Distinctive targetable genotypes of younger patients with lung adenocarcinoma: a cBioPortal for cancer genomics data base analysis.
Abstract There is still limited comprehensive genotyping data about young patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Herein, next generation sequencing (NGS) data of lung adenocarcinoma patients was retrospectively analyzed to evaluate the relationship between young age at diagnosis and the comprehensive molecular characteristics. The cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics database was queried for cancer genomic studies of lung adenocarcinoma and a cohort of 773 patients with complete cancer genomics data was selected from 2 of 11 studies. The relationship between age at diagnosis and frequency of targetable genotypes was an...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - October 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hou H, Zhang C, Qi X, Zhou L, Liu D, Lv H, Li T, Sun D, Zhang X Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

DLX6-AS1 promotes cell proliferation, migration and EMT of gastric cancer through FUS-regulated MAP4K1.
Abstract Gastric cancer (GC) is the second most prevalent carcinoma resulting in cancer-related deaths in the world, with differences among geographic areas. Although the incidence and mortality rates of GC in Asia are decreasing, the search for diverse and effective therapies of GC is still needed to be fully inquired. The present research explored the expression pattern, functional role and underlying mechanism of DLX6-AS1 in GC. Firstly, we measured DLX6-AS1 expression in GC and then found the elevated level of DLX6-AS1. To further inspect the function role of DLX6-AS1 involved in GC, we performed lost-of-funct...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - October 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wu Q, Ma J, Meng W, Hui P Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

CXCR4-targeted PET imaging using 64Cu-AMD3100 for detection of Waldenstr öm Macroglobulinemia.
Conclusions: In conclusion, we developed a molecularly targeted system, 64Cu-AMD3100, which binds to CXCR4 and specifically detects WM cells with hypoxic phenotype and metastatic potential in the subcutaneous and intratibial models. These preliminary findings using CXCR4-detecting PET radiopharmaceutical tracer indicate a potential technology to predict high-risk patients for the progression to WM due to metastatic potential. PMID: 31571524 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy)
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - October 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Muz B, Bandara N, Mpoy C, Sun J, Alhallak K, Azab F, Rogers BE, Azab AK Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Mutated TP53 is a marker of increased VEGF expression: analysis of 7,525 pan-cancer tissues.
Abstract Anti-angiogenic therapies are an important class of anti-cancer treatment drugs. However, their efficacy is limited to certain tumors and would benefit from identifying a biomarker predictive of therapeutic response. TP53 (tumor protein p53) is a tumor suppressor gene frequently mutated in cancer and implicated in cell-cycle regulation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Data from 7,525 unique tumor samples (representing 30 tumor cohorts) were retrieved from the TCGA database to analyze the relationship between TP53-mutation status and VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A) expression. Univariate analyses...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - September 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Li AM, Boichard A, Kurzrock R Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Identification of anti-CD16a single domain antibodies and their application in bispecific antibodies.
Abstract CD16a (FcγRIIIa) mediates the antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and is important for anti-tumor activities of many therapeutic antibodies. Bispecific antibody targeting natural killer (NK) cells has been studied for cancer therapy. In this work, anti-CD16a single-domain antibodies were identified from hCD16a immunized camel. Bispecific antibodies are then constructed by fusing these single domain antibodies with an anti-CEA single domain antibody. These bispecific antibodies can recruite NK cells to kill CEA-positive tumor cells, and inhibit tumor growth in vivo, suggesting that these ...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - September 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zhao Y, Li Y, Wu X, Li L, Liu J, Wang Y, Liu Y, Li Q, Wang Z Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

A case of primary pulmonary atypical carcinoid with EML4-ALK rearrangement.
This article reviewed the clinical significance and drug resistance mechanism of ALK rearrangement in lung cancer. We also discussed recent and ongoing researches and applications of ALK-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ALK-TKIs). PMID: 31559892 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy)
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - September 27, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Liu N, Wang J, Fu X, Zheng X, Gao H, Tian T, Ruan Z, Yao Y Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

BMSC-derived leptin and IGFBP2 promote erlotinib resistance in lung adenocarcinoma cells through IGF-1R activation in hypoxic environment.
In this study, the effect of hypoxic cancer microenvironment in the bypass signaling activation was investigated. We found that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) residing in the hypoxic solid cancer microenvironment highly produced molecules associated with adipocytes including adipokine leptin and IGFBPs. Leptin could induce the resistance of lung cancer cells to erlotinib through activating IGF-1R signaling. IGFBP2 counteracted the activation role of IGF-1 and induced erlotinib resistance by activating IGF-1R signaling in an IGF-1 independent manner. IGFBP2 had synergistic effect with leptin to induce er...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - September 27, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wang F, Zhang L, Sai B, Wang L, Zhang X, Zheng L, Tang J, Li G, Xiang J Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Diminished S-adenosylmethionine biosynthesis and its metabolism in a model of hepatocellular carcinoma is recuperated by an adenosine derivative.
;rez L, Chagoya De Sánchez V Abstract S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), biosynthesis from methionine and ATP, is markedly decreased in hepatocellularular carcinoma (HCC) for a diminution in ATP levels, and the down regulation of the liver specific MAT1a enzyme. Its metabolic activity is very important in the transmethylation reactions, the methionine cycle, the biosynthesis of glutathione (GSH) and the polyamine pathway, which are markedly affected in the HCC. The chemo-preventive effect of IFC305 in HCC induced by DEN, and the increase of ATP and SAM in CCl4-induced cirrhosis have been previously demonstrated. T...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - September 25, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lozano-Rosas MG, Chávez E, Velasco-Loyden G, Domínguez-López M, Martínez-Pérez L, Chagoya De Sánchez V Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Combination treatment in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: can we safely boost efficacy by adding radium-223?
Abstract ERA 223, a phase III, international, multicenter, double-blind study published in Lancet Oncology, was the first randomized controlled trial to investigate combined radium-223 (Ra-223) and abiraterone acetate plus prednisone or prednisolone (AAP) therapy. The data from ERA 223 demonstrated no increase in efficacy for this combination over AAP alone, and instead identified a significant safety concern due to the higher risk of fracture in the co-treatment group. The surprising results of this trial likely stem from the compounding osteoporotic effects of the different treatments, particularly the addition ...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Knechel MA, Schmidt KT, Figg WD Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Glutamine synthetase facilitates cancer cells to recover from irradiation-induced G2/M arrest.
In this study, we demonstrate a novel role of glutamine synthetase independent of metabolic function in promoting recovery from G2/M arrest caused by ionizing radiation, thus, causing cancer cell resistance to radiotherapy. PMID: 31526079 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy)
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - September 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Peng Y, Fu S, Hu W, Qiu Y, Zhang L, Tan R, Sun LQ Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Long noncoding RNA MALAT1 knockdown inhibits progression of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma by regulating miR-200a-3p/FOXA1.
In this study, we focused on the effect of MALAT1 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, and autophagy formation in ATC and explored the interaction between miR-200a-3p and MALAT1 or FOXA1. Moreover, murine xenograft model was established to investigate the roles and mechanism of MALAT1 in ATC progression in vivo. Results showed that MALAT1 expression was enhanced and miR-200a-3p was reduced in ATC tissues and cells. Knockdown of MALAT1 or overexpression of miR-200a-3p inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion but increased apoptosis and autophagy formation in ATC cells. Moreover, miR-200a-3p was...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - September 10, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Gou L, Zou H, Li B Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Low UBE4B expression increases sensitivity of chemoresistant neuroblastoma cells to EGFR and STAT5 inhibition.
Abstract Neuroblastoma is the most common malignancy in infants. Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in neuroblastoma tumors underlies resistance to chemotherapeutics. UBE4B, an E3/E4 ubiquitin ligase involved in EGFR degradation, is located on chromosome 1p36, a region in which loss of heterozygosity is observed in approximately one-third of neuroblastoma tumors and is correlated with poor prognosis. In chemoresistant neuroblastoma cells, depletion of UBE4B yielded significantly reduced cell proliferation and migration, and enhanced apoptosis in response to EGFR inhibitor, Cetuximab. We ...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - September 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Memarzadeh K, Savage DJ, Bean AJ Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

C7 peptide inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis by targeting the HGF/c-Met signaling pathway.
Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), characterized by a high rate of metastasis and recurrence after surgery, is caused by malignant proliferation of hepatocytes with epigenetic and/or genetic mutations. In particular, abnormal activation of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-/c-mesenchymal-epithelial transition receptor (c-Met) axis is closely associated with HCC metastasis. Unfortunately, effective treatments or drugs that target the HGF/c-Met signaling pathway are still in the research pipeline. Here, a c-Met inhibitor named the C7 peptide, which can inhibit both HGF and c-Met, can significantly inhibit HGF...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - August 23, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zhao M, Wang Y, Liu Y, Zhang W, Liu Y, Yang X, Cao Y, Wang S Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Occurrence of acute myeloid leukemia in hydroxyurea-treated sickle cell disease patient.
Abstract Hydroxyurea (HU) has been widely used in sickle cell disease. Its potential long-term risk for carcinogenesis or leukemogenic risk remains undefined. Here, we report a 26 y old African-American female with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) who developed refractory/relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) 6 months after 26 months of HU use. That patient's cytogenetics and molecular genetics analyses demonstrated a complex mutation profile with 5q deletion, trisomy 8, and P53 deletion (deletion of 17p13.1). P53 gene sequence studies revealed a multitude of somatic mutations that most suggest a treatment-related etiolo...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - August 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Regan S, Yang X, Finnberg NK, El-Deiry WS, Pu JJ Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Differential response of SHH-expressing adult medulloblastomas to the sonic hedgehog inhibitor vismodegib: whole-genome analysis.
Abstract Medulloblastoma is an aggressive primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cerebellum that is more common in children than in adults. In the past decade, advances in understanding the molecular drivers of medulloblastoma have identified four molecular subgroups defined by experimental gene expression profiles: the WNT pathway, sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway, and subgroups 3 and 4 (non-SHH/WNT).  Medulloblastoma of adults belong primarily to the SHH category. Vismodegib, an SHH-pathway inhibitor, FDA-approved in 2012 for treatment of basal cell carcinoma, has been used successfully in the setting of chemor...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - August 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lou E, Nelson AC, Kool M Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Meningeal metastasis of a malignant peritoneal mesothelioma: A case report and literature review.
Abstract Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a very rare tumor originating from the peritoneal serous mesothelium. Meningeal metastasis of malignant peritoneal is even more rare. Here, we reported a case of a 60-year-old female patient with a history of exposure to asbestos for 10 years who presented with massive peritoneal effusion followed by disorder of consciousness and symptoms of cranial nerve injury. The patient was diagnosed as peritoneal mesothelioma with meningeal metastasis through neurological symptoms, cytological finding of cerebrospinal fluid combined with cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). ...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - August 14, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jiang Y, Mei Z, Cao H, Li S, Xu H, Qiu H, Liu Y Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Dual effects of an anti-CD147 antibody for Esophageal cancer therapy.
Conclusions: The in vitro and in vivo study demonstrated dual effects of Metuzumab in effectively mediating ADCC by activating effector cells, and inhibiting metastasis of esophageal cancer through blockade the function of CD147, providing justification for moving Metuzumab forward to clinical development in esophageal cancer. PMID: 31411555 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy)
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - August 14, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wang M, Zhang S, Sun Q, Yang X, Wang Y, Shang R, Zhu Y, Yao H, Li Y Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

LINC01133 promotes the progression of cervical cancer by sponging miR-4784 to up-regulate AHDC1.
Abstract Cervical cancer, as the deadliest gynecological tumor with high risk of incidence, manifests aberrantly expressed lncRNAs in the malignant cellular processes. Long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1133 (LINC01133) has been acknowledged to actively participate in aggressive tumor phenotypes. Our study focused on the identification of the function and corresponding mechanism of the novel molecule, LINC01133 in cervical cancer. LINC01133 expression profile was validated by digging The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and qRT-PCR analysis. A considerably up-regulated expression of LINC01133 was unveiled. ...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - August 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Feng Y, Qu L, Wang X, Liu C Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Prognostic and clinicopathological significance of CXCL1 in cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract Background The prognostic value of Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) in various types of cancer remains controversial. Here we aimed to evaluate the prognostic role of CXCL1 for cancer. Methods A comprehensively search of the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Wanfang and China National Knowledge Internet databases was conducted to retrieve eligible studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and various clinicopathological parameters were defined as endpoints. Stata SE12.0 software was used for quantitative meta-analysis. Results A total of 17 studie...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - August 6, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zhang Z, Chen Y, Jiang Y, Luo Y, Zhang H, Zhan Y Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Current state of melanoma diagnosis and treatment.
This article will discuss the major advancements of melanoma diagnosis and treatment from antiquity to the present day. PMID: 31366280 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy)
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - August 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Davis LE, Shalin SC, Tackett AJ Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Invasive stratified mucin-producing carcinoma: a clinicopathological analysis of three cases.
Conclusions: ISMC is a rare tumor in female genital tract and is often misdiagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma and other cervical cancers. The diagnosis mainly depends on the unique clinicopathologic features together with the immunophenotype. Treatment and prognosis, like other cervical cancer, are mainly based on clinical stages. PMID: 31362570 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy)
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - July 30, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lei R Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Reorganization of paclitaxel-stabilized microtubule arrays at mitotic entry: roles of depolymerizing kinesins and severing proteins.
Abstract Paclitaxel is a widely used anti-cancer treatment that disrupts cell cycle progression by blocking cells in mitosis. The block at mitosis, with spindles assembled from short microtubules, is surprising given paclitaxel's microtubule stabilizing activity and the need to depolymerize long interphase microtubules prior to spindle formation. Cells must antagonize paclitaxel's microtubule stabilizing activity during a brief window of time at the transition from interphase to mitosis, allowing microtubule reorganization into a mitotic spindle, although the mechanism underlying microtubule depolymerization in th...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - July 25, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Leung JC, Cassimeris L Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Utility of liquid biopsy using urine in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Abstract In recent years, liquid biopsy for blood and body fluid in cancer patients has attracted attention. However, there have been few reports of liquid biopsy focusing on urine of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In 56 patients with PDAC, DNA was extracted from urine and plasma prior to treatment, and KRAS mutations were analyzed with droplet digital PCR to examine the mutation detection rate. Our study showed that KRAS mutations were found in 27 cases (48%) in urine and 27 cases (48%) in plasma. The detection rate of urine KRAS mutations varied by renal functions. The rates were 70% (14/20) and 36% (1...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - July 22, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Terasawa H, Kinugasa H, Ako S, Hirai M, Matsushita H, Uchida D, Tomoda T, Matsumoto K, Horiguchi S, Kato H, Nouso K, Okada H Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

UNC-45A is preferentially expressed in epithelial cells and binds to and co-localizes with interphase MTs.
Abstract UNC-45A is an ubiquitously expressed protein highly conserved throughout evolution. Most of what we currently know about UNC-45A pertains to its role as a regulator of the actomyosin system. However, emerging studies from both our and other laboratories support a role of UNC-45A outside of actomyosin regulation. This includes studies showing that UNC-45A: regulates gene transcription, co-localizes and biochemically co-fractionates with gamma tubulin and regulates centrosomal positioning, is found in the same subcellular fractions where MT-associated proteins are, and is a mitotic spindle-associated protei...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - July 22, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Habicht J, Mooneyham A, Shetty M, Zhang X, Shridhar V, Winterhoff B, Zhang Y, Cepela J, Starr T, Lou E, Bazzaro M Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

CSN6 expression is associated with pancreatic cancer progression and predicts poor prognosis.
Abstract Constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 (COP9) signalosome 6 (CSN6) plays an essential role in tumor development. The present study aims to demonstrate that CSN6 is an important biomarker and has prognostic value for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We analyzed CSN6 expression levels in PDAC and adjacent non-cancerous tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis. We found that CSN6 was highly expressed in PDAC tissues, contrasting to adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Interestingly, CSN6 expression was positively associated with proliferating cell nu...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - July 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Shi J, Guan X, Zhan F, Liu C, Li Z, Yao Y, Wang B, Lou C, Zhang Y Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

MDM2 inhibitor RG7388 potently inhibits tumors by activating p53 pathway in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
In this study, we investigated the efficacy and specificity of this inhibitor in NPC cell lines, and tumor-bearing mice were used to examine the therapeutic efficacy and effects of RG7388 treatment. The results showed that RG7388 potently decreased cell proliferation and activated p53-dependent pathway, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. RG7388 significantly inhibited tumors in tumor-bearing mice. Activation of the p53 pathway-inhibited cell proliferation, as observed by detecting Ki67-positive cells. Additionally, the activity of apoptotic caspase family proteins was induced in the cleaved caspase-3-positive ce...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - July 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Fan X, Wang Y, Song J, Wu H, Yang M, Lu L, Weng X, Liu L, Nie G Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Somatic mutations in KMT2D and TET2 associated with worse prognosis in Epstein-Barr virus-associated T or natural killer-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.
Abstract Limited studies are available on the molecular pathogenesis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated T or natural killer (NK) cell lymphoproliferative disorders (EBV+T/NK-LPD). In this retrospective study, we aim to elucidate the mutation profile of EBV+T/NK-LPD using capture-based targeted sequencing with a panel consisting of 64 lymphoma-related genes to identify driver genes associated with the development of EBV+T/NK-LPD. Targeted sequencing of 169 EBV+T/NK-LPD cases was performed using a panel of 64 lymphoma-related genes. Of the 169 EBV+T/NK-LPD cases, 123 had extra-nodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL), 1...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - July 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Gao LM, Zhao S, Zhang WY, Wang M, Li HF, Lizaso A, Liu WP Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

High EGFL7 expression may predict poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Abstract Epithelial growth factor-like 7 (EGFL7) is a secretory protein with a well-characterized role in angiogenesis and the oncogenesis of certain solid tumors. Overexpression of EGFL7 is associated with adverse prognosis in patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). However, whether this association persists after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) remains unclear. To further clarify the prognostic role of EGFL7, seventy-one AML patients with EGFL7 expression data who underwent allo-HSCT from The Cancer Genome Atlas database were included and divided into ...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - July 15, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Cheng Z, Dai Y, Pang Y, Jiao Y, Liu Y, Cui L, Qian T, Quan L, Cui W, Pan Y, Ye X, Shi J, Fu L Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

The crippling financial toxicity of cancer in the United States.
This study provided corroborating and compelling data about the financial toxicity experienced by cancer patients. Many questions remain, however, about the consequences of financial toxicity and the full reality of cancer care economics in America. PMID: 31291813 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy)
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - July 10, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Collado L, Brownell I Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Two dichloric compounds inhibit in vivo U87 xenograft tumor growth.
This study evaluates eight small compounds with a conserved dichloric terminal and their in vitro and in vivo potential for anticancer activity. Initial viability screening across six cancer cell lines reveals even at 10 mg/mL, compound treatments do not result in complete cell death which suggests minimal compound cytotoxicity. Furthermore, in vivo data demonstrates that cationic dichloric compounds DCAH and DCMAH, which were selected for further testing based on highest in vitro viability impact, inhibit tumor growth in the U87 model of glioblastoma, suggesting their clinical potential as accessible anti-cancer drugs. Im...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - June 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ovcharenko D, Chitjian C, Kashkin A, Fanelli A, Ovcharenko V Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Photoimmunotherapy for cancer-associated fibroblasts targeting fibroblast activation protein in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
In this study, we have developed a novel NIR-PIT technique to target CAFs, by focusing on fibroblast activation protein (FAP), and we evaluate the treatment efficacy in vitro and in vivo. Esophageal carcinoma cells exhibited enhanced activation of fibroblasts, with FAP over-expressed in the cytoplasm and on the cell surface. FAP-IR700-mediated PIT showed induced rapid cell death specifically for those cells in vitro and in vivo, without adverse effects. This novel therapy for CAFs, designed as local control phototherapy, was safe and showed a promising inhibitory effect on FAP+ CAFs. PIT targeting CAFs via the specific mar...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - June 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Watanabe S, Noma K, Ohara T, Kashima H, Sato H, Kato T, Urano S, Katsube R, Hashimoto Y, Tazawa H, Kagawa S, Shirakawa Y, Kobayashi H, Fujiwara T Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Unexpected favorable outcome to etoposide and cisplatin in a small cell lung cancer transformed patient: a case report.
In this study, we report an unexpected favorable response to etoposide and cisplatin (EP) from an EGFR-mutant patient who developed SCLC transformation at disease progression after the administration of erlotinib with a progression-free survivalof 7.7 months. At disease progression (PD) after erlotinib, rebiopsy showed typical SCLC histology accompanied by positive expressions of CD56, TTF-1, CK7, and synaptophysin. Subsequently, he was switched to standard SCLC treatment regimen EP in combination with erlotinib due to the retention of EGFR 19 del and achieved PR four cycles after the treatment. His disease progressed agai...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - June 4, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Xie Z, Gu Y, Lin X, Ouyang M, Qin Y, Zhang J, Liu J, Mai S, Zhou C Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

LINC00958 regulated miR-627-5p/YBX2 axis to facilitate cell proliferation and migration in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
The objective of our study is to unfold function and mechanism investigation on LINC00958 in OSCC. First, TCGA database showed the upregulation and prognostic significance of LINC00958 in head and neck squamous carcinoma. Then, we discovered in OSCC clinical samples that LINC00958 presented high expression and predicted poor prognosis. Also, LINC00958 was elevated in OSCC cells. In vitro gain- and loss-function experiments proved that LINC00958 facilitated cell growth, retarded apoptosis, accelerated migration, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in OSCC. Mechanistically, we confirmed the cytoplasmic expression ...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - June 4, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Chen F, Liu M, Yu Y, Sun Y, Li J, Hu W, Wang X, Tong D Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Research progress on circularRNAs in pancreatic cancer: emerging but promising.
Abstract There is currently no diagnostic modality for early-stage pancreatic cancer. Given that adjuvant therapies require further development, the overall survival of pancreatic cancer remains unsatisfactory. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that play an important role in the progression of many diseases including cancer. CircRNAs mainly bind to microRNAs as microRNA sponges to restore the expression of targeted genes and regulate tumor invasion, metastasis, proliferation, and apoptosis. CircRNAs also play roles in the diagnosis and targeted therapy of tumors. Studies on the mechanisms of a...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - May 28, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wang YZ, An Y, Li BQ, Lu J, Guo JC Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Knockdown of LINC00511 promotes radiosensitivity of thyroid carcinoma cells via suppressing JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.
In conclusion, rescue experiments verified that the radiosensitivity of thyroid carcinoma cells was attributed to LINC00511/TAF1/JAK2/STAT3 axis. The current paper investigated the underlying mechanism of LINC00511 and set a new therapeutic direction for the therapy of thyroid carcinoma. PMID: 31135274 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy)
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - May 28, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Chen Y, Bao C, Zhang X, Lin X, Fu Y Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

De novo MET amplification promotes intrinsic resistance to first-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
Abstract First-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) could induce dramatic tumor responses in non-small-cell lung cancer patients with EGFR-activating mutations. However, a small proportion of patients have no tumor response on initial EGFR TKI treatment with an activating EGFR mutation and the primary resistance mechanism is not well understood. Here, we report the patient with primary dual MET/EGFR mutation treated with icotinib shows a disease progression, but the chest computed tomography shows the mass has significantly shrunk after 3 weeks of single-agent crizot...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - May 27, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Li JW, Cao SH, Xu JL, Zhong H Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Hematopoietic-substrate-1 associated protein X-1 (HAX-1) regulates liver cancer cells growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis through Akt.
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of hematopoietic-substrate-1-associated protein X-1 (HAX-1) on liver cancer cells. Information on HAX-1 from liver cancer patients was analyzed by the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program. Cell migration and invasion abilities were respectively tested by scratch assay and transwell assay. Tube formation assay was applied to detect angiogenesis protein and mRNA was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. We found that the median month survival of HAX-1 overexpressing liver cancer patients...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - May 27, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wu Z, Ai X, Hu H, Wang S, Wang Y, Kang F, Ouyang C, Zhu J Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Pure nongestational uterine choriocarcinoma in postmenopausal women: a case report with literature review.
Abstract Nongestational choriocarcinoma is rare, especially in postmenopausal women. It may be derived from the transformation of germ cells or dedifferentiation of other tumor tissue cells. It is usually found in the ovaries but rarely in the uterus. Pure nongestational uterine choriocarcinoma in postmenopausal women is exceptional. Thirty-four cases of choriocarcinoma have been found during the past 25 y at the Tianjin Medical University General Hospital. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of these 34 cases and found only two cases of nongestational uterine choriocarcinoma, both of which were postme...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - May 27, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wang L, Wan Y, Sun Y, Zhang X, Cheng X, Wu M, Liu G Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Schedule-dependent potentiation of chemotherapy drugs by the hypoxia-activated prodrug SN30000.
Abstract Hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAPs) are hypothesized to improve the therapeutic index of chemotherapy drugs that are ineffective against tumor cells in hypoxic microenvironments. SN30000 (CEN-209) is a benzotriazine di-N-oxide HAP that potentiates radiotherapy in preclinical models, but its combination with chemotherapy has not been explored. Here we apply multiple models (monolayers, multicellular spheroids and tumor xenografts) to identify promising SN30000/chemotherapy combinations (with chemotherapy drugs before, during or after SN30000 exposure). SN30000, unlike doxorubicin, cisplatin, gemcitabine or p...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - May 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mao X, McManaway S, Jaiswal JK, Hong CR, Wilson WR, Hicks KO Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Correction.
Authors: PMID: 31116086 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy)
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - May 22, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

GATA6-upregulating autophagy promotes TKI resistance in nonsmall cell lung cancer.
Abstract Autophagy plays a complicated role in tumorigenesis, and the effects of autophagy in drug resistance have not been fully known. The aim of this study was to evaluate autophagy activity in lung cancer cells derived from different origins and explore the mechanism regulating autophagy in tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance. We found basal level of autophagy had no significant increase in resistant H1650 and H1975 cells compared with sensitive HCC827 and PC9 cells. After erlotinib treatment, the autophagy activity enhanced threefold in H1650 cells but a little in H1975 cells. Inhibiting autophagy with...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - May 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ma R, Li X, Liu H, Jiang R, Yang M, Zhang M, Wang Y, Zhao Y, Li H Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Management of giant cell hepatitis associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia - a case series and review of the literature.
Abstract Giant cell hepatitis (GCH) is a rare diagnosis in adults that is found in 0.25% of liver biopsies. GCH has been associated with multiple causes including drugs (6-mercaptopurine, methotrexate), toxins, viruses and autoimmune. GCH has been described in few patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Here we describe three patients diagnosed with GCH thought to be related to underlying CLL and its management. All of our patients were treated with a combination of immunosuppression as well as CLL-directed therapy to address CLL and concomitant liver disease. GCH is a rare manifestation of active CLL an...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - May 15, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Rhodes JM, Schuster SJ, Furth EE, Kennard K, Nasta SD, Svoboda J, Porter DL, Mato AR Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Glioblastoma vs temozolomide: can the red queen race be won?
This article reviews the following: temozolomide discovery, chemistry, and mechanism of action, and mechanisms of resistance, as well as combination therapy with other strategies. PMID: 31068075 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy)
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - May 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Arora A, Somasundaram K Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

M2-like tumor-associated macrophages-secreted EGF promotes epithelial ovarian cancer metastasis via activating EGFR-ERK signaling and suppressing lncRNA LIMT expression.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, we demonstrated that EGF secreted by M2-like TAMs might suppress LIMT expression via activating EGFR-ERK signaling pathway to promote the progression of OC. PMID: 31062668 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy)
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - May 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zeng XY, Xie H, Yuan J, Jiang XY, Yong JH, Zeng D, Dou YY, Xiao SS Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

GRHL2 inhibits colorectal cancer progression and metastasis via oppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
In conclusion, GRHL2/ZEB1 axis inhibits CRC progression and metastasis via oppressing EMT. PMID: 31063022 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy)
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - May 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Yang Z, Wu D, Chen Y, Min Z, Quan Y Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Colon cancer stem cells: Potential target for the treatment of colorectal cancer.
Abstract Despite incessant research, colon cancer still is one of the most common causes of fatalities in both men and women worldwide. Also, nearly 50% of patients with colorectal cancer show tumor recurrence. Recent investigations have highlighted the involvement of colon cancer stem cells (CCSCs) in cancer relapse and chemoresistance. CCSCs deliver a significant protumorigenic niche through persistent overexpression of self-renewal capabilities. Moreover, CSCs cross network with stromal cells, immune infiltrates, and cyotokine-chemokine, which potentiate their aggressive proliferative potential. Targeting CCSCs...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - May 3, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Gupta R, Bhatt LK, Johnston TP, Prabhavalkar KS Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Anti-tumor activity and mechanism of oligoclonal hepatocellular carcinoma tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in vivo and in vitro.
CONCLUSION: The oligoclonal TIL culture method could obtain TIL with higher purity, and cytotoxicity to tumor cells was associated with Treg cells. The oligoclonal TIL had cytotoxicity to autologous HCC cells and significant inhibitory effect on the growth of transplanted tumors. The mechanism might be associated with the inhibition of Treg cells proliferation, increase of IFN-γ secretion, and decrease of TGF-β, IL-10, and IL-17 secretion. PMID: 31018748 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy)
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - April 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wang WC, Zhang ZQ, Li PP, Ma JY, Chen L, Qian HH, Shi LH, Yin ZF, Sun B, Zhang XF Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma is associated with BRCA2 germline mutations: a case report and literature review.
This study underscores the important role of BRCA1/2 mutations in pancreatic ACC. All ACC patients should undergo genetic testing for BRCA1/2 mutations to identify carriers of pathogenic variants. This will allow to select patients that can benefit from targeted therapies directed against BRCA1/2-deficient tumors and is also crucial as a referral to genetic screening for the relatives of affected individuals carrying germline BRCA1/2 alterations. Abbreviations: ACC: acinar cell carcinoma; HBOC: Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer; LOH: loss of heterozygosity; PARP: poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase; PDAC: pancreatic ductal ade...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - April 19, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kryklyva V, Haj Mohammad N, Morsink FHM, Ligtenberg MJL, Offerhaus GJA, Nagtegaal ID, de Leng WWJ, Brosens LAA Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

Upregulation of MicroRNA-21 promotes tumorigenesis of prostate cancer cells by targeting KLF5.
Abstract Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second frequently newly diagnosed cancer in men. Androgen deprivation therapy has been widely used to inhibit PCa growth but eventually fails in many patients. Androgen receptor and its downstream molecules like microRNAs could be promising therapeutic targets. We aimed to investigate the involvement of miR-21 in PCa tumorigenesis. We found that miR-21 was an unfavorable factor and correlated positively with tumor grade in PCa patients from TCGA database. MiR-21 was more highly expressed in androgen-independent PCa cells than in androgen-dependent PCa cells. Overexpression of ...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - April 19, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Guan C, Zhang L, Wang S, Long L, Zhou H, Qian S, Ma M, Bai F, Meng QH, Lyu J Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research

NUT midline carcinoma in the right orbit: a case report.
Abstract Nuclear protein in testis (NUT) midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare malignant tumor defined by a unique chromosomal translocation of the NUT gene on chromosome 15q14. This very rare tumor is usually located in midline structures, especially in the head and neck region. However, there have been no previous reports of NMC arising from the eyes. Here, we first describe a case of NMC originating in the right orbit of a 60-year-old woman. A multimodality approach, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and target therapy, was adopted in clinical practice. PMID: 30991882 [PubMed - as supplied by publ...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - April 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ding T, Wang Y, Zhao T, Xu Z, Gao W, Cui Z, Du Y Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research