Acute kidney injury in the era of big data: the 15 th Consensus Conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI)
Abstract The world is immersed in “big data”. Big data has brought about radical innovations in the methods used to capture, transfer, store and analyze the vast quantities of data generated every minute of every day. At the same time; however, it has also become far easier and relatively inexpensive to do so. Rapidly transforming, integrating and applying this large volume and variety of data are what underlie the future of big data. The application of big data and predictive analytics in healthcare holds great promise to drive innovation, reduce cost and improve patient outcomes, health services ope...
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - February 26, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Circulating angiogenic factors in a pregnant woman on intensive hemodialysis: a case report
Conclusions Our case report expands on the literature regarding intensive hemodialysis and angiogenic factor utilization in pregnant dialysis patients. Our case report suggests that starting intensive dialysis early in pregnancy is safe and concentration of angiogenic factors are similar to those reported for patients without kidney disease, except for PIGF levels, which are somewhat higher. (Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - February 23, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Objective and subjective sleep disorders in automated peritoneal dialysis
Conclusions Despite differences in univariate analyses, after multivariate adjustment, APD patients had similar sleep parameters and sleep architecture and as poor SQ and symptoms of depression as HD patients. Future studies with larger APD cohorts are needed. (Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - February 17, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Reviewer acknowledgement 2015
Contributing reviewers The Editors of Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 2 (2015). (Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - February 17, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Consecutive first-morning urine samples to measure change in the albumin-to-creatinine ratio: a pilot study of a home urine collection protocol
Conclusions We successfully used a home urine collection protocol to obtain multiple first-morning urine samples in patients with chronic kidney disease. Statistical efficiency was improved by averaging ACR values from two consecutive first-morning urine samples at baseline and follow-up. (Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - February 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Approach to hyponatremia in congestive heart failure: a survey of Canadian specialist physicians and trainees
Conclusions This study identified that there are differences in the understanding of pathophysiology and management strategies for hyponatremia in the context of CHF amongst Canadian specialist physicians and trainees. A more consistent approach to hyponatremia is required and might best be achieved through formal knowledge translation. (Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - January 20, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Frequency of bone mineral density testing in adult kidney transplant recipients from Ontario, Canada: a population-based cohort study
This study sought to determine practice patterns in BMD testing across kidney transplant centres in Ontario, Canada, and to compare the frequency of testing in kidney transplant recipients to non-transplant reference groups. Methods Using healthcare databases from Ontario, Canada we conducted a population-based cohort study of adult kidney transplant recipients who received a transplant from 1994-2009. We used logistic regression to determine if there was a statistically significant difference across transplant centres in the decision to perform at least one BMD test after transp...
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - January 16, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Pedal edema and jugular venous pressure for volume overload in peritoneal dialysis patients
Conclusions The presence of pedal edema is a good indicator of volume overload in peritoneal dialysis patients without cardiac dysfunction, although its absence cannot definitively rule out significant water excess. A JVP of 1 to 3 cm was found to be not a clinically significant sign. We are unable to comment on the diagnostic strength of a low (0 cm) or high (JVP>3 cm) due to poor precision. (Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - January 13, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Fluid volume expansion and depletion in hemodialysis patients lack association with clinical parameters
Conclusions The study indicates that volume expansion is highly prevalent in HD population and could not be identified using clinical parameters alone. No clinical parameters were identified that could reliably predict volume status. This study shows that bio-impedance can assist to determine volume status. Volume status, in turn, is not related to intradialytic weight gain and is unable to explain the high incidence of paradoxical hypertension. (Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - December 22, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Perceptions of prognostic risks in chronic kidney disease: a national survey
Conclusions Our national survey of nephrologists shows that the risk prediction for major adverse clinical outcomes is valuable in CKD at multiple time frames and risk thresholds. Further research is required in developing relevant and meaningful risk prediction models for clinical decision-making in patient-centered CKD care. (Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - December 20, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Benefits of a transfer clinic in adolescent and young adult kidney transplant patients
Conclusions Attendance at a single kidney transplant transfer clinic was associated with improved adherence and renal function in the year following transfer to adult care. If these changes are sustained, they may improve long-term graft outcomes for adolescent kidney transplant recipients. (Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - December 15, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Retrospective analysis of the predictive factors of renal function loss after uninephrectomy in patients with chronic kidney disease G3 to G5
Abstract Background The rapid increase in glomerular filtration rate in a normal contralateral kidney after uninephrectomy is well known in living kidney donors but much less well described in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study is to determine the magnitude of this initial compensatory capacity in (CKD) groups 3 to 5 (G3 to G5) patients undergoing uninephrectomy and the clinical factors predicting it. This is a retrospective study of all cases (142) of uninephrectomy in patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; with MDRD equation)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - December 11, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

A little (up)SET THEORY: a philosophical and psychological pondering of a scientist on the state of our art
(Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - December 1, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Setting up an academic research laboratory in Canada in 2015
(Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - December 1, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Life as a new investigator
(Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - December 1, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Changing and challenging times for Canadian kidney health and disease research
(Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - December 1, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

A basic scientist’s reflections on research funding
(Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - December 1, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Establishing a Canadian national clinical trials network for kidney disease: proceedings of a planning workshop
Abstract Knowledge generation through randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is critical to advance the medical evidence base, inform decision-making, and improve care and outcomes. Unfortunately, nephrology has typically lagged behind other medical specialties in this regard. The establishment of formal clinical trial networks can facilitate the successful conduct of RCTs and has significantly increased the number of RCTs performed worldwide in other medical specialties. No such formal network of nephrology trialists exists in Canada. On April 24, 2014, the Canadian Kidney Knowledge Translation and Generation Netwo...
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - November 17, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Repeated treatment with bone marrow cell secretory products maintains long-term renoprotection in experimental chronic kidney disease: a placebo-controlled trial
Conclusions These findings suggest that early outgrowth cell-derived factors, while renoprotective, have a limited duration of action. Repeated administration of these factors, however, is able to extend the duration of efficacy and attenuate the progression of experimental chronic kidney disease. (Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - November 14, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

CanVasc recommendations for the management of antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides – Executive summary
Abstract The Canadian Vasculitis research network (CanVasc) is composed of physicians from different medical specialties, including rheumatology and nephrology and researchers with expertise in vasculitis. One of its aims was to develop recommendations for the diagnosis and management of antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides in Canada. This executive summary features the 19 recommendations and 17 statements addressing general AAV diagnosis and management, developed by CanVasc group based on a synthesis of existing international guidelines, other published supporting evidence and expert ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - November 9, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Translational research in kidney transplantation and the role of patient engagement
This article applies current perspectives on translational research and patient engagement to the field of kidney transplantation, illustrating how these approaches have led to significant advancements in the field. It provides further justification for deliberate, targeted efforts to cross-collaborate and incorporate the patient voice into kidney transplant research. (Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - November 5, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease among the high risk population in South-Western Ghana; a cross sectional study
Conclusion CKD was prevalent in these high-risk patients. (Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - November 3, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

A virtual ward for home hemodialysis patients – a pilot trial
Conclusion The implementation of a virtual ward for home hemodialysis patients is practical, feasible and identifies many care gaps which have the potential to result in subsequent adverse events. A larger, multi-center prospective clinical trial is justified to identify if the HDVW can prevent adverse events among home dialysis patients. (Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - November 1, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Renocardiac syndromes: physiopathology and treatment stratagems
Abstract Purpose of review Bidirectional inter-organ interactions are essential for normal functioning of the human body; however, they may also promote adverse conditions in remote organs. This review provides a narrative summary of the epidemiology, physiopathological mechanisms and clinical management of patients with combined renal and cardiac disease (recently classified as type 3 and 4 cardiorenal syndrome). Findings are also discussed within the context of basic research in animal models with similar comorbidities. Sources of information Pe...
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - October 16, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Time to revisit the problem of CIN? The low incidence of acute kidney injury with and without contrast in hospitalized patients: an observational cohort study
Conclusion In hospitalized patients, the incidence of AKI is low, not different between those who did and did not receive contrast, and was not impacted by improvement in the monitoring of sCr in at risk patients. A better understanding of the determinants of AKI post-contrast scan is required to improve strategies to reduce the incidence of AKI. (Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - October 12, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Ambulatory care after acute kidney injury: an opportunity to improve patient outcomes
Abstract Purpose of review Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an increasingly common problem among hospitalized patients. Patients who survive an AKI-associated hospitalization are at higher risk of de novo and worsening chronic kidney disease, end-stage kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, and death. For hospitalized patients with dialysis-requiring AKI, outpatient follow-up with a nephrologist within 90 days of hospital discharge has been associated with enhanced survival. However, most patients who survive an AKI episode do not receive any follow-up nephrology care. This narrative revi...
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - October 6, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Assessing the extent to which current clinical research is consistent with patient priorities: a scoping review using a case study in patients on or nearing dialysis
Abstract Purpose of review There is growing acknowledgement that engaging patients to identify their research priorities is important. Using a case study of patients on or nearing dialysis, we sought to assess the extent to which recently completed and ongoing clinical research was consistent with priorities identified by patients, caregivers, and clinicians. Sources of information Over a 4-year sampling frame (January 2010 to December 2013), we systematically searched the medical literature (top 5 nephrology and top 10 general medicine journ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - October 1, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Recurrence of crystalline nephropathy after kidney transplantation in APRT deficiency and primary hyperoxaluria
Abstract Purpose of review To provide transplant physicians with a summary of the pathogenesis and diagnosis of adenine phosphoribosyl transferase (APRT) deficiency and primary hyperoxaluria and, focussed on kidney transplantation, and to discuss interventions aimed at preventing and treating the recurrence of crystalline nephropathy in renal transplant recipients. Source of information Pubmed literature search. Setting Primary hyperoxaluria and APRT deficiency are rare inborn errors of human metabolism....
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - September 15, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Comorbidity burden at dialysis initiation and mortality: A cohort study
Conclusions The CCI and ESRD-CI have a limited ability to discriminate mortality risk for incident dialysis patients. Acknowledging the frequency with which they are used, this study emphasizes the need to re-examine the usefulness of previously derived comorbidity indices in contemporary dialysis cohorts. (Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - September 8, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Frailty and physical function in chronic kidney disease: the CanFIT study
Abstract Background Frailty, a manifestation of unsuccessful aging, is highly prevalent in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with comorbid conditions in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies investigating the progression of frailty in those with advanced non-dialysis CKD are lacking. Objectives Canadian Frailty Observation and Interventions Trial (CanFIT). To determine the natural history, prevalence of perceived and measured frailty and its association with dialysis treatment choices and adverse ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - September 5, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Erratum: Oral salt and water versus intravenous saline for the prevention of acute kidney injury following contrast-enhanced computed tomography: study protocol for a pilot randomized trial Salmonella blood stream infections in a tertiary care setting in Ghana
(Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - September 3, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury: preclinical innovations, challenges, and opportunities for translation
This article reviews many of the preclinical innovations in acute kidney injury AKI treatment, and explores challenges and opportunities to translate these finding into clinical practice. Sources of Information MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science Findings This paper details areas in biomedical research where translation of pre-clinical findings into clinical trials is ongoing, or nearing a point where trial design is warranted. Further, the paper examines ways that best practice in the management of AKI can reach a broader proportion of the pat...
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - September 1, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Developing renal allograft surveillance strategies – urinary biomarkers of cellular rejection
Abstract Purpose of review Developing tailored immunosuppression regimens requires sensitive, non-invasive tools for serial post-transplant surveillance as the current clinical standards with serum creatinine and proteinuria are ineffective at detecting subclinical rejection. The purpose of this review is: (i) to illustrate the rationale for allograft immune monitoring, (ii) to discuss key steps to bring a biomarker from bench-to-bedside, and (iii) to present an overview of promising biomarkers for cellular rejection. Sources of information PubMed...
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - August 18, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Association between serum alkaline phosphatase and primary resistance to erythropoiesis stimulating agents in chronic kidney disease: a secondary analysis of the HERO trial
Abstract Background Erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA)-resistant anemia is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objectives To evaluate the determinants of severity of ESA resistance in patients with CKD and primary ESA-resistance. Design Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial (the Handling Erythropoietin Resistance with Oxpentifylline, HERO) Setting and patients 53 adult patients with CKD stage 4 or 5 and primary ESA-resistant anemia (hemogl...
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - August 18, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Coronary artery calcification, cardiovascular events, and death: a prospective cohort study of incident patients on hemodialysis
Conclusions Respondent burden is high for additional testing around the initiation of dialysis. High coronary calcification in patients new to ESRD has a tendency to predict cardiovascular outcomes and death, though effects are attenuated when adjusted for age. (Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - August 12, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Chronic kidney disease in congenital heart disease patients: a narrative review of evidence
Abstract Purpose of review Patients with congenital heart disease have a number of risk factors for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is well known that CKD has a large negative impact on health outcomes. It is important therefore to consider that patients with congenital heart disease represent a population in whom long-term primary and secondary prevention strategies to reduce CKD occurrence and progression could be instituted and significantly change outcomes. There are currently no clear guidelines for clinicians in terms of renal assessment in the long-term follow up ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - August 11, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

The impact and treatment of obesity in kidney transplant candidates and recipients
Abstract The prevalence of obesity in patients with chronic kidney failure and renal transplant candidates has paralleled the epidemic in the general population. The associated risks of surgical complications and long-term cardiovascular death are significant: most transplant centers consider obesity a relative contra-indication for transplant. Few studies have focused on conservative weight loss strategies in transplant patients. Studies using administrative databases have found that only a minority of wait-listed patients lose weight and with no apparent benefit to transplant outcomes. The only clinic...
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - July 31, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Early outgrowth pro-angiogenic cell number and function do not correlate with left ventricular structure and function in conventional hemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study
Conclusions These data suggest that in ESRD, the reparative EPC response to cardiac hypertrophy may be blunted. Further investigation of the effects of uremia on EPC physiology and its relationship to cardiac injury are required. (Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - July 30, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Increases in intravenous magnesium use among hospitalized patients: an institution cross-sectional experience
Abstract Background Among hospitalized patients, indications for the measurement of magnesium levels and treatment of hypomagnesemia with intravenous magnesium are not well defined. Recently, there have been reports of worldwide shortages of intravenous magnesium sulphate. Objective To examine secular trends in the administration of intravenous magnesium on hospital wards at a tertiary care institution. The secondary objective is to identify factors associated with magnesium use among admitted patients. Methods ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - June 13, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Patients with chronic kidney disease and their intent to use electronic personal health records
Abstract Background Electronic personal health records (ePHRs) provide patients with access to their personal health information, aiming to inform them about their health, enhance self-management, and improve outcomes. Although they have been associated with improved health outcomes in several chronic diseases, the potential impact of ePHR use in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. Objectives We sought to understand perceptions of CKD patients about ePHRs, and describe characteristics associated with their expressed intent to use an ePHR. ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - June 9, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Patient and stone characteristics associated with surgical intervention in pediatrics
Conclusion Stone size > 6mm and composition with calcium oxalate but not patient age or symptoms associated with presentation predicted surgical intervention. These observations can be used to inform decisions as to whether urolithiasis should be surgically managed electively or observed. (Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - June 2, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Validation of kidney transplantation using administrative data
Conclusions Codes in CORR, CIHI, and OHIP each operate well in the detection of kidney transplant recipients. These data sources can be used to efficiently identify and follow kidney transplant recipients for post-transplant outcomes. (Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - May 18, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

PTHrP-related Hypercalcaemia in Infancy and Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract (CAKUT)
Conclusions The possibility of elevated PTHrP levels must be considered in patients with known renal dysplasia who are differentially diagnosed with hypercalcaemia. (Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - May 11, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Role of vascular function in predicting arteriovenous fistula outcomes: an observational pilot study
Conclusions Microvascular endothelial function as measured using PAT may be useful as a predictor of AVF maturation and function. This simple non invasive marker of vascular function may be a useful tool to predict AVF outcomes. (Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - May 4, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Inhibiting the progression of arterial calcification with vitamin K in HemoDialysis patients (iPACK-HD) trial: rationale and study design for a randomized trial of vitamin K in patients with end stage kidney disease
Discussion Vitamin K supplementation is a simple, safe and cost-effective nutritional strategy that can easily be integrated into patient care. If vitamin K reduces the progression of coronary artery calcification it may lead to decreased morbidity and mortality in men and women with ESKD. Trial registration NCT 01528800. (Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - May 1, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

CKD in disadvantaged populations
(Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - April 29, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

An education initiative modifies opinions of hemodialysis nurses towards home dialysis
Conclusions CNE initiatives can modify the opinions of in-center HD nurses towards home modalities and should complement the multitude of strategies aimed at promoting home dialysis. (Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - April 28, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Strategies to increase living kidney donation: a retrospective cohort study
Conclusion The implementation of a LOD team, combined with our participation in the LDPE registry, was associated with a significant increase in the actual number of living kidney transplantations performed. These data support initiatives such as the creation of dedicated LOD teams and LDPE registry to increase LKT. (Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - April 21, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Oral salt and water versus intravenous saline for the prevention of acute kidney injury following contrast-enhanced computed tomography: study protocol for a pilot randomized trial
Abstract Background Although intravenous saline is the accepted prophylactic measure for the prevention of contrast- induced acute kidney injury, the oral route could offer an equivalent, practical, and cost saving approach. A systematic review of randomized trials that compared oral versus intravenous volume expansion for the prevention of radiocontrast-induced nephropathy in patients receiving arterial contrast reported no significant difference in the risk of contrast induced acute kidney injury between the oral and intravenous arms. Most trials for contrast nephropathy prevention have b...
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - April 16, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

A modified Delphi process to identify process of care indicators for the identification, prevention and management of acute kidney injury after major surgery
Conclusions These indicators can be used to measure and improve the quality of care for AKI after major surgery. (Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease)
Source: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease - April 9, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research