Surveillance of Echinococcus tapeworm in coyotes and domestic dogs in Winnipeg, Manitoba: Abstract.
Conclusion: This is the first confirmation of the presence of E. multilocularis in coyote feces in the metropolitan area of Winnipeg, Manitoba. In light of the risk this could pose to domestic dogs and human health, periodic surveillance that maps the distribution of this tapeworm could inform the need for additional public health actions. PMID: 31355823 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - July 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tse C, Bullard J, Rusk R, Douma D, Plourde PJ Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Clostridioides difficile infection in Canada: A six-year review to support vaccine decision-making.
Conclusion: In Canada overall, the rate of HA-CDI has been decreasing and the rate of CA-CDI has been increasing, although this calculation was impeded by discrepancies in CDI-related definitions among provincial surveillance programs. Nationally-adopted common definitions for CDI would enable better comparisons of CDI rates between provinces and a calculation of the pan-Canadian burden of illness to support vaccine decision-making. PMID: 31355824 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - July 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xia Y, Tunis MC, Frenette C, Katz K, Amaratunga K, Rose SR, House A, Quach C Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

A public health enhanced surveillance system for a mass gathering event.
Conclusion: The three additional monitoring strategies developed to detect events of public health importance during the 2018 G7 Summit in Quebec were successful in gathering timely data for analysis. Close collaboration and good participation from the different partners were essential to this project. However, because no public health event occurred, it was not possible to determine whether the enhanced surveillance system had sufficient speed and sensitivity for timely detection and response. PMID: 31355825 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - July 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Huot C, Paradis A, Hammond-Collins K, Bélair MA, Villeneuve J, Brousseau N, Goupil-Sormany I, Riffon J Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Human rabies postexposure prophylaxis and rabid terrestrial animals in Ontario, Canada: 2014-2016.
Conclusion: Along with other factors, consideration of the occurrence of rabies in terrestrial animals in a jurisdiction can assist in the risk assessment of dogs, cats or ferrets that are not available for subsequent observation. PMID: 31355826 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - July 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Middleton D, Friedman L, Johnson S, Buchan S, Warshawsky B Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Toxoplasma gondii: How an Amazonian parasite became an Inuit health issue.
This article reviews the prevalence of T. gondii infection in terrestrial and marine animals in the Canadian Arctic and discusses their potential role in the foodborne transmission of this parasite to humans. Two distribution factors seem plausible. First, felids in more southern habitats may release infectious oocysts into waterways. As these oocysts remain viable for months, they can be transported northward via rivers and ocean currents and could infect Arctic fish and eventually the marine mammals that prey on the fish. Second, migratory terrestrial and marine intermediate hosts may be responsible for carrying T. gondi...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - July 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Reiling SJ, Dixon BR Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Summary of the NACI Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Statement for 2019-2020.
Conclusion: NACI continues to recommend that an age-appropriate influenza vaccine should be offered annually to anyone six months of age and older who does not have contraindications to the vaccine, with focus on the groups for whom influenza vaccination is particularly recommended. This includes people at high risk of influenza-related complications or hospitalization, people capable of transmitting influenza to those at high risk, people who provide essential community services and people in direct contact with poultry infected with avian influenza during culling operations. PMID: 31285706 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - June 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhao L, Young K, Gemmill I Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Should individuals use influenza vaccine effectiveness studies to inform their decision to get vaccinated?
Abstract Studies on the effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine can affect an individual's perception of the ability of this vaccine to protect against influenza. However, vaccine effectiveness studies are designed to inform public health decisions rather than for individual decision-making. This overview explains what vaccine effectiveness means and why vaccine effectiveness estimates can vary. Individual variation in the response to seasonal influenza vaccine is based upon risk factors such as age, underlying health conditions, immune status and risk of infection and complications. Therefore, an individual's...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - June 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhao L, Stirling R, Young K Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Canadian pandemic influenza preparedness: Public health measures strategy.
This article summarizes Canada's pandemic public health measures strategy, as described in the recently updated CPIP Public Health Measures Annex. The strategy builds on lessons learned during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Key elements of the public health measures strategy include individual measures (e.g. hand hygiene, self-isolation when ill), community-based measures (e.g. school closures, cancellation of mass gatherings), management of cases and close contacts, travel and border-related actions and public education. Factors that influence the effectiveness of public health measures in a pandemic include the pandemic epidemi...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - June 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Henry B Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Increase in ST-11 serogroup W Neisseria meningitidis invasive meningococcal disease in Canada, 2016-2018.
Conclusion: In 2018, MenW was the most common serogroup for isolates received by the NML from culture-positive IMD cases in Canada. Over 90% of the MenW serogroup isolates belonged to the ST-11 CC. The quadrivalent ACWY meningococcal conjugate vaccine protects against IMD caused by strains in the A, C, W or Y serogroups and therefore may protect against IMD caused by the new MenW ST-11 strain; however, more research is needed. The emergence of variant strains highlight the importance of strain characterization in IMD surveillance and research. PMID: 31285709 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - June 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tsang RS, Hoang L, Tyrrell GJ, Minion J, Van Caeseele P, Kus JV, Lefebvre B, Haldane D, Garceau R, German G, Zahariadis G, Hanley B Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

The health effects of climate change: Know the risks and become part of the solutions.
Abstract Climate change presents a clear and present danger to human health. Health impacts are already being demonstrated in Canada, which is warming at roughly twice the global rate. A recent United Nations Environment Emissions Gap Report noted that if countries maintain current emission efforts, emissions will exceed the targets laid out in the Paris Agreement and global warming will exceed 2ºC worldwide. An important consequence of global warming is an increase in health risks. Much can be done to prevent and mitigate the health impacts of climate change, and understanding and communicating these has bee...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - May 2, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Howard C, Huston P Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Risk assessment strategies for early detection and prediction of infectious disease outbreaks associated with climate change.
Abstract A new generation of surveillance strategies is being developed to help detect emerging infections and to identify the increased risks of infectious disease outbreaks that are expected to occur with climate change. These surveillance strategies include event-based surveillance (EBS) systems and risk modelling. The EBS systems use open-source internet data, such as media reports, official reports, and social media (such as Twitter) to detect evidence of an emerging threat, and can be used in conjunction with conventional surveillance systems to enhance early warning of public health threats. More recently, ...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - May 2, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rees EE, Ng V, Gachon P, Mawudeku A, McKenney D, Pedlar J, Yemshanov D, Parmely J, Knox J Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Weather-based forecasting of mosquito-borne disease outbreaks in Canada.
Abstract Early warning systems to predict infectious disease outbreaks have been identified as a key adaptive response to climate change. Warming, climate variability and extreme weather events associated with climate change are expected to drive an increase in frequency and intensity of mosquito-borne disease (MBD) outbreaks globally. In Canada, this will mean an increased risk of endemic and emerging MBD outbreaks such as West Nile virus and other MBDs. The availability of timely information on the risk of impending MBD outbreaks has important public health implications, by allowing implementation of mosquito co...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - May 2, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ogden NH, Lindsay LR, Ludwig A, Morse AP, Zheng H, Zhu H Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Using Earth observation images to inform risk assessment and mapping of climate change-related infectious diseases.
The objectives of this overview are to describe how Earth observation images may inform risk assessment and mapping of tick-borne and mosquito-borne diseases in Canada, their potential benefits and limitations, the implications and next steps. PMID: 31285704 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - May 2, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kotchi SO, Bouchard C, Ludwig A, Rees EE, Brazeau S Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Quebec's Multi-Party Observatory on Zoonoses and Adaptation to Climate Change.
This article describes what the Observatory is, what it does and outlines its plans for the future. PMID: 31285705 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - May 2, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Germain G, Simon A, Arsenault J, Baron G, Bouchard C, Chaumont D, El Allaki F, Kimpton A, Lévesque B, Massé A, Mercier M, Ogden NH, Picard I, Ravel A, Rocheleau JP, Soto J, for Quebec’s Multi-Party Observatory on Zoonoses and Adaptation to Climate Cha Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Climate change and infectious diseases: What can we expect?
Abstract Global climate change, driven by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, is being particularly felt in Canada, with warming generally greater than in the rest of the world. Continued warming will be accompanied by changes in precipitation, which will vary across the country and seasons, and by increasing climate variability and extreme weather events. Climate change will likely drive the emergence of infectious diseases in Canada by northward spread from the United States and introduction from elsewhere in the world via air and sea transport. Diseases endemic to Canada are also likely to re-emerge. This s...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - April 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ogden NH, Gachon P Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

N Increased risk of tick-borne diseases with climate and environmental changes.
Abstract Climate warming and other environmental changes have contributed to the expansion of the range of several tick species into higher latitudes in North America. As temperatures increase in Canada, the environment becomes more suitable for ticks and the season suitable for tick activity lengthens, so tick-borne diseases are likely to become more common in Canada. In addition to Lyme disease, four other tick-borne diseases (TBDs) have started to emerge and are likely to increase: Anaplasmosis; Babesiosis; Powassan virus; and Borrelia miyamotoi disease. Increased temperature increases the survival and activity...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - April 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bouchard C, Dibernardo A, Koffi J, Wood H, Leighton PA, Lindsay LR Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Increased risk of endemic mosquito-borne diseases in Canada due to climate change.
Abstract There are currently over 80 species of mosquito endemic in Canada-although only a few of these carry pathogens that can cause disease in humans. West Nile virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus and the California serogroup viruses (including the Jamestown Canyon and snowshoe hare viruses) are mosquito-borne viruses that have been found to cause human infections in North America, including in Canada. Over the last 20 years, the incidence of most of these endemic mosquito-borne diseases (MBD) has increased approximately 10% in Canada, due in large part to climate change. It is anticipated that both the mo...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - April 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ludwig A, Zheng H, Vrbova L, Drebot MA, Iranpour M, Lindsay LR Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Could exotic mosquito-borne diseases emerge in Canada with climate change?
Abstract Of the 3,500 species of mosquitoes worldwide, only a small portion carry and transmit the mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) that cause approximately half a million deaths annually worldwide. The most common exotic MBDs, such as malaria and dengue, are not currently established in Canada, in part because of our relatively harsh climate; however, this situation could evolve with climate change. Mosquitoes native to Canada may become infected with new pathogens and move into new regions within Canada. In addition, new mosquito species may move into Canada from other countries, and these exotic species may bring...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - April 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ng V, Rees EE, Lindsay LR, Drebot MA, Brownstone T, Sadeghieh T, Khan SU Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

How will climate change impact microbial foodborne disease in Canada?
Abstract Foodborne disease is a major concern in Canada and represents a significant climate change-related threat to public health. Climate variables, including temperature and precipitation patterns, extreme weather events and ocean warming and acidification, are known to exert significant, complicated and interrelated effects along the entire length of the food chain. Foodborne diseases are caused by a range of bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses, and the prevalence of these diseases is modified by climate change through alterations in the abundance, growth, range and survival of many pathogens, as well as t...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - April 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Smith BA, Fazil A Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Canada, 2012-2016.
Conclusion: While XDR-GC are currently rare in Canada, MDR-GC have increased over the last five years. Azithromycin resistance in N. gonorrhoeae is established and spreading in Canada, exceeding the 5% level at which the World Health Organization states an antimicrobial should be reviewed as an appropriate treatment. Continued surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibilities of N. gonorrhoeae is necessary to inform treatment guidelines and mitigate the impact of resistant gonorrhea. PMID: 31015818 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - February 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Martin I, Sawatzky P, Allen V, Lefebvre B, Hoang L, Naidu P, Minion J, Van Caeseele P, Haldane D, Gad RR, Zahariadis G, Corriveau A, German G, Tomas K, Mulvey MR Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Addressing the rising rates of gonorrhea and drug-resistant gonorrhea: There is no time like the present.
Abstract Increasing rates of gonococcal (GC) infection and antimicrobial resistant (AMR) GC, are a serious public health concern for Canada and around the world. Previously recommended treatments are ineffective against many of the gonorrhea strains circulating today. The current recommendation for combination therapy is now being threatened by globally emerging and increasingly resistant strains. It is important that coordinated efforts be made now to ensure these new global strains do not become established in Canada. Otherwise, we will be faced with the possibility of persistent GC infection which can lead to p...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - February 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bodie M, Gale-Rowe M, Alexandre S, Auguste U, Tomas K, Martin I Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

The need for integrated public health surveillance to address sexually transmitted and blood-borne syndemics.
Abstract A national approach to addressing sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections (STBBIs) was recently articulated in the Public Health Agency of Canada's new A Pan-Canadian Framework for Action: Reducing the health impact of sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections in Canada by 2030. This Framework promotes an integrated approach, with a focus on the key populations that are affected by overlapping epidemics (i.e., syndemics). We advance the idea that integrating surveillance would be helpful in characterizing and understanding the populations, locations, risk behaviours and other drivers that co...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - February 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Murti M, Wong J, Whelan M, Renda C, Hohenadel K, Macdonald L, Parry D Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Tuberculosis in Canada: 2017.
Conclusion: Although the incidence rate of TB in Canada in 2017 remained low in the global context and has been relatively stable over the last decade, both the case count and rate have been gradually increasing since 2014. Indigenous and foreign born Canadians continued to be disproportionately represented among TB cases. Canadian TB surveillance data are an important source of information for monitoring progress and informing public health action related to reducing the burden of TB in Canada, with the ultimate goal of TB elimination. PMID: 31015821 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - February 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: LaFreniere M, Hussain H, He N, McGuire M Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

West Nile virus illness in Ontario, Canada: 2017.
Conclusion: WNV illness continues to be an ongoing burden in Ontario. The increase in the number of cases reported in 2017, and the increased number of PHUs reporting cases, suggests changing and expanding risk levels in Ontario. Continued mosquito and human surveillance, increased awareness of preventive measures, and early recognition and treatment are needed to mitigate the impact of WNV infections. PMID: 31015803 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - January 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wijayasri S, Nelder MP, Russell CB, Johnson KO, Johnson S, Badiani T, Sider D Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Infection prevention in personal services settings: Evidence, gaps and the way forward.
Conclusion: This review involved a comprehensive examination of relevant literature and provides a summary of issues addressing the risk of infection in personal services settings. There is a paucity of high quality evidence to support guidance, and findings reveal the need for further investigation and enhanced awareness of public health risks associated with personal services. Nonetheless, these findings can inform future research and the development of infection prevention and control guidelines and recommendations for such settings. PMID: 31015815 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - January 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Popalyar A, Stafford J, Ogunremi T, Dunn K Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Effectiveness of hand hygiene practices in preventing influenza virus infection in the community setting: A systematic review.
Conclusion: The effectiveness of hand hygiene against influenza virus infection and transmission in the community setting is difficult to determine based on the available evidence. In light of its proven effectiveness in other settings, there is no compelling evidence to stop using good hand hygiene practice to reduce the risk of influenza infection and transmission in the community setting. PMID: 31015816 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - January 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Moncion K, Young K, Tunis M, Rempel S, Stirling R, Zhao L Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Canadian Pandemic Influenza Preparedness: Antiviral strategy.
This article summarizes Canada's pandemic influenza antiviral strategy as described in the recently updated CPIP Antiviral Annex. The antiviral strategy builds on lessons learned during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Key elements of the strategy include ensuring equitable, timely and coordinated access to antivirals through government stockpiles; having regulatory mechanisms in place that facilitate timely access to antivirals; providing timely and evidence-based clinical guidance; maintaining effective stockpile management practices; and monitoring antiviral utilization, effectiveness and safety. Since the CPIP is an evergreen d...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - January 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Henry B Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

HIV in Canada-Surveillance Report, 2017.
Conclusion: Similar to the annual changes that have been reported since 2014, the number and rate of reported HIV cases in Canada in 2017 increased slightly compared with 2016. Additional data and analysis are needed to determine the extent to which these findings reflect an increase in HIV transmission, an increase in HIV testing, changes in reporting practices and an increase in the number of HIV-positive people migrating to Canada. PMID: 30906230 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - November 6, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Haddad N, Li JS, Totten S, McGuire M Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Advancing knowledge and increasing capacity to address climate-driven infectious diseases in Canada.
Abstract The Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change (PCF) was adopted in December 2016. This collaboratively developed federal, provincial and territorial report documents Canada's plans to meet its Paris Agreement commitments and stimulate Canada's economy. This PCF identifies a series of actions that will be addressed through four key pillars: pricing carbon pollution; complementary measures to reduce emissions; adaptation and climate resilience; and enabling economic growth through clean technology, innovation and jobs. Within the PCF, protecting and improving human health and well-being was ...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - September 4, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lee-Fuller C, Magnan A, Pharand S Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Gonorrhea in Canada, 2010-2015.
Conclusion: Males, adolescents and young adults continue to represent the majority of gonorrhea cases. Research is needed to better understand the current trends in gonorrhea infection in order to maintain, evaluate and improve primary and secondary STI prevention activities. PMID: 29770097 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - February 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Choudhri Y, Miller J, Sandhu J, Leon A, Aho J Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Infectious and congenital syphilis in Canada, 2010-2015.
Conclusion: Rates of syphilis continue to rise in Canada, especially among young men, and this is consistent with trends in the United States of America and European Union. Based on data from Canada and from these regions, the sexual behaviour of men who have sex with men (MSM) is thought to be a major risk factor for syphilis. PMID: 29770098 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - February 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Choudhri Y, Miller J, Sandhu J, Leon A, Aho J Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Chlamydia in Canada, 2010-2015.
Conclusion: Between 2010 and 2015, chlamydia rates increased by 16.7% and were highest among females and young adults. Although a number of factors may account for this rising trend, the possibility of a true increase in incidence cannot be ruled out. Ongoing monitoring of chlamydia and research into the reasons for the observed changes will help guide sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention and control activities. PMID: 29770099 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - February 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Choudhri Y, Miller J, Sandhu J, Leon A, Aho J Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Lymphogranuloma venereum in Quebec: Re-emergence among men who have sex with men.
Conclusion: The re-emergence of LGV in Quebec involves an urban subpopulation composed almost exclusively of MSM with STIs, who have a high number of partners and often use drugs. PMID: 29770100 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - February 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Boutin CA, Venne S, Fiset M, Fortin C, Murphy D, Severini A, Martineau C, Longtin J, Labbé AC Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Resources to address stigma related to sexuality, substance use and sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections.
Conclusion: These knowledge translation resources and training workshops represent a comprehensive set of tools developed in Canada that service providers can use to help reduce stigma when caring for clients/patients with STBBIs and related conditions. Evaluation indicates there is a strong willingness among health and social service providers to engage in educational opportunities in this area and that participation in the training workshops led to increased awareness and a willingness to adopt best practices. PMID: 29770101 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - February 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: MacLean R Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Rolling out HIV antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: 2003-2017.
Abstract Multiple issues need to be addressed in order to control the HIV pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is key to reducing morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV and has a role in preventing HIV transmission. However, access to cART is very unevenly distributed globally, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Although cost of cART is no longer a major barrier as effective treatment can be had for under US$100 per year, HIV management is compromised by the inadequate number of trained clinicians, the lack of clinical and laboratory infrastructure and the increase...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - February 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Taylor G Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Outbreak of Seoul virus among rats and rat owners - United States and Canada, 2017.
This report describes the first known outbreak of Seoul virus infections in humans from contact with pet rats in the United States and Canada. This investigation identified 31 United States facilities with human and/or rat Seoul virus infections in 11 states, including six that exchanged rats with Canadian ratteries. Seventeen persons had recent infection with Seoul virus, eight became ill, and three were hospitalized and recovered. What are the implications for public health practice?: ​: Human hantavirus infections are reportable to state or local health departments in the United States. Clinicians should consider...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - February 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kerins JL, Koske SE, Kazmierczak J, Austin C, Gowdy K, Dibernardo A, Seoul Virus Working Group, Canadian Seoul Virus Investigation Group (Federal), Canadian Seoul Virus Investigation Group (Provincial) Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Federal, provincial and territorial public health response plan for biological events.
Abstract The Federal/Provincial/Territorial (FPT) Public Health Response Plan for Biological Events was developed for the Public Health Network Council (PHNC). This plan outlines how the national response to public health events caused by biological agents will be conducted and coordinated, with a focus on implementation of responses led by senior-level FPT public health decision-makers. The plan was developed by an expert task group and was approved by PHNC in October, 2017. The plan describes roles, responsibilities and authorities of FPT governments for public health and emergency management, a concept of opera...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - January 4, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: McNeill R, Topping J, FPT Response Plan Task Group Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Canadian Pandemic Influenza Preparedness: Health sector planning guidance.
This article outlines Canada's approach to pandemic influenza preparedness as described in the CPIP Main Body. Canada's pandemic influenza preparedness planning takes place within a network of legislated requirements and emergency frameworks at provincial/territorial, federal and international levels. The plan includes several guiding principles, including collaboration among governments and stakeholders, evidence-based decision-making, proportionality and flexibility in tailoring responses to the situation, the adoption of a precautionary approach, the use of established practices and systems and the explicit incorporatio...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - January 4, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Henry B, Canadian Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (CPIP) Task Group Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Canada's Pandemic Influenza Preparedness: Laboratory strategy.
This article outlines Canada's pandemic influenza laboratory strategy as described in the CPIP Laboratory Annex. Laboratory identification and characterization of an influenza pandemic virus is critical to detect the pandemic, develop a vaccine, detect antiviral resistance and inform surveillance functions such as monitoring the geographic spread of the disease. Key elements of the laboratory response will include ensuring there are adequate resources for all activities. Pre-analytical activities include the appropriate collection, transport to the laboratory, triaging and preparation of specimens. Analytical activities re...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - January 4, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Henry B, Canadian Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (CPIP) Task Group Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Canada's Pandemic Influenza Preparedness: Surveillance strategy.
This article outlines Canada's pandemic influenza surveillance strategy as described in the CPIP Surveillance Annex. The strategy builds on the surveillance activities used for seasonal influenza and incorporates lessons learned from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, including improved information sharing, improved electronic links among federal, provincial and territorial (FPT) partners and improved surveillance for Indigenous communities. Key elements of the surveillance strategy include early detection and investigation of a novel influenza virus through the reporting of cases or clusters of severe acute respiratory infections an...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - January 4, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Henry B, Canadian Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (CPIP) Task Group Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Travel-related Zika virus cases in Canada: October 2015-June 2017.
Conclusion: The surge in Canadian ZIKV infections in 2016 was directly related to the incursion and spread of ZIKV into the Americas. Although cases are now on the decline worldwide, it remains to be seen whether a resurgence of cases in previously affected or new areas will occur. Both outbreak intensity and seasonality of ZIKV transmission should be monitored over time in order to inform the timing of public health education campaigns, as some may turn out to be more effective in the off-peak travel season when the risk of disease transmission may be higher. Ongoing education and awareness among travellers, particularly ...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - January 4, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tataryn J, Vrbova L, Drebot M, Wood H, Payne E, Connors S, Geduld J, German M, Khan K, Buck PA Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Zika virus: Where to from here?
Abstract After the waves of reported cases of infection with Zika virus swept across the Americas in 2015-16, the overall transmission of the virus in the Western Hemisphere declined in 2017. Between June 8 and August 31, 2017, only 16 new cases of Zika virus infection, all travel-related, were reported in Canada. This represents an 88% reduction in the cases recorded during the same time frame in 2016. Herd immunity undoubtedly constrains the transmission of the virus in endemic regions. However, while most countries in the Americas are no longer observing continuous transmission in the form of sustained increase...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - January 4, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Muchaal PK Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Canadian recommendations for laboratory interpretation of multiple or extensive drug resistance in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter species and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Abstract The goal of this document was to provide Canadian laboratories with a framework for consistent reporting and monitoring of multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO) and extensively drug resistant organisms (XDRO) for common gram-negative pathogens. This is the final edition of the interim recommendations, which were modified after one year of broad consultative review. This edition represents a consensus of peer-reviewed information and was co-authored by the Canadian Public Health Laboratory Network and the Canadian Association of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. There are two main recommendatio...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - January 4, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: German GJ, Gilmour M, Tipples G, Adam HJ, Almohri H, Bullard J, Dingle T, Farrell D, Girouard G, Haldane D, Hoang L, Levett PN, Melano R, Minion J, Needle R, Patel SN, Rennie R, Reyes RC, Longtin J, Mulvey MR Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

HIV in Canada-Surveillance Report, 2016.
Conclusion: In 2016, Canada saw a slight increase in the number and rate of reported HIV cases compared with previous years. Although the diagnostic rate was lower than in all years prior to 2012, it is the highest of the past five years. While a number of possibilities exist to explain this increase, further investigation and additional data are needed in order to determine the cause and significance. PMID: 29770056 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - December 7, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bourgeois AC, Edmunds M, Awan A, Jonah L, Varsaneux O, Siu W Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

AIDS in Canada-Surveillance Report, 2016.
Conclusion: The number of AIDS cases reported by participating provinces and territories and the number of AIDS-related deaths reported by Statistics Canada has declined. While this represents a promising trend, the data should be interpreted with caution given the limitations of the dataset which could lead to an underestimate of the magnitude of the disease. PMID: 29770057 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - December 7, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jonah L, Bourgeois AC, Edmunds M, Awan A, Varsaneux O, Siu W Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Assessing uptake of national HIV screening and testing guidance-Part 1: Awareness, use and usefulness.
Conclusions: The HIV Screening and Testing Guide appears to be very useful for those who are aware of it and use it; however, awareness of the Guide appears to be low in primary care. Although these results need to be interpreted in light of the convenience sample, it suggests broader dissemination efforts may be needed to reach all of the potential users of the Guide. PMID: 29770058 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - December 7, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Traversy GP, Austin T, Yau J, Timmerman K Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Assessing uptake of national HIV screening and testing guidance-Part 2: Knowledge, comfort and practice.
Conclusions: Although overall knowledge and practice were consistent with PHAC's HIV Screening and Testing Guide, some health care providers may underestimate the magnitude of undiagnosed HIV cases in Canada and may misinterpret the symptoms of acute HIV infection. While the amplitude of these results need to be interpreted in light of the convenience sample, addressing these knowledge gaps may facilitate earlier diagnosis of HIV among those who are unaware of their HIV status. PMID: 29770059 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - December 7, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Traversy GP, Austin T, Yau J, Timmerman K Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Setting the stage for expanding HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis use in Canada.
Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to disproportionately affect vulnerable populations in Canada; particularly men who have sex with men (MSM). Novel HIV prevention strategies have recently expanded from the use of non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) after high risk exposures to the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in which individuals reduce risk of HIV infection through use of combination antiretrovirals taken prior to risk exposure. With approval of tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) for use as PrEP only in early 2016, and with limited public funding to date, upta...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - December 7, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hull M, Tan D Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Canadian Public Health Laboratory Network position statement: Non-culture based diagnostics for gastroenteritis and implications for public health investigations.
Abstract As clinical laboratories transition to using culture-independent detection test (CIDT) panels for cases of acute gastroenteritis, culture of clinical specimens is becoming less common. The reduction in bacterial cultures available for public health activities is expected to hinder surveillance and outbreak response by public health laboratories at the local, provincial, national and international levels. These recommendations are intended to serve as guidelines for the implementation of CIDT panels in frontline laboratories in Canada. The United States of America has already seen a significant reduction i...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - December 7, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Berenger B, Chui L, Reimer AR, Allen V, Alexander D, Domingo MC, Haldane D, Hoang L, Levett P, MacKeen A, Marcino D, Sheitoyan-Pesant C, Zahariadis G, Canadian Public Health Laboratory Network Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Pan-Canadian framework for action on antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial use.
Abstract Antimicrobial-resistant infections are becoming more frequent and increasingly difficult to treat, and this situation is exacerbated by the widespread use of antimicrobials in both human and veterinary medicine and by the agriculture industry. As part of Canada's coordinated response to addressing antimicrobial resistance (AMR), Tackling Antimicrobial Resistance and Antimicrobial Use: A Pan-Canadian Framework for Action, was released in September 2017. The Framework is a high-level policy document that outlines the strategic objectives, outcomes and opportunities to guide collaborative action on AMR and a...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - November 2, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Public Health Agency of Canada Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research