Kinins in Glioblastoma Microenvironment
AbstractTumour progression involves interactions among various cancer cell clones, including the cancer stem cell subpopulation and exogenous cellular components, termed cancer stromal cells. The latter include a plethora of tumour infiltrating immunocompetent cells, among which are also immuno-modulatory mesenchymal stem cells, which by vigorous migration to growing tumours and susequent transdifferentiation into various types of tumour-residing stromal cells, may either inhibit or support tumour progression. In the light of the scarce therapeutic options existing for the most malignant brain tumour glioblastoma, mesenchy...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - August 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Pleiotropic Effects of Epithelial Mesenchymal Crosstalk on Head and Neck Cancer: EMT and beyond
In this study we analysed the effects of EMC on head and neck cancer cells. In tumor cell lines EMC was induced using media conditioned from a mix-culture of cancer cells and fibroblasts. Cell proliferation and chemotherapy response were assessed using direct cell counting . Flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry of markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and subsequent TissueFaxs™ acquisition and quantification and western blot analysis were performed. Holotomographic microscopy imaging was used to visualize the effects of EMC on Cisplatin response of SCC- 25 cells. EMC induced a hybrid epithelial-mesenchym...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - July 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Ascites from Ovarian Cancer Induces Novel Fucosylated Proteins
AbstractOvarian cancer is considered to be the most lethal type of gynecological cancer. During the advanced stages of ovarian cancer, an accumulation of ascites is observed. Fucosylation has been classified as an abnormal post-translational modification that is present in many diseases, including ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer cells that are cultured with ascites stimulation change their morphology; concomitantly, the fucosylation process is altered. However, it is not known which fucosylated proteins are modified. The goal of this work was to identify the differentially fucosylated proteins that are expressed by ovarian ...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - July 2, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Pyruvate Kinase M2: a Metabolic Bug in Re-Wiring the Tumor Microenvironment
AbstractMetabolic reprogramming is a newly emerged hallmark of cancer attaining a recent consideration as an essential factor for the progression and endurance of cancer cells. A prime event of this altered metabolism is increased glucose uptake and discharge of lactate into the cells surrounding constructing a favorable tumor niche. Several oncogenic factors help in promoting this consequence including, pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) a rate-limiting enzyme of glycolysis in tumor metabolism via exhibiting its low pyruvate kinase activity and nuclear moon-lightening functions to increase the synthesis of lactate and macromolecul...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - June 10, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Immunosuppressive Tumor Microenvironment Status and Histological Grading of Endometrial Carcinoma
This study highlights significant differences in the EC intergrades immune status especially the tumor-infiltrating c ell types and their activation status as well as in the molecular factors produced by the environment. The immune microenvironment of grade 1 ECs hints at a robust tumoricidal milieu while that of higher grades is more evocative of a tolerogenic milieu. This genes-based immunological monitoring of t umors that easily highlights significant intergrade differences relating to the density, composition and functional state of the leukocyte infiltrate, could give solid arguments for choosing the best therapeutic...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - May 27, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Targeting Hyaluronan Interactions for Glioblastoma Stem Cell Therapy
AbstractEven with rigorous treatments, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has an abysmal median survival rate, greatly due to the drug-resistant glioblastoma stem cell (GSC) population. GSCs are known to remodel their microenvironment, but the precise role of extracellular matrix components hyaluronic acid (HA) and hyaluronidases (HAases) on the GSC population is still largely unknown. Our objective was to determine how HAase can sensitize GSCs to chemotherapy drugs by disrupting the HA-CD44 signaling. GBM cell line U87-MG and patient-derived D456 cells were grown in GSC-enriching media and treated with HA or HAase. Expressions...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - May 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Enhance Survival and Progression of the Aggressive Pancreatic Tumor Via FGF-2 and CXCL8
AbstractPancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remains one of the most challenging human cancers. Desmoplasia is predominant in this disease exhibiting a strong stromal reaction with an abundance of the cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). We aimed in this study to investigate the reciprocal interaction between the tumor cells and the CAFs and its effect on tumor cells survival. We hypothesized that the survival of pancreatic cancer cell with aggressive phenotype is modulated by the Interactions between malignant pancreatic tumor cells and surrounding CAFs. To examine this, we utilized co-culture methods where tumor cells with ...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - April 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Mechanobiology of Cancer Stem Cells and Their Niche
AbstractThough the existence of cancer stem cells remained enigmatic initially, over the time their participation in tumorigenesis and tumor progression has become highly evident. Today, they are also appreciated as the causal element for tumor heterogeneity and drug-resistance. Cancer stem cells activate a set of molecular pathways some of which are triggered by the unique mechanical properties of the tumor tissue stroma. A relatively new field called mechanobiology has emerged, which aims to critically evaluate the mechanical properties associated with biological events like tissue morphogenesis, cell-cell or cell-matrix...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - April 19, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Altered T Cell Migratory Capacity in the Progression from Barrett Oesophagus to Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma
This study examined the chemokine networks governing T cell migration to oesophageal tissue during disease progression. Here, we have identified that circulating T cells in OAC patients, exhibit impaired migratory capacity with decreased frequencies of Th1-associated CXCR3+ and Th17-associated CCR6+ cells. Despite the abundance of Th1 chemokines RANTES (CCL5) and MIP-1 α (CCL3) in OAC tumour, enrichments of intratumoural T cells expressing corresponding receptors were not observed. These data suggest that T cell infiltration of oesophageal tissue is compromised in OAC and suggest that future therapies targeting T cel...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - March 4, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Editorial Comment: Deciphering the “Metastasome” Leads to Novel Hypotheses on Understanding the Evolution of Metastasis and Implicates Consequences for Metastasis Therapy and Prevention
(Source: Cancer Microenvironment)
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - February 27, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Tumor Microenvironment in Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders
AbstractPost-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) cover a broad spectrum of lymphoproliferative lesions arising after solid organ or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The composition and function of the tumor microenvironment (TME), consisting of all non-malignant constituents of a tumor, is greatly impacted in PTLD through a complex interplay between 4 factors: 1) the graft organ causes immune stimulation through chronic antigen presentation; 2) the therapy to prevent organ rejection interferes with the immune system; 3) the oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), present in 80% of PTLDs, has a c...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - January 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Hypoxia Induces the Acquisition of Cancer Stem-like Phenotype Via Upregulation and Activation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 (STAT3) in MDA-MB-231, a Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cell Line
In conclusion, our data have provided the proof-of-concept that STAT3 is a critical mediator in promoting the hypoxia-induced acquisition of cancer stemness in TNBC. Targeting STAT3 in TNBC may be useful in overcoming chemoresistance and decreasing the risk of disease relapse. (Source: Cancer Microenvironment)
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - September 25, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

T-Cell Clustering in Neoplastic Follicles of Follicular Lymphoma
AbstractThe nonneoplastic microenvironment is abundant in follicular lymphoma. Its composition has been reported to be associated with the course of the disease. Lack of animal models hampers studies of interaction between lymphoma and bystander cells. We aimed to identify indicators of cellular interaction exemplified by nonrandom distribution of cell types within neoplastic follicles. Physiological germinal centers and follicles in follicular lymphoma were stained to identify macrophages, all T, follicular T-helper, dendritic and B cells. Density of cell types and cell distribution (spatial point pattern) were analyzed b...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - September 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cerebrospinal Fluid Hyaluronan and Neurofibromatosis Type 2
AbstractNeurofibromatosis type 2 (NF-2) is associated with mainly three types of recurrent benign tumors restricted to the central nervous system: schwannoma, meningioma and ependymoma. The absence of the protein NF2/Merlin causes an uninterrupted cell proliferation cascade originating from an abnormal interaction between an extracellular mucopolysaccharide, hyaluronan (HA), and schwann cell surface CD44 receptor, which has been identified as one of the central causative factors for schwannoma. Most tumors in NF-2 have a predilection to originate from either arachnoid cap cells or schwann cells of the cisternal portion of ...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - August 25, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Skewed Signaling through the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products Alters the Proinflammatory Profile of Tumor-Associated Macrophages
AbstractTumors are complex tissues composed of variable amounts of both non-cellular components (matrix proteins) and a multitude of stromal cell types, which are under an active cross-talk with tumor cells. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the major leukocyte population among the tumor-infiltrating immune cells. Once they are infiltrated into tumor stroma they undergo a polarized activation, where the M1 and M2 phenotypes represent the two extreme of the polarization heterogeneity spectrum. It is known that TAMs acquire a specific phenotype (M2), oriented toward tumor growth, angiogenesis and immune-suppression. A ...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - August 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Ascites IL-10 Promotes Ovarian Cancer Cell Migration
AbstractOvarian cancer (OC) ascites is an inflammatory and immunosuppressive tumor environment characterized by the presence of various cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. The presence of high concentrations of these cytokines/chemokines in ascites is associated with a more aggressive tumor phenotype. IL-10 is an immunosuppressive cytokine for which high expression has been associated with poor prognosis in some cancers. However, its role on OC tumor cells has not been explored. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to elucidate the role of ascites IL-10 on the proliferation, migration and survival of OC cell l...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - July 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Tumor-Associated T-Lymphocytes and Macrophages are Decreased in Endometrioid Endometrial Carcinoma with MELF-Pattern Stromal Changes
AbstractMicrocystic, elongated, fragmented (MELF)-pattern is an unusual morphology of myometrial invasive front in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EA). The aim of the study was to investigate potential correlation between MELF-pattern and peritumoral inflammatory immune response. A total of 96 out of 368 patients were included in this study. CD3, CD20, CD57. CD68 and S100 markers were used for the detection of tumor-associated T-lymphocytes (TAT), tumor-associated B-lymphocytes (TAB), tumor-associated NK-lymphocytes (NK), tumor-associated macrophages and dendritic cells respectively. Mann-Whitney tests, receiver operat...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - July 14, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Extracellular ATP is Differentially Metabolized on Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Cells Surface in Comparison to Normal Cells
AbstractThe incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer has been increasing. Nevertheless, its molecular mechanisms are not well understood. In recent years, extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides have emerged as important modulators of tumor microenvironment. Extracellular ATP is mainly hydrolyzed by NTPDase1/CD39 and NTPDase2/CD39L1, generating AMP, which is hydrolyzed by ecto-5 ′-nucleotidase (CD73) to adenosine, a possible promoter of tumor growth and metastasis. There are no studies evaluating the expression and functionality of these ectonucleotidases on normal or tumor-derived thyroid cells. Thus, we investi...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - June 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Influence of Breast Tumour-Derived Factors and Wnt Antagonism on the Transformation of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Tumour-Associated Fibroblasts
In this study, using tumour conditioned medium (TCM) derived from breast tumour cell lines – MCF7 and MDA MB 231, we have demonstrated the differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) into tumour-associated fibroblasts (TAFs). Since the Wnt signalling pathway is a key signalling pathway driving breast tumour growth, the effect of the Wnt antagonist secreted frizzled -related protein 4 (sFRP4) was also examined. The response of ADSCs to TCM and sFRP4 treatments was determined by using cell viability assay to determine the changes in ADSC viability, immunofluorescence for mesenchymal markers, gluco...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - June 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

8th International conference on Tumor Microenvironment, Lisbon, Portugal  June 10-14, 2018
(Source: Cancer Microenvironment)
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - June 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Positive Correlation between Matrix Metalloproteinases and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and its Association with Clinical Outcome in Bladder Cancer Patients
AbstractInvolvement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the pathogenesis of urothelial carcinoma elects them to be sensitive marker for clinical and prognostic implications. MMPs regulate tumor growth and invasion by inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which is characterized by the complex reprogramming of epithelial cells and ultimately bring about major changes in the structural organization of bladder urothelium. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the clinical relevance of MMPs in two distinct types of bladder cancer disease. Expression analysis of MMPs namely MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9 and EM...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - June 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Role of the Nervous System in Tumor Angiogenesis
AbstractThe development of cancer involves an intricate process, wherein many identified and unidentified factors play a role. Tumor angiogenesis, growth of new blood vessels, is one of the major prerequisites for tumor growth as tumor cells rely on adequate oxygen and nutrient supply as well as the removal of waste products. Growth factors including VEGF orchestrate the development of angiogenesis. In addition, nervous system via the release of neurotransmitters contributes to tumor angiogenesis. The nervous system governs functional activities of many organs, and, as tumors are not independent organs within an organism, ...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - June 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Exosomes: Definition, Role in Tumor Development and Clinical Implications
AbstractExosomes are microvesicles released by cells in both physiological and pathological situations. They are surrounded by a lipid bilayer with proteins derived from the origin cell, and contain a variety of molecules, such as nucleic acids. They represent an emerging mechanism of intercellular communication, and they play an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer, stimulating proliferation and aggressiveness of cancer cells, inducing a microenvironment favorable to tumor development and controlling immune responses. Because of the growing understanding of the potential implications of extracellular vesicles in t...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - June 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Immunogenomics: A Negative Prostate Cancer Outcome Associated with TcR- γ/δ Recombinations
AbstractWe developed a scripted algorithm, based on previous, earlier editions of the algorithm, to mine prostate cancer exome files for T-cell receptor (TcR) recombination reads: Reads representing TcR gene recombinations were identified in 497 prostate cancer exome files from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). As has been reported for melanoma, co-detection of productive TcR- α and TcR-β recombination reads correlated with an RNA expression signature representing T-cell exhaustion, particularly with high RNA levels for PD-1 and PD-L1, in comparison to several different control sets of samples. Co-detection of TcR...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - June 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Matrix Metalloproteinase 8: Could it Benefit the CAR-T Cell Therapy of Solid Tumors?- a- Commentary on Therapeutic Potential
(Source: Cancer Microenvironment)
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - June 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Recovery of Immunoglobulin VJ Recombinations from Pancreatic Cancer Exome Files Strongly Correlates with Reduced Survival
AbstractWe assessed pancreatic cancer, lymphocyte infiltrates with a computational genomics approach. We took advantage of tumor-specimen exome files available from the cancer genome atlas to mine T- and B-cell immune receptor recombinations, using highly efficient, scripted algorithms established in several previous reports. Surprisingly, the results indicated that pancreatic cancer exomes represent one of the highest level yields for immune receptor recombinations, significantly higher than two comparison cancers used in this study, head and neck and bladder cancer. In particular, pancreatic cancer exomes have very large...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - June 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Three-Dimensional Cellular Arrangement in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines TOV-21G and SKOV-3 is Associated with Apoptosis-Related miRNA Expression Modulation
AbstractEpithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecological malignancy, and the lack of chemoresistance biomarkers contributes to the poor prognosis. Cancer stem cells (CSC) have been investigated in EOC to understand its relationship with chemoresistance and recurrence. In this context, in vitro cultivation-models are important tools for CSC studies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in cancer, CSC regulation and apoptosis. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the tumorsphere model as CSC-enrichment method in EOC studies and investigate apoptosis-related miRNAs in tumorspheres-derived EOC cell lines. TOV-21G and...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - June 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

8th International conference on Tumor Microenvironment, Lisbon, Portugal  June 10-14, 2018
(Source: Cancer Microenvironment)
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - May 19, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Exosomes: Definition, Role in Tumor Development and Clinical Implications
AbstractExosomes are microvesicles released by cells in both physiological and pathological situations. They are surrounded by a lipid bilayer with proteins derived from the origin cell, and contain a variety of molecules, such as nucleic acids. They represent an emerging mechanism of intercellular communication, and they play an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer, stimulating proliferation and aggressiveness of cancer cells, inducing a microenvironment favorable to tumor development and controlling immune responses. Because of the growing understanding of the potential implications of extracellular vesicles in t...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - May 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Influence of Breast Tumour-Derived Factors and Wnt Antagonism on the Transformation of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Tumour-Associated Fibroblasts
In this study, using tumour conditioned medium (TCM) derived from breast tumour cell lines – MCF7 and MDA MB 231, we have demonstrated the differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) into tumour-associated fibroblasts (TAFs). Since the Wnt signalling pathway is a key signalling pathway driving breast tumour growth, the effect of the Wnt antagonist secreted frizzled -related protein 4 (sFRP4) was also examined. The response of ADSCs to TCM and sFRP4 treatments was determined by using cell viability assay to determine the changes in ADSC viability, immunofluorescence for mesenchymal markers, gluco...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - April 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Peripheral Blood Cell Interactions of Cancer-Derived Exosomes Affect Immune Function
AbstractCancer-derived exosomes are constitutively produced and secreted into the blood and biofluids of their host patients providing a liquid biopsy for early detection and diagnosis. Given their ubiquitous nature, cancer exosomes influence biological mechanisms that are beneficial to the tumor cells where they are produced and the microenvironment in which these tumors exist. Accumulating evidence suggests that exosomes transport proteins, lipids, DNA, mRNA, miRNA and long non coding RNA (lncRNA) for the purpose of cell-cell and cell-extracellular communication. These exosomes consistently reflect the status as well as ...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - March 30, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Matrix Metalloproteinase 8: Could it Benefit the CAR-T Cell Therapy of Solid Tumors?- a- Commentary on Therapeutic Potential
(Source: Cancer Microenvironment)
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - March 27, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Role of the Nervous System in Tumor Angiogenesis
AbstractThe development of cancer involves an intricate process, wherein many identified and unidentified factors play a role. Tumor angiogenesis, growth of new blood vessels, is one of the major prerequisites for tumor growth as tumor cells rely on adequate oxygen and nutrient supply as well as the removal of waste products. Growth factors including VEGF orchestrate the development of angiogenesis. In addition, nervous system via the release of neurotransmitters contributes to tumor angiogenesis. The nervous system governs functional activities of many organs, and, as tumors are not independent organs within an organism, ...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - March 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Extracellular ATP is Differentially Metabolized on Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Cells Surface in Comparison to Normal Cells
AbstractThe incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer has been increasing. Nevertheless, its molecular mechanisms are not well understood. In recent years, extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides have emerged as important modulators of tumor microenvironment. Extracellular ATP is mainly hydrolyzed by NTPDase1/CD39 and NTPDase2/CD39L1, generating AMP, which is hydrolyzed by ecto-5 ′-nucleotidase (CD73) to adenosine, a possible promoter of tumor growth and metastasis. There are no studies evaluating the expression and functionality of these ectonucleotidases on normal or tumor-derived thyroid cells. Thus, we investi...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - February 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Recovery of Immunoglobulin VJ Recombinations from Pancreatic Cancer Exome Files Strongly Correlates with Reduced Survival
AbstractWe assessed pancreatic cancer, lymphocyte infiltrates with a computational genomics approach. We took advantage of tumor-specimen exome files available from the cancer genome atlas to mine T- and B-cell immune receptor recombinations, using highly efficient, scripted algorithms established in several previous reports. Surprisingly, the results indicated that pancreatic cancer exomes represent one of the highest level yields for immune receptor recombinations, significantly higher than two comparison cancers used in this study, head and neck and bladder cancer. In particular, pancreatic cancer exomes have very large...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - February 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Immunogenomics: A Negative Prostate Cancer Outcome Associated with TcR- γ/δ Recombinations
AbstractWe developed a scripted algorithm, based on previous, earlier editions of the algorithm, to mine prostate cancer exome files for T-cell receptor (TcR) recombination reads: Reads representing TcR gene recombinations were identified in 497 prostate cancer exome files from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). As has been reported for melanoma, co-detection of productive TcR- α and TcR-β recombination reads correlated with an RNA expression signature representing T-cell exhaustion, particularly with high RNA levels for PD-1 and PD-L1, in comparison to several different control sets of samples. Co-detection of TcR...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - January 22, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Positive Correlation between Matrix Metalloproteinases and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and its Association with Clinical Outcome in Bladder Cancer Patients
AbstractInvolvement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the pathogenesis of urothelial carcinoma elects them to be sensitive marker for clinical and prognostic implications. MMPs regulate tumor growth and invasion by inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which is characterized by the complex reprogramming of epithelial cells and ultimately bring about major changes in the structural organization of bladder urothelium. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the clinical relevance of MMPs in two distinct types of bladder cancer disease. Expression analysis of MMPs namely MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9 and EM...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - January 18, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Three-Dimensional Cellular Arrangement in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines TOV-21G and SKOV-3 is Associated with Apoptosis-Related miRNA Expression Modulation
AbstractEpithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecological malignancy, and the lack of chemoresistance biomarkers contributes to the poor prognosis. Cancer stem cells (CSC) have been investigated in EOC to understand its relationship with chemoresistance and recurrence. In this context, in vitro cultivation-models are important tools for CSC studies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in cancer, CSC regulation and apoptosis. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the tumorsphere model as CSC-enrichment method in EOC studies and investigate apoptosis-related miRNAs in tumorspheres-derived EOC cell lines. TOV-21G and...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - January 6, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Impact of Microenvironment on the Synovial Sarcoma Transcriptome
AbstractSynovial sarcoma (SS) is initiated by at(X;18) chromosomal translocation and resultantSS18-SSX fusion oncogene. Only a few SS cell lines exist. None has been compared to its source tumor. In order to compare matched tumor and cell line pairs, we performed RNAseq on 3 tumor/cell line pairs from a genetically engineered mouse model of SS, as well as 2 pairs from human SS tumors. Transcriptomes of mouse tumors and derivative cell lines deviated significantly. Differentially expressed genes highlighted inflammatory infiltrates and metabolism. The same was found for the human tumor and cell line pairs. More was shared b...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - December 1, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Correlation of Circulating CD64 + /CD163 + Monocyte Ratio and stroma/peri-tumoral CD163 + Monocyte Density with Human Papillomavirus Infected Cervical Lesion Severity
This study aimed to investigate circulating monocyte populations correlated with M2 phenotype density and its activity in HPV infected cervical lesions. HPV DNA was investigated in cervical tissues using PCR. High risk HPV E6/E7 mRNA was detected using in situ hybridization. CD163 immunohistochemical staining was performed for M2 macrophage. CD163 and Arg1 mRNA expression were detected using real-time PCR. Circulating monocyte subpopulations were analyzed using flow cytometry. CD163 and Arg1 mRNA expression were increased according to cervical lesion severity and corresponding with density of M2 macrophage in HSIL and SCC ...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - December 1, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Upregulation of Treg-Related Genes in Addition with IL6 Showed the Significant Role for the Distant Metastasis in Colorectal Cancer
AbstractT helper 17 (Th17) and T regulatory (Treg) cytokines appear to be contributing greatly to colorectal cancer (CRC) development and progression. The aim of the current study was to investigate the expression ofFoxp3;IL10;TGFB1;IL17A;IL6 andNOS2 genes in tumor tissue, regional positive lymph nodes and distant metastasis obtained from 26 patients with advanced CRC. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed for mRNA detection by TaqMan gene expression assay. In distant metastasis,IL6 was strongly expressed, over 7.5 fold, followed by Treg-related genesFoxp3;IL10 andTGFB1 in contrast toIL17A a...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - December 1, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

SR 11302, an AP-1 Inhibitor, Reduces Metastatic Lesion Formation in Ex Vivo 4D Lung Cancer Model
AbstractActivator protein (AP) -1 is a transcription factor, plays important role in cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Analysis of tumor cells grown onex vivo 4D lung cancer model shows increase in components of AP-1, c-Fos and c-Jun in circulating tumor cells (CTC) compared to primary tumor. Our aim was to determine whether the AP-1 inhibitor SR11302 reduces metastatic lesion formation in the 4D model. Human lung cancer cell lines A549, H1299, and H460 were grown in the 4D model and treated with SR11302 (1  μM). We compared the number of cells in the metastatic site upon SR11302 treatment and numb...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - November 24, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Prognostic Prediction of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma by E-Cadherin and N-Cadherin Expression in Overall Cells in Tumor Nests or Tumor Cells at the Invasive Front
AbstractEpithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a significant process in the invasion and metastasis of cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and the cadherin switch has been identified as one of the hallmarks of EMT. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the significance of the cadherin switch in the prognosis of OSCC and generate a model for prognostic predictions. Seventy-six biopsy and/or initial surgical specimens from OSCC patients were immunohistochemically analyzed for the expression of E-cadherin and N-cadherin in either overall OSCC cells in tumor nests or in OSCC cells at the invasive ...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - November 2, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research