Studies on structural properties and immune-enhancing activities of glycomannans from Schizophyllum commune
Publication date: Available online 24 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Khamphone Yelithao, Utoomporn Surayot, Changsheng Lee, Subramanian Palanisamy, Narayanasamy Marimuthu Prabhu, JuHun Lee, SangGuan YouAbstractPolysaccharides were extracted from Schizophyllum commune (a common mushroom) and their structural and immune-enhancing properties were investigated. Crude and fractions (F1 and F2) were composed of sugars (50.3-82.8%), proteins (1.46-20.1%), and sulfates (1.33-7.01%). Monosaccharide compositions of Cr and F1 were mainly composed of glucose (75.5% and 88.2%) with small amounts of mannose, galactose...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 25, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

A combination of coarse-grain molecular dynamics to investigate the effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate on grafted reaction of starch-based adhesive
Publication date: Available online 23 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Lei Chen, Zhenjiong Wang, Jie Cai, Hanguo Xiong, Zhouyi Xiong, Zia-ud Din, Chun Hu, Asad NawazAbstractGraft copolymerization is a challenging step in preparation of starch-based adhesive due to the complexity and instantaneity. A combination of both experimental and simulation methodology has been employed to investigate the process at microscopic level. Through a series of characterizations of adhesives and copolymers with different SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) contents, 2% ( w/w, 1g SDS/100 g starch) SDS demonstrated outstanding balan...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 25, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Chiral recognition ability of amylose derivatives bearing regioselectively different carbamate pendants at 2,3- and 6-positions
Publication date: Available online 23 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Xiao Dai, Wanying Bi, Mengchen Sun, Fan Wang, Jun Shen, Yoshio OkamotoABSTRACTSeven amylose derivatives bearing two regioselective carbamate pendants at 2,3- and 6-positions of a glucose unit were synthesized through protection and deprotection at the 6-position. The chiral recognition abilities of the obtained derivatives were evaluated as the chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Each derivative had its own characteristic recognition ability depending on the arrangement of carbamate pendant...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 25, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Characterization and Antioxidant Activities of Polysaccharides from Passiflora edulis Sims peel under Different Degradation Methods
Publication date: Available online 23 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Feng Xiong, Xia Li, Huali Zheng, Nan Hu, Mengjia Cui, Haiyun LiAbstractWater extracted polysaccharide from P. edulis peel (WPEP) was degraded using hydrochloric acid, ultrasonic-assisted hydrochloric acid, and α-amylase to obtained A-WPEP (acid hydrolysis WPEP), U-WPEP (ultrasonic-assisted acid hydrolysis WPEP), and M-WPEP (Enzymatic hydrolysis WPEP), respectively, and its relationship between structure and antioxidant activities was studied. Results showed that the solubility, internal crystalline, triple helical and surface stru...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 25, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Temperature influences on network formation of low DE maltodextrin gels
Publication date: Available online 22 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): K.M. Kanyuck, T.B. Mills, I.T. Norton, A.B. Norton-WelchAbstractGelation of maltodextrin (DE 2) was examined over a range of temperatures to understand the behaviour within mixed-gel systems. Maltodextrin solutions were prepared at 95 °C and held at temperatures between 5 °C and 60 °C for four days. Bulk gel properties and the underlying microstructure were analysed using fracture strength, proton relaxation time, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Holding at lower temperatures led to a greater...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Hyaluronate-alginate hybrid hydrogels prepared with various linkers for chondrocyte encapsulation
In this study, hyaluronate-alginate hybrid (HAH) was synthesized by conjugating alginate (ALG) with the hyaluronate (HA) backbone using various types of linkers. HAH hydrogel was prepared by physically cross-linking the HAH polymer in the presence of calcium ions without chemical cross-linkers. The mechanical stiffness of HAH hydrogel was significantly affected by changing the type of a linker between HA and ALG. The mechanical stiffness increased with increasing linker length, likely due to enhanced intermolecular reactions between HA and ALG. This enables controlling the mechanical properties of HAH hydrogels. The types ...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Isolation and acetylation of cellulose nanostructures with a homogeneous system
Publication date: Available online 22 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): R.F.S. Barbosa, A.G. Souza, F.F. Ferreira, D.S. RosaAbstractA homogeneous system for nanocellulose acetylation was investigated. Cellulose nanostructures (CNS) were obtained from microcrystalline cellulose, and modification was conducted to increase hydrophobicity and physico-chemical properties of the nanoparticles. Sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid were used for the isolation. The CNS were characterized with dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, atomic force microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic r...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Enhanced mechanical properties of bacterial cellulose nanocomposites produced by co-culturing Gluconacetobacter hansenii and Escherichia coli under static conditions
This study examines a novel fermentation process, which is to co-culture Gluconacetobacter hansenii (G. hansenii) with Escherichia coli (E. coli) under static conditions, to produce BC pellicles with enhanced mechanical properties. The mannose-rich exopolysaccharides (EPS) synthesized by E. coli were incorporated into the BC network and affected the aggregation of co-crystallized microfibrils without significantly changing the crystal sizes of BC. When co-culturing G. hansenii ATCC 23769 with E. coli ATCC 700728, which produced a low concentration of EPS at 3.3 ± 0.7 mg/L, the BC pellicles exhib...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Nanocellulose obtained from residues of peach palm extraction (Bactris gasipaes)
Publication date: Available online 20 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Talita Szlapak Franco, Daniele C. Potulski, Lívia C. Viana, Eriel Forville, Alan S. de Andrade, Graciela Inês Bolzón de MunizAbstractThe large amount of residues generated by the peach palm agroindustry and its cellulose content (34 g 100g−1) motivated the present investigation, where outer sheaths were used for nanocellulose production through ultrafine grinding. Protocols combining different chemical delignification with defibrillation intensity (10 and 20 cycles) were applied and their influenc...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 22, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

A comprehensive review of anticancer, immunomodulatory and health beneficial effects of the lactic acid bacteria exopolysaccharides
Publication date: 1 August 2019Source: Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 217Author(s): Yalda Rahbar Saadat, Ahmad Yari Khosroushahi, Bahram Pourghassem GargariAbstractSeveral scientific evidences have revealed probiotics implications on human health. A wide range of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been extensively studied for their ability to produce extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs), which are repeating units of mono/oligosaccharides with various chemical compositions and properties. Despite the conventional belief regarding probiotics that states bacteria must be alive to exert their beneficial effects, mounting evidence ...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 22, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Interesting core–shell structure and “V-shape” shift: The property and formation mechanism of structural heterogeneity in cellulose hydrogel
Publication date: 1 August 2019Source: Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 217Author(s): Zhaosheng Fan, Ciliang Xie, Jianbo Chen, Suqin Sun, Qun ZhouAbstractStructural heterogeneity is a common phenomenon in cellulose hydrogel fabricated from ionic liquid. In this work, we characterized cellulose hydrogel wire by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) image system and found its interesting core–shell structure. By pixel spectra analysis, we explored their distinctive hydrogen bond network in core and shell regions. To unveil the formation of heterogeneous core–shell structure, we tracked the cellulose regener...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 22, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Characterization of cellulose fibers in Thespesia populnea barks: Influence of alkali treatment
Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): M. Kathirselvam, A. Kumaravel, V.P. Arthanarieswaran, S.S. SaravanakumarAbstractNatural fibers are emerging as best alternatives for synthetic materials in selective applications. These fibers may not have the required properties in its raw form and hence needs some alterations in its characteristics. Likely, this article reports enhancement in surface and structural properties of Thespesia populnea bark fiber treated with NaOH under various concentration and soaking period. Fibers treated with 5% NaOH for 60 minutes yields notew...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 20, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Removal of Cell Wall Polysaccharide in Pneumococcal Capsular Polysaccharides by Selective Degradation via Deamination
Publication date: Available online 20 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Wei Zou, Jianjun Li, Evguenii Vinogradov, Andrew CoxAbstractPneumococcal cell wall polysaccharide (C-PS), a contaminant in pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (Pn-PS) vaccines is degraded by mild deamination of the 4-amino-2-acetamido-2,4,6-tri-deoxy-galactose (AAT) in C-PS, which was carried out by addition of 5% aqueous sodium nitrite to a solution of polysaccharide in 5% aqueous acetic acid. Glycosidic linkage and functional groups such as O-acetates, phosphodiesters, and pyruvates were preserved under the conditions. The small frag...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 20, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Structural characterisation of pectin obtained from cacao pod husk. Comparison of conventional and subcritical water extraction
Publication date: 1 August 2019Source: Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 217Author(s): Nerea Muñoz-Almagro, Lourdes Valadez-Carmona, José A. Mendiola, Elena Ibáñez, Mar VillamielAbstractPectin was obtained with citric acid and subcritical water extraction from cacao pod husk with or without a previous step consisting of a supercritical fluid extraction of phenols. By subcritical conditions a higher yield (10.9%) was attained in a time 3-fold shorter than that obtained by conventional extraction (˜8%) and a greater effectiveness in the recovery of pectin with higher molecular weight (750&thinsp...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 20, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Network structure and enzymatic degradation of chitosan hydrogels determined by crosslinking methods
Publication date: Available online 18 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Juhong Ahn, Jungju Ryu, Kwangho Song, Minji Whang, Jungwook KimAbstractPolysaccharides can be modified by reactive functional groups to enable chemical crosslinking. We studied how different methods of crosslinking methacrylate-functionalized chitosan affected the network structures and various properties relevant for utilization of the chemically crosslinked hydrogels in biomedical applications, including tissue engineering and delivery of therapeutic agents. Four chitosan hydrogels were made by either the free radical polymerization w...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Photo-crosslinking of chitosan/poly(ethylene oxide) electrospun nanofibers
Publication date: Available online 18 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Parnian Kianfar, Alessandra Vitale, Sara Dalle Vacche, Roberta BongiovanniAbstractPhoto-crosslinked nanofiber mats containing chitosan were obtained through the versatile and promising technology of electrospinning. Due to the challenging processability of chitosan by electrospinning because of its stiffness and polycationic nature, it was blended with easily-spinnable poly(ethylene oxide). The optimum conditions for electrospinning of chitosan/poly(eyhylene oxide) (CS/PEO) blends were selected for further characterization and investiga...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Strengths and weaknesses of the aniline-blue method used to test mushroom (1→3)-β-D-glucans obtained by microwave-assisted extractions
Publication date: Available online 18 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Alicia Gil-Ramírez, Fhernanda Ribeiro Smiderle, Diego Morales, Marcello Iacomini, Cristina Soler-RivasAbstractThe parameters to extract polysaccharide-enriched fractions (PEF) from mushrooms using MAE (microwave-assisted extraction) were adjusted following a full factorial 32 experimental design. The highest yield and total carbohydrate values, using Lentinula edodes as model mushroom, were obtained at 180 °C and 30 min. Several mushroom species were submitted to MAE and their PEF yields ranged between 12.1-44.2...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Time-triggered calcium ion bridging in preparation of films of oxidized microfibrillated cellulose and pulp
Publication date: Available online 18 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Pegah Khanjani, Matti Ristolainen, Harri Kosonen, Pasi Virtanen, Sara Ceccherini, Thaddeus Maloney, Tapani VuorinenAbstractOne of the main trends in developing bio-based materials is to improve their mechanical and physical properties using MFC derived from sustainable natural sources and compatible low-cost chemicals. The strength of anionic MFC based materials can be increased with addition of multivalent cations. However, direct mixing of solutions of multivalent cations with oxidized MFC may result in immediate, uncontrollable fibri...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Effect of natural fermentation on the structure and physicochemical properties of wheat starch
In this study, the effects of natural fermentation on the multi-scale structure and physicochemical properties of wheat starch were investigated. The results showed that fermentation reduced weight-average molecular weight (Mw) and slightly eroded the starch granule surface. An obvious increase in relative crystallinity from X-ray diffraction was observed in all fermented starch (39.38–42.27%) when compared with native starch (37.15%). Data from small angle X-ray scattering revealed that fermentation increased the crystalline layer and decreased the amorphous region of the starch granules. The intensity of absorption...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Pyrolysis of functional cellulose by ionothermal method to synthesis of mesoporous triazine carbon for supporting of Pd and its application
Publication date: Available online 17 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Marzie Sadat Mirhosseyni, Firouzeh Nemati, Ali ElhampourAbstractA mesoporous triazine-based carbon (MTC) supported Pd nanoparticles was synthesized and found to be a retrievable and efficient heterogeneous catalyst for Heck cross-coupling reaction between various aryl halides and alkenes. The MTC-supported Pd catalyst is synthesized by ionothermal methodology followed by high temperature pyrolysis of functional cellulose (Cell-CN) and trimerization of nitrile groups in the presence of ZnCl2. A combination of different analysis such as F...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

A novel chitosan alleviates pulp breakdown of harvested longan fruit by suppressing disassembly of cell wall polysaccharides
Publication date: Available online 17 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Yifen Lin, Yuzhao Lin, Yixiong Lin, Mengshi Lin, Yihui Chen, Hui Wang, Hetong LinAbstractLongan pulp is an excellent source of polysaccharides and other nutrients that have many health benefits. However, longans is susceptible to pulp breakdown after harvest and loses its nutrition values. To solve this problem, this study aimed to study the effects of a novel chitosan, Kadozan, on pulp breakdown index, contents of pectin, cellulose and hemicelluloses, and activities of enzymes in longan pulp relating to disassembly of polysaccharides (...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Dual delivery of tuberculosis drugs via cyclodextrin conjugated curdlan nanoparticles to infected macrophages
Publication date: Available online 16 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Rubaiya Yunus Basha, T.S. Sampath Kumar, Mukesh DobleAbstractIn tuberculosis, macrophages serve as a host for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and hence targeting this with nanoparticles-based drug delivery could be the best strategy to achieve high therapeutic efficacy. Two tuberculosis drugs, namely rifampicin and levofloxacin, which have different mechanism of action on the bacteria, were complexed with cyclodextrin and conjugated to curdlan nanoparticles, to achieve simultaneous sustained release of both the drugs over a prolonged period ...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 17, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Synthesis of a novel CoFe2O4/chitosan magnetic composite for fast adsorption of indigotine blue dye
Publication date: Available online 15 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Juliana M.N. dos Santos, Carolina R. Pereira, Luiz Antonio A. Pinto, Tuanny Frantz, Éder C. Lima, Edson L. Foletto, Guilherme L. DottoAbstractA novel CoFe2O4/chitosan magnetic composite, where CoFe2O4 is known as cobalt ferrite, was synthetized, characterized and applied to adsorb indigotine blue dye (IBD). According to the central composite design (CCD), adsorption of IBD onto CoFe2O4/chitosan composite was favored when initial pH and adsorbent dosage were 3.0 and 0.75 g L–1, respectively. Adsorption was a fast proc...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 16, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Synthesis of graft copolymers of chitosan-poly(caprolactone) by lipase catalysed reactive extrusion
Publication date: Available online 15 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Alankar A. Vaidya, Ibrar Hussain, Marc Gaugler, Dawn A. SmithAbstractChitin is an abundant natural polymer and its deacetylated derivative chitosan has been a focus for the development of biobased, biocompatible and antimicrobial materials. In this work, a green and scalable route to grafting polycaprolactone (PCL) to chitosan using an enzyme catalysed reactive extrusion process is described. FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and HSQC analysis confirm grafting of PCL to chitosan and show differences in the grafting pattern obtained usin...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 16, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Experimental and theoretical studies of the inclusion complex of different linear aliphatic alcohols with cyclodextrins
Publication date: Available online 15 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Shivalika Tanwar, Carole Barbey, Nathalie DupontAbstractCyclodextrins are supramolecules widely used to help solubilization of hydrophobic molecules via host: guest complexation. To prepare the complexes, co-solvents like alcohols are mandatory and play an important role in the complexation process. In particular, the length of the aliphatic chain in primary linear alcohol can help the preparation and the stability of such complexes. The inclusion complexes of different linear aliphatic alcohols with beta cyclodextrin (βCD) were pr...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 16, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Purification, characterization and antioxidant activity of dextran produced by Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides from homemade wine”[Carbohydr. Polym. 198 (2018) 529–536]
Publication date: 15 July 2019Source: Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 216Author(s): Renpeng Du, Xiaoxiao Qiao, Fangkun Zhao, Qiaozhi Song, Qingqing Zhou, Yu Wang, Lei Pan, Ye Han, Zhijiang Zhou (Source: Carbohydrate Polymers)
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 16, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Cinnamon and clove essential oils to improve physical, thermal and antimicrobial properties of chitosan-gum arabic polyelectrolyte complexed films
Publication date: Available online 15 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Tian Xu, ChengCheng Gao, Xiao Feng, Meigui Huang, Yuling Yang, Xinchun Shen, Xiaozhi TangAbstractChitosan-gum arabic-based polyelectrolyte complexed films with cinnamon essential oil (CEO) and clove essential oil (CLO) were developed. The effect of EO concentrations, types and their combinations on the physical, thermal and antimicrobial properties of films were investigated. The results showed that the incorporation of EOs decreased the ζ-potential and viscosity, but increased the particle size of film-forming dispersions. Films i...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 16, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Functionalization of cellulose nanocrystals with γ-MPS and its effect on the adhesive behavior of acrylic pressure sensitive adhesives
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Qingqing Yu, Weijun Yang, Qianqian Wang, Weifu Dong, Mingliang Du, Piming MaAbstractIn this work, functionalized cellulose nanocrystal (fCNC) was obtained by the grafting of 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane coupling agent (γ-MPS) onto CNC. Then acrylic pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) incorporated with various contents of CNC or fCNC was successfully synthesized by an in-situ emulsion polymerization, and the effects of CNC or fCNC on the sol molecular weight, latex properties, thermal properties, viscoelastic properties, and ...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 14, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Pullulan production from agro-industrial waste and its applications in food industry: A review
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Ram Sarup Singh, Navpreet Kaur, John F. KennedyAbstractPullulan is a microbial exopolysaccharide produced from Aureobasidium pullulans by submerged fermentation of a medium supplemented with carbon, nitrogen and other essential nutrients. These nutrients are expensive which increase the cost of pullulan production. The requirement of alternative cost-effective substrates for pullulan production is a prerequisite. Agro-based industries generate a large volume of solid/liquid waste and its accumulation generates a severe environmental imp...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 14, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Interesting core-shell structure and “V-Shape” shift: the property and formation mechanism of structural heterogeneity in cellulose hydrogel
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Zhaosheng Fan, Ciliang Xie, Jianbo Chen, Suqin Sun, Qun ZhouAbstractStructural heterogeneity is a common phenomenon in cellulose hydrogel fabricated from ionic liquid. In this work, we characterized cellulose hydrogel wire by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) image system and found its interesting core-shell structure. By pixel spectra analysis, we explored their distinctive hydrogen bond network in core and shell regions. To unveil the formation of heterogeneous core-shell structure, we tracked the cellulose regeneration p...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 14, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Cellulosic adsorbent functionalized with macrocyclic pyridone pentamer for selectively removing metal cations from aqueous solutions
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Chenggang Zhou, Jiadong Ni, Dan Zhang, Chang SunAbstractMetal selective adsorbent (MCPP-SA-MCC) was synthesized by the reaction of macrocyclic pyridone pentamer (MCPP) with succinic acid anhydride modified microcrystalline cellulose (SA-MCC). Selectivity of the tailor-made adsorbent to metal cations was studied by measuring its competitive adsorption ability to nine metal cations (Ba2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+, and Cr3+). It was found that MCPP-SA-MCC exhibited a patterned recognition of metal cations remarkably correlated wi...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 14, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Concise chemoenzymatic synthesis of heparan sulfate analogues as potent BACE-1 inhibitors
Publication date: Available online 12 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Jun Li, Jiarui Li, Tiantian Sun, Chao Cai, Meng Shao, Guangli YuAbstractHeparan sulfate (HS) and heparin, representative members of the glycosaminoglycans, possess distinct biological functions in terms of their specific interactions with hundreds of binding proteins. However, the structural properties of HS and heparin are complex due to their variable repeating motifs, different chain lengths and sulfation patterns. A concise chemoenzymatic approach has been developed to obtain well-defined low molecular weight (LMW) HS analogues. Pas...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 14, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Nanocellulose-based antifungal nanocomposites against the polymorphic fungus Candida albicans
Publication date: Available online 12 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Carla Vilela, Helena Oliveira, Adelaide Almeida, Armando J.D. Silvestre, Carmen S.R. FreireAbstractThe design of functional materials capable of fighting fungal infections is of paramount importance given the intricate problem of multidrug-resistant pathogenic fungi. Herein, nanocomposites consisting of cross-linked poly([2–(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride) (PMETAC) and bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) were prepared, characterized and tested towards the polymorphic fungus Candida albicans. The BNC three-dimensional ...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 14, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In-situ mineralized robust polysiloxane–Ag@ZnO on cotton for enhanced photocatalytic and antibacterial activities
Publication date: Available online 11 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Minglei Wang, Maojiang Zhang, Mingxing Zhang, Maimaitiming Aizezi, Yumei Zhang, Jiangtao Hu, Guozhong WuAbstractA bifunctional interfacial layer was introduced onto the surface of cotton fabric which not only enhanced the interfacial bonding between Ag@ZnO and organic substrates but also improved the photocatalytic performance simultaneously. In detail, a modified cotton fabric (denoted as Cot-g-Si/Ag@ZnO) was fabricated through radiation-induced graft polymerization of γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane and followed the in-sit...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 13, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: 1 July 2019Source: Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 215Author(s): (Source: Carbohydrate Polymers)
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 13, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Calendar
Publication date: 1 July 2019Source: Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 215Author(s): (Source: Carbohydrate Polymers)
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 13, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Structural characterization of pectin obtained from cacao pod husk. Comparison of conventional and subcritical water extraction
Publication date: Available online 10 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Nerea Muñoz-Almagro, Lourdes Valadez-Carmona, José A. Mendiola, Elena Ibáñez, Mar VillamielAbstractPectin was obtained with citric acid and subcritical water extraction from cacao pod husk with or without a previous step consisting of a supercritical fluid extraction of phenols. By subcritical conditions a higher yield (10.9%) was attained in a time 3-fold shorter than that obtained by conventional extraction (˜8%) and a greater effectiveness in the recovery of pectin with higher molecular weight (750&t...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 11, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Internal surgical use of biodegradable carbohydrate polymers. Warning for a conscious and proper use of oxidized regenerated cellulose
Publication date: Available online 9 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Gianluca FranceschiniAbstractOxidized regenerated cellulose has become a major local surgical hemostatic biomaterial because of its ease of use, favorable biocompatibility, bactericidal activity and bioabsorption characteristics. Additional clinical indications of oxidized regenerated cellulose include wound repair and tissue reconstruction. Sometimes, some unusual adverse events are described. Studies report cases of minor postoperative complications as nidus of infection or allergic reaction mainly presenting as acute dermatitis, eczem...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 10, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Programming pH-responsive release of two payloads from dextran-based nanocapsules
Publication date: Available online 9 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Kusuma Thongchaivetcharat, Ratchapol Jenjob, Farzad Seidi, Daniel CrespyAbstractControlled release of payloads such as drugs or corrosion inhibitors from nanocapsules is a prerequisite for their utilization. Indeed, premature leaching and contamination of the environment can be avoided. Herein, we investigate the pH-dependence of release kinetics of corrosion inhibitors from nanocapsules. Nanocapsules are formed by interfacial crosslinking of dextran derivatives in inverse miniemulsion and subsequently re-dispersed in aqueous solutions. ...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 10, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Distribution of octenylsuccinate substituents within a single granule of modified waxy maize starch determined by Raman microspectroscopy
Publication date: Available online 9 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Zhenhua Sun, Zhongwei Chen, Bin Xu, Yong-Cheng ShiAbstractOctenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starches were prepared in granular form from waxy maize starch at two levels (3% and 9%, based on the weight of starch) of OSA reagent. The distribution of OS groups at five positions within a single starch granule was determined by Raman microspectroscopy. OSA-modified starch had one additional peak at 1670 cm-1, indicative of the carbonyl group in OS group bound to starch molecules. For each Raman spectrum obtained at a given posit...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 10, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

γ-Cyclodextrin-metal organic frameworks as efficient microcontainers for encapsulation of leflunomide and acceleration of its transformation into teriflunomide
Publication date: Available online 9 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Iliya Kritskiy, Tatyana Volkova, Artem Surov, Irina TerekhovaAbstractγ-Cyclodextrin-based metal-organic framework (γCD-MOF) crystals were successfully synthesized using a vapor diffusion method. An applicability of γCD-MOF for encapsulation of immunosuppressive disease-modifying antirheumatic drug leflunomide (LEF) was examined. Loading of LEF in γCD-MOF was performed by impregnation and co-crystallization. The empty and loaded γCD-MOFs were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, N2 adsorption/desorpt...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 10, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Pectin oligosaccharides from fruit of Actinidia arguta: structure-activity relationship of prebiotic and antiglycation potentials
In this study, POSs were obtained by enzymatic and ultrasound-assisted enzymatic degradation of pectin polysaccharide (PPS), respectively. Based on the chemical characterization, the antiglycation in vitro and prebiotic activities of POSs were compared and the structure-activity relationship was studied. The results showed that the antiglycation activity of POSs in vitro was proportional to the galacturonic acid content and GalA:Rha molar ratios except for the low molecular weight POSs (LM-POSs), and inversely proportional to its branching degree, such as Ara:Rha and Gal:Rha molar ratios. In addition, it was also found tha...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 10, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Storage stability of encapsulated ascorbyl palmitate in normal and high amylose maize starches during pasting and spray dryin
This study determines storage stability and release of encapsulated ascorbyl palmitate in normal and high amylose maize starch by pasting and spray drying. The amount of ascorbyl palmitate released was analysed in the stored samples (dark cupboard, and under UV light at a temperature of 40 °C for 12 weeks) and their antioxidant activity determined. Storage of encapsulated ascorbyl palmitate at 40 °C under both dark and UV light conditions did not affect the amount release and the ability to scavenge the free radical (ABTS+). However, the antioxidant activity of free ascorbyl palmitate exponentially de...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 10, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Synthesis of highly branched α-glucans with different structures using GH13 and GH57 glycogen branching enzymes
Publication date: Available online 9 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Xuewen Zhang, Hans Leemhuis, Marc J.E.C. van der MaarelAbstractGlycogen branching enzymes (GBEs) convert starch into branched α-glucan polymers. To explore if the amylose content of substrates effects the structure of the branched α-glucans, mixtures of amylose and amylopectin were converted by four thermophilic GBEs. The degree of branching and molecular weight of the products increased with an increasing percentage of amylose with the GH57 GBEs of Thermus thermophilus and Thermococcus kodakarensis, and the GH13 GBEs of Rhod...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 10, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Nanocellulose as a colorimetric biosensor for effective and facile detection of human neutrophil elastase
Publication date: Available online 8 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Zhe Ling, J. Feng Xu, Vincent Edwards, Nicolette T. Prevost, Sunghyun Nam, Brian D. Condon, Alfred D. FrenchAbstractNanocellulose has functionalities suitable for efficient sensor transducer surface design including crystallinity, biocompatible and high specific surface area. Here we explore two forms of nanocellulose as transducer surfaces to enable colorimetric detection of human neutrophil elastase (HNE), and a wide range of inflammatory diseases. A deep eutectic solvent (DES) was utilized to mediate formation of cotton cellulose nano...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 10, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

High-performance starch biocomposites with celullose from waste biomass: film properties and retrogradation behaviour
Publication date: Available online 8 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Isaac Benito-González, Amparo López-Rubio, Marta Martínez-SanzAbstractIn this work, the effects of relative humidity (RH) pre-conditioning (53% vs. 85% RH) and incorporation of cellulose fillers (from Posidonia waste biomass) on the properties and retrogradation of melt compounded starch biocomposites were investigated. Pre-conditioning at 85% RH promoted starch gelatinization during processing, leading to more amorphous materials with reduced stiffness but better barrier properties. Furthermore, these films were les...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 10, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

A review on cellulose nanocrystals as promising biocompounds for the synthesis of nanocomposite hydrogels
Publication date: Available online 8 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Jamileh Shojaeiarani, Dilpreet Bajwa, Alimohammad ShirzadifarABSTRACTHydrogels are hydrophilic cross-linked polymer networks formed via the simple reaction of one or more monomers with the ability to retain a significant extent of water. Owing to an increased demand for environmentally friendly, biodegradable, and biocompatible products, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with high hydrophilicity have emerged as a promising sustainable material for the formation of hydrogels. The cytocompatibility, swellability, and non-toxicity make CNC hydr...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 10, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Facile Fabrication of pH-responsive Nanoparticles from Cellulose Derivatives via Schiff base formation for Controlled Release
This study demonstrates the formation of a group of novel pH-sensitive and drug-loadable NPs, which provide a simple and efficient drug delivery system for the potential application for cancer treatment.Graphical abstractNovel pH-responsive nanoparticles as promising delivery system were designed and constructed using 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose derivatives. The resulting nanoparticles showed adjustable loading capacity that was tuned by changing the ratio of oleylamine and amino-containing compounds. The loaded nanoparticles exhibited excellent pH-regulated release behaviors via the cleavage of Schiff base bonds in aqueous e...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 10, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Molecular causes for the increased stickiness of cooked non-glutinous rice by enzymatic hydrolysis of the grain surface protein
In this study, by soaking two non-glutinous rice with protease solution, rice stickiness is significantly increased and equivalent to that of glutinous rice. By exploring starch leaching behavior during rice cooking, we find: (i) total solids and amylopectin amount in the leachate are significantly increased by raising the protease concentration during the soaking treatment; (ii) molecular size and chain-length distribution (CLD) of leached starch from these protease-treated rice (PTR) significantly differed from the corresponding native starch; (iii) strong correlations between rice stickiness, amylopectin amount and the ...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 10, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Synthesis, characterization and excellent antibacterial property of cellulose acetate reverse osmosis membrane via a two-step reaction
Publication date: Available online 8 April 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Fu Li, Pengfei Fei, Bowen Cheng, Jianqiang Meng, Liang LiaoAbstractIn order to improve the antibacterial efficiency and spectrum of cellulose acetate reverse osmosis membrane (CA-RO), both quaternary ammonium and bromoacetyl groups were introduced into cellulose diacetate under mild conditions forming CA-RO with bi-antibacterial groups for seawater desalination. Bromoacetyl bromide and a series of tertiary amine were chosen as the modification agents respectively. The characterization results showed that both two antibacterial groups wer...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 10, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research