Comparison of the effect of rhodium citrate-associated iron oxide nanoparticles on metastatic and non-metastatic breast cancer cells
ConclusionMRC act at the nucleus, inhibiting DNA synthesis and proliferation and inducing cell death. These effects were verified in both tumor lines, but MDA-MB-231 cells seem to be more responsive to the effects of NPs. In addition, NPs may also disrupt the metastatic activity of remaining cells, by reducing their migratory capacity. Our results suggest that MRC nanoparticles are a promising nanomaterial that can provide a convenient route for tumor targeting and treatment, mainly in metastatic cells. (Source: Cancer Nanotechnology)
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - September 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Multiscale modeling for cancer radiotherapies
ConclusionsMultiscale approach ’s predictive capabilities are based on the fundamental scientific knowledge. Their strength is in relation to actual physical, chemical, and biological processes that take place following the ions incidence on tissue. This makes the approach flexible and versatile to include various conditions, s uch as the degree of aeration or the presence of sensitizing nanoparticles, related to particular cases. The ideas for how the MSA can contribute to an improved optimization of therapy planning are summarized in the review. (Source: Cancer Nanotechnology)
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - August 22, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The role of shock waves on the biodamage induced by ion beam radiation
ConclusionThe effects of shock waves on the scenario of radiation damage at different values of linear energy transfer are discussed in detail including the most recently simulated chemical effects. A number of ideas of experiments, in which the shock waves could be discovered, are presented, and ideas for the future developments in this field are conveyed. (Source: Cancer Nanotechnology)
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - July 30, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Phenomenon-based evaluation of relative biological effectiveness of ion beams by means of the multiscale approach
ConclusionsGood agreement with a large set of experimental data on clonogenic cell survival, inactivation cross section, and RBE emphasizes the predictive power of the MSA. In the high-LET regime, the fact that a given number of ions may produce more damage than needed for a given biological effect leads to a significant (up to 20%) variation in RBE. Consideration of this effect in the analysis of experimental data on irradiation with high-LET ions may lead to re-evaluation of RBE in this regime. (Source: Cancer Nanotechnology)
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - May 23, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

In vitro anticancer activity of folate-modified docetaxel-loaded PLGA nanoparticles against drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant cancer cells
ConclusionsThe summarized experimental data brought us to the conclusion that the incorporation of docetaxel into the targeted PLGA nanoparticles dramatically improves its selectivity against cancer cells. (Source: Cancer Nanotechnology)
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - May 13, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Importance of radiolytic reactions during high-LET irradiation modalities: LET effect, role of O 2 and radiosensitization by nanoparticles
This article reviews radiation chemistry processes induced by high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. The first part gives a short historical introduction and defines the essential concepts of radiation chemistry. It is aimed at radiobiologists in search of basics in this discipline, to link to their biological observations. Then, special focus is done on LET effect, oxygen effect and nanoparticles as these parameters can influence the success of radiotherapy. The embraced point of view is the one from a chemist as involved molecular reactions in water are detailed and revealed, for example, how dioxygen can be produc...
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - May 13, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Use of a lipid nanoparticle system as a Trojan horse in delivery of gold nanoparticles to human breast cancer cells for improved outcomes in radiation therapy
ConclusionsThis study clearly shows that the cell cycle, GNPs, and radiation therapy can be combined to improve outcome of cancer therapy. Using the experimental data, we estimated the predicted improvement for a clinical treatment plan where 30 fractions of 2  Gy radiation dose were given over a period of time. Enhanced uptake and radiation sensitivity of a synchronous tumor cell population would produce a significant improvement in cell killing. For example, synchronizing cells and the addition of LNP–GNPs into tumor cells produced a 1000-fold enhanc ement in cell killing. Because the agents used for cell sync...
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - April 25, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Comb-like PEG-containing polymeric composition as low toxic drug nanocarrier
ConclusionThe developed PNC we studied can be qualified as a compound of grade 4 toxicity (low toxicity substance). The reduced toxicity of this PNC in combination with its improved bioavailability and previously detected capability to enhance cytotoxicity toward tumor cells in vitro and potential tumor treatment effects in vivo suggests its potential as a safe drug delivery platform for treating various diseases, especially cancer. (Source: Cancer Nanotechnology)
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - December 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Enhanced nanoparticle delivery exploiting tumour-responsive formulations
AbstractNanoparticles can be used as drug carriers, contrast agents and radiosensitisers for the treatment of cancer. Nanoparticles can either passively accumulate within tumour sites, or be conjugated with targeting ligands to actively enable tumour deposition. With respect to passive accumulation, particles  
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - November 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Towards photon radiotherapy treatment planning with high Z nanoparticle radiosensitisation agents: the Relative Biological Effective Dose (RBED) framework
AbstractA novel treatment planning framework, the Relative Biological Effective Dose (RBED), for high Z nanoparticle (NP)-enhanced photon radiotherapy is developed and tested in silico for the medical exemplar of neoadjuvant (preoperative) breast cancer MV photon radiotherapy. Two different treatment scenarios, conventional and high Z NP enhanced, were explored with a custom Geant4 application that was developed to emulate the administration of a single 2 Gy fraction as part of a 50 Gy radiotherapy treatment plan. It was illustrated that there was less than a 1% difference in the dose deposition throughout the standard and...
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - November 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

C 60 fullerene and its nanocomplexes with anticancer drugs modulate circulating phagocyte functions and dramatically increase ROS generation in transformed monocytes
ConclusionsThe antineoplastic effect of C60 fullerene has been observed by direct toxic effect on tumor cells, as well as through the modulation of the functions of effector cells of antitumor immunity. (Source: Cancer Nanotechnology)
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - October 31, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Magnetic hyperthermia of breast cancer cells and MRI relaxometry with dendrimer-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles
ConclusionsOur results encouraged the future application of G4@IONPs in magnetic hyperthermia and MR imaging. (Source: Cancer Nanotechnology)
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - October 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cisplatin-loaded hollow gold nanoparticles for laser-triggered release
ConclusionsThese results demonstrate that the photothermal property of HGNPs can be used for dual-modality photothermal therapy and NIR laser-triggered platinum-based chemotherapy. (Source: Cancer Nanotechnology)
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - August 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Gene therapy with RALA/iNOS composite nanoparticles significantly enhances survival in a model of metastatic prostate cancer
ConclusionThese studies further validate RALA as a genetic cargo delivery vehicle and iNOS as a potent therapy for the treatment of cancer. (Source: Cancer Nanotechnology)
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - June 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Gold nanoparticle mediated combined cancer therapy
ConclusionsThe experimental results demonstrate that GNP-mediated chemoradiation has the potential to improve cancer care in the near future through enhancement of the local radiation dose and controlled delivery of anticancer drugs. (Source: Cancer Nanotechnology)
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - May 2, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Antiangiogenic and antiapoptotic effects of green-synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles using Sargassum muticum algae extraction
ConclusionsOur results confirm the beneficial cytotoxic effects of green-synthesized ZnO NPs on Human liver cancer cell. This nanoparticle decreased angiogenesis and induces apoptosis, so we conclude that these nanoparticles can be used as a supplemental drug in cancer treatments. (Source: Cancer Nanotechnology)
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - April 2, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Important parameters for optimized metal nanoparticles-aided electromagnetic field (EMF) effect on cancer
ConclusionFrom the modeling and the analysis of the NPs ’ size for optimizing the EMF therapy on cancer cells, the ratio of electric field enhancement by metal NPs to the associated thermal effect is a very important factor for efficacy. (Source: Cancer Nanotechnology)
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - March 15, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The study of toxicity and pathogenicity risk of Potato Virus X/Herceptin nanoparticles as agents for cancer therapy
ConclusionsFinally, the safety of the environment was confirmed. The present research is the first study which focused on VNPs based on safety perspective that can be used for drug delivery carriers. (Source: Cancer Nanotechnology)
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - January 29, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Electrochemical and optical biosensors for early-stage cancer diagnosis by using graphene and graphene oxide
AbstractConventional instruments for cancer diagnosis including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography scan, are expensive and require long-waiting time, whilst the outcomes have not approached to the successful early-stage diagnosis yet. Due to the special properties of graphene-based nanocomposites, e.g., good electrical and thermal conductivity, luminescence, and mechanic flexibility, these ultra-thin two-dimensional nanostructures have been extensively used as platforms for detecting biomolecules and cells. Herein, we discuss the development of two types of graphene and graphene oxide-based biosensors: electro...
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - December 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Particle therapy and nanomedicine: state of art and research perspectives
AbstractCancer radiation therapy with charged particle beams, called particle therapy, is a new therapeutic treatment presenting major advantages when compared to conventional radiotherapy. Because ions have specific ballistic properties and a higher biological effectiveness, they are superior to x-rays. Numerous medical centres are starting in the world using mostly protons but also carbon ions as medical beams. Several investigations are attempting to reduce the cost/benefit ratio and enlarge the range of therapeutic indications. A major limitation of particle therapy is the presence of low but significant damage induced...
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - November 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

From basics to clinic: Cancer Nanotechnology
(Source: Cancer Nanotechnology)
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - November 10, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cancer resistance to treatment and antiresistance tools offered by multimodal multifunctional nanoparticles
AbstractChemotherapeutic agents have limited efficacy and resistance to them limits today and will limit tomorrow our capabilities of cure. Resistance to treatment with anticancer drugs results from a variety of factors including individual variations in patients and somatic cell genetic differences in tumours. In front of this, multimodality has appeared as a promising strategy to overcome resistance. In this context, the use of nanoparticle-based platforms enables many possibilities to address cancer resistance mechanisms. Nanoparticles can act as carriers and substrates for different ligands and biologically active mole...
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - October 26, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The application of titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, fullerene, and graphene nanoparticles in photodynamic therapy
AbstractNanoparticles (NPs) have been shown to have good ability to improve the targeting and delivery of therapeutics. In the field of photodynamic therapy (PDT), this targeting advantage of NPs could help ensure drug delivery at specific sites. Among the commonly reported NPs for PDT applications, NPs from zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, and fullerene are commonly reported. In addition, graphene has also been reported to be used as NPs albeit being relatively new to this field. In this context, the present review is organized by these different NPs and contains numerous research works related to PDT applications. The effec...
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - October 19, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cancer characterization and diagnosis with SERS-encoded particles
AbstractEarly diagnosis, monitoring and treatment selection of cancer represent major challenges in medicine. The definition of the complex clinical and molecular landscape of cancer requires the combination of multiple techniques and the investigation of multiple targets. As a result, diagnosis is normally lengthy, expensive and, in many cases, cannot be performed recursively. In recent years, optical biosensors, especially those based on the unique properties of plasmonic nanostructures, have emerged as one of the most exciting tools in nanomedicine, capable of overcoming key limitations of classical techniques. In this ...
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - October 18, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Platinum nanoparticles: an exquisite tool to overcome radioresistance
ConclusionsFinally, this study demonstrates the capacity of metallic nanoparticles to amplify radiation in radioresistant organisms, thus opening the perspective to use nanoparticles not only to improve tumour targeting but also to overcome radioresistance. (Source: Cancer Nanotechnology)
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - July 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

An overview of current practice in external beam radiation oncology with consideration to potential benefits and challenges for nanotechnology
AbstractOver the past two decades, there has been a significant evolution in the technologies and techniques employed within the radiation oncology environment. Over the same period, extensive research into the use of nanotechnology in medicine has highlighted a range of potential benefits to its incorporation into clinical radiation oncology. This short communication describes key tools and techniques that have recently been introduced into specific stages of a patient ’s radiotherapy pathway, including diagnosis, external beam treatment and subsequent follow-up. At each pathway stage, consideration is given towards...
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - February 3, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Biological mechanisms of gold nanoparticle radiosensitization
Abstract There has been growing interest in the use of nanomaterials for a range of biomedical applications over the last number of years. In particular, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) possess a number of unique properties that make them ideal candidates as radiosensitizers on the basis of their strong photoelectric absorption coefficient and ease of synthesis. However, despite promising preclinical evidence in vitro supported by a limited amount of in vivo experiments, along with advances in mechanistic understanding, GNPs have not yet translated into the clinic. This may be due to disparity between predicted levels of radiose...
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - February 2, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A local effect model-based interpolation framework for experimental nanoparticle radiosensitisation data
AbstractA local effect model (LEM)-based framework capable of interpolating nanoparticle-enhanced photon-irradiated clonogenic cell survival fraction measurements as a function of nanoparticle concentration was developed and experimentally benchmarked for gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-doped bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) under superficial kilovoltage X-ray irradiation. For three different superficial kilovoltage X-ray spectra, the BAEC survival fraction response was predicted for two different AuNP concentrations and compared to experimental data. The ability of the developed framework to predict the cell survival frac...
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - January 31, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Application of nanotechnology to cancer radiotherapy
AbstractRadiotherapy has been an integral treatment modality for cancer. The field arose from and progressed through innovations in physics, engineering, and biology. The evolution of radiation oncology will rely on the continued adoption of advances from other fields. A new area of science that possesses the ability to impact radiation oncology is nanomedicine. Materials on the nanoscale provide many unique properties such as enhanced permeability and retention effect and superparamagnetism that are well suited for applications in radiation oncology. In this review, we will provide a comprehensive summary on how nanotechn...
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - December 19, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Profiling lung adenocarcinoma by liquid biopsy: can one size fit all?
ConclusionWith further optimisation, this hotspot panel could allow molecular diagnostics laboratories to build curated primer banks for ‘off-the-shelf’ monitoring of ctDNA by droplet-based digital PCR or similar techniques, in a time- and cost-effective manner. (Source: Cancer Nanotechnology)
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - November 22, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Synthetic nanoparticles for delivery of radioisotopes and radiosensitizers in cancer therapy
AbstractRadiotherapy has been, and will continue to be, a critical modality to treat cancer. Since the discovery of radiation-induced cytotoxicity in the late 19th century, both external and internal radiation sources have provided tremendous benefits to extend the life of cancer patients. Despite the dramatic improvement of radiation techniques, however, one challenge persists to limit the anti-tumor efficacy of radiotherapy, which is to maximize the deposited dose in tumor while sparing the rest of the healthy vital organs. Nanomedicine has stepped into the spotlight of cancer diagnosis and therapy during the past decade...
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - November 16, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research