Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and colorectal cancer survival
ConclusionsIndependent of body mass index and prognostic indicators, CRC patients with pre-existing NAFLD had a worse prognosis than those without NAFLD. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - November 15, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Serum glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol in relation to prostate cancer death in the Swedish AMORIS study
ConclusionOur results suggest that glucose levels may influence prostate cancer survival, but further studies using repeated measurements are needed to further elucidate how glucose levels may influence prostate cancer progression. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - November 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Concordance of cancer registry and self-reported race, ethnicity, and cancer type: a report from the American Cancer Society ’s studies of cancer survivors
ConclusionsWe observed strong concordance between cancer registry data and self-report for cancer type in this national sample. For race and ethnicity, however, concordance varied significantly, with the poorest concordances observed for American Indian/Alaska Native and Asian/Pacific Islander survivors. Ensuring accurate recording of race/ethnicity data in registries is crucial for monitoring cancer trends and addressing cancer disparities among cancer survivors. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - November 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Racial disparities in eligibility for low-dose computed tomography lung cancer screening among older adults with a history of smoking
This study aimed to examine whether current screening guidelines may disproportionately exclude African American smokers who are at higher overall risk for lung cancer.MethodsData from the 2014 Health and Retirement Study were analyzed. Older African Americans and Whites with a history of smoking were included in the analyses (n = 7,348). Eligibility criteria established by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) for LDCT lung cancer screening were used. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine racial differences in eligibility for LDCT lung cancer screening.ResultsOverall,...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - October 30, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Chronic comorbidities and cervical cancer screening and adherence among US-born and foreign-born women
This study examined the associations between chronic comorbidities and Pap screening recommendations and adherence, and whether these associations vary between foreign- and US-born women.MethodsIn 2017, data from the 2012 and 2015 National Health Interview Survey on women aged 21 –65 years (N = 20,080) were analyzed. Bivariate associations between chronic comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, and obesity) and cervical cancer screening recommendation and adherence (screened in the last 3 years) were examined using Chi-square analysis. Multivariate binary logistic regression was use d to examin...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - October 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Low T-cell subsets prior to development of virus-associated cancer in HIV-seronegative men who have sex with men
AbstractImmunological parameters that influence susceptibility to virus-associated cancers in HIV-seronegative individuals are unclear. We conducted a case –control cohort study of immunological parameters associated with development of incident virus-associated cancers among 532 HIV-seronegative men who have sex with men (MSM) enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) with median (IQR) 21 (8–26) years of follow-up. Thirty-two incident v irus-associated cancers (anal cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, liver cancer, other cancers with etiologies linked to human papillomavirus, Epstein–Barr virus, hep...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - October 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Correction to: Differences in cancer survival by sex: a population-based study using cancer registry data
Discussion section was inadvertently missed and is provided below. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - October 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Mendelian randomization does not support serum calcium in prostate cancer risk
ConclusionsOur Mendelian randomization analysis does not support the hypothesis that serum calcium increases risk of overall or advanced prostate cancer. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - October 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Nutritional epidemiology and cancer: A Tale of Two Cities
AbstractRecently, Ioannidis questioned whether nutritional epidemiology could be reconciled with good scientific principles, and suggested that the field needs radical reform. One of the reforms he advocated was more randomized trials; though what diet would be tested and how it would be measured were unspecified, how adherence would be monitored was unclear or unimportant, and the length of time vaguely stated as “lifelong”. The other reform was reanalysis of shared data, which actually already exists in a large number of cohort consortia of individual pooled data. The 2018 report analysis of diet and cancer f...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - October 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Acceptability of two- versus three-dose human papillomavirus vaccination schedule among providers and mothers of adolescent girls: a mixed-methods study in five countries
ConclusionsAdolescent vaccination providers and mothers preferred the 2-dose over 3-dose HPV vaccination schedule. Acceptability of a 2-dose HPV vaccination could be improved with additional information to providers and mothers on HPV vaccination safety and efficacy. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - October 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A qualitative study of Realtor knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to radon health effects: implications for comprehensive cancer control
ConclusionsThese findings suggest that attitudes and practices vary among Realtors and that additional educational resources about radon as a cancer risk factor may be beneficial. When comprehensive cancer control programs update their plans, they may want to add objectives, strategies, or activities to reduce radon exposure and prevent lung cancer. These activities could include partnering with Realtors to improve their knowledge, attitudes, and practices about radon, as well as developing and distributing radon educational resources. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - October 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Effects of program scale-up on time to resolution for patients with abnormal screening mammography results
AbstractPurposeEffects of geographic program expansion to rural areas on screening program outcomes are understudied. We sought to determine whether time-to-resolution (TTR) varied significantly by service delivery time period, location, and participant characteristics across 19 North Texas counties.MethodsWe calculated proportions undergoing diagnostic follow-up and resolved  ≤ 60 days. We calculated median TTR for each time period and abnormal result BI-RADS 0, 4, 5. Cox proportional hazards regressions estimated time period and patient characteristic effects on TTR. Wilcoxon rank sum tests evaluated whe...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - October 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Impact of individual and neighborhood factors on socioeconomic disparities in localized and advanced prostate cancer risk
ConclusionsThese results demonstrate the importance of specific neighborhood social and built environment factors in understanding risk of localized prostate cancer. Further research is needed to understand the factors underpinning the associations between individual- and neighborhood-level SES and risk of advanced prostate cancer. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - October 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Intersectional nativity and racial/ethnic disparities in human papillomavirus vaccination initiation among U.S. women: a national population-based study
ConclusionsWe observed pronounced HPV vaccination initiation disparities among foreign-born women in relation to race/ethnicity and between foreign-born women from minoritized racial/ethnic backgrounds and U.S.-born white women. Research on nativity disparities in HPV vaccination should take into account race/ethnicity, and vice versa. Interventions that seek to facilitate HPV vaccination among foreign-born women are needed and should address the unique needs of those from minoritized racial/ethnic backgrounds to promote cancer equity. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - October 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Sleep apnea and subsequent cancer incidence
ConclusionThese findings suggest an elevated cancer burden, particularly at certain sites, among individuals with diagnosed sleep apnea. Results should be interpreted with caution due to unmeasured confounders (e.g., BMI, diabetes). (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - October 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Indoor tanning and the risk of developing non-cutaneous cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionWhen controlling for sun exposure, indoor tanning does not protect against solid non-cutaneous cancers and may increase the risk of some hematologic malignancies. Given the well-established relationship with skin cancer and potential relationship with hematologic malignancies, efforts to reduce the use of indoor tanning devices should continue. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - October 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Childhood diet and growth in boys in relation to timing of puberty and adult height: the Longitudinal Studies of Child Health and Development
AbstractPurposeTo begin to explore the possible roles of childhood diet and growth in prostate cancer (PCa) development, we investigated these exposures in relation to two known/suspected PCa risk factors, earlier pubertal timing and greater attained height, in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Health and Development.MethodsWe used biannual/annual height, weight, and dietary history data to investigate childhood diet, body mass index (BMI), birth length, and childhood height in relation to PCa risk factors (age at peak height velocity (APHV), height at age 13, and adult height) for 64 Caucasian American boys.ResultsIn adju...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - October 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Review of non-clinical risk models to aid prevention of breast cancer
In conclusion, it is clear that there is still a need to develop a more reliable model for estimating breast cancer risk which has a good calibration, ability to accurately discriminate high risk and with better generalizability across populations. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - October 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The relationship between diabetes, prostate-specific antigen screening tests, and prostate cancer
ConclusionsOur findings provide additional evidence that detection bias is likely contributing to the lower rates of low- and intermediate-grade prostate cancers. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - October 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Temporal reliability of serum soluble and endogenous secretory receptors for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE and esRAGE) in healthy women
ConclusionOur results indicate that a single measurement of serum sRAGE and esRAGE is a sufficiently reliable measure of their usual levels that can be used in epidemiologic studies. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - October 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Racial variation in receipt of quality radiation therapy for prostate cancer
AbstractPurposeRacial disparities are apparent in the management and outcomes for prostate cancer; however, disparities in compliance to quality measures for radiation therapy for prostate cancer have not been previously studied. Therefore, the goal of the study was to characterize disparities in the compliance rates with quality measures.MethodsThe comparative effectiveness analysis of radiation therapy and surgery study is a population-based, prospective cohort study that enrolled 3708 men with clinically localized prostate cancer from 2011 to 2012. Compliance with 5 radiation-specific quality measures endorsed by nation...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - October 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Benign gynecologic conditions are associated with ovarian cancer risk in African-American women: a case –control study
ConclusionA self-reported history of endometriosis among African-American women was associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer. Having multiple benign gynecologic conditions also increased ovarian cancer risk. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - September 29, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The association of metformin use with prostate cancer aggressiveness among Black Americans and White Americans in a population-based study
ConclusionsThe association between metformin use and prostate cancer aggressiveness may be modified by race. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - September 28, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Risk of colon cancer recurrence in relation to diabetes
ConclusionsThe risk of colon cancer recurrence appears to be similar in patients with and without diabetes at diagnosis.ImpactFuture studies should evaluate the association between diabetes and colorectal cancer outcomes, especially second primary colon cancers, in larger populations. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - September 22, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Lung cancer screening: an emerging cancer control issue presents opportunities for an awareness campaign in rural Michigan
AbstractLung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States representing about 25% of all cancer deaths. The risk from smoking has increased over time with racial/ethnic minorities and disadvantaged populations having higher smoking rates and experiencing greater burden of lung cancer compared to other populations. Rural populations, in particular, experience higher rates of tobacco usage associated with increased incidence of lung cancer. National efforts to identify lung cancer in its early stage would greatly benefit high-risk populations, consequently reducing advanced cancers and potentially decreas...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - September 18, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Regular physical activity and mammographic density: a cohort study
ConclusionsPhysical activity is not a determinant of MD. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - September 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Differences in cancer survival by sex: a population-based study using cancer registry data
AbstractPurposeFew large-scale studies have investigated sex differences in cancer survival and little is known about their temporal and age-related patterns.MethodsWe used cancer registry data for first primary cancers diagnosed between 1982 and 2015 in Victoria, Australia. Cases were followed until the end of 2015 through linkage to death registries. Differences in survival were assessed for 25 cancers using the Pohar-Perme estimator of net survival and the excess mortality rate ratio (EMRR) adjusting for age and year of diagnosis.ResultsFive-year net survival for all cancers combined was lower for men (47.1%; 95% CI 46....
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - September 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Regular physical activity and mammographic density: a cohort study
ConclusionsPhysical activity is not a determinant of MD. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - September 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Hospitalization and mortality among pediatric cancer survivors: a population-based study
We examined serious long-term outcomes among childhood cancer survivors using population-based data.MethodsWe used 1982 –2014 Washington State data to compare hospitalization and/or death (including cause-specific) during up to 27 years follow-up among all 5+ year childhood cancer survivors
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - September 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Review of non-clinical risk models to aid prevention of breast cancer
In conclusion, it is clear that there is still a need to develop a more reliable model for estimating breast cancer risk which has a good calibration, ability to accurately discriminate high risk and with better generalizability across populations. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - September 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The influence of neighborhood socioeconomic status and ethnic enclave on endometrial cancer mortality among Hispanics and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders in California
ConclusionsMortality risk varied by nSES and ethnic enclave among Hispanics and AAPIs. Women living in lower SES communities experienced significantly higher risk, highlighting the need to identify the specific neighborhood factors underlying these associations so that community-based interventions may be properly targeted. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - September 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Colorectal cancer incidence among Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites in the United States
AbstractPurposeColorectal cancer (CRC) incidence has declined over the past two decades; however, these declines have not occurred equally in all populations. To better understand the impact of CRC among Hispanics, we examined incidence trends by age and Hispanic ethnicity.MethodsUsing data from the National Program of Cancer Registries and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, we estimated CRC incidence rates during the period 2001 –2014, and across all 50 U.S. states. We estimated incidence rates in younger (age 
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - August 28, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Occupational variation in the risk of female breast cancer in the Nordic countries
This study aimed to determine occupational variations in the incidence of breast cancer in the population-based cohort of Nordic Occupational Cancer Study (NOCCA).MethodsThe study included long-term follow-up data from almost 7.5  million Nordic women. Participants were assigned to one of the 54 occupational categories based on census records at the ages of 30–64 years. Sixty-two thousand cases of breast cancer were identified through record linkages between nationwide cancer registries in Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmar k, and Iceland, followed up between 1961 and 2005. Country-specific standardized incide...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - August 27, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Effects of program scale-up on time to resolution for patients with abnormal screening mammography results
AbstractPurposeEffects of geographic program expansion to rural areas on screening program outcomes are understudied. We sought to determine whether time-to-resolution (TTR) varied significantly by service delivery time period, location, and participant characteristics across 19 North Texas counties.MethodsWe calculated proportions undergoing diagnostic follow-up and resolved  ≤ 60 days. We calculated median TTR for each time period and abnormal result BI-RADS 0, 4, 5. Cox proportional hazards regressions estimated time period and patient characteristic effects on TTR. Wilcoxon rank sum tests evaluated whe...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - August 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Impact of individual and neighborhood factors on socioeconomic disparities in localized and advanced prostate cancer risk
ConclusionsThese results demonstrate the importance of specific neighborhood social and built environment factors in understanding risk of localized prostate cancer. Further research is needed to understand the factors underpinning the associations between individual- and neighborhood-level SES and risk of advanced prostate cancer. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - August 22, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Intersectional nativity and racial/ethnic disparities in human papillomavirus vaccination initiation among U.S. women: a national population-based study
ConclusionsWe observed pronounced HPV vaccination initiation disparities among foreign-born women in relation to race/ethnicity and between foreign-born women from minoritized racial/ethnic backgrounds and U.S.-born white women. Research on nativity disparities in HPV vaccination should take into account race/ethnicity, and vice versa. Interventions that seek to facilitate HPV vaccination among foreign-born women are needed and should address the unique needs of those from minoritized racial/ethnic backgrounds to promote cancer equity. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - August 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Sleep apnea and subsequent cancer incidence
ConclusionThese findings suggest an elevated cancer burden, particularly at certain sites, among individuals with diagnosed sleep apnea. Results should be interpreted with caution due to unmeasured confounders (e.g., BMI, diabetes). (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - August 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Childhood diet and growth in boys in relation to timing of puberty and adult height: the Longitudinal Studies of Child Health and Development
AbstractPurposeTo begin to explore the possible roles of childhood diet and growth in prostate cancer (PCa) development, we investigated these exposures in relation to two known/suspected PCa risk factors, earlier pubertal timing and greater attained height, in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Health and Development.MethodsWe used biannual/annual height, weight, and dietary history data to investigate childhood diet, body mass index (BMI), birth length, and childhood height in relation to PCa risk factors (age at peak height velocity (APHV), height at age 13, and adult height) for 64 Caucasian American boys.ResultsIn adju...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - August 14, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Indoor tanning and the risk of developing non-cutaneous cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionWhen controlling for sun exposure, indoor tanning does not protect against solid non-cutaneous cancers and may increase the risk of some hematologic malignancies. Given the well-established relationship with skin cancer and potential relationship with hematologic malignancies, efforts to reduce the use of indoor tanning devices should continue. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - August 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Temporal reliability of serum soluble and endogenous secretory receptors for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE and esRAGE) in healthy women
ConclusionOur results indicate that a single measurement of serum sRAGE and esRAGE is a sufficiently reliable measure of their usual levels that can be used in epidemiologic studies. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - August 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Racial variation in receipt of quality radiation therapy for prostate cancer
AbstractPurposeRacial disparities are apparent in the management and outcomes for prostate cancer; however, disparities in compliance to quality measures for radiation therapy for prostate cancer have not been previously studied. Therefore, the goal of the study was to characterize disparities in the compliance rates with quality measures.MethodsThe comparative effectiveness analysis of radiation therapy and surgery study is a population-based, prospective cohort study that enrolled 3708 men with clinically localized prostate cancer from 2011 to 2012. Compliance with 5 radiation-specific quality measures endorsed by nation...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - August 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The relationship between diabetes, prostate-specific antigen screening tests, and prostate cancer
ConclusionsOur findings provide additional evidence that detection bias is likely contributing to the lower rates of low- and intermediate-grade prostate cancers. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - August 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research