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Serum osteoprotegerin levels and mammographic density among high-risk women
ConclusionsThese findings suggest that low OPG levels may be associated with high mammographic density, particularly in postmenopausal women. Targeting RANK signaling may represent a plausible, non-surgical prevention option for high-risk women with high mammographic density, especially those with low circulating OPG levels. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - April 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Dietary patterns and prostate cancer risk in Japanese: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study)
ConclusionOur results suggest that a western-style diet may lead to a higher risk of prostate cancer in the total population, whereas the prudent diet contributes to a lower risk among subjects detected by subjective symptoms. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - April 18, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Hormone replacement therapy, mammographic density, and breast cancer risk: a cohort study
ConclusionsMD partially mediates some of the association between HRT and breast cancer risk. The association between HRT and breast cancer seems to be stronger in women with dense breasts. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - April 18, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Self-reported dietary flavonoid intake and serum markers of inflammation: the multiethnic cohort
ConclusionThe current results do not support a consistent association between dietary intake of flavonoids and markers of inflammatory processes. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - April 18, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of recurrence in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: a prospective cohort study
ConclusionResults from this study did not indicate a protective role for total fruit and vegetables in the development of a recurrence of NMIBC. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - April 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A healthy lifestyle index and its association with risk of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer among Canadian women
ConclusionOur findings suggest that promoting a healthy lifestyle may aid in the primary prevention of postmenopausal  breast and endometrial cancers. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - April 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts, and risk of prostate cancer outcomes in white and black men: results from the SEARCH database
We examined whether complete blood count (CBC) parameters were associated with PC outcomes and whether these associations varied by race.MethodsAnalyses include 1,826 radical prostatectomy patients from six VA hospitals followed through medical record review for biochemical recurrence (BCR). Secondary outcomes included castration-resistant PC (CRPC), metastasis, all-cause mortality (ACM), and PC-specific mortality (PCSM). Cox-proportional hazards were used to assess the associations between pre-operative neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, neutrophil –lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) with ...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - April 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Sociodemographic disparities in the occurrence of medical conditions among adolescent and young adult Hodgkin lymphoma survivors
ConclusionStrategies to improve health care utilization for surveillance and secondary prevention among AYA HL survivors at increased risk of medical conditions may improve outcomes. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - April 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Interactions of coffee consumption and postmenopausal hormone use in relation to breast cancer risk in UK Biobank
This study included 126,182 postmenopausal women (2,636 with breast cancer and 123,546 without) from UK Biobank. Cancer diagnoses were ascertained through the linkage to the UK National Health Service Central Registers. Information on breast cancer risk factors and coffee consumption was collected at baseline and updated during follow-up. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate associations between coffee consumption and breast cancer, overall and in stratified analyses by woman ’s PMH status (none, past, current).ResultsIn the overall analysis, coffee consumption was not associated with breast cancer...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - April 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

An update in international trends in incidence rates of thyroid cancer, 1973 –2007
ConclusionsOur analysis of the published CI5 data illustrates that the incidence of thyroid cancer increased between 1998 –2002 and 2003–2007 in most populations worldwide, and rising rates continue in all regions of the world. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - April 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Maternal consumption of coffee and tea during pregnancy and risk of childhood ALL: a pooled analysis from the childhood Leukemia International Consortium
ConclusionsDespite some limitations, our findings suggest that high coffee intake during pregnancy may increase risk of childhood ALL. Thus, current advice to limit caffeine intake during pregnancy to reduce risk of preterm birth may have additional benefits. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - March 29, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Prospective evaluation of serum IL-16 and risk of prostate cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial
ConclusionsThis study found evidence that higher pre-diagnostic IL-16 levels may be associated with increased risk of high-grade disease, supporting inflammation as potential mechanism by which sexually transmitted diseases may increase risk. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - March 28, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A spatiotemporal analysis of invasive cervical cancer incidence in the state of Maryland between 2003 and 2012
ConclusionIn recent periods, some Maryland counties have experienced anomalously high or low ICC incidence. Clusters of high incidence are not explained by differences in screening rates and may be due to failures in follow-up care for cervical abnormalities that need to be investigated. Clusters of low incidence may represent areas of successful ICC control. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - March 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A cancer registry-based analysis on the non-white populations reveals a critical role of the female sex in early-onset melanoma
ConclusionsOur results highlight the importance of gender as one of the melanoma risk factors beyond traditional UV radiation, which warrants further investigation and may provide a base for an improved prevention strategy. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - March 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Residential traffic noise and mammographic breast density in the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort
ConclusionThe present study does not suggest an association between residential traffic noise exposure and subsequent MD in a cohort of middle-aged Danish women. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - March 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Pre-diagnostic aspirin use and mortality after breast cancer
AbstractBackgroundWhether (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - March 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Muscle-strengthening and aerobic activities and mortality among 3+ year cancer survivors in the U.S.
ConclusionsWhile muscle-strengthening activities by themselves do not appear to reduce mortality risks, such activities may provide added cancer-specific survival benefits to 3+ year cancer survivors who are already aerobically active. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - March 6, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Hysterectomy-corrected rates of endometrial cancer among women younger than age 50 in the United States
ConclusionOverall, endometrioid endometrial cancer incidence rates in the US remain stable among women of reproductive age. Routine reporting of endometrial cancer incidence does not accurately measure incidence among racial and ethnic minorities. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - March 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Trends of two HPV-associated cancers in Massachusetts: cervical and oropharyngeal cancer
ConclusionThe rising incidence rate of oropharyngeal cancer in men and the decreasing, but relatively high, incidence rate of cervical cancer in women highlight the need for further screening and prevention by HPV vaccination in Massachusetts. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - March 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The impact of historical breastfeeding practices on the incidence of cancer in France in 2015
AbstractPurposeThe purpose of the study was to estimate the number of new breast cancer cases in France in 2015 attributable to breastfeeding for durations below recommendations (at least 6  months per child), and cases prevented through historical breastfeeding. As a secondary analysis, the corresponding numbers for ovarian cancer were estimated.MethodsHistorical breastfeeding data were obtained from population surveys. Duration of breastfeeding data were obtained from the French Épifane cohort study. Relative risks were obtained from meta-analyses, cohort, and case–control studies. Cancer incidence data...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - February 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Developing new age-specific prostate-specific antigen thresholds for testing for prostate cancer
AbstractPurposeTo examine whether age-related reference ranges for “normal” prostate-specific antigen (PSA) change (determined in men without prostate cancer) can be used to identify men at high risk of having prostate cancer.MethodsSubjects were men aged 50 –69 years with PSA 
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - February 16, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A risk prediction model to allow personalized screening for cervical cancer
Conclusions and relevanceA multivariable model using data from the electronic health record was able to stratify women across a 50-fold gradient of risk for CIN2+. After further validation, use of a similar model could enable more targeted cervical cancer screening. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - February 15, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Spatial clustering of childhood cancers in Switzerland: a nationwide study
AbstractPurposeChildhood cancers are rare and little is known about their etiology. Potential risk factors include environmental exposures that might implicate spatial variation of cancer risk. Previous studies of spatial clustering have mainly focused on childhood leukemia. We investigated spatial clustering of different childhood cancers in Switzerland using exact geocodes of place of residence.MethodsWe included 6,034 cancer cases diagnosed at age 0 –15 years during 1985–2015 from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry. Age and sex-matched controls (10 per case) were randomly sampled from the national cens...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - February 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Demographic, presentation, and treatment factors and racial disparities in ovarian cancer hospitalization outcomes
ConclusionRacial disparities in ovarian cancer hospitalization outcomes persisted after adjusting for demographic and presentation factors; however these differences were eliminated after additionally accounting for treatment factors. More studies are needed to determine the factors driving racial differences in ovarian cancer treatment in otherwise similar patient populations. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - February 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Feasibility of analyzing DNA copy number variation in breast cancer tumor specimens from 1950 to 2010: how old is too old?
ConclusionsAssays conducted in the mid-2010s for CNVs may be feasible for FFPE tumor specimens dating back to the 1980s, but less feasible for older specimens. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - February 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Non-communicable chronic diseases and timely breast cancer screening among women of the Eastern Caribbean Health Outcomes Research Network (ECHORN) Cohort Study
We examined bivariate and multiv ariate associations of covariates and timely screening mammography.ResultsIn our sample (n = 841), 52% reported timely screening mammography. Among those with timely screening, 50.8% reported having hypertension, and 22.3% reported having diabetes. In our bivariate analyses, both diabetes and hypertension were associated with timely screening mammography. In partially adjusted models , we found that women with diabetes were significantly more likely to report timely screening mammography than women without diabetes. In our fully adjusted models, the association was no longer s...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - February 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Geospatial approaches to cancer control and population sciences at the United States cancer centers
ConclusionsThe NCI-designated Cancer Center network is increasingly pursuing geospatial, contextual, and multilevel cancer research, although many cancer centers still conduct limited to no research in this area. Expanding geospatial efforts to research programs across all cancer centers will further enrich cancer prevention and control. Similar reviews may benefit other domestic and international cancer research institutions. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - February 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Participatory implementation science to increase the impact of evidence-based cancer prevention and control
This article highlights the utility of participatory implementation science for cancer prevention and control research and addresses (a) the spectrum of participatory research approaches that may be of use, (b) benefits of participatory implementation science, and (c) key considerations for researchers embarking on such projects. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - February 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Glucosamine use and risk of colorectal cancer: results from the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort
We examined the association between glucosamine use and CRC risk among 113,067 men and women in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Glucosamine use was first reported in 2001 and updated every 2  years thereafter. Participants were followed from 2001 through June of 2011, during which time 1440 cases of CRC occurred.ResultsAs has been observed in prior studies, current use of glucosamine, modeled using a time-varying exposure, was associated with lower risk of CRC (HR 0.83; 95% CI 0.71 –0.97) compared to never use. However, for reasons that are unclear, this reduction in risk was observed for shorte...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - February 6, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Heterogeneous impacts: adverse childhood experiences and cancer screening
ConclusionsMost significant associations showed that specific ACEs were associated with lower odds of cancer screening. Therefore, efforts should be made to promote screening among those with histories of ACEs. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - February 6, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Challenges in assessing the real incidence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: 16  years of epidemiological data from the province of Girona, Spain
AbstractDetermining chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) incidence is challenging for two reasons: cancer registries tend to underreport CLL cases and its diagnostic criteria changed markedly in 2008. No studies have reported incidence rates dealing with both difficulties, and thus CLL/SLL burden in Europe is currently uncertain. Herein, we present accurate CLL/SLL incidence in a Spanish region during 1998 –2013, using the population-based Girona Cancer Registry (GCR). We detected an 18.2% under-reporting of CLL/SLL cases when combining records from the GCR and additional information so...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - January 30, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Ranking composite Cancer Burden Indices for geographic regions: point and interval estimates
ConclusionThe measures developed for estimating composite cancer burden indices and the simulated CIs provide valuable information to guide cancer prevention and control effort. Caution should be taken when interpreting ranks from small population geographic units where the CIs for the ranks overlap considerably. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - January 25, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Proanthocyanidins and the risk of prostate cancer in Italy
AbstractProanthocyanidins are  polymers of monomeric unit flavan-3-ols with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities. We investigated the association between proanthocyanidin intake and prostate cancer risk through data that were collected between 1991 and 2002 in an Italian case–control study , including a total of 1,294 incident, histologically confirmed cases of prostate cancer and 1,451 controls admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic, and non-hormone-related diseases. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using mu...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - January 19, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Association between average daily television viewing time and the incidence of ovarian cancer: findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study
This study aimed to elucidate the association between average daily television (TV) viewing time, which is a major sedentary behavior, and the incidence of ovarian cancer in a large-scale nationwide cohort study in Japan.MethodsA total of 34,758 female participants aged 40 –79 years without a history of cancer at baseline were included in the study. The inverse probability weighted competing risk model was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the incidence of ovarian cancer.ResultsDuring a median follow-up of 19.4 years, 59 participants developed ovarian cancer (ICD-10: C5...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - January 16, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Anthropometric characteristics and ovarian cancer risk and survival
ConclusionsOur results suggest that height and weight and their change over time may influence ovarian cancer risk and survival. These findings suggest that biological mechanisms underlying these associations may be hormone driven and may play an important role in relation to ovarian carcinogenesis and tumor progression. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - January 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Current smoking is associated with a larger waist circumference and a more androgenic profile in young healthy women from high-risk breast cancer families
AbstractThe purpose was to elucidate the interplay between current smoking, anthropometric measurements, and endogenous hormone levels in women  ≤ 40 years. Questionnaires on lifestyle and reproductive factors were completed by 269 healthy women from high-risk breast cancer families between 1996 and 2006 in Sweden. Blood samples for analyses of plasma testosterone, estradiol, androstenedione, sex hormone-binding globulin, and body me asurements were obtained 5–10 days before predicted onset of the next menstrual period. Women without smoking status, who were currently breastfeeding, or usin...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - January 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Rural –urban differences in surgical treatment, regional lymph node examination, and survival in endometrial cancer patients
ConclusionsFuture research should continue to assess the association between access to care and disparities in surgical care and the effect of these disparities on survival. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - December 27, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The performance of mobile screening units in a breast cancer screening program in Brazil
ConclusionsMSUs are a feasible method for the delivery of mammography services in this setting. Patients who had breast cancer detected on an MSU had favorable prognostic factors when compared with clinically detected cases arising from the same target population. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - December 18, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Delivery of adjuvant chemotherapy among stage III colon cancer patients at a public versus private hospital in New York City
ConclusionsThe proportions of patients with timely initiation and completion of AC were similar at a public and private hospital affiliated with a large, urban medical center. Future research should investigate how specific system-level factors help alleviate this expected difference in timely care delivery. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - December 18, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Melanoma risk assessment based on relatives ’ age at diagnosis
ConclusionsRisk for melanoma, at earlier ages than expected, is increased among relatives of individuals with a history of melanoma, particularly if the melanoma case was diagnosed at a young age. Further research on the relationship between age at diagnosis and relative ’s melanoma risk could inform melanoma screening recommendations for individuals with a family history of the disease. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - December 14, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Characterizing the neighborhood obesogenic environment in the Multiethnic Cohort: a multi-level infrastructure for cancer health disparities research
ConclusionsOur study highlights differential impacts of neighborhood factors across racial/ethnic groups and establishes the foundation for multi-level studies of  the neighborhood context and obesity-related cancers. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - December 8, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Trends in prostate cancer incidence between 1996 and 2013 in two Swiss regions by age, grade, and T-stage
AbstractPurposeTo investigate differences in prostate cancer incidence between two distinct Swiss regions from 1996 to 2013 stratified by age group, grade, and T-stage.MethodsThe dataset included 17,495 men living in Zurich and 3,505 men living in Ticino, diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1996 and 2013. We computed age-standardized incidence rates per 100,000 person-years using the European Standard Population. Trends were assessed using JoinPoint regression analysis Software.ResultsAge-standardized incidence rates were generally higher in Zurich compared to Ticino but the difference decreased over time. Incidence rat...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - December 4, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Serum lipids and risk of obesity-related cancers in postmenopausal women
ConclusionsOur results suggest that when possible sources of confounding and bias are taken into account there are few robust associations of lipids with obesity-related cancers. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - December 2, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Long-term patterns of fasting blood glucose levels and pancreatic cancer incidence
AbstractBackgroundWhether type 2 diabetes is cause or consequence, or both, of pancreatic cancer (PaC) remains unresolved. Leveraging repeated measurements of fasting blood glucose (FBG), we examined the temporal relationship between hyperglycemia and PaC incidence.MethodsWe conducted a nested case –control study of 278 cases and 826 matched-controls from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort. Over 11 years before index date (date of PaC diagnosis for cases), all participants had at least one FBG measurement in each of the three time windows: − 11 to −  8,...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - December 2, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for preterm delivery among adolescent and young adult cancer survivors
AbstractPurposeA cancer diagnosis in adolescence and young adulthood (AYA, ages 15 –39) may affect future pregnancy outcomes. Previous studies have reported an increased risk of preterm delivery (
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - December 1, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Serum cholesterol trajectories in the 10 years prior to lymphoma diagnosis
ConclusionsThis analysis is the first to examine changes in serum cholesterol for a decade prior to lymphoma diagnosis. A drop in cholesterol levels was evident several years before diagnosis. Our results suggest that cholesterol-related pathways have an important relationship with lymphomagenesis and low cholesterol could be a preclinical lymphoma marker. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - November 30, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and colorectal cancer risk: a nested case –control study in the Multiethnic Cohort
ConclusionsThis study did not find an overall statistically significant association between LBP (as a marker of LPS exposure) and CRC. Further prospective studies with multiple LBP measurements are needed to validate current findings. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - November 30, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Recreational physical activity and survival in African-American women with ovarian cancer
ConclusionsOur results suggest that RPA may be inversely associated with mortality among AA women with ovarian cancer, although it is possible that the present study was underpowered to detect an association. There is a clear need for more studies of RPA after diagnosis in EOC survivors with attention to potential differences by race. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - November 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Meat consumption and pancreatic cancer risk among men and women in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort
ConclusionsThe associations of meat consumption with pancreatic cancer risk remain unclear and further research, particularly of long-term intake, is warranted. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - November 28, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Consumption of caffeinated beverages and serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones in US men
ConclusionMen who drink coffee more frequently may have higher circulating SHBG concentration, but there were no consistent associations for soft drinks or caffeine intake. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - November 24, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research