Overview of the respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate pipeline in Canada.
Abstract A vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been actively sought for over 60 years due to the health impacts of RSV disease in infants, but currently the only available preventive measure in Canada and elsewhere is limited to passive immunization for high-risk infants and children with a monoclonal antibody. RSV vaccine development has faced many challenges, including vaccine-induced enhancement of RSV disease in infants. Several key developments in the last decade in the fields of cellular immunology and protein structure have led to new products entering late-stage clinical development. As of Ju...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - April 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Killikelly A, Tunis M, House A, Quach C, Vaudry W, Moore D Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Risk factors for drug-resistant tuberculosis at a referral centre in Toronto, Ontario, Canada: 2010-2016.
Conclusion: These findings may be of use to TB clinicians in the province by informing the initial empiric antibiotic regimen prescribed while awaiting phenotypic drug susceptibility testing and assisting in decisions regarding whether to request rapid molecular drug susceptibility testing. PMID: 32281986 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - April 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hirama T, Sabur N, Derkach P, McNamee J, Song H, Marras T, Brode S Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Gap analyses to assess Canadian readiness for respiratory syncytial virus vaccines: Report from an expert retreat.
Abstract Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause severe disease in infants and older adults. Various vaccine candidates are in development and may become authorized for use in Canada within the next 2-5 years. The Public Health Agency of Canada sought to enhance preparedness for RSV vaccine and passive immunization candidates by organizing an expert retreat to identify knowledge gaps in surveillance and research and development in the context of provincial and territorial RSV public health priorities. We determined that RSV candidate vaccines in development directly address four out of five identified public h...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - April 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Killikelly A, Shane A, Yeung MW, Tunis M, Bancej C, House A, Vaudry W, Moore D, Quach C Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Large community mumps outbreak in Manitoba, Canada, September 2016-December 2018.
Conclusion: This prolonged outbreak revealed a large vulnerable population likely resulting from under-vaccination and waning vaccine-induced immunity in the absence of natural boosting from exposure to mumps virus. It is important to maintain high two-dose coverage with mumps-containing vaccines. A third dose of mumps-containing vaccine in future outbreaks may be considered. PMID: 32281989 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - April 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wei Y, Wilkinson K, Rusk R, Kadkhoda K, Loeppky C Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Motivational interviewing: A powerful tool to address vaccine hesitancy.
Abstract According to the World Health Organization, vaccine hesitancy is among the top threats to global health and few effective strategies address this growing problem. In Canada, approximatively 20% of parents/caregivers are concerned about their children receiving vaccines. Trying to convince them by simply providing the facts about vaccination may backfire and make parents/caregivers even more hesitant. In this context, how can health care providers overcome the challenge of parental decision-making needs regarding vaccination of their children? Motivational interviewing aims to support decision making by el...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - April 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gagneur A Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Canada's National Collaborating Centres: Facilitating evidence-informed decision-making in public health.
que M Abstract Although evidence-informed decision-making is fundamental to public health, it is challenging in practice as there is a continual burgeoning of both evidence and emerging issues, which public health professionals need to address at local, regional and national levels. One way that Canada has addressed this perennial challenge is through its six National Collaborating Centres (NCCs). The NCCs for Public Health were created to promote and support the use of scientific research and other knowledge to strengthen public health practice, programs and policies in Canada. The NCCs identify knowledge gaps, f...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - February 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dubois A, Lévesque M Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Summary of the NACI Statement on the Use of Bivalent Factor H Binding Protein Meningococcal Serogroup B (MenB-fHBP) Vaccine for the Prevention of Meningococcal B Disease.
Conclusion: NACI recommends immunization against serogroup B IMD for all individuals who are at a higher risk of disease due to an underlying medical condition or an increased risk of exposure. In addition to providing guidance to public health decision-makers (i.e. provinces/territories making decisions for publicly-funded immunization programs), these NACI recommendations provide information to individuals, vaccine providers and organizations about vaccines that may not currently be included in publicly funded immunization programs. NACI continues to recommend against the use of the serogroup B vaccines in routine univer...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - February 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Harrison R, Stirling R, Baclic O, Vaudry W Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Infection prevention and control lapse involving medical equipment reprocessing at a family medicine clinic in Ottawa, Ontario, 2018.
Conclusion: We found no evidence of HBV, HCV or HIV transmission associated with this IPAC lapse. However, transmission cannot be ruled out conclusively because only a third of possibly exposed patients underwent testing. PMID: 32167086 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - February 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cadieux G, Friedman DS, Tilley L, Mazzulli T, McDermaid C Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Optimizing communication material to address vaccine hesitancy.
The objective of this paper is to describe good practices in developing communication materials to address vaccine hesitancy. An inventory of vaccination communication materials in Canada was assessed according to the Council of Canadian Academies Expert Panel on Health Product Risk Communication Evaluation (2015). Many of the current communication products could be improved to better align with evidence-based risk communication best practices. Five best practices were identified. First, identify target audience and establish trust. Second, provide both the risks and benefits of vaccination, as most people are looking for ...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - February 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dubé E, Gagnon D, Vivion M Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Networking-A quintessential public health activity.
PMID: 32167089 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - February 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Deilgat M, Huston P Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

National Influenza Mid-Season Report, 2019-2020.
Abstract Canada's national influenza season started in week 47 between November 17 to 23, 2019. Of the 3,762 laboratory-confirmed influenza detections reported from August 25 to December 14, 2019, 61% were influenza A, and of those subtyped, 68% were A(H3N2). Influenza B detections are above average for this time of year. Indicators of influenza activity are within the expected range for this time of year. The majority of hospitalizations reported by provinces and territories have been associated with influenza A(H3N2) (76%), and the greatest proportion have been among adults 65 years and older (40%). Among sentin...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - January 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sevenhuysen C, Lee L, Nwosu A, Smith T, Whitmore L, Bastien N, Desroches M, Bancej C Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

A new resource to summarize evidence on immunization from the Canadian Vaccination Evidence Resource and Exchange Centre (CANVax).
te; E Abstract Scientific progress around the development, use and best practices for communicating the benefits of vaccines is rapid, and keeping up-to-date with the substantial body of evidence on these topics is challenging. However, the increase in the number of vaccines and decline in vaccine-preventable illnesses has often focused public attention more on the risks of vaccines rather than the risks of the diseases. In Canada and elsewhere, an increasing number of parents are choosing to delay and/or refuse some or all vaccines for their children, leading to declining community protection against vaccine-prev...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - January 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: MacDonald NE, Dubé E Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Promoting immunization resiliency in the digital information age.
te; E Abstract The avalanche of online information on immunization is having a major impact on the percentage of the population who choose to get vaccinated. Vaccine misinformation spreads widely with the interactive Web 2.0 and social media; this can bury science-based information. A plethora of immunization misinformation online is affecting trust in health care professionals and in public immunization programs. There are no simple solutions to this, but seven evidence-based strategies can help. First, listen to patients' and parents' concerns, and demonstrate responsiveness by adopting best immunization practic...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - January 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: MacDonald NE, Dubé E Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Tuberculosis drug resistance in Canada: 2018.
Conclusion: In 2018, the proportion of isolates with TB drug resistance in Canada remained low and below global averages, with stable drug resistance, both geographically and demographically. PMID: 31930215 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - January 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: LaFreniere M, Dam D, Strudwick L, McDermott S Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Prescriber-led practice changes that can bolster antimicrobial stewardship in community health care settings.
This article describes these practice changes, the strengths and challenges of Using Antibiotics Wisely and future opportunities to further advance AMS across community health care settings. PMID: 31930218 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - January 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Leis JA, Born KB, Ostrow O, Moser A, Grill A Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Increase in detection of Corynebacterium diphtheriae in Canada: 2006-2019.
Conclusion: There has been a marked increase in referrals to the NML for DT testing of Corynebacterium species. This could be due to the enhanced ability to identify these bacteria using MALDI-TOF systems. Ongoing monitoring will help to assess whether the increase is due solely to increased precision of diagnosis or whether these are emerging cutaneous pathogens. PMID: 31755876 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - November 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bernard KA, Pacheco AL, Burdz T, Wiebe D Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Newly diagnosed cases of HIV in those aged 50 years and older and those less than 50: 2008-2017.
Abstract Background: Canada's population is aging, with nearly forty percent of Canadians aged 50 years or more. As the population ages, unique challenges related to health are becoming evident, including increasing rates of sexually transmitted and bloodborne infections. Understanding the epidemiology of HIV in older adults is important to guide prevention and control programs. Objective: To assess trends in newly diagnosed cases of HIV in Canada among those aged 50 years and older (≥50 years) and those aged less than 50 (
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - November 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Haddad N, Robert A, Popovic N, Varsaneux O, Edmunds M, Jonah L, Siu W, Weeks A, Archibald C Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Canadian results from the European Men-who-have-sex-with-men Internet survey (EMIS-2017).
Conclusion: gbMSM in Canada experienced stigma, discrimination and mental health problems; substance use was high as were high-risk sexual practices, such as CAI, among some groups of men. There was a gap between the proportion of men who were interested in PrEP and those who actually used it; and comprehensive STBBI testing was low.These findings can inform public health action and provide a baseline to examine the impact of current and new interventions. PMID: 31755878 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - November 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Brogan N, Paquette DM, Lachowsky NJ, Blais M, Brennan DJ, Hart TA, Adam B Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Public health investigation of infection prevention and control complaints in Ontario, 2015-2018.
Conclusion: IPAC complaints and lapses have increased in Ontario since 2015 when the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care changed the IPAC complaint protocol. Public health units identified lack of expertise, increased workload, interjurisdictional inconsistencies and lack of guidance as challenges. Further research to confirm these findings, identify best practices to address these challenges as well as interventions to prevent IPAC lapses would be useful. Prospective surveillance of IPAC complaints, like for reportable diseases, would also be useful. PMID: 31755879 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - November 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cadieux G, Brown C, Sachdeva H Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Community outbreak of hepatitis A disproportionately affecting men who have sex with men in Toronto, Canada, January 2017-November 2018.
Conclusion: Outbreaks of HAV, attributed to person-to-person transmission of strains of HAV that disproportionately affected MSM and were likely to have been imported from international MSM outbreaks, have now occurred in Canada. Genetic sequencing of HAV, risk factor analysis of cases, monitoring trends of vaccine coverage in high-risk groups and initiation of vaccination campaigns that address barriers to HAV preexposure vaccine coverage in the MSM population may prevent future outbreaks. PMID: 31647057 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - October 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sachdeva H, Benusic M, Ota S, Stuart R, Maclachlan J, Dubey V, Andonov A Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Updates to the Canadian Notifiable Disease Surveillance System and its interactive website.
This article provides an update on changes in case definitions that have been made since the case definitions were last published in 2009, and describes updates that have been made to the interactive website since 2013. Changes were made to the case definitions of five diseases. For hepatitis C, the new case definition now distinguishes between acute and chronic infection. For cyclosporiasis, the probable case definition requires an epidemiologic link, with the clarification that this would likely be due to exposure to a common food source. For rabies, the probable case definition now refers to detection of rabies-neutrali...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - October 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Totten S, Medaglia A, McDermott S Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Reaping the benefits of Open Data in public health.
Abstract Open Data is part of a broad global movement that is not only advancing science and scientific communication but also transforming modern society and how decisions are made. What began with a call for Open Science and the rise of online journals has extended to Open Data, based on the premise that if reports on data are open, then the generated or supporting data should be open as well. There have been a number of advances in Open Data over the last decade, spearheaded largely by governments. A real benefit of Open Data is not simply that single databases can be used more widely; it is that these data can...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - October 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Huston P, Edge VL, Bernier E Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in British Columbia, 2011-2017: Analysis to inform exclusion guidelines.
Conclusion: The epidemiology of STEC has changed in BC as laboratories increasingly distinguish between O157 and non-O157 cases and identify Stx type. It appears that non-O157 cases with Stx1 are less severe than O157 cases with Stx2. The BC STEC exclusion guidelines were updated as a result of this analysis. PMID: 31556405 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - September 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Noftall K, Taylor M, Hoang L, Galanis E Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Surveillance of Echinococcus tapeworm in coyotes and domestic dogs in Winnipeg, Manitoba: Abstract.
Conclusion: This is the first confirmation of the presence of E. multilocularis in coyote feces in the metropolitan area of Winnipeg, Manitoba. In light of the risk this could pose to domestic dogs and human health, periodic surveillance that maps the distribution of this tapeworm could inform the need for additional public health actions. PMID: 31355823 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - July 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tse C, Bullard J, Rusk R, Douma D, Plourde PJ Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Clostridioides difficile infection in Canada: A six-year review to support vaccine decision-making.
Conclusion: In Canada overall, the rate of HA-CDI has been decreasing and the rate of CA-CDI has been increasing, although this calculation was impeded by discrepancies in CDI-related definitions among provincial surveillance programs. Nationally-adopted common definitions for CDI would enable better comparisons of CDI rates between provinces and a calculation of the pan-Canadian burden of illness to support vaccine decision-making. PMID: 31355824 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - July 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xia Y, Tunis MC, Frenette C, Katz K, Amaratunga K, Rose SR, House A, Quach C Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

A public health enhanced surveillance system for a mass gathering event.
Conclusion: The three additional monitoring strategies developed to detect events of public health importance during the 2018 G7 Summit in Quebec were successful in gathering timely data for analysis. Close collaboration and good participation from the different partners were essential to this project. However, because no public health event occurred, it was not possible to determine whether the enhanced surveillance system had sufficient speed and sensitivity for timely detection and response. PMID: 31355825 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - July 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Huot C, Paradis A, Hammond-Collins K, Bélair MA, Villeneuve J, Brousseau N, Goupil-Sormany I, Riffon J Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Human rabies postexposure prophylaxis and rabid terrestrial animals in Ontario, Canada: 2014-2016.
Conclusion: Along with other factors, consideration of the occurrence of rabies in terrestrial animals in a jurisdiction can assist in the risk assessment of dogs, cats or ferrets that are not available for subsequent observation. PMID: 31355826 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - July 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Middleton D, Friedman L, Johnson S, Buchan S, Warshawsky B Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Toxoplasma gondii: How an Amazonian parasite became an Inuit health issue.
This article reviews the prevalence of T. gondii infection in terrestrial and marine animals in the Canadian Arctic and discusses their potential role in the foodborne transmission of this parasite to humans. Two distribution factors seem plausible. First, felids in more southern habitats may release infectious oocysts into waterways. As these oocysts remain viable for months, they can be transported northward via rivers and ocean currents and could infect Arctic fish and eventually the marine mammals that prey on the fish. Second, migratory terrestrial and marine intermediate hosts may be responsible for carrying T. gondi...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - July 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Reiling SJ, Dixon BR Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Summary of the NACI Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Statement for 2019-2020.
Conclusion: NACI continues to recommend that an age-appropriate influenza vaccine should be offered annually to anyone six months of age and older who does not have contraindications to the vaccine, with focus on the groups for whom influenza vaccination is particularly recommended. This includes people at high risk of influenza-related complications or hospitalization, people capable of transmitting influenza to those at high risk, people who provide essential community services and people in direct contact with poultry infected with avian influenza during culling operations. PMID: 31285706 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - June 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhao L, Young K, Gemmill I Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Should individuals use influenza vaccine effectiveness studies to inform their decision to get vaccinated?
Abstract Studies on the effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine can affect an individual's perception of the ability of this vaccine to protect against influenza. However, vaccine effectiveness studies are designed to inform public health decisions rather than for individual decision-making. This overview explains what vaccine effectiveness means and why vaccine effectiveness estimates can vary. Individual variation in the response to seasonal influenza vaccine is based upon risk factors such as age, underlying health conditions, immune status and risk of infection and complications. Therefore, an individual's...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - June 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhao L, Stirling R, Young K Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Canadian pandemic influenza preparedness: Public health measures strategy.
This article summarizes Canada's pandemic public health measures strategy, as described in the recently updated CPIP Public Health Measures Annex. The strategy builds on lessons learned during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Key elements of the public health measures strategy include individual measures (e.g. hand hygiene, self-isolation when ill), community-based measures (e.g. school closures, cancellation of mass gatherings), management of cases and close contacts, travel and border-related actions and public education. Factors that influence the effectiveness of public health measures in a pandemic include the pandemic epidemi...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - June 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Henry B Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Increase in ST-11 serogroup W Neisseria meningitidis invasive meningococcal disease in Canada, 2016-2018.
Conclusion: In 2018, MenW was the most common serogroup for isolates received by the NML from culture-positive IMD cases in Canada. Over 90% of the MenW serogroup isolates belonged to the ST-11 CC. The quadrivalent ACWY meningococcal conjugate vaccine protects against IMD caused by strains in the A, C, W or Y serogroups and therefore may protect against IMD caused by the new MenW ST-11 strain; however, more research is needed. The emergence of variant strains highlight the importance of strain characterization in IMD surveillance and research. PMID: 31285709 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - June 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tsang RS, Hoang L, Tyrrell GJ, Minion J, Van Caeseele P, Kus JV, Lefebvre B, Haldane D, Garceau R, German G, Zahariadis G, Hanley B Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

The health effects of climate change: Know the risks and become part of the solutions.
Abstract Climate change presents a clear and present danger to human health. Health impacts are already being demonstrated in Canada, which is warming at roughly twice the global rate. A recent United Nations Environment Emissions Gap Report noted that if countries maintain current emission efforts, emissions will exceed the targets laid out in the Paris Agreement and global warming will exceed 2ºC worldwide. An important consequence of global warming is an increase in health risks. Much can be done to prevent and mitigate the health impacts of climate change, and understanding and communicating these has bee...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - May 2, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Howard C, Huston P Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Risk assessment strategies for early detection and prediction of infectious disease outbreaks associated with climate change.
Abstract A new generation of surveillance strategies is being developed to help detect emerging infections and to identify the increased risks of infectious disease outbreaks that are expected to occur with climate change. These surveillance strategies include event-based surveillance (EBS) systems and risk modelling. The EBS systems use open-source internet data, such as media reports, official reports, and social media (such as Twitter) to detect evidence of an emerging threat, and can be used in conjunction with conventional surveillance systems to enhance early warning of public health threats. More recently, ...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - May 2, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rees EE, Ng V, Gachon P, Mawudeku A, McKenney D, Pedlar J, Yemshanov D, Parmely J, Knox J Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Weather-based forecasting of mosquito-borne disease outbreaks in Canada.
Abstract Early warning systems to predict infectious disease outbreaks have been identified as a key adaptive response to climate change. Warming, climate variability and extreme weather events associated with climate change are expected to drive an increase in frequency and intensity of mosquito-borne disease (MBD) outbreaks globally. In Canada, this will mean an increased risk of endemic and emerging MBD outbreaks such as West Nile virus and other MBDs. The availability of timely information on the risk of impending MBD outbreaks has important public health implications, by allowing implementation of mosquito co...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - May 2, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ogden NH, Lindsay LR, Ludwig A, Morse AP, Zheng H, Zhu H Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Using Earth observation images to inform risk assessment and mapping of climate change-related infectious diseases.
The objectives of this overview are to describe how Earth observation images may inform risk assessment and mapping of tick-borne and mosquito-borne diseases in Canada, their potential benefits and limitations, the implications and next steps. PMID: 31285704 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - May 2, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kotchi SO, Bouchard C, Ludwig A, Rees EE, Brazeau S Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Quebec's Multi-Party Observatory on Zoonoses and Adaptation to Climate Change.
This article describes what the Observatory is, what it does and outlines its plans for the future. PMID: 31285705 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - May 2, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Germain G, Simon A, Arsenault J, Baron G, Bouchard C, Chaumont D, El Allaki F, Kimpton A, Lévesque B, Massé A, Mercier M, Ogden NH, Picard I, Ravel A, Rocheleau JP, Soto J, for Quebec’s Multi-Party Observatory on Zoonoses and Adaptation to Climate Cha Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Climate change and infectious diseases: What can we expect?
Abstract Global climate change, driven by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, is being particularly felt in Canada, with warming generally greater than in the rest of the world. Continued warming will be accompanied by changes in precipitation, which will vary across the country and seasons, and by increasing climate variability and extreme weather events. Climate change will likely drive the emergence of infectious diseases in Canada by northward spread from the United States and introduction from elsewhere in the world via air and sea transport. Diseases endemic to Canada are also likely to re-emerge. This s...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - April 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ogden NH, Gachon P Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

N Increased risk of tick-borne diseases with climate and environmental changes.
Abstract Climate warming and other environmental changes have contributed to the expansion of the range of several tick species into higher latitudes in North America. As temperatures increase in Canada, the environment becomes more suitable for ticks and the season suitable for tick activity lengthens, so tick-borne diseases are likely to become more common in Canada. In addition to Lyme disease, four other tick-borne diseases (TBDs) have started to emerge and are likely to increase: Anaplasmosis; Babesiosis; Powassan virus; and Borrelia miyamotoi disease. Increased temperature increases the survival and activity...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - April 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bouchard C, Dibernardo A, Koffi J, Wood H, Leighton PA, Lindsay LR Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Increased risk of endemic mosquito-borne diseases in Canada due to climate change.
Abstract There are currently over 80 species of mosquito endemic in Canada-although only a few of these carry pathogens that can cause disease in humans. West Nile virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus and the California serogroup viruses (including the Jamestown Canyon and snowshoe hare viruses) are mosquito-borne viruses that have been found to cause human infections in North America, including in Canada. Over the last 20 years, the incidence of most of these endemic mosquito-borne diseases (MBD) has increased approximately 10% in Canada, due in large part to climate change. It is anticipated that both the mo...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - April 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ludwig A, Zheng H, Vrbova L, Drebot MA, Iranpour M, Lindsay LR Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Could exotic mosquito-borne diseases emerge in Canada with climate change?
Abstract Of the 3,500 species of mosquitoes worldwide, only a small portion carry and transmit the mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) that cause approximately half a million deaths annually worldwide. The most common exotic MBDs, such as malaria and dengue, are not currently established in Canada, in part because of our relatively harsh climate; however, this situation could evolve with climate change. Mosquitoes native to Canada may become infected with new pathogens and move into new regions within Canada. In addition, new mosquito species may move into Canada from other countries, and these exotic species may bring...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - April 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ng V, Rees EE, Lindsay LR, Drebot MA, Brownstone T, Sadeghieh T, Khan SU Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

How will climate change impact microbial foodborne disease in Canada?
Abstract Foodborne disease is a major concern in Canada and represents a significant climate change-related threat to public health. Climate variables, including temperature and precipitation patterns, extreme weather events and ocean warming and acidification, are known to exert significant, complicated and interrelated effects along the entire length of the food chain. Foodborne diseases are caused by a range of bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses, and the prevalence of these diseases is modified by climate change through alterations in the abundance, growth, range and survival of many pathogens, as well as t...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - April 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Smith BA, Fazil A Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Canada, 2012-2016.
Conclusion: While XDR-GC are currently rare in Canada, MDR-GC have increased over the last five years. Azithromycin resistance in N. gonorrhoeae is established and spreading in Canada, exceeding the 5% level at which the World Health Organization states an antimicrobial should be reviewed as an appropriate treatment. Continued surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibilities of N. gonorrhoeae is necessary to inform treatment guidelines and mitigate the impact of resistant gonorrhea. PMID: 31015818 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - February 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Martin I, Sawatzky P, Allen V, Lefebvre B, Hoang L, Naidu P, Minion J, Van Caeseele P, Haldane D, Gad RR, Zahariadis G, Corriveau A, German G, Tomas K, Mulvey MR Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Addressing the rising rates of gonorrhea and drug-resistant gonorrhea: There is no time like the present.
Abstract Increasing rates of gonococcal (GC) infection and antimicrobial resistant (AMR) GC, are a serious public health concern for Canada and around the world. Previously recommended treatments are ineffective against many of the gonorrhea strains circulating today. The current recommendation for combination therapy is now being threatened by globally emerging and increasingly resistant strains. It is important that coordinated efforts be made now to ensure these new global strains do not become established in Canada. Otherwise, we will be faced with the possibility of persistent GC infection which can lead to p...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - February 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bodie M, Gale-Rowe M, Alexandre S, Auguste U, Tomas K, Martin I Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

The need for integrated public health surveillance to address sexually transmitted and blood-borne syndemics.
Abstract A national approach to addressing sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections (STBBIs) was recently articulated in the Public Health Agency of Canada's new A Pan-Canadian Framework for Action: Reducing the health impact of sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections in Canada by 2030. This Framework promotes an integrated approach, with a focus on the key populations that are affected by overlapping epidemics (i.e., syndemics). We advance the idea that integrating surveillance would be helpful in characterizing and understanding the populations, locations, risk behaviours and other drivers that co...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - February 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Murti M, Wong J, Whelan M, Renda C, Hohenadel K, Macdonald L, Parry D Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Tuberculosis in Canada: 2017.
Conclusion: Although the incidence rate of TB in Canada in 2017 remained low in the global context and has been relatively stable over the last decade, both the case count and rate have been gradually increasing since 2014. Indigenous and foreign born Canadians continued to be disproportionately represented among TB cases. Canadian TB surveillance data are an important source of information for monitoring progress and informing public health action related to reducing the burden of TB in Canada, with the ultimate goal of TB elimination. PMID: 31015821 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - February 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: LaFreniere M, Hussain H, He N, McGuire M Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

West Nile virus illness in Ontario, Canada: 2017.
Conclusion: WNV illness continues to be an ongoing burden in Ontario. The increase in the number of cases reported in 2017, and the increased number of PHUs reporting cases, suggests changing and expanding risk levels in Ontario. Continued mosquito and human surveillance, increased awareness of preventive measures, and early recognition and treatment are needed to mitigate the impact of WNV infections. PMID: 31015803 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - January 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wijayasri S, Nelder MP, Russell CB, Johnson KO, Johnson S, Badiani T, Sider D Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Infection prevention in personal services settings: Evidence, gaps and the way forward.
Conclusion: This review involved a comprehensive examination of relevant literature and provides a summary of issues addressing the risk of infection in personal services settings. There is a paucity of high quality evidence to support guidance, and findings reveal the need for further investigation and enhanced awareness of public health risks associated with personal services. Nonetheless, these findings can inform future research and the development of infection prevention and control guidelines and recommendations for such settings. PMID: 31015815 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - January 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Popalyar A, Stafford J, Ogunremi T, Dunn K Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Effectiveness of hand hygiene practices in preventing influenza virus infection in the community setting: A systematic review.
Conclusion: The effectiveness of hand hygiene against influenza virus infection and transmission in the community setting is difficult to determine based on the available evidence. In light of its proven effectiveness in other settings, there is no compelling evidence to stop using good hand hygiene practice to reduce the risk of influenza infection and transmission in the community setting. PMID: 31015816 [PubMed] (Source: Can Commun Dis Rep)
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - January 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Moncion K, Young K, Tunis M, Rempel S, Stirling R, Zhao L Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Canadian Pandemic Influenza Preparedness: Antiviral strategy.
This article summarizes Canada's pandemic influenza antiviral strategy as described in the recently updated CPIP Antiviral Annex. The antiviral strategy builds on lessons learned during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Key elements of the strategy include ensuring equitable, timely and coordinated access to antivirals through government stockpiles; having regulatory mechanisms in place that facilitate timely access to antivirals; providing timely and evidence-based clinical guidance; maintaining effective stockpile management practices; and monitoring antiviral utilization, effectiveness and safety. Since the CPIP is an evergreen d...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - January 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Henry B Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research