A dermatan sulfate-functionalized biomimetic nanocarrier for melanoma targeted chemotherapy
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Shanshan Li, Fuzhong Zhang, Yang Yu, Qixiong ZhangAbstractMelanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes that is a serious threat to human health. Dermatan sulfate (DS) is a natural glycosaminoglycan. Inspired by the origin of DS, we report a DS-functionalized biomimetic chitosan nanocarrier (DCNP) for melanoma targeted chemotherapy. DS can anchor to the surface of the chitosan nanocarrier (CNP) by forming amide bond. The SN38/DCNP can rapidly release the anti-tumor drug under acidic conditions. The functionalization of DS not only pro...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 17, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Cytocompatible and non-fouling zwitterionic hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels using thiol-ene “click” chemistry for cell encapsulation
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Yabin Zhang, Shuyan Liu, Tianyu Li, Luqing Zhang, Umair Azhar, Jiachen Ma, Congcong Zhai, Chuanyong Zong, Shuxiang ZhangAbstractIn this work, a facile click reaction strategy is employed to form hydrogels in situ with cytocompatibility, biodegradability, self-healing property and resistance to protein. The thiol-functionalized zwitterionic carboxybetaine methacrylate copolymer, which take part as a cross-linker in the “thiol-ene” click reaction with the methacrylated hyaluronic acid. The hydrogels are obtained under the p...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 17, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Purification, structural characterization, and antioxidant activity of the COP-W1 polysaccharide from Codonopsis tangshen Oliv
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Qiannian Wu, Mei Luo, Xiaodong Yao, Lan YuAbstractA new polysaccharide named COP-W1 was extracted from the root of Codonopsis tangshen Oliv using hot water extraction and ethanol precipitation. COP-W1, with a molecular weight of 2.34 × 104 Da, was purified using gel permeation chromatography. The monosaccharide composition of COP-W1 was mannose, rhamnose, glucose, and galactose, and its molar ratio was 20.32:1:1.27:36.13. Structural characterization of COP-W1 was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometr...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 17, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Production and molecular structure of heteropolysaccharides from two lactic acid bacteria
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Carsten Nachtigall, Georg Surber, Frauke Herbi, Daniel Wefers, Doris Jaros, Harald RohmAbstractIn the dairy industry, exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced in situ from lactic acid bacteria are of great interest because of their contribution to product texture. Some EPS cause ropiness which might be linked to specific physical and chemical EPS properties. EPS show a broad variety of chemical structures and, because analysis is rather complex, it is still a major challenge to establish structure-function relationships. The aim of this stu...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 17, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Alginate Fiber Toughened Gels Similar to Skin Intelligence as Ionic Sensors
In this study, gels showed complex intelligence similar to natural skin, and might find applications in artificial intelligence, human-mechanial interactions, and smart wearable devices.Graphical abstract (Source: Carbohydrate Polymers)
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 17, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The effect of dehydration/rehydration of bacterial nanocellulose on its tensile strength and physicochemical properties
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Alicja Stanisławska, Hanna Staroszczyk, Marek SzkodoAbstractBacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is a natural biomaterial with a wide range of biomedical applications. BNC contains 99% of water which makes it too thick to be used as a bioimplant material. The aim of the work was to determine the effect of the BNC dehydration followed by rehydration on its mechanical and physicochemical properties, in the context of the use of BNC as bio-prostheses in the cardiovascular system. Dehydration involved the convection-drying at 25 and 105&thinsp...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 17, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Acid-free preparation and characterization of kelp (Laminaria japonica) nanocelluloses and their application in Pickering emulsions
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Jiulin Wu, Wenjin Zhu, Xiaodan Shi, Qingxiang Li, Chenguang Huang, Yongqi Tian, Shaoyun WangAbstractCellulose nanofibers (CNFs) from kelp were prepared by cellulase treatment with lengths greater than 3 μm. CNFs were further TEMPO-oxidized (TEMPO-CNFs), the lengths were 0.6-1 μm. The crystallinity of TEMPO-CNFs increased to 66.5%. FTIR spectra revealed no changes in the basic cellulose structures of CNFs and TEMPO-CNFs. TGA analysis indicated that TEMPO-CNFs were more sensitive to temperature than cellulose and CN...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 17, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: 15 April 2020Source: Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 234Author(s): (Source: Carbohydrate Polymers)
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 17, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In vitro/vivo evaluation of novel mitochondrial targeting charge-reversal polysaccharide-based antitumor nanoparticle
This study aims to overcome the biological barrier while improving the mitochondria-targeted effect of nanoparticles based on natural polysaccharides. Novel polysaccharide-based nanoparticles, with tumor microenvironment-responsive charge-reversal and mitochondrial targeting abilities, were prepared in our study. Curcumin (Cur) was loaded into the core of a positively charged chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) derivative with mitochondrial targeting ability, and a negatively charged shell based on angelica sinensis polysaccharide (AS) derivative was wrapped in the surface of the core. At the same time, the pH-sensitive borate ...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 17, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Cationic Chitosan Derivatives as Potential Antifungals: A Review of Structural Optimization and Applications
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Yukun Qin, Pengcheng Li, Zhanyong GuoAbstractThe increasing resistance of pathogen fungi poses a global public concern. There are several limitations in current antifungals, including few available fungicides, severe toxicity of some fungicides, and drug resistance. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new antifungals with novel targets. Chitosan has been recognized as a potential antifungal substance due to its good biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, and availability in abundance, but its applications are ham...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 16, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Functionalized cellulose to remove surfactants from cosmetic products in wastewater
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Sehui Kim, A. Young Seo, Tai Gyu LeeAbstractA flocculant composed of paper mulberry dicarboxylic cellulose (PM-DCC) made from using paper mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold and Zucc.) has been developed to reduce the amount of inorganic coagulants needed to remove surfactants in wastewater. The characteristics of PM and soda pulp were determined according to the degree of polymerization, α-cellulose, lignin, free sugar, and extract contents. FTIR, XRD, the aldehyde content, the carboxyl content and coagulant-flocculation e...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 16, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Preparation of bio-eco based cellulose nanomaterials from used disposal paper cups through citric acid hydrolysis
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): K.J. Nagarajan, A.N. Balaji, S. Thanga Kasi Rajan, N.R. RamanujamAbstractThe Used Disposal Paper Cups (UDPCs) have become a concern to the solid waste management sector as scientists triggered the problems in recent years, to proceed forward in developing the process for this issue. Based on this concern, the present study emphasizes on the isolation of a novel bio-eco based Cellulose NanoCrystals (CNCs) from UDPCs through citric acid hydrolysis. The effect of acid concentration on microstructure and yield of CNCs are highlighted. Th...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 14, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Combining cobalt ferrite and graphite with cellulose nanocrystals for magnetically active and electrically conducting mesoporous nanohybrids
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Erlantz Lizundia, Mikel Rincón-Iglesias, Senentxu Lanceros-MéndezAbstractFree-standing mesoporous membranes based on cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are fabricated upon the incorporation of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) and graphite nanoparticles at concentrations up to 20 wt % through a soft-templating process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms reveal the development of highly-porous interconnected random 3D structure with surface areas up to 193.9 m2 g-1. Thermogra...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 14, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Cationic starches in paper-based applications—A review on analytical methods
Publication date: 1 May 2020Source: Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 235Author(s): Angela Chemelli, Florian Gomernik, Ferula Thaler, Anton Huber, Ulrich Hirn, Wolfgang Bauer, Stefan SpirkAbstractThis review focuses on cationic starches with a low degree of substitution (
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 14, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Effect of plasma treatment on chemical composition, structure and sorption properties of lignocellulosic hemp fibers (Cannabis sativa L.)
Publication date: Available online 12 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Biljana M. Pejić, Ana D. Kramar, Bratislav M. Obradović, Milorad M. Kuraica, Andrijana A. Zekić, Mirjana M. KostićAbstractHemp fibers with different amount of hemicelluloses and lignin were subjected to atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge under different conditions (40 W and 80 W power of discharge, const. time 120 s) in order to study influence of plasma treatment on their structure and sorption properties. Wettability of plasma treated samples, compared with precursors, increased due to the ch...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Photopolymerized Starch Nanoparticle (SNP) Network Hydrogels
Publication date: Available online 12 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Michael J. Majcher, Carter L. McInnis, Sebastian Himbert, Richard J. Alsop, Dennis Kinio, Markus Bleuel, Maikel C. Rheinstädter, Niels M.B. Smeets, Todd HoareAbstractStarch is an attractive biomaterial given its low cost and high protein repellency, but its use in forming functional hydrogels is limited by its high viscosity and crystallinity. Herein, we demonstrate the use of fully amorphous starch nanoparticles (SNPs) as functional hydrogel building blocks that overcome these challenges. Methacrylation of SNPs enables hydrogel...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Construction of an environmentally friendly octenylsuccinic anhydride modified pH-sensitive chitosannanoparticle drug delivery system to alleviate inflammation and oxidative stress
Publication date: Available online 12 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Zhenjing Yu, Lina Ma, Shujuan Ye, Ganggang Li, Mengmeng ZhangAbstractAn environmentally friendly octenylsuccinic anhydride modified pH-sensitive chitosan-octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA-CS) was synthesized. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the modified chitosan was 27 μg/mL, the graft polymers can form solubilized curcumin (CUR) and quercetin (QUE) nanoparticles. The drug-loaded nanoparticles had high encapsulation efficiency and drug loading content, the self-assembly of graft polymers formed spherical uniform na...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Extraction and Characterisation of Natural Cellulose Fibers from Kigelia africana
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Manikandan Ilangovan, Vijaykumar Guna, B. Prajwal, Qiuran Jiang, Narendra ReddyAbstractKigelia africana also known as sausage plant, yields highly fibrous fruit with a hard shell. Many medicinal uses are reported for the extracts from the fruits, seeds and leaves of sausage trees. In this research, natural cellulose fibers were extracted from the fruit using NaOH and later bleached and characterized for their properties. Results revealed that significant amount of hemicellulose and lignin was lost after the alkali treatment and bleac...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Versatile preparation of spherically and mechanically controllable liquid-core-shell alginate-based bead through interfacial gelation
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Hongxiang Liu, Fei Liu, Yun Ma, H. Douglas Goff, Fang ZhongAbstractDeveloping alginate-based beads with liquid-core-shell structure is highly appealing for industrial applications as a promising delivery matrix material. Herein, based on the reaction-diffusion mechanism, a facile method that includes dissolving natural polymer in calcium ion core solution followed by dripping it to alginate shell bath is proposed through interfacial gelation. By facilely tuning the viscosity and surface tension, the boundary condition for forming sph...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Hyaluronic acid-modified liposomal honokiol nanocarrier: Enhance anti-metastasis and antitumor efficacy against breast cancer
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Jing Wang, Dan Liu, Shuang Guan, Wenquan Zhu, Li Fan, Qi Zhang, Defu CaiAbstractIn an effort to enhance antitumor and anti-metastasis of breast cancer, honokiol (HNK) was encapsulated into hyaluronic acid (HA) modified cationic liposomes (Lip). The prepared HA-Lip-HNK had a spherical shape with a narrow size distribution. The enhanced antitumor efficacy of HA-Lip-HNK was investigated in 4T1 cells in vitro, wherein flow cytometry and confocal microscopy analysis revealed its HA/CD44-mediated greater cellular internalization. As antici...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Incorporation of lysozyme into cellulose nanocrystals stabilized β-chitosan nanoparticles with enhanced antibacterial activity
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Hongcai Zhang, Miaomiao Feng, Shunsheng Chen, Wenzheng Shi, Xichang WangAbstractCellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were added to lysozyme (Lys) loaded β-chitosan (β-CS) nanoparticles (NPs) based on ionic gelation technique for enhancing their antibacterial stability. Particle size of CNCs stabilized Lys loaded low (L) and high (H) molecular weight (MW) β-CS NPs reached 140.93 and 284.03 nm with encapsulation efficacy (EE) of 59.38 and 51.23%, respectively. CNCs stabilized Lys loaded LMW β-CS NPs with smaller par...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In-vitro and in-vivo evaluation of modified sodium starch glycolate for exploring its haemostatic potential
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Vineeta Panwar, Jijo Thomas, Anjana Sharma, Vianni Chopra, Swati Kaushik, Ashutosh Kumar, Deepa GhoshAbstractThe control of blood flow from breached blood vessels during surgery or trauma is challenging. With the existing treatment options being either expensive or ineffective, the development of a haemostat that overcome such drawbacks would be beneficial. With an aim to develop an ideal haemostat, the potential of sodium starch glycolate (SSG), a commonly used pharmaceutical disintegrant was modified to obtain porous microparticles...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Chitosan-based electrospun membranes: effects of solution viscosity, coagulant and crosslinker
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Andrea Dodero, Elisabetta Brunengo, Marina Alloisio, Alina Sionkowska, Silvia Vicini, Maila CastellanoAbstractChitosan-based membranes were prepared via electrospinning technique using a low concentrated acetic acid solution as solvent and poly(ethylene oxide) as co-spinning agent. Different solutions were rheologically characterized and increasing the solution viscosity was found to correspond to a better-defined morphology. The membranes were first subjected to a coagulation process with different baths in order to stabilize chitos...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Prussian blue-embedded carboxymethyl cellulose nanofibril membranes for removing radioactive cesium from aqueous solution
In this study, we synthesized a Prussian blue (PB)-embedded macroporous carboxymethyl cellulose nanofibril (CMCNF) membrane for facile cesium (Cs) removal. The PB was formed in situ at Fe3+ sites on a CMCNF framework cross-linked using FeCl3 as a cross-linking agent. Cubic PB particles of size 5–20 nm were observed on the macroporous CMCNF membrane surface. The PB-CMCNF membrane showed 2.5-fold greater Cs adsorption capacity (130 mg/gPB-CMCNF) than commercial PB nanoparticles, even though the PB loading of the PB-CMCNF membrane was less than 100 mg/gPB-CMCNF. The macroporous structure of the CMCN...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Structural characterization and immunomodulatory activity of an exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus helveticus LZ-R-5
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Xiu You, Zhi Li, Kai Ma, Changliang Zhang, Xiaohong Chen, Guangxian Wang, Lin Yang, Mingsheng Dong, Xin Rui, Qiuqin Zhang, Wei LiAbstractExopolysaccharide (R-5-EPS) was isolated from the fermented milk of Lactobacillus helveticus LZ-R-5 and purified by DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange column, and characterization of the structure was conducted. Results showed that R-5-EPS was a heteropolysaccharide containing linear repeating units of →6)-β-D-Galp-(1→3)-β-D-Glcp-(1→3)-β-D-Glcp-(1→3)-β-D-Glcp-(1...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Manosonication extraction of RG-I pectic polysaccharides from citrus waste: optimization and kinetics analysis
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Weiwei Hu, Xingqian Ye, Thunthacha Chantapakul, Shiguo Chen, Jiaqi ZhengAbstractTo better understanding the potential of manosonication to accelerate the extraction of RG-I pectic polysaccharides from citrus wastes, alkaline-mediated manosonication extraction (MSE) was optimized using a Box-Behnken design, and the extraction kinetics model was analyzed. The single-factor method revealed that NaOH significantly impacted on the yield and RG-I characterizations (Rha mol% and (Gal+Ara)/Rha ratio), whereas other factors were focused on in...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Production and characterization of catechin-loaded electrospun nanofibers from Azivash gum- polyvinyl alcohol
In this study, Response Surface Methodology was used to optimize the electrospinning process parameters including voltage, distance, and flow rate in order to obtain catechin-loaded electrospun nanofibers from Azivash (Corchorus olitorius. L) gum-polyvinyl alcohol with the minimum diameter of nanofibers. The optimum electrospinning conditions were applied for catechin encapsulation at different loading concentrations (500, 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg L-1). According to the results, increase in catechin concentration led to increment in polymer solution viscosity. However, electrical conductivity decreased and mean...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Chitosan-based melatonin bilayer coating for maintaining quality of fresh-cut products
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Hangyue Zhao, Lei Wang, Tarun Belwal, Yunhong Jiang, Dong Li, Yanqun Xu, Zisheng Luo, Li LiAbstractThis work was designed to develop the chitosan-based melatonin layer-by-layer assembly (CMLLA) via the inclusion method. The structural characterizations and interaction present in CMLLA were investigated by the scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The ratio of chitosan (CH) to carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) greatly influenced the mechanical properties, including t...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Structural studies of the pectic polysaccharide from fruits of Punica granatum
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Evgeny G. Shakhmatov, Philip V. Toukach, Elena N. MakarovaAbstractThe polysaccharide PGO containing 76% of uronic acids, was obtained from peels and membranes of Punica granatum fruits by extraction to the aqueous solution of (NH4)2C2O4. The chemical structure of PGO was characterized by enzymatic and partial acid hydrolyses, Smith degradation and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy. It has been found that PGO consisted mainly of highly methyl-esterified and lowly acetylated pectin. Backbone of the macromolecule was represented by 1,4-α-D-G...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Comparative analysis of oligosaccharides in Guanzhong and Saanen goat milk by using LC–MS/MS
Publication date: 1 May 2020Source: Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 235Author(s): Jing Lu, Yan Zhang, Bo Song, Shuwen Zhang, Xiaoyang Pang, Ratna Nurmalita Sari, Liu Liu, Junhui Wang, Jiaping LvAbstractHuman milk oligosaccharides play an important role in promoting healthy growth of infants. Goat milk was one of the alternative sources for producing oligosaccharides. An in-depth understanding the composition and the quantity of oligosaccharides in goat milk was needed for its better utilization. In the present study, oligosaccharides were identified and quantified by using UPLC-MS/MS. The elution condition of UPLC was optimi...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Synthesis of the carboxymethyl cellulose magnetic nanoparticles for efficient immobilization of prenyltransferase NovQ
Publication date: 1 May 2020Source: Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 235Author(s): Wenfeng Ni, Zhiming Zheng, Hui Liu, Peng Wang, Li Wang, Han Wang, Xiaowen Sun, Qiang Yang, Hengfang Tang, Genhai ZhaoAbstractPrenyltransferase NovQ immobilized carboxymethyl cellulose magnetic nanoparticles (NCMNs) were successfully synthesized via a valuable approach integrated from nanocomposite preparation, and applied for the production of vitamin K2 using menadione hydroquinol and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) as substrates. To investigate the interaction between nanoparticles and NovQ, we characterized the nanocomposite, and revealed ...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Cationic starches in paper-based applications – A review on analytical methods
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Angela Chemelli, Florian Gomernik, Ferula Thaler, Anton Huber, Ulrich Hirn, Wolfgang Bauer, Stefan SpirkAbstractThis review focuses on cationic starches with a low degree of substitution (
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 11, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Metal complexed-enzymatic hydrolyzed chitosan improves moisture retention of fiber papers by migrating immobilized water to bound state
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Huijuan Wang, Heping Cui, Xuejiao Wang, Chao Lin, Shuqin Xia, Khizar Hayat, Shahzad Hussain, Muhammad Usman Tahir, Xiaoming ZhangAbstractTo obtain chitosan (CTS) with narrower molecular weight distribution, CTS with weight-average molecular weight (MW) of 197.30 kDa was first metal complexed and then degraded into five CTSs with MW of 107.90, 56.48, 10.40, 5.67 (CTS-4) and 3.66 kDa. Decrease of MW did not cause a significant change in chemical structure of the residue CTS, but the crystal structure was transformed signif...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 11, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Structural characterization, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of a neutral polysaccharide from Cordyceps militaris cultivated on hull-less barley
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Ying Zhang, Yan Zeng, Yongsheng Cui, Hanmin Liu, Caixia Dong, Yuanxia SunAbstractA water-soluble neutral polysaccharide (SDQCP-1) was isolated from fruit bodies of Cordyceps militaris cultivated on hull-less barley. SDQCP-1 was composed of mannose, glucose and galactose in the mole ratio of 13.3:1.0:9.7, with an average molecular weight of 19.3 kDa. Based on results from methylation analysis, GC-MS and NMR, SDQCP-1 was elucidated to be a glucogalactomannan with a backbone composed of (1→2)-α-D-Manp (48.4%) and (1&ra...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 11, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

DLP printing photocurable chitosan to build bio-constructs for tissue engineering
In this study, we provide a photocurable chitosan bioink (CHI-MA), which can be used for the digital light processing (DLP) technology. The CHI-MA precursors were facilely synthesized by grafting chitosan molecular chains with methacryloyl groups. We investigated the effect of parameters, including the concentration and substitution degree (DS) of CHI-MA, on the rheology and the photocuring of bioinks and the mechanical property of photo-crosslinked gels. Using the CHI-MA with a high DS (33.6%), the curing time to print a 150 μm thick hydrogel layer can be controlled within a reasonable short time period. Additio...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 11, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Influence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the physico-chemical and biological responses of chitosan-based hybrid hydrogels
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): I.M. Garnica-Palafox, H.O. Estrella-Monroy, N.A. Vázquez-Torres, M. Álvarez-Camacho, A.E. Castell-Rodríguez, F.M. Sánchez-ArévaloAbstractPhotoresponsive membranes were successfully obtained by combining chitosan (CS), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) crosslinked with genipin (GEN) and filled with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). It was demonstrated that adding a small quantity (0.01% w/v) of MWCNTs conferred to those nanocomposite hybrid hydrogels an outstanding photomechanical response under infrar...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 11, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Pretreatment with KOH and KOH-urea enhanced hydrolysis of α-chitin by an endo-chitinase from Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Dokku Sivaramakrishna, Bhoopal Bhuvanachandra, Mohan Krishna Mallakuntla, Subha Narayan Das, Bellamkonda Ramakrishna, Appa Rao PodileAbstractChitin is the second most abundant and renewable polysaccharide, next to cellulose. Hydrolysis of abundant and highly crystalline α-chitin, pretreated with KOH and KOH-urea aqueous solutions, by a single modular endo-chitinase from Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae (EcChi1) was investigated. The hydrolysis of untreated α-chitin and colloidal chitin by EcChi1 produced N-acetylglucosa...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 10, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The effect of surface modification on chemical and crystalline structure of the cellulose III nanocrystals
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Qiqi Wu, Jun Xu, Zhenhua Wu, Shiyun Zhu, Yi Gao, Congcan ShiAbstractAlthough the research on the cellulose allomorphs has been progressing for decades, many details especially in a nanoscale still require further exploration. In this article, the crystalline structure and morphology of cellulose III nanocrystals (CNC-III) are investigated after some typical modification routes. The results indicate that the crystalline structure of CNC-III is unsteady. After acetylation, hydrophobic cationization, polymer grafting and surface alkylati...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 10, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

C-nanocoated ZnO by TEMPO-oxidized Cellulose Templating for Improved Photocatalytic Performance
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): He Xiao, Yiwei Shan, Wenyao Zhang, Liulian Huang, Lihui Chen, Yonghao Ni, Bruno Boury, Hui WuAbstractUltrafine C-doped ZnO/carbon nanocomposites with different photocatalytic activities have been prepared using TEMPO-oxidized cellulose as a template but also as the source of carbon. The result is an enhancement of the photocatalytic activity ascribed to different phenomena: a high mesoporosity beneficial to mass transport, a thin carbon layer onto ZnO increasing the charge transfer and hydrophobicity of ZnO, a narrowing of ZnO band ga...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 10, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Decontamination of seeds destined for edible sprout production from Listeria by using chitosan coating with synergetic lysozyme-nisin mixture
This study aimed at decontamination of seeds destined for edible sprout production from Listeria using chitosan (CS) coatings incorporated with synergetic lysozyme-nisin (LYS-NIS) mixtures. Low molecular weight (LMW) CS coating showed the highest potency against Listeria innocua, followed by medium molecular weight (MMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) CSs. The LMW CS film with LYS-NIS also caused almost 1.5-fold greater log reduction (∼5 log) in initial L. innocua load of broth culture than MMW and HMW CS films with LYS-NIS within 6 days. Moreover, LMW CS coating with LYS-NIS reduced the initial Listeria loads of inoc...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 8, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Comparative analysis of oligosaccharides in Guanzhong and Saanen goat milk by using LC-MS/MS
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Jing Lu, Yan Zhang, Bo Song, Shuwen Zhang, Xiaoyang Pang, Ratna Nurmalita Sari, Liu Liu, Junhui Wang, Jiaping LvAbstractHuman milk oligosaccharides play an important role in promoting healthy growth of infants. Goat milk was one of the alternative sources for producing oligosaccharides. An in-depth understanding the composition and the quantity of oligosaccharides in goat milk was needed for its better utilization. In the present study, oligosaccharides were identified and quantified by using UPLC-MS/MS. The elution condition of UPLC ...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 8, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In situ decorated Pd NPs on chitosan-encapsulated Fe3O4/SiO2-NH2 as magnetic catalyst in Suzuki-Miyaura coupling and 4-nitrophenol reduction
In this study, a green protocol for in situ fabrication of ultrafine Pd nanoparticles on chitosan-encapsulated Fe3O4/SiO2-NH2 nanoparticles, without the use of any toxic reducing agents, is described. The catalytic activity of Fe3O4/SiO2-NH2@CS/Pd nanocomposite was investigated through Suzuki-Miyaura coupling to synthesize biaryl derivatives, and reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. The core-shell nanoparticle modified with chitosan highly stabilizes the exterior Pd NPs. Leaching test was performed to assure heterogeneity of the catalyst. The magnetically retrievable catalyst was recycled up to eight times in both ...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 8, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Cultured Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharides modulate intestinal mucosal immunity and gut microbiota in cyclophosphamide-treated mice
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Mengxi Ying, Qiang Yu, Bing Zheng, Hui Wang, Junqiao Wang, Shuping Chen, Shaoping Nie, Mingyong XieAbstractThe present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of cultured Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharides (CSP) on cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced intestinal mucosal immunosuppression and microbial dysbiosis in mice. Results showed that CSP stimulated cytokines secretion (IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-13, IL-6, IL-17, IL-10, TGF-β3, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-21) and transcription factors production (T-bet, GATA-3, RORγt, Fo...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 8, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Biocompatibility Analysis of Borassus flabellifer Biomass-derived Nanofibrillated Cellulose
Publication date: Available online 6 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Jegan Athinarayanan, Ali A. Alshatwi, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan PeriasamyAbstractThe increased awareness about environment conservation and sustainable progress has encouraged the use of agricultural byproducts. Here, we investigated Borassus flabellifer leaf stalk residues as a sustainable precursor for nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) production by sequential process. Alkali pretreatment and bleaching removed hemicellulose and lignin from B. flabellifer leaf stalk. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed the diameter and length o...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 7, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Fabrication of double crosslinked chitosan/gelatin membranes with Na+ and pH dual-responsive controlled permeability
Publication date: Available online 6 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Jin Liu, Shunyi Wang, Ke Xu, Zaibi Fan, Panpan Wang, Zijun Xu, Xueqin Ren, Shuwen Hu, Zideng GaoAbstractA double crosslinked membrane based on chitosan/gelatin with controlled release properties was synthesized in aqueous system using potassium pyroantimonate and genipin as the ionic crosslinker and covalent crosslinker, respectively. The membranes were characterized using FT-IR, UV-vis spectra, and SEM. In addition, the thermal stability, contact angle, mechanical and controlled release properties were measured. Double-crosslinking s...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 7, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Bio-inspired fabrication of nacre-mimetic hybrid nanocoating for eco-friendly fire-resistant precious cellulosic Chinese Xuan paper
In this study, we propose an eco-friendly approach to fabricate fire-resistant cellulosic Chinese Xuan paper by layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly chitosan (CH) and montmorillonite (MMT). The flame retardancy of Xuan paper was greatly improved after the LBL assembly coated CH/MMT, it achieved excellent flame retardancy when the CH/MMT bilayer was over 10 BL with the LOI value higher than of 35%. The results of thermal stability of treated Xuan paper revealed the nacre-mimetic CH/MMT nanocoating on Xuan paper would promote the formation of compact and dense char which will be beneficial to inhibit the heat transmission and combu...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 7, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Tensile behaviour of dislocated/crystalline cellulose fibrils at the nano scale
Publication date: Available online 5 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Ali Khodayari, Aart W. Van Vuure, Ulrich Hirn, David SevenoAbstractAtomistic modelling of cellulose has widely been investigated for years using molecular dynamics simulations. In this paper, we model Iβ crystalline cellulose as well as develop a model including dislocations in between the crystal regions. The model including dislocations shows a tensile modulus of 109 GPa, 25% lower than that of the fully crystalline model (146 GPa). The change in dihedral angle preferences is analysed, and its effect on hydrogen bonding pattern...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 7, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Stabilizing Pd on magnetic phosphine-functionalized cellulose: DFT study and catalytic performance under deep eutectic solvent assisted conditions
Publication date: Available online 5 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Arefe Salamatmanesh, Akbar Heydari, Hossein Taherpour NahzomiAbstractA highly efficient metal-based nanocatalyst was developed by stabilization of palladium nanoparticles on magnetically retrievable phosphine-functionalized cellulose (Fe3O4@PFC-Pd(0)). The synthesized nanocatalyst was characterized by various techniques such as FT-IR, XRD, FE-SEM, TEM, EDX, UV-Vis, ICP, TGA, BET and VSM. Moreover, to investigate the metal-ligand interactions present in the nanocatalyst, covalent and electrostatic interactions, density functional theor...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 7, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Adhesion Loss Mechanism Based on Carboxymethyl Cellulose-filled Hydrocolloid Dressings in Physiological Wounds Environment
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Denan Kong, Qunchao Zhang, Jun You, Yuanyuan Cheng, Cheng Hong, Zihe Chen, Tao Jiang, Tonghui HaoAbstractAdhesion loss of hydrocolloid wound dressings is ubiquitous clinical problem, which seriously reduces the therapeutic efficiency and patient experience. In order to address this problem, the clarification on adhesion loss mechanism and the development of effective alternatives of commercial hydrocolloid dressings are urgent and inevitable. Herein, adhesion loss mechanism of hydrocolloid dressings was investigated using sodium carbo...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 5, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Chromatographic Mode Transition from Size Exclusion to Slalom Chromatography as Observed for Chitosan
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Yu Kang, Xiangling Ji, Shuqin Bo, Yonggang Liu, Harald PaschAbstractElution behavior of chitosan was studied using narrow-bore size exclusion chromatography (SEC) columns packed with 8 μm porous particles at different eluent flow rates. Delayed elution of the largest chitosan species from the columns was observed at high flow rates, which was attributable to strong chain deformation rather than chain degradation. In particular, a chromatographic mode transition from SEC to slalom chromatography (SC) was observed for high mol...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 5, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research