Parasuraman Rajasekaran Michael G Pirrone David Crich Source Type: research

Chol-Dex nanomicelles: Synthesis, characterization and evaluation as efficient drug carriers for colon targeting
Carbohydr Res. 2021 Feb;500:108255. doi: 10.1016/j.carres.2021.108255. Epub 2021 Jan 31.ABSTRACTCore-shell structures obtained from amphiphilic molecules on self-assembly in a medium have emerged as an important tool in the area of biomedical sciences. Here, we have synthesized cholesteryl-dextran (Chol-Dex) amphiphiles in sufficiently high yields via conjugation of cholesteryl hemisuccinate to dextran in two different concentrations (5 and 10%). After physicochemical and spectral analysis, the nanomicelles were subjected to size measurements. DLS and TEM confirmed the formation of core-shell type of nanomicelles. Hydropho...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - February 8, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Preeti Goyal Mahak Singh Pradeep Kumar Alka Gupta Source Type: research

4,6-Di-O-Benzylidenyl group-directed preparation of 2-deoxy-2-azido- α-d-galactopyranosides promoted by 3-O-TBDPS
In this study, we designed a method to prepare 2-deoxy-2-azido-α-d-galactopyranosidic bonds using 4,6-di-O-benzylidenyl-3-O-t-butyldiphenylsilyl protected 2-deoxy-2-azido-1-thio-d-galactopyranoside 5 as donors. The donor 5 gives a good to excellent α-selectivity in the glycosylation with secondary alcohols, which was found to be associated with the benzylidenyl on 4,6-di-O and TBDPS on 3-O of the donor 5. Compared with results of the donor 6 and 7, the 3-O-TBDPS could increase the activity of the thioglycoside, and the lone pairs on 4,6-di-O-benzylidenyl group enhanced the gg-cofnormation, which plays a role in...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - February 6, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Xing-Yong Liang Jing Yang Zhong-Hao Qiu Lei Wang Todd L Lowary Hua-Jun Shawn Fan Source Type: research

D or L that remained the question: A note on Emil Fischer (1852-1919) on the occasion of his 100th dying-day
Carbohydr Res. 2021 Feb;500:108245. doi: 10.1016/j.carres.2021.108245. Epub 2021 Jan 20.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33548833 | DOI:10.1016/j.carres.2021.108245 (Source: Carbohydrate Research)
Source: Carbohydrate Research - February 6, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Johannes F G Vliegenthart Source Type: research

Magnesium-mediated Wittig reagent-promoted Stereoselective synthesis of L-Sorbopyranoses from D-Glucopyranoses.
Abstract l-Sorbose is an important rare sugar that exists in some natural products and widely used in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Herein, two simple and practical routes were developed using cheap magnesium (II) for the synthesis of 1,3,4,5-tetra-O-benzyl-l-sorbopyranose from 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-d-glucopyranose with high stereoselectivity and yield. The first route involved the intramolecular hydride shift from C5 to the C1 of the glucopyranose precursor. Wittig reagent (PPh3CHCOOBn) was used to combined with Mg(II) to promote this isomerization reaction from d-glucopyranose to l-sorbopyranose in th...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - February 6, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ullah K, Li M, Zheng Y, Song W Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Experimental and molecular docking investigation of the inclusion complexes between 20(S)-protopanaxatriol and four modified β-cyclodextrins.
Experimental and molecular docking investigation of the inclusion complexes between 20(S)-protopanaxatriol and four modified β-cyclodextrins. Carbohydr Res. 2021 Feb 04;500:108256 Authors: Zhu FD, Zhang ZH, Chi SM, Chen SL, Wang YF, Zhu HY, Lei Z, Zhao Y Abstract 20(S)-Protopanaxatriol (PPT) is a type of ginsenoside isolated from panax notoginseng or ginseng, which is an essential ingredient in functional food, healthcare products and traditional medicine. However, the research and development of PPT are restricted due to its poor solubility. To circumvent the associated problems, a novel bridged...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - February 4, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zhu FD, Zhang ZH, Chi SM, Chen SL, Wang YF, Zhu HY, Lei Z, Zhao Y Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Chol-Dex nanomicelles: Synthesis, characterization and evaluation as efficient drug carriers for colon targeting.
Abstract Core-shell structures obtained from amphiphilic molecules on self-assembly in a medium have emerged as an important tool in the area of biomedical sciences. Here, we have synthesized cholesteryl-dextran (Chol-Dex) amphiphiles in sufficiently high yields via conjugation of cholesteryl hemisuccinate to dextran in two different concentrations (5 and 10%). After physicochemical and spectral analysis, the nanomicelles were subjected to size measurements. DLS and TEM confirmed the formation of core-shell type of nanomicelles. Hydrophobic drug-entrapped formulations (Metronidazole and Rifampicin) displayed susta...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - January 31, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Goyal P, Singh M, Kumar P, Gupta A Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

4,6-Di-O-Benzylidenyl group-directed preparation of 2-deoxy-2-azido- α-d-galactopyranosides promoted by 3-O-TBDPS.
In this study, we designed a method to prepare 2-deoxy-2-azido-α-d-galactopyranosidic bonds using 4,6-di-O-benzylidenyl-3-O-t-butyldiphenylsilyl protected 2-deoxy-2-azido-1-thio-d-galactopyranoside 5 as donors. The donor 5 gives a good to excellent α-selectivity in the glycosylation with secondary alcohols, which was found to be associated with the benzylidenyl on 4,6-di-O and TBDPS on 3-O of the donor 5. Compared with results of the donor 6 and 7, the 3-O-TBDPS could increase the activity of the thioglycoside, and the lone pairs on 4,6-di-O-benzylidenyl group enhanced the gg-cofnormation, which plays a role in...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - January 28, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Liang XY, Yang J, Qiu ZH, Wang L, Lowary TL, Shawn Fan HJ Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Development of BODIPY labelled sialic acids as sialyltransferase substrates for direct detection of terminal galactose on N- and O-linked glycans.
Abstract Glycans on proteins and cell surfaces are useful biomarkers for determining functional interactions with glycan binding proteins, potential disease states, or indeed level of differentiation. The ability to rapidly and sensitively detect or tag specific glycans on proteins provides a diagnostic tool with wide application in chemical glycobiology. The monosaccharide N-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid) is a key player in these interactions and the manipulation and control of sialylation levels has been an important research focus, particularly in the development of therapeutic proteins. Using sialyltransf...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - January 25, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Abukar T, Rahmani S, Thompson NK, Antonescu CN, Wakarchuk WW Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

The forgotten sugar: A review on multifarious applications of melezitose.
Abstract Although, 187 years elapsed after the discovery of melezitose, it is a high time to deduce some solid applications as there are only 13 more years left to celebrate a double century of this sugar. The forgotten sugar has multifarious applications; it is used as a metabolic marker to differentiate melezitose fermenting microorganisms, as a carbon source to culture specific microorganisms, as a potential surfactant and excipient to stabilize pharmaceuticals, as a lyoprotectant or cryoprotectant for several industrial applications, as an edibility enhancer in food industry, as a hair smoothening agent in cos...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - January 25, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Behera P, Balaji S Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Novel galactofuranan and pyruvylated galactomannan in the cell wall of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis VKM Ac-1403T.
Abstract The cell wall of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis VKM Ас-1403Т (family Microbacteriaceae, class Actinobacteria) contains two polysaccharides. The first one is neutral (1 → 6) linked galactofuranan in which every second galactofuranose residue in the main chain substituted at position 3 by side trisaccharide, β-D-GlcpNAc-(1 → 3)-α-L-Rhap-(1 → 2)-α-D-Fucp-(1 →. The second polymer is pyruvylated galactomannan with the repeating unit, →3)-α-D-Galp-(1 → 3)-α-D-[4,6-S-Pyr]-Manp-(1 →...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - January 23, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kim D, Shashkov AS, Dmitrenok AS, Potekhina NV, Senchenkova SN, Dorofeeva LV, Evtushenko LI, Tul'skaya EM Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Synthesis, antiviral, DFT and molecular docking studies of some novel 1,2,4-triazine nucleosides as potential bioactive compounds.
Abstract A novel series of nucleosides with potential antiviral activity have been synthesized and characterized using IR, MS, 1D NMR and 2D NMR data. The antiviral activity of the synthesized compounds was assessed against the Coxsackie B virus and Hepatitis A virus (HAV-10). The results revealed that compound 6 is equipotent to the standard drug Ribavirin against HAV-10. Also, some computational studies, such as the prediction of pharmacokinetic properties, toxicity, and bioactivity, have been done. PMID: 33516074 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Carbohydrate Research)
Source: Carbohydrate Research - January 22, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Khodair AI, El-Barbary AA, Imam DR, Kheder NA, Elmalki F, Ben Hadda T Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Synthesis of d-glycopyranosyl depsipeptides using Passerini reaction.
Abstract A protocol based on Passerini multi-component reaction has been developed for facile, efficient and atom economical synthesis of a small library of twenty potential bioactive (2R)-2-(d-glycopyranosyl)-2-acyloxyacetamides using perbenzylated d-glycopyranosyl aldehydes, substituted isocyanides and different aliphatic/aromatic carboxylic acids. All twenty synthesized d-glycopyranosyl α-acyloxy amides, commonly known as depsipeptides were unambiguously identified on the basis of their spectral (IR, 1H, 13C NMR, COSY, HSQC, NOESY and HRMS) data analysis. PMID: 33516073 [PubMed - as supplied by publi...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - January 11, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kumar B, Maity J, Shankar B, Kumar S, Kavita, Prasad AK Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Characterization of crystalline forms of gaxilose, a diagnostic drug.
iz FM Abstract Lactose intolerance is a pathology caused by lactase enzyme deficiency, usually produced in the intestinal cells provoking symptoms as abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, gas and nausea. Gaxilose, 4-O-β-D galactopyranosyl-d-xylose, is used as a diagnostic drug for a non-invasive method for hypolactasia diagnosis. To date, no definitive guide for identifying gaxilose and distinguishing between crystalline forms is available. Data have been collected from a number of different analytical techniques in order to provide a full characterization of the compound and a simple method to discriminate bet...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - January 8, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Catti F, Gallego SH, Benito M, Molins E, Olóndriz FM Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

D-rhamnan and teichuronic acid from the cell wall of Rathayibacter caricis VKM Ac-1799T.
Abstract The cell wall of Rathayibacter caricis VKM Ac-1799T (family Microbacteriaceae, class Actinobacteria) was found to contain both neutral and acidic glycopolymers. The first one is D-rhamnopyranan with main chain →2)-α-D-Rhap-(1 → 3)-α-D-Rhap-(1→, where a part of 2-substituted residues bears as a side-chain at position 3 α-D-Manp residues or disaccharides α-D-Araf-(1→2)-α-D-Manp-(1 → . The second polymer is a teichuronic acid with a branched repeating units composed of seven monosaccharides →4)-α-[β-D-Manp-(1 &rar...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - January 8, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Shashkov AS, Potekhina NV, Tul'skaya EM, Dmitrenok AS, Senchenkova SN, Dorofeeva LV, Zaychikov VA, Evtushenko LI Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

The O-specific polysaccharides structures of Pseudomonas strains isolated from the Ficus elastica.
Abstract Two Pseudomonas strains were isolated from the Ficus elastica leaves. The O-antigens were obtained using phenol-water method and mild acid degradation. The following structures of the O-polysaccharides were established by sugar analysis and 2D NMR spectroscopy: OPS of Pseudomonas psychrotolerans BIM B-1171 G -2)[aDGlcp(1-3)]bDRhap(1-3)aDManp(1-3)aDRhap(1- OPS of Pseudomonas sp. BIM B-1172 G -2)bDRhap(1-3)aDRhap(1-3)[aDGlcp(1-2)]aDRhap(1-. PMID: 33461053 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Carbohydrate Research)
Source: Carbohydrate Research - January 8, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zdorovenko EL, Kadykova AA, Shashkov AS, Kiseleva EP, Savich VV, Novik GI Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Semi-synthesis of N-alkyl-kappa-carrageenan derivatives and evaluation of their antibacterial activity.
Ducatti DRB Abstract In this article, we describe the semi-synthesis of N-alkyl-kappa-carrageenan derivatives and their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027). Kappa-carrageenan was submitted to partial acid hydrolysis promoting the selective cleavage of α-glycosidic bonds involving 3,6-anhydro-α-D-Galp units, giving rise to reducing low-molecular weight polysaccharide fragments, which were reacted with alkylamines of varying chain lengths by reductive amination. The carrageenan derivatives were characterize...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - January 8, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Júnior EH, Gonçalves AG, Noseda MD, Duarte MER, Murakami FS, Ducatti DRB Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Preparation and characterization of partial de-O-sulfation of heparin oligosaccharide library.
In this study, a heparin oligosaccharide library, including dp2, dp4 and dp6, were prepared from the chemical modification of the fully sulfated dp2, dp4 and dp6. Chemical reaction conditions were optimized to generate different patterns of 2-O- and 6-O-sulfated oligosaccharides, then the disaccharide composition and structure of the library was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography-ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-TOF/MS) analysis. This provides a foundation for further structural and functional studies of O-sulfated groups in HS. PMID: 33401230 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - January 2, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lin J, Zheng L, Liang Q, Jiang L, Wei Z Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Efficient conversion of d-mannitol into 1,2:5,6-diacetonide with Aquivion-H as a recyclable catalyst.
Abstract Heterogeneous solid catalysis by the commercially available perfluorosulfonic ionomer Aquivion-H allowed 1,2:5,6-diacetonide of d-mannitol (1), immediate precursor of important unichiral C3-synthons, to be efficiently obtained from d-mannitol and 2,2-dimethoxypropane in DMF at room temperature. The 1,2-monoacetonide, whose intermediate formation is the rate-limiting step, could be almost completely converted into 1 with limited concurrent transformation of 1 into triacetonides. In line with recent literature reports, these results indicate that heterogeneous catalysis by Aquivion-H surpasses the performan...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - December 30, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bolchi C, Appiani R, Roda G, Bertolini V, Arnoldi S, Pallavicini M Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Effect of chemical treatment of pineapple crown fiber in the production, chemical composition, crystalline structure, thermal stability and thermal degradation kinetic properties of cellulosic materials.
Abstract Recently, the growing environmental concerns and economic demands have driven the need to develop effective solutions for the treatment of vegetal fibers to be used as renewable source for various industrial applications. The present study aimed to explore pineapple crown fibers (PCs) as an alternative source of cellulose. The three treatments (alcohol-insoluble residue (AIR), alkaline (AT), and organosolv) evaluated promoted chemical and morphological changes to the PCs. Fresh and treated PCs were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron ...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - December 23, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Pereira PHF, Ornaghi HL, Arantes V, Cioffi MOH Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

An efficient synthetic route to O-(2-O-benzyl-3,4-di-O-acetyl- α/β-l-fucopyranosyl)-trichloroacetimidate.
An efficient synthetic route to O-(2-O-benzyl-3,4-di-O-acetyl-α/β-l-fucopyranosyl)-trichloroacetimidate. Carbohydr Res. 2020 Dec 18;:108221 Authors: Tolón Murguía BI, Iglesias Morales YLM, Mesa Hernández M, Yu Pérez Y, Labrada Regalado C, Garrido Arteaga R, Paquet F, López López MA Abstract An efficient synthetic route to prepare O-(2-O-benzyl-3,4-di-O-acetyl-α/β-l-fucopyranosyl)-trichloroacetimidate from l-fucose was developed by introducing the thiophenyl group at the anomeric center and the benzylidene functional group to protect the 3...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - December 18, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tolón Murguía BI, Iglesias Morales YLM, Mesa Hernández M, Yu Pérez Y, Labrada Regalado C, Garrido Arteaga R, Paquet F, López López MA Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Synthesis and toxicity profile in 293 human embryonic kidney cells of the β D-glucuronide derivatives of ortho-, meta- and para-cresol.
Synthesis and toxicity profile in 293 human embryonic kidney cells of the β D-glucuronide derivatives of ortho-, meta- and para-cresol. Carbohydr Res. 2020 Dec 17;:108225 Authors: London JA, Wang ECS, Barsukov IL, Yates EA, Stachulski AV Abstract The formation of β-glucuronides is a major route by which mammals detoxify and remove breakdown products, such as l-tyrosine, as well as many xenobiotics, from their systems. In humans, dietary l-tyrosine is broken down largely by the action of the anaerobic gut bacterium C. difficile to p-cresol, providing a competitive advantage in the gut microbi...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - December 17, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: London JA, Wang ECS, Barsukov IL, Yates EA, Stachulski AV Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Preparation and encapsulation techniques of chitosan microsphere for enhanced bioavailability of natural antioxidants.
This article discusses possible solutions to improve the bioavailability using several preparation and encapsulation techniques for microspheres using chitosan as a carrier. The first is the emulsion technique that controls particle size (0.5-1000 μm) according to the speed (RPM) of the agitator. The second technique discussed is spray drying-a very simple method that can control particle size (5-5000 μm) according to the nozzle size and discharge pressure. The third is the extrusion technique, which can control particle size (250-2500 μm) according to the syringe pore size. These techniques have en...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - December 16, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Nah JW, Jeong GW Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Structural elucidation and cytotoxic analysis of a fructan based biopolymer produced extracellularly by Zymomonas mobilis KIBGE-IB14.
Abstract Fructan based biopolymers have been extensively characterized and explored for their potential applications. Linear chained biopolymers, like levan-type fructan, have gained attention because they have exhibited unconventional stretchable and unbendable properties along with biodegradable and biocompatible nature. Current study deals with the chemical characterization and cytotoxic analysis of fructose based exopolysaccharide that was extracellularly produced by an indigenously isolated bacterial species (Zymomonas mobilis KIBGE-IB14). Maximum yield of exopolysaccharide (44.7 gL-1) was attained after 72&n...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - December 16, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Iftikhar R, Ansari A, Siddiqui NN, Hussain F, Aman A Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Extending the investigation of 4-thiazolidinone derivatives as potential multi-target ligands of enzymes involved in diabetes mellitus and its long-term complications: A study with pancreatic α-amylase.
Extending the investigation of 4-thiazolidinone derivatives as potential multi-target ligands of enzymes involved in diabetes mellitus and its long-term complications: A study with pancreatic α-amylase. Carbohydr Res. 2020 Dec 13;:108220 Authors: Szabó K, Maccari R, Ottanà R, Gyémánt G Abstract Diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial disease, which is frequently complicated by the development of hyperglycaemia-induced chronic complications. The therapy of diabetes mellitus often requires combinations of two or more drugs in order both to control glycaemic levels and to ...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - December 13, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Szabó K, Maccari R, Ottanà R, Gyémánt G Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Binding assay of human Dectin-1 variants to DNA/ β-glucan complex for active-targeting delivery of antisense DNA.
Binding assay of human Dectin-1 variants to DNA/β-glucan complex for active-targeting delivery of antisense DNA. Carbohydr Res. 2020 Dec 13;:108219 Authors: Fujiwara N, Izumi H, Kira R, Morimoto Y, Mochizuki S, Sakurai K Abstract The lectin Dectin-1 is a good target for β-glucan-mediated drug delivery. Although many murine studies of Dectin-1 have been performed, its human analog has not been studied well in terms of being a drug delivery target. We thus analyzed human Dectin-1 cDNA obtained from chronic myelogenous leukemia-derived cells, CML-1, and confirmed the findings of previous studie...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - December 13, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Fujiwara N, Izumi H, Kira R, Morimoto Y, Mochizuki S, Sakurai K Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Synthesis and evaluation of the antibiotic-adjuvant activity of carbohydrate-based phosphoramidate derivatives.
In this study we report the synthesis of novel carbohydrate-based phosphoramidate derivatives via the Staudinger-phosphite reaction; along with an evaluation of their adjuvant activity in combination with popular antibiotics. Our targets involved variation in both the sugar residue as well as the identity of the phosphoramidate. Moderate to excellent yields of these derivatives were obtained. Notable adjuvant activity was observed with the halogenated phosphoramidates. For the fluorinated glucose derivative in particular, a remarkable 32-fold decrease in the MIC of Ampicillin was obtained against Methicillin-resistant S. a...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - December 5, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Subratti A, Ramkissoon A, Lalgee LJ, Jalsa NK Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Synthesis and characterization of a small library of bisglucosides: Influence of the nature of the diol/diphenol used in O-glucosylation.
Abstract In this paper, the synthesis of different bisglucosides is investigated through the reaction of two acetylated glucose units with a diol (or diphenol) in order to develop a versatile molecular platform for the future development of bio-based polymers. A panel of five diols and one diphenol is initially used in order to examine the influence of their chemical skeleton on the reaction yield and both nature and proportion of formed species. Reaction products are identified using 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies completed by MALDI-TOF MS technique. The nucleophilicity of these dihydroxy compounds is identified a...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - December 5, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Patry S, Robitzer M, Habas JP Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Properties of recombinant endo- β-1,6-glucanase from Trichoderma harzianum and its application in the pustulan hydrolysis.
Properties of recombinant endo-β-1,6-glucanase from Trichoderma harzianum and its application in the pustulan hydrolysis. Carbohydr Res. 2020 Dec 01;:108211 Authors: Volkov PV, Rubtsova EA, Rozhkova AM, Sinitsyna OA, Zorov IN, Kondratyeva EG, Sinitsyn AP Abstract The gene encoding Trichoderma harzianum fungus pustulanase (ThBGL1.6, GH5 family, endo-β-1,6-glucanase, EC 3.2.1.75) was cloned and heterologously expressed by the highly productive Penicillium verruculosum fungus. The recombinant ThBGL1.6 was purified and its properties were studied. The ThBGL1.6 had an observed molecular mass of 4...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - December 1, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Volkov PV, Rubtsova EA, Rozhkova AM, Sinitsyna OA, Zorov IN, Kondratyeva EG, Sinitsyn AP Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Structure of the disaccharide repeating unit of O-specific polysaccharide isolated from Aeromonas veronii strain Bs8 pathogenic to common carp (Cyprinus carpio).
Abstract The O-specific polysaccharide (OPS) was isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of Aeromonas veronii strain Bs8, which is pathogenic to common carp (Cyprinus carpio), after mild acid hydrolysis followed by gel-permeation chromatography. The high-molecular-mass OPS fraction was investigated using chemical methods, mass spectrometry, and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy techniques, including 2D homonuclear 1H,1H TOCSY, DQF COSY, NOESY, and heteronuclear 1H-detected 1H,13C HSQC, and HMBC experiments. The analysis revealed that the O-specific polysaccharide contains sugars with the galacto configuration of the ring a...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - November 25, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Dworaczek K, Kurzylewska M, Laban M, Pękala-Safińska A, Marczak M, Turska-Szewczuk A Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Rapid assembly of phosphate-bridged tetra-mannose by ionic liquid-supported oligosaccharide synthesis.
Abstract An efficient ionic liquid-supported oligosaccharide synthesis (ILSOS) strategy was described for the synthesis of linear oligo-phosphomannan. A new cleavable benzyl carbamate-type IL supporter containing 5-aminopentanyl linker was designed as an acceptor IL tag to facilitate this synthesis. The chain elongation on IL tag was achieved by H-phosphonate chemistry, including condensation with α-mannosyl H-phosphonate, in situ oxidation reaction and subsequent deprotection. After four cycles, linear α-(1 → 6)-tetra-mannan phosphate was obtained with a total yield of 52.7% within 45&n...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - November 23, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Yang G, Mei G, Shen P, Hong H, Wu Z Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Applications of Shoda's reagent (DMC) and analogues for activation of the anomeric centre of unprotected carbohydrates.
Abstract 2-Chloro-1,3-dimethylimidazolinium chloride (DMC, herein also referred to as Shoda's reagent) and its derivatives are useful for numerous synthetic transformations in which the anomeric centre of unprotected reducing sugars is selectively activated in aqueous solution. As such unprotected sugars can undergo anomeric substitution with a range of added nucleophiles, providing highly efficient routes to a range of glycosides and glycoconjugates without the need for traditional protecting group manipulations. This mini-review summarizes the development of DMC and some of its derivatives/analogues, and highlig...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - November 20, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Fairbanks AJ Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Synthesis and immunogenicity of Brucella monovalent neoglycoconjugate.
Abstract Brucellosis is a highly infectious zoonotic disease caused by Brucella. It is necessary to control and eliminate brucellosis. The cell wall O-polysaccharides of pathogenic Brucella species are homopolymers of the rare sugar 4,6-dideoxy-4-formamido-α-d-mannopyranose. Herein, one neoglycoconjugate was successfully synthesized based on disaccharide [Rha4NFo(1 → 2)Rha4NFo] as epitope. Disaccharide specific antibodies were detected by ELISA and the immune protective effect was further evaluated with PBS as control. The result showed that the synthetic neoglycoconjugate can produce moderate...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - November 20, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Hao T, Wang H, Liu J, Zhang Q, Liu Y, Zhao L, Zhu T, Yu P, Guo N, Meng X Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Kinetic and thermodynamic insights into the inhibitory mechanism of TMG-chitotriomycin on Vibrio campbellii GH20 exo- β-N-acetylglucosaminidase.
Kinetic and thermodynamic insights into the inhibitory mechanism of TMG-chitotriomycin on Vibrio campbellii GH20 exo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase. Carbohydr Res. 2020 Nov 20;:108201 Authors: Morimoto Y, Takahashi S, Isoda Y, Nokami T, Fukamizo T, Suginta W, Ohnuma T Abstract We investigated the inhibition kinetics of VhGlcNAcase, a GH20 exo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (GlcNAcase) from the marine bacterium Vibrio campbellii (formerly V. harveyi) ATCC BAA-1116, using TMG-chitotriomycin, a natural enzyme inhibitor specific for GH20 GlcNAcases from chitin-processing organisms, with p-nitrophenyl N-ac...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - November 20, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Morimoto Y, Takahashi S, Isoda Y, Nokami T, Fukamizo T, Suginta W, Ohnuma T Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

First total syntheses of two natural glycosides.
Abstract Isosyringinoside (1) and 3-(O-β-d-glucopyranosyl)-α-(O-β-d-glucopyranosyl)-4-hydroxy phenylethanol (2), the natural bioactive compounds contained unique structures, were first totally synthesized using easily available materials in short convenient routes with overall yields of 20.2% and 27.0%, respectively. An efficient total synthesis of 1 was developed in six steps, which contained two key steps of highly regioselective glycosylation without any selective protection steps. The seven-step synthesis of 2 involved two steps of regioselective glycosylations using BF3-O(C2H5)2 and TMSOTf as ...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - November 20, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Dong H, Du W, Yao Z, Wu M, Luo H, He Y, Cao S Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Application of a polyelectrolyte complex based on biocompatible polysaccharides for colorectal cancer inhibition.
Abstract Strategies for incorporating water-insoluble photosensitisers (PS) in drug delivery systems have been extensively studied. In this work, we evaluate the formation, characterisation, drug sorption studies, and cytotoxicity of chitosan (CHT)/chondroitin sulphate (CS) polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) coated with polystyrene-block-poly(acrylic acid) (PS-b-PAA) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (AlClPc). The PECs were characterised by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The PS-b-PAA ...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - November 12, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Souza PR, Vilsinski BH, Nunes CS, Bonkovoski LC, Garcia F, Nakamura CV, Caetano W, Valente AJM, Martins AF, Muniz EC Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Glycoconjugates for glucose transporter-mediated cancer-specific targeting and treatment.
Abstract First observed in 1920s, the Warburg effects have inspired scientists to harness the unique glucose metabolism of cancer cells for targeted therapy for a century. Carbohydrate-drug conjugates are explicitly designed for selective uptake by cancer cells overexpressing glucose transporters. We summarize the progress in developing glycoconjugates for cancer-specific targeting and treatment over the past decade (2010-2020) and point to some future directions in this field. PMID: 33220603 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Carbohydrate Research)
Source: Carbohydrate Research - November 12, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Fu J, Yang J, Seeberger PH, Yin J Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Porphyran-capped silver nanoparticles as a promising antibacterial agent and electrode modifier for 5-fluorouracil electroanalysis.
ba J Abstract In the present work, the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the sulfated polysaccharide porphyran (PFR) as capping agent and d-glucose as reducing agent is described. PFR was extracted from red seaweed and characterized by employing 13C NMR and determination of total sugar, protein, and sulfate contents. The obtained AgNPs-PFR were characterized by using UV-VIS spectroscopy, zeta potential determination, FESEM, and TEM, which demonstrated that PFR was effective at capping the AgNPs, yielding stable suspensions. The AgNPs-PFR presented good antimicrobial properties against Gram-posi...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - November 6, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bojko L, de Jonge G, Lima D, Lopes LC, Viana AG, Garcia JR, Pessôa CA, Wohnrath K, Inaba J Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Nonspecific enzymatic hydrolysis of a highly ordered chitopolysaccharide substrate.
In this study, chitosan and chitin were hydrolyzed using several commercially available hydrolases. Among them, cellulases with the highest specific activity demonstrated the best activity, as indicated by the rapid decrease in viscosity of a chitosan solution. The hydrolysis of chitosan by nonspecific enzymes generated a sugar release that corresponded to the decrease in the degree of polymerization. This decrease reached a maximum of 3.3-fold upon hydrolysis of 10% of the sample. Cellulases were better than lysozyme or amylases at hydrolyzing chitosan and chitin. Analysis of 13C CP-MAS NMR and FTIR spectra of chitin afte...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - November 2, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Poshina DN, Raik SV, Sukhova AA, Tyshkunova IV, Romanov DP, Eneyskaya EV, Kulminskaya AA, Skorik YA Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

The investigation of binary and ternary sulfobutylether- β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes with asiaticoside in solution and in solid state.
The investigation of binary and ternary sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes with asiaticoside in solution and in solid state. Carbohydr Res. 2020 Oct 28;498:108190 Authors: Soe HMH, Chamni S, Mahalapbutr P, Kongtaworn N, Rungrotmongkol T, Jansook P Abstract Asiaticoside (AS) is poorly water-soluble compound that can lead to low the bioavailability. The aims of this study were to determine the cyclodextrin (CD) solubilization of AS and characterize binary AS/CD and ternary AS/CD/polymer complexes in solution- and solid-state. Thermal stability of AS through heating process was deter...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - October 28, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Soe HMH, Chamni S, Mahalapbutr P, Kongtaworn N, Rungrotmongkol T, Jansook P Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Thermal deactivation of α-amylase immobilized magnetic chitosan and its modified forms: A kinetic and thermodynamic study.
In this study all the immobilized enzymes exhibited improved pH stability about 60-80% of relative activity at pH 9 compared to the free enzyme. The temperature stability at 60 °C is up to 50% of relative activity for covalently immobilized enzymes as enzyme become more rigid by covalent binding and so protected from the conformational changes caused by the environment. The thermal deactivation of the free and immobilized enzymes follows the first order kinetics. The t1/2 and D-values were prolonged considerably in case of covalently immobilized enzymes, indicating better thermal stability than that of free and ad...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - October 26, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bindu VU, Mohanan PV Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Structural analysis of the core and polysaccharide from the lipopolysaccharide produced by Chromobacterium violaceum strain ATCC 12472 (NCTC 9757).
Abstract The structure of the polysaccharide O-chain of the lipopolysaccharide isolated from the sequenced strain Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 (NCTC 9757) was investigated by chemical and NMR analyses, and concluded to be -4-α-Leg5Ac7Ala-4-β-d-ManNAlaA3OAc-3-α-d-GlcNAc-where Leg5Ac7Ala indicates 5-acetamido-7-alanylamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-d-glycero-d-galacto-non-2-ulopyranosonic acid and ManNAlaA3OAc 3-O-acetyl-2-alanylamido-2-deoxymannopyranuronic acid. The structure of the core with one repeating unit of the polysaccharide attached was also analyzed, and it was found that the O-chain po...
Source: Carbohydrate Research - October 22, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Vinogradov E, Lindner B, Holst O Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research

Retraction notice to "2D NMR assisted structure elucidation of three cyanoethylated cellulose derivatives and correlated with their properties" [Carbohydr. Res. 487(2020) 107861].
This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief who would like to withdraw this accepted article, due to serious errors in authorship and affiliations which breach the journal's ethical policies. PMID: 33099243 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Carbohydrate Research)
Source: Carbohydrate Research - October 21, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zhang Y, Shen X, Qian H, Song L, Xie K, Zhang M, Wang H Tags: Carbohydr Res Source Type: research