Correction to: Targeted Inactivation of Rin3 Increases Trabecular Bone Mass by Reducing Bone Resorption and Favouring Bone Formation
A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00223-021-00849-w (Source: Calcified Tissue International)
Source: Calcified Tissue International - April 19, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Correction to: Rare Inherited forms of Paget ’s Disease and Related Syndromes
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in Funding section. The correct Funding section is given below. (Source: Calcified Tissue International)
Source: Calcified Tissue International - April 19, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Correction to: A Multicenter Study to Evaluate Harmonization of Assays for C-Terminal Telopeptides of Type I Collagen ( ß-CTX): A Report from the IFCC-IOF Committee for Bone Metabolism (C-BM)
A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00223-021-00839-y (Source: Calcified Tissue International)
Source: Calcified Tissue International - April 17, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

A Retrospective Analysis of Longitudinal Changes in Bone Mineral Density in Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
AbstractMost prospective studies of bone mineral density (BMD) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients have been of relatively short duration, with a maximum of 6  years. To describe long-term changes in BMD in women with SLE and identify risk factors associated with BMD loss. We retrospectively evaluated 132 adult Mexican-Mestizo women with SLE who underwent dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Demographic and clinical data were collected and BMD at the lumbar spine (L1–L4) and total hip were collected at baseline and during the follow up. At baseline, the mean age of participants was 43.4 ±&th...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - April 17, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Quantitative Backscattered Electron Imaging of Bone Using a Thermionic or a Field Emission Electron Source
AbstractQuantitative backscattered electron imaging is an established method to map mineral content distributions in bone and to determine the bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD). The method we applied was initially validated for a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with a tungsten hairpin cathode (thermionic electron emission) under strongly defined settings of SEM parameters. For several reasons, it would be interesting to migrate the technique to a SEM with a field emission electron source (FE-SEM), which, however, would require to work with different SEM parameter settings as have been validated fo...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - April 10, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Characterization of Oral Health Status in Chilean Patients with X-Linked Hypophosphatemia
AbstractX-Linked Hypophosphatemia (XLH) is the most common cause of inherited hypophosphatemic rickets. Dental involvement, including spontaneous abscesses and/or fistulae, is an important part of the disease and has not been completely defined, especially in cohorts from developing countries. To describe oral health status in a cohort of Chilean patients with XLH and explore its correlation with biochemical presentation and treatment, we conducted a cross-sectional observational study of patients withPHEX mutation-confirmed XLH. All patients had an oral clinical exam, radiographic evaluation; clinical and biochemical data...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - April 10, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Fall Patterns Predict Mortality After Hip Fracture in Older Adults, Independent of Age, Sex, and Comorbidities
AbstractFalls are the most frequent cause of hip fracture. We aimed to investigate whether specific fall patterns have predictive value for mortality after hip fracture. In this cohort study, data of individuals presented to the Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea, between 2005 and 2019 due to fragility hip fracture (n = 1986) were analyzed. Fall patterns were defined as causes, activities leading to falls, and a combination of both, based on electronic medical records using pre-specified classification from a prior study on video-captured falls. Mean age of study subjects were 77 years (71% women) and 211 patients (10.6%) di...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - April 8, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Risk of Fractures and Other Injuries in Children Treated with Antiseizure Medications for Epilepsy
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of fractures and non-fracture injuries, including associated risk factors, in children with epilepsy prescribed antiseizure medications (ASM). A controlled, cross-sectional study was conducted in a hospital outpatient setting, comparing children with epilepsy prescribed ASMs with their non-epileptic siblings. Information was collected by questionnaire included history of fractures, non-fracture injuries and epilepsy, comorbidities and ASM use. 261 participants completed the questionnaire, 133 children with epilepsy (aged 10.7  ± 3.5 years, mean&thinsp...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - April 7, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Bone in CKD, a Fascinating Evolving Topic
(Source: Calcified Tissue International)
Source: Calcified Tissue International - April 6, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Tumor-Induced Osteomalacia in Denmark
AbstractTumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare, acquired condition of phosphate wasting due to phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors. Because the incidence and prevalence of TIO is unknown, we conducted an observational cohort study using national Danish health registers for the period 2008 to 2018 to obtain such information. The study also aimed to describe the demographics of the TIO population and the prognosis. The operational definition was based on hypophosphatemia or adult osteomalacia diagnoses, combined with prescriptions used in the initial management and procedures consistent with advanced imaging used for locatin...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - April 5, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Metformin: Is It the Well Wisher of Bone Beyond Glycemic Control in Diabetes Mellitus?
AbstractBoth diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis constitute a notable burden in terms of quality of life and healthcare costs. Diabetes mellitus affecting the skeletal system has been gaining attention in recent years and is now getting recognized as yet another complication of the disease, known as diabetic bone disease. As this condition with weaker bone strength increases fracture risk and reduces the quality of life, so much attention is being paid to investigate the molecular pathways through which both diabetes and its therapy are affecting bone metabolism. Out of many therapeutic agents currently available for managi...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - April 2, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Elemental Composition in Female Dry Femora Using Portable X-Ray Fluorescence (pXRF): Association with Age and Osteoporosis
This study analyzes the elemental composition in two anatomical regions from dry femoral bone using a portable X-Ray Fluorescence (pXRF) and evaluates its impact in the bone mineral density (BMD). The left femora of 97 female skeletons (21 –95 years old individuals) from the Coimbra Identified Skeletal Collection were studied. Diagenetic biases were discarded at the outset and BMD was determined with Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Chemical measurements were performed at the midpoint of the femoral neck and at the midshaft using a pXRF device, and comparisons were made considering the age and the BMD values. O...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - April 1, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

The Role of Bone Biopsy in the Management of CKD-MBD
AbstractA bone biopsy is still considered the gold standard for diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy. It allows to measure both static and dynamic parameters of bone remodeling and is the only method able to evaluate mineralization and allows analysis of both cortical and trabecular bone. Although bone volume can be measured indirectly by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, mineralization defects, bone metal deposits, cellular number/activity, and even turnover abnormalities are difficult to determine by techniques other than qualitative bone histomorphometry. In this review, we evaluate the role of bone biopsy in the clinical ...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - March 26, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Bone Mineral Disease After Kidney Transplantation
AbstractChronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) after kidney transplantation is a mix of pre-existing disorders and new alterations. The final consequences are reflected fundamentally as abnormal mineral metabolism (hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia) and bone alterations [high or low bone turnover disease (as fibrous osteitis or adynamic bone disease), an eventual compromise of bone mineralization, decrease bone mineral density and bone fractures]. The major cause of post-transplantation hypercalcemia is the persistence of severe secondary hyperparathyroidism, and treatment options include calcimimetics or par...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - March 25, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Utilization of Mechanical Stress to Treat Osteoporosis: The Effects of Electrical Stimulation, Radial Extracorporeal Shock Wave, and Ultrasound on Experimental Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Rats
AbstractCurrent treatment options for osteoporosis primarily involve pharmacotherapies, but they are often accompanied by undesirable side effects. Utilization of mechanical stress which can noninvasively induce bone formation has been suggested as an alternative to conventional treatments. Here, we examined the efficacy of mechanical stress induced by electrical stimulation, radial extracorporeal shock waves, and ultrasound for estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. Female Wistar rats were divided into following five groups: sham-operated group, untreated after ovariectomy, and treated with electrical stimulation, radial extrac...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - March 22, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Abnormalities in Tooth Formation after Early Bisphosphonate Treatment in Children with Osteogenesis Imperfecta
AbstractTreatment with intravenous bisphosphonate (BP) in children and adolescents with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) started in Sweden in 1991. No human studies on the role of BP therapy in development of disturbances in tooth mineralization or tooth morphology have been published. The study cohort comprised 219 individuals who were divided into four groups: group 1, BP treatment onset before 2  years of age (n = 22); group 2, BP treatment onset between 2 and 6 years of age (n = 20); group 3, BP treatment onset between 6 and 10 years of age (n = 13); and a control gr...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - March 20, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Identification of Novel Pleiotropic SNPs Associated with Osteoporosis and Rheumatoid Arthritis
AbstractGenome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified hundreds of genetic loci for osteoporosis (OP) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), individually, however, a large proportion of the total trait heritability remains unexplained. Previous studies demonstrated that these two diseases may share some common genetic determination and risk factors, but they were generally focused on individual trait and failed to identify the common variants that play key functional roles in the etiology of these two diseases. Here, we performed a conditional false discovery rate (cFDR) analysis to identify novel pleiotropic variants sha...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - March 19, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Disuse Osteoporosis: Clinical and Mechanistic Insights
AbstractDisuse osteoporosis describes a state of bone loss due to local skeletal unloading or systemic immobilization. This review will discuss advances in the field that have shed light on clinical observations, mechanistic insights and options for the treatment of disuse osteoporosis. Clinical settings of disuse osteoporosis include spinal cord injury, other neurological and neuromuscular disorders, immobilization after fractures and bed rest (real or modeled). Furthermore, spaceflight-induced bone loss represents a well-known adaptive process to microgravity. Clinical studies have outlined that immobilization leads to i...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - March 18, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Targeted Inactivation of Rin3 Increases Trabecular Bone Mass by Reducing Bone Resorption and Favouring Bone Formation
AbstractCommon genetic variants at theRIN3 locus on chromosome 14q32 predispose to Paget ’s disease of bone (PDB) but the mechanisms by which they do so are unknown. Here, we analysed the skeletal phenotype of female mice with targeted inactivation of the mouseRin3 gene (Rin3−/−) as compared with wild-type littermates. TheRin3−/− mice had higher trabecular bone volume (BV/TV%) compared with wild type. Mean ± standard deviation values at the distal femur at 8 weeks were 9.0 ± 2.5 vs. 7.0 ± 1.5 (p = 0.002) and at 52 weeks were 15.8 ± 9.5 vs. 8.5 ± 4.2 (p = 0.00...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - March 16, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

RTEF-1 Inhibits Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Calcification through Regulating Wnt/ β-Catenin Signaling Pathway
AbstractVascular calcification (VC) is highly prevailing in cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease and, when present, is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality. The osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is regarded as the foundation for mediating VC. Related transcriptional enhancer factor (RTEF-1), also named as transcriptional enhanced associate domain (TEAD) 4 or transcriptional enhancer factor-3 (TEF-3), is a nuclear transcriptional factor with a potent effect on cardiovascular diseases, apart from its oncogenic role in the canonical Hippo pathway...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - March 13, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Biochemical and Morphological Abnormalities of Subchondral Bone and Their Association with Cartilage Degeneration in Spontaneous Osteoarthritis
This study aims to investigate how biochemical composition in subchondral bone (SB) relates to the sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content of articular cartilage (AC) in the knee joint of guinea pigs from the early to moderate osteoarthritis (OA). Male Dunkin Hartley strain guinea pigs were grouped according to age (1, 3, 6, and 9  months, with 10 guinea pigs in each group). The biochemical properties of the AC and SB in the tibial plateau of the guinea pigs were determined through histology and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. Furthermore, the microstructures of the SB were investigated using micro-computed tomogr...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - March 13, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Detraining Effects on Musculoskeletal Parameters in Early Postmenopausal Osteopenic Women: 3-Month Follow-Up of the Randomized Controlled ACTLIFE Study
AbstractPeriods of absence from supervised group exercise while maintaining physical activity might be a frequent pattern in adults' exercise habits. The aim of the present study was to determine detraining effects on musculoskeletal outcomes after a 3-month detraining period in early post-menopausal, osteopenic women. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we terminated the 18-month randomized controlled ACTLIFE exercise intervention immediately after the 13-month follow-up assessment. This put an abrupt stop to the high-intensity aerobic and resistance group exercise sessions undertaken three times per week by the exercise group ...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - March 12, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Effect of Zoledronate on Lower Respiratory Infections in Older Women: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial
In conclusion, these findings lend support to the hypothesis that bisphosphonate use reduces the number of lower respiratory tract infections in older women, though the present study is under-powered for this endpoint and the findings are of borderline statistical significance. Further analysis of other trials of bisphosphonates is necessary to test this possibility further, and exploration of the possible und erlying mechanisms is needed. (Source: Calcified Tissue International)
Source: Calcified Tissue International - March 12, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Measures of Bone Mineral Carbonate Content and Mineral Maturity/Crystallinity for FT-IR and Raman Spectroscopic Imaging Differentially Relate to Physical –Chemical Properties of Carbonate-Substituted Hydroxyapatite
In this study, our objectives were (1) to relate Raman and FT-IR carbonate:phosphate ratios calculated through direct integration of peaks to gold-standard analytical measures of carbonate content and underlying subband ratios; (2) to relate Raman and FT-IR MMC measures to gold-standard analytical measures of crystal size in chemical standards and native bone powders. Raman and FT-IR direct integration carbonate:phosphate ratios increased with carbonate content (Raman: p  
Source: Calcified Tissue International - March 12, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Phenanthrenoid Coelogin Isolated from Coelogyne cristata Exerts Osteoprotective Effect Through MAPK-Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway
This study determined the mechanism through which coelogin stimulates osteoblastogenesis and its osteoprotective and bone regenerating potential. Coelogin effect on primary calvarial osteoblast cells was determined by measuring alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization, osteoblast survival, and apoptosis and protein expression studies. The osteoprotective effect of coelogin was also evaluated on osteopenic adult female Swiss mice. At autopsy, bones were collected for dynamic and histomorphometry studies. Serum samples were also collected for assessment of serum parameters. Coelogin treatment led to increased osteoblast...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - March 6, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Anorexia Nervosa and Osteoporosis
AbstractPatients with anorexia nervosa (AN) often experience low bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk, with low body weight and decreased gonadal function being the strongest predictors of the observed bone mineral deficit and fractures. Other metabolic disturbances have also been linked to bone loss in this group of patients, including growth hormone resistance, low insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations, low leptin concentrations, and hypercortisolemia. However, these correlations lack definitive evidence of causality. Weight restoration and resumption of menstrual function have the stronge...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - March 5, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

A Multicenter Study to Evaluate Harmonization of Assays for C-Terminal Telopeptides of Type I Collagen ( ß-CTX): A Report from the IFCC-IOF Committee for Bone Metabolism (C-BM)
ConclusionOur results show large within- and between-assay variation for ß-CTX measurement, particularly in serum. Stability of the analyte could be one of the explanations. More studies should be undertaken to overcome this problem. Until harmonization is achieved, we recommend measuring ß-CTX by the same assay on EDTA plasma, especially for research purposes in large pharmacological trials where samples can be stored for long periods before they are assayed. (Source: Calcified Tissue International)
Source: Calcified Tissue International - March 4, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Mitochondria Homeostasis and Vascular Medial Calcification
AbstractVascular calcification occurs highly prevalent, which commonly predicts adverse cardiovascular events. The pathogenesis of calcification, a complicated and multifactorial process, is incompletely characterized. Accumulating evidence shows that mitochondrial dysfunction may ultimately be more detrimental in the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) calcification. This review summarizes the role of mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic reprogramming in vascular calcification, and indicates that metabolic regulation may be a therapeutic target in vascular calcification. (Source: Calcified Tissue International)
Source: Calcified Tissue International - March 3, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Silencing Proteasome 26S Subunit ATPase 2 (PSMC2) Protects the Osteogenic Differentiation In Vitro and Osteogenesis In Vivo
In conclusion, PSMC2 expression is upregulated in the postmenopausal osteoporosis model in OVX mice. PSMC2 silencing promotes the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro, promotes bone formation, and inhibits bone resorption in vivo. (Source: Calcified Tissue International)
Source: Calcified Tissue International - February 24, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

“Pregnancy and Lactation Associated Osteoporosis”
AbstractPregnancy-associated osteoporosis (PAO) is a rare condition of skeletal fragility affecting women in pregnancy or the postpartum period. During normal pregnancy and lactation, substantial changes in calcium metabolism and skeletal physiology occur in order to meet the demands of the developing foetus. Whilst these adaptations are reversible and generally of no clinical consequence for the mother, a small number of women will develop osteoporosis and suffer fragility fractures. Vertebral fractures occur most commonly in PAO and are often multiple. Due to the rarity of PAO, systematic study to date has been limited. ...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - February 23, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Hepatitis C-Associated Osteosclerosis: Improvement After Treatment with Sofosbuvir, Daclatasvir, and Ibandronate: Case Report and Literature Review
We report here the case of a 59-year-old  man with generalized bone pain and diagnosis of HCV infection. Biochemical tests showed elevated bone turnover markers, specifically, ALP, carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks and osteocalcin. Imaging studies revealed generalized bone sclerosis. Bone mineral density was elevated in all validated s ites. His clinical symptoms and bone-related findings were attributed to HCAO. He was sequentially treated with cholecalciferol, prednisone, sofosbuvir associated with daclatasvir and ibandronate, and progressed with undetectable viral load after HCV treatment, normalization of ...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - February 22, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Sclerostin Directly Stimulates Osteocyte Synthesis of Fibroblast Growth Factor-23
AbstractOsteocyte produced fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is the key regulator of serum phosphate (Pi) homeostasis. The interplay between parathyroid hormone (PTH), FGF23 and other proteins that regulate FGF23 production and serum Pi levels is complex and incompletely characterised. Evidence suggests that the protein product of theSOST gene, sclerostin (SCL), also a PTH target and also produced by osteocytes, plays a role in FGF23 expression, however the mechanism for this effect is unclear. Part of the problem of understanding the interplay of these mediators is the complex multi-organ system that achieves Pi homeost...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - February 22, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Traditional and Non-traditional Risk Factors for Osteoporosis in CKD
AbstractOsteoporosis is a state of bone fragility with reduced skeletal resistance to trauma, and consequently increased risk of fracture. A wide range of conditions, including traditional risk factors, lifestyle choices, diseases and their treatments may contribute to bone fragility. It is therefore not surprising that the multi-morbid patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is at a particularly high risk. CKD is associated with reduced bone quantity, as well as impaired bone quality. Bone fragility in CKD is a composite of primary osteoporosis, accumulation of traditional and uremia-related risk factors, assaults broug...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - February 14, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Role of the RANK/RANKL/OPG and Wnt/ β-Catenin Systems in CKD Bone and Cardiovascular Disorders
Abstract In the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD), alterations in the bone-vascular axis augment the risk of bone loss, fractures, vascular and soft tissue calcification, left ventricular hypertrophy, renal and myocardial fibrosis, which markedly increase morbidity and mortality rates. A major challenge to improve skeletal and cardiovascular outcomes in CKD patients requires a better understanding of the increasing complex interactions among the main modulators of the bone-vascular axis. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), calcidiol, calcitriol and Klot...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - February 13, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Lower Leg Arterial Calcifications Assessed by High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography in Hypoparathyroid and Pseudohypoparathyroid Patients
AbstractHypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) and pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) are diseases with abnormal calcium and phosphate homeostasis and low and high PTH levels, respectively. It has been hypothesized that this could dispose to vascular calcifications and thereby perhaps also cardiovascular morbidity. The aim of this study was to assess lower leg arterial calcifications (LLAC) in patients with HypoPT or PHP. Using a cross-sectional design, we measured the LLAC using a high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) scanner in 72 patients with HypoPT and 25 patients with PHP and compared them with findi...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - February 12, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Computed Tomography-Derived Skeletal Muscle Radiodensity Predicts Peak Weight-Corrected Jump Power in Older Adults: The Korean Urban Rural Elderly (KURE) Study
AbstractComputed tomography (CT)-derived skeletal muscle area (SMA) and skeletal muscle radiodensity (SMD) reflect distinctive quantitative and qualitative characteristics of skeletal muscles. However, data on whether CT-based muscle parameters, especially SMD, can predict muscle function is limited. In a prospective cohort, 1523 community-dwelling older adults who underwent abdominal CT scans and the countermovement two-legged jumping test on a ground reaction force platform were analyzed (mean age 74.7  years, 65.1% women). SMA and SMD were measured at third lumbar vertebra level (L3). Individuals with low jump powe...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - February 10, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

The Utility of Genetic Risk Score to Improve Performance of FRAX for Fracture Prediction in US Postmenopausal Women
AbstractThe ability of the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) in discriminating fracture and non-fracture in postmenopausal women remains suboptimal. Adding a genetic profile may improve the performance of FRAX. Three genetic risk scores (GRSs) (GRS_fracture, GRS_BMD, GRS_eBMD) were calculated for each participant in the Women ’s Health Initiative Study (n = 23,981), based on the summary statistics of three comprehensive osteoporosis-related genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The primary outcomes were incident major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) and hip fracture (HF). The association between each G...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - February 9, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Effects of Bisphosphonate Treatment on Circulating Lipid and Glucose Levels in Patients with Metabolic Bone Disorders
AbstractBisphosphonates are the first-choice treatment of osteoporosis and Paget ’s disease of bone. Among the bisphosphonates, the non-amino-bisphosphonates, such as clodronic acid, are intracellular converted into toxic analogues of ATP and induce cellular apoptosis whereas the amino-bisphosphonates, such as zoledronic acid, inhibit the farnesyl-diphosphate-synthase, an enzy me of the mevalonate pathway. This pathway regulates cholesterol and glucose homeostasis and is a target for statins. In this retrospective cohort study, we evaluated the effects of an intravenous infusion of zoledronic acid (5 mg) or clod...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - February 9, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Human Relevance of Preclinical Studies on the Skeletal Impact of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
AbstractInflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a relapsing chronic idiopathic inflammatory condition. The increased risks of fractures in the spine and decreased BMD at all weight-bearing skeletal sites have been reported in IBD patients. The understanding of the mechanisms of IBD-induced bone loss is far from complete. Appropriate animal models are a prerequisite for studying IBD-induced bone loss, which prompted us to undertake quantitative meta-analyses by pooling data from the available IBD models that assessed various bone parameters. Sufficient data for meta-analysis are obtained from chemically- but not genetically ind...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - February 9, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Bone Status According to Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Phenotype: A Descriptive Study of 60 Women in France
AbstractThere is an increased risk of osteoporosis and an abnormal bone turn over in neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1). Our objective is to evaluate bone status in NF1 and to look for associations with cutaneous phenotype. We conducted a descriptive, monocentric study. We included 60 NF1 women, 18 –51 years old, non-menopausal, divided in 2 groups: «at risk phenotype» (ARP) composed by 30 patients with at least 2 subcutaneous neurofibromas (SC-NF) and «classical phenotype» (CP) composed by 30 patients with none or 1 SC-NF. We evaluated low bone mineral density (BMD) risk factors and me asured BMD...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - February 8, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Significant Improvement After Surgery for a Symptomatic Osteoblastoma in a Patient with Camurati –Engelmann Disease: Case Report and Literature Review
We present a patient diagnosed with CED, based on radiological and histological examinations, at 11 years old. At 22 years old, she experienced severe pain in her right forearm and was treated with bisphosphonate, losartan, and prednisolone; however, the pain continued. An expansive and sclerotic lesion at the distal radius was observed on radiography. A follow-up plain radiograph indicated that the lesion was growing. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed solitary, intense radiotracer upt ake, and a biopsy and surgical resection were performed due to suspected malignancy. Pathologic analysis s...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - February 8, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

The Effect of Helium Ion Radiation on the Material Properties of Bone
AbstractIonizing radiation, from both space and radiation therapy, is known to affect bone health. While there have been studies investigating changes in bone density and microstructure from radiation exposure, the effects of radiation on material properties are unknown. The current study addresses this gap by assessing bone material property changes in rats exposed to helium-4 radiation through spherical micro-indentation. Rats were exposed to a single dose of 0, 5, and 25  cGy whole body helium-4 radiation. Animals were euthanized at 7, 30, 90, or 180-days after exposure. Spherical micro-indentation was performed on...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - January 30, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Patient-Reported Outcomes from a Randomized, Active-Controlled, Open-Label, Phase 3 Trial of Burosumab Versus Conventional Therapy in Children with X-Linked Hypophosphatemia
In conclusion, changing to burosumab improved PRO measures, with statistically significant differences in PROMIS pain interference at week 40 versus continuing with conventional therapy and in PHS-1 0 at weeks 40 and 64 versus baseline.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02915705 (Source: Calcified Tissue International)
Source: Calcified Tissue International - January 23, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Down-Regulation of microRNA-30d Alleviates Intervertebral Disc Degeneration Through the Promotion of FOXO3 and Suppression of CXCL10
AbstractMicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are important biomarkers for the progression of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). We investigated the role of miR-30d in IDD progression through its interactions with forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) and C-X-C motif ligand 10 (CXCL10). We first measured the expression of miR-30d, FOXO3, and CXCL10 in NP cells cultured from IDD patients. RNA-immunoprecipitation (RIP), chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and dual-luciferase reporter assays were then employed to test the relationship among miR-30d, FOXO3, and CXCL10. Besides, gain- and loss-of function approaches were performed to assess the func...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - January 22, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Secreted Phosphoprotein 24 is a Biomarker of Mineral Metabolism
AbstractThe 24  kD form of secreted phosphoprotein (SPP-24), a cytokine-binding bone matrix protein with various truncated C-terminal products, is primarily synthesized by the liver. SPP-24 shares homology with fetuin-A, a potent vascular and soft tissue calcification inhibitor and SPP-24 is one component of calc iprotein particles (CPPs), a circulating fetuin–mineral complex. The limited molecular evidence to date suggests that SPP-24 may also function as an inhibitor of bone formation and ectopic vascular calcification, potentially through bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP-2) and Wnt-signaling mediated act ions....
Source: Calcified Tissue International - January 22, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Bone Disease in CKD in Children
AbstractThis manuscript discusses mineral and bone disorders of chronic kidney disease (MBD-CKD) in pediatric patients with special emphasis on the underlying pathophysiology, the causes and clinical profile of growth retardation, the alterations in the growth plate, the strategies to optimize growth and the medical recommendations for prevention and treatment. (Source: Calcified Tissue International)
Source: Calcified Tissue International - January 16, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

High-Resolution Cone-Beam Computed Tomography is a Fast and Promising Technique to Quantify Bone Microstructure and Mechanics of the Distal Radius
AbstractObtaining high-resolution scans of bones and joints for clinical applications is challenging. HR-pQCT is considered the best technology to acquire high-resolution images of the peripheral skeleton in vivo, but a breakthrough for widespread clinical applications is still lacking. Recently, we showed on trapezia that CBCT is a promising alternative providing a larger FOV at a shorter scanning time. The goals of this study were to evaluate the accuracy of CBCT in quantifying trabecular bone microstructural and predicted mechanical parameters of the distal radius, the most often investigated skeletal site with HR-pQCT,...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - January 16, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Iron Sucrose: A Double-Edged Sword in High Phosphate Media-Induced Vascular Calcification
AbstractThe high incidence of vascular calcification  (VC) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become an important clinical subject. Hyperphosphatemia is a primary cause of CKD-related VC. Intravenous iron sucrose (IS) is commonly used to treat anemia in CKD patients, and is effective and well tolerated worldwide. However, the interacti on between iron and VC remains controversial, and the underlying mechanisms are yet to be clarified. In the present study, ex vivo normal rat aortic rings were cultured with various concentrations of phosphate and IS, and the levels of calcium and iron depositions, oxidat...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - January 13, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Mechanism of Cyclic Tensile Stress in Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells
AbstractHuman periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) can undergo osteogenic differentiation under induction conditions. Cyclic tensile stress (CTS) can stimulate stem cell osteogenic differentiation. The present study explored the mechanism of CTS in hPDLSC osteogenic differentiation. The hPDLSCs of the 4th passage were selected. hPDLSCs were subjected to CTS with deformation of 10% elongation at 0.5  Hz for 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h. ALP activity and staining, ARS staining and detection of expressions of osteogenesis-related genes (RUNX2, OPN, Sp7 and OCN) were used to assess hPDLSC osteogenic differentiation abil...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - January 12, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Diagnostic Performance of a Panel of miRNAs (OsteomiR) for Osteoporosis in a Cohort of Postmenopausal Women
AbstractA specific signature of 19 circulating miRNAs (osteomiRs) has been reported to be associated with fragility fractures due to postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, it is unknown whether osteoporotic fractures or low BMD phenotypes are independently contributing to changes in osteomiR serum levels. The first aim was to characterize the abundance, sensitivity to hemolysis, and correlation of osteomiR serum levels, the second objective to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of osteomiRs for osteoporosis according to the WHO criteria and on basis of major osteoporotic fracture history. Fifty postmenopausal women with osteo...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - January 11, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research