Use of cervical cancer preventive services among US women aged 21 –29: an assessment of the 2010 Affordable Care Act rollout through 2018
ConclusionFindings raise concerns around declines in the proportion of women receiving and adhering to Pap testing guidelines. A need exists for research to examine the role of increases in HPV vaccination uptake on decreases in Pap testing. Moreover, effective strategies should target increases in cervical cancer screening uptake among women vaccinated against HPV. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - June 29, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Prostate-specific antigen testing after the US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation: a population-based analysis of electronic health data
ConclusionsFollowing the 2011 USPSTF recommendations against routine PSA screening, declines in PSA testing were observed among men of all races and across all age groups in two large US healthcare systems. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - June 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccine uptake among US rural populations: a scoping review
ConclusionAdditional research is needed on interpersonal, organizational, and community/societal factors, as well as an expanded focus on rural males. Future studies should account for rural heterogeneity by expanding the geographic areas studied. Our findings detailing factors found to be associated with HPV vaccine uptake will help inform future clinical, health services, and community  research, as well as interventions and policy efforts. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - June 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Examining breast cancer disparities in African Americans with suggestions for policy
AbstractBreast cancer is a commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among American women today. The literature suggests that African American Women (AAW) are more likely to die from the disease each year compared to their White counterparts. A biological basis for this disparity exists —early age of onset, more advanced stage of the disease, more aggressive histological changes, and worse survival. Even though mechanisms underlying these disparities are poorly understood, recent studies suggest that the poorer breast cancer outcome observed in AAW may, in part, result from un...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - June 10, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Are driver ’s licenses issued within 3 years of cancer diagnosis a valid source of BMI data?
ConclusionsThese findings suggest that self-reported driver ’s license data provide a reasonable approximation of BMI, but are less precise than interview- and questionnaire-based methods. Furthermore, the degree of bias is seemingly unaffected by measurement order and time lag, but appears to become more pronounced as BMI itself increases. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - June 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Associations between molecular characteristics of colorectal serrated polyps and subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia
ConclusionOur results suggest thatBRAF-mutant and CIMP-high serrated polyps are not associated with subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia. Among SSA/Ps,MLH1 methylation may be an important marker to identify high-risk CRC precursors. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - June 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Differences in cancer survival by remoteness of residence: an analysis of data from a population-based cancer registry
ConclusionPeople with cancer residing outside major cities had lower survival from some cancers, which is partly due to the greater socio-economic disadvantage of rural residents. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - June 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Associations of aspirin and other anti-inflammatory medications with mammographic breast density and breast cancer risk
This study included 3,675 cancer-free women within the Nurses ’ Health Study (NHS) and Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII) cohorts. Percent breast density (PD), absolute dense area (DA), and non-dense area (NDA) were measured from digitized film mammograms using a computer-assisted thresholding technique; all measures were square root-transformed. Information on medication use was collected in 1980 (NHS) and 1989 (NHSII) and updated biennially. Medication use was defined as none, past or current; average cumulative dose and frequency were calculated for all past or current users from all bi-annual questionnaires pr...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - May 31, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Preparing for the coming transnational cancer crisis amid the COVID-19 pandemic
AbstractThe continuing outbreak of the  coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has inflicted considerable burdens onto the health system of China, the world's most populous country. Remarkably, among spectrum of potential mitigation strategies, the Chinese government has implemented all-out lock downs on large geographical areas, unprecedented in the modern era. This inevitably undermined the right to healthcare of many who now faced great difficulty in getting treatment, especially those with cancer or other life-threatening issues. We elaborate and discuss the m...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - May 29, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Disadvantages for non-Hispanic whites in gastric carcinoma survival in Florida
In this study we examined, for the first time, the effect of race-ethnicity on risk of death from GC controlling for potential risk factors separately for cardia and non-cardia GCs.MethodsData on GCs diagnosed in Florida from 2005 –2016 were obtained from the statewide cancer registry. Age-standardized GC-specific 5-year survival was computed by anatomical site and race-ethnicity. In addition, a competing risk analysis was performed to assess prognostic factors and to estimate subdistribution hazard ratios of death from GC.ResultsWhites had high proportions of cardia GC (43.9%) compared to all racial/ethnic minoritie...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - May 27, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cancer mortality risk, fine particulate air pollution, and smoking in a large, representative cohort of US adults
ConclusionsExposure to PM2.5 air pollution contributes to lung cancer mortality and may be a risk factor for other cancer types. Cigarette smoking has a larger impact on cancer mortality than PM2.5 , but is associated with similar cancer types. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - May 27, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The association between smoking and risk of skin cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies
ConclusionCurrent smoking and heavy smoking were associated with a higher risk of SCC but a decreased risk of BCC and MM, while former smoking was not associated with skin cancer risk. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - May 27, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Testicular cancer in Hispanics: incidence of subtypes over time according to neighborhood sociodemographic factors in California
ConclusionWhile TGCT incidence has increased among all Hispanic men, incidence increases appear to be driven disproportionately by those residing in lower SES and lower enclave neighborhoods, particularly for nonseminoma. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - May 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Estimating the impact of increasing cervical cancer screening in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program among low-income women in the USA
ConclusionsThe reported estimates emphasize the value of cervical cancer screening program by extending LE in low-income women. Further, it demonstrates that screening a higher percentage of eligible women in the NBCCEDP may yield more health benefits. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - May 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Metabolomics profiling of visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in colorectal cancer patients: results from the ColoCare study
ConclusionThese data provide initial evidence that glycerophospholipids in metastatic colorectal cancer are uniquely associated with subcutaneous adiposity, and may impact overall survival. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - May 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Recommendations for cancer screening would be different if we measured endpoints that are valid, reliable, specific, and important to patients
We examined the interpretation of screening studies in relation to three intellectual traditions: (1) The relationship between prevention and cure; (2) Confirmation bias and the challenge of incorporating new data: less care may produce better outcomes than more care; (3) The answers to three structured questions about efficacy, effectiveness, and value of treatments proposed by Sir Archie Cochrane and Sir Austin Bradford Hill.SynthesisWhen considering extensions of life expectancy or all-cause mortality, systematic reviews typically show cancer screening to have only small effects and often non-significant effects on all-...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - May 15, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Facilitators of behavior change and weight loss in an intervention for African American Breast Cancer Survivors
ConclusionWe determined that self-efficacy, social support, and perceived access to exercise played a role in weight loss, increased MVPA, and better diet. The role of self-efficacy  and perceived access to exercise were more consistent than social support. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - May 15, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Is mammographic density a marker of breast cancer phenotypes?
AbstractPurposeTo investigate the association between mammographic density (MD) phenotypes and both clinicopathologic features of breast cancer (BC) and tumor location.MethodsMD was measured for 297 BC-affected females using qualitative (visual method) and quantitative (fully automated area-based method) approaches. Radiologists ’ description, visible external markers, and surgical scar were used to establish the location of tumors. Binary logistic regression models were used to assess the association between MD phenotypes and BC clinicopathologic features.ResultsCategorical and numerical MD measures showed no associ...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - May 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Association of KRAS mutation with tumor deposit status and overall survival of colorectal cancer
AbstractPurposeTo examine associations ofKRAS mutation with tumor deposit status and overall survival in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients.MethodsThis retrospective cohort study included patients with incidental CRC diagnosed during 2010 –2014 and recorded statuses ofKRAS and tumor deposit in the National Cancer Database of the USA. Multivariable logistic regression and time-varying Cox regression analyses were used.ResultsWe included 45,761 CRC patients withKRAS status (24,027 [52.5%] men, 24,240 [53.0%]  
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - May 11, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Replacing sedentary time with physical activity and sleep: associations with quality of life in kidney cancer survivors
ConclusionsReallocating sedentary time to MVPA, light PA, or sleep at higher doses is associated with better fatigue and physical aspects of QoL. Interventions should consider replacing sedentary time with MVPA or light PA in a gradual manner, and improve sleep quality for kidney cancer survivors. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - May 11, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Vaping epidemic: challenges and opportunities
This article is a timely, concise, and unbiased analysis of the national and international responses to the spate of vaping-related lung illnesses and deaths and the epidemic of teen vaping. In view of the recent outbreak of vaping-related lung injuries and deaths in the USA and the epidemic of teen vaping, the viewpoints and recommendations presented in this article have immediate policy implications in the USA and around the world. The perspectives and recommendations are expected to assist medical communities, public health professionals, and regulatory authorities in addressing complex issues related to vaping regulati...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - May 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Central adiposity at diagnosis may reduce prostate cancer-specific mortality in African-Caribbean men with prostate cancer: 10-year follow-up of participants in a case –control study
ConclusionOur study suggests that central adiposity as measured by WHR may improve long-term survival among men of African ancestry. Metabolic studies to understand the mechanism for this association are needed. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - May 1, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Self-reported health and survival in older patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma
ConclusionFindings suggest that low pre-diagnosis SRH is highly prevalent among older patients with MM and is associated with modestly increased all-cause mortality. Additional research is needed to address quality of life and modifiable factors that may accompany poor SRH in older patients with MM. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - April 30, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Spatial clusters  of cancer incidence: analyzing 1940 census data linked to 1966–2017 cancer records
ConclusionsEarly environments may contribute to cancer risk later in life. Life course perspectives applied to the study of cancer incidence can provide insights for increasing understanding of cancer etiology. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - April 22, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Pesticide use and risk of Hodgkin lymphoma: results from the North American Pooled Project (NAPP)
ConclusionIn the NAPP, insecticide use may increase the risk of HL, but results are based on small numbers. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - April 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The association between metabolic syndrome and Hepatitis C virus infection in the United States
ConclusionsMetS or its components are associated with an increased prevalence of HCV in some sub-populations of all ethnic/racial groups in the US. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of MetS associated with HCV is important as MetS may have a role in HCV infection treatment outcomes. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - April 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Alcohol use is not a significant contributor to myelodysplastic syndromes
ConclusionsPreviously reported associations between alcohol consumption and MDS risk were inconsistent. Results from our analyses by sex and disease subtype do not support alcohol as a significant contributor to risk of MDS. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - April 13, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The role of dwelling type when estimating the effect of magnetic fields on childhood leukemia in the California Power Line Study (CAPS)
ConclusionDwelling type does not appear to play a significant role in the MF-leukemia relationship in the CAPS dataset as a leukemia risk factor or confounder. Future research should explore the role of dwelling as an effect-measure modifier of the MF-leukemia association. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - April 10, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Translate but validate: necessary steps in improving the use and utility of cancer risk models
(Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - April 10, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Validation of two US breast cancer risk prediction models in German women
ConclusionUS BC risk models showed adequate calibration in German women. Discriminatory performance was comparable to that in US women. These models thus could be applied for risk prediction in German women. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - April 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Correction to: Infectious mononucleosis, immune genotypes, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): an InterLymph Consortium study
Unfortunately, the word ”Group” is missed in the article title of the original publication. It has been corrected by this erratum. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - March 29, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cytomegalovirus and cancer-related mortality in the national health and nutritional examination survey
Conclusion(s)Consistent with prior reports, HCMV seropositivity may be associated with an increased risk of cancer-related mortality but the association is partially driven by socioeconomic status and other risk factors. Future research is needed to determine whether HCMV is a risk factor for cancer, as well as identify the specific cancer types where HCMV increases mortality. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - March 28, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Differences in antibody levels to H. pylori virulence factors VacA and CagA among African Americans and whites in the Southeast USA
ConclusionOur findings support future studies to assess the association of differential antibody responses by race with risk of gastric cancer in the USA, which could then aid in developing targetedH. pylori eradication strategies. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - March 28, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and bladder cancer risk among postmenopausal women
ConclusionDiabetes was not significantly associated with risk of bladder cancer among postmenopausal women. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - March 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Evaluating the implementation of cervical cancer screening programs in low-resource settings globally: a systematized review
ConclusionsThe number of cervical cancer screening implementation reports is limited globally, especially in low-income countries. The 18 papers we classified as Informing Scale-up provide critical insights for developing programs relevant to implementation outcomes. We recommend that program managers report lessons learnt to build collective implementation knowledge for cervical cancer screening services, globally. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - March 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Systematic review and meta-analysis of the associations between body mass index, prostate cancer, advanced prostate cancer, and prostate-specific antigen
ConclusionThere is little or no evidence of an association between BMI and risk of prostate cancer or advanced prostate cancer, and strong evidence of an inverse and non-linear association between BMI and PSA. The association between BMI and prostate cancer is likely biased if missed diagnoses are not considered. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - March 11, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The eligibility and reach of the national breast and cervical cancer early detection program after implementation of the affordable care act
ConclusionInsurance coverage expansions may have contributed to a decrease in the number of program-eligible women. There are many more women eligible for the program than are served. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - March 10, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Diabetes and cardiovascular disease mortality among a population-based cohort of women with and without breast cancer
ConclusionWe found that the positive association between a history of physician-diagnosed diabetes and risk of all-cause and CVD-related mortality is of similar magnitude among a population-based cohort of women with or without breast cancer. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - March 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A comparison of cancer stage at diagnosis and treatment initiation between enrollees in an urban HIV clinic and SEER
ConclusionCancer care for PWH could be improved by diagnosis at earlier stages and increasing rates of cancer treatment. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - March 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Maternal and perinatal characteristics, congenital malformations and the risk of wilms tumor: the ESTELLE study
ConclusionsAlthough potential recall bias cannot be excluded, our findings reinforce the hypothesis that high birth weight and the presence of congenital malformation may be associated with an increased risk of WT. Further investigations are needed to further elucidate the possible role of maternal characteristics in the etiology of WT. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - March 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The impact of lifestyle and reproductive factors on the risk of a second new primary cancer in the contralateral breast: a systematic review and meta-analysis
AbstractPurposeThe risk of being diagnosed with contralateral breast cancer (CBC) is an important health issue among breast cancer survivors. There is an increasing interest in the effect of lifestyle and reproductive factors on CBC risk, since these factors may partly be modifiable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis and aimed to evaluate the impact of lifestyle and reproductive factors on CBC risk in population-based breast cancer studies.MethodsThe PubMed electronic database was searched up to 2nd November 2019, for relevant publications. Of the included studies, a meta-analysis per lifestyle or reproduc...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - March 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cancer –work management during active treatment: towards a conceptual framework
ConclusionsFuture research directions for developing knowledge about the cancer –work management process are proposed with suggestions for study of how cancer and job demands influence cancer treatment and employment decisions. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - March 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Infectious mononucleosis, immune genotypes, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): an InterLymph Consortium study
ConclusionsGenetic risk variants inIL1B andIL6 may affect the association between IM and TCL, possibly by influencing T-cell activation, growth, and differentiation in the presence of IM, thereby decreasing risk of immune cell proliferation. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - March 2, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Outcomes and prognostic factors for women with breast cancer in Malawi
ConclusionLate stage presentation, HER2-enriched and triple-negative subtypes, and HIV coinfection were overrepresented in our cohort relative to resource-rich settings and were associated with mortality. These findings highlight robust opportunities for population- and patient-level interventions across the entire cascade of care to improve breast cancer outcomes in low-income countries in SSA. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - March 2, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Obesity is an initiator of colon adenomas but not a promoter of colorectal cancer in the Black Women ’s Health Study
ConclusionOur results suggest that obesity might be an initiator for colon adenomas but not a promoter for colorectal cancer among Black women. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - March 2, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Risk of abnormal cervical cytology in HIV-infected women testing positive for both human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in genital tract specimens
ConclusionCervical shedding of EBV appears to predict a greater risk of cervical dysplasia in HIV-infected women with a high-risk HPV infection. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - February 28, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Endogenous estradiol and inflammation biomarkers: potential interacting mechanisms of obesity-related disease
AbstractPurposeDisentangling the effects of endogenous estrogens and inflammation on obesity-related diseases requires a clearer understanding of how the two biological mechanisms relate to each other.MethodsWe studied 155 healthy postmenopausal women not taking menopausal hormone therapy enrolled in the Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) screening cancer trial. From a baseline blood draw, we measured endogenous estradiol and 69 inflammation biomarkers: cytokines, chemokines, adipokines, angiogenic factors, growth factors, acute phase proteins, and soluble receptors. We evaluated the estradiol –inflammation ...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - February 25, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Tomato consumption and intake of lycopene as predictors of the incidence of prostate cancer: the Adventist Health Study-2
ConclusionConsumption of canned and cooked tomatoes may reduce the risk of prostate cancer. These products contain more available lycopene. However, an observational study cannot exclude confounding by some unidentified, prostate cancer preventive factor.Clinical Trial Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03615599 (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - February 25, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Antineoplastic drugs prescription during visits by adult cancer patients with comorbidities: findings from the 2010 –2016 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey
ConclusionOur study provides information about comorbidities in cancer patients being treated by office-based physicians in an ambulatory setting. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - February 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Prevalence of HPV and pathological changes among women 70  years of age, 10 years after exclusion from the Swedish cervical cancer screening program
ConclusionThe study showed considerable prevalence of hrHPV and histologically confirmed LSIL/HSIL. These data led to catch-up screening for women between 60 and 70  years when overlapping two screening strategies. (Source: Cancer Causes and Control)
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - February 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research