Retraction Note to: Stability of neuronal avalanches and long-range temporal correlations during the first year of life in human infant.
Abstract The authors have retracted this article Jannesari et al. (2019) because an incorrect version of the article was published in error. The manuscript has been republished as Jannesari et al. (2020). All authors agree to this retraction. PMID: 32095900 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Structure and Function)
Source: Brain Structure and Function - February 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jannesari M, Saeedi A, Zare M, Ortiz-Mantilla S, Plenz D, Benasich AA Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Stability of neuronal avalanches and long-range temporal correlations during the first year of life in human infants.
Abstract During infancy, the human brain rapidly expands in size and complexity as neural networks mature and new information is incorporated at an accelerating pace. Recently, it was shown that single-electrode EEG in preterms at birth exhibits scale-invariant intermittent bursts. Yet, it is currently not known whether the normal infant brain, in particular, the cortex, maintains a distinct dynamical state during development that is characterized by scale-invariant spatial as well as temporal aspects. Here we employ dense-array EEG recordings acquired from the same infants at 6 and 12 months of age to characteriz...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - February 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jannesari M, Saeedi A, Zare M, Ortiz-Mantilla S, Plenz D, Benasich AA Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

A critical role for the inward rectifying potassium channel Kir7.1 in oligodendrocytes of the mouse optic nerve.
Abstract Inward rectifying potassium channels (Kir) are a large family of ion channels that play key roles in ion homeostasis in oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Prominent expression of Kir4.1 has been indicated in oligodendrocytes, but the extent of expression of other Kir subtypes is unclear. Here, we used qRT-PCR to determine expression of Kir channel transcripts in the mouse optic nerve, a white matter tract comprising myelinated axons and the glia that support them. A novel finding was the high relative expression of Kir7.1, comparable to that of Kir4.1, the main gl...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - February 21, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Papanikolaou M, Butt AM, Lewis A Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Thalamic afferents emphasize the different functions of macaque precuneate areas.
Abstract We studied the thalamic afferents to cortical areas in the precuneus using injections of retrograde fluorescent neuronal tracers in four male macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Six injections were within the limits of cytoarchitectural area PGm, one in area 31 and one in area PEci. Precuneate areas shared strong input from the posterior thalamus (lateral posterior nucleus and pulvinar complex) and moderate input from the medial, lateral, and intralaminar thalamic regions. Area PGm received strong connections from the subdivisions of the pulvinar linked to association and visual function (the medial and later...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - February 20, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gamberini M, Passarelli L, Impieri D, Worthy KH, Burman KJ, Fattori P, Galletti C, Rosa MGP, Bakola S Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Word learning reveals white matter plasticity in preschool children.
AD Abstract Word learning plays a central role in language development and is a key predictor for later academic success. The underlying neural basis of successful word learning in children is still unknown. Here, we took advantage of the opportunity afforded by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to investigate neural plasticity in the white matter of typically developing preschool children as they learn words. We demonstrate that after 3 weeks of word learning, children showed significantly larger increases of fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left precentral white matter compared to two control group...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - February 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ekerdt CEM, Kühn C, Anwander A, Brauer J, Friederici AD Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Organisation of extracellular matrix proteins laminin and agrin in pericapillary basal laminae in mouse brain.
Abstract Evidence suggests that extracellular matrix molecules of perivascular basal laminae help orchestrate the molecular assemblies at the gliovascular interface. Specifically, laminin and agrin are thought to tether the dystrophin-associated protein (DAP) complex to the astrocytic basal lamina. This complex includes α-syntrophin (α-Syn), which is believed to anchor aquaporin-4 (AQP4) to astrocytic endfoot membrane domains. We have previously shown that the size of the perivascular AQP4 pool differs considerably between brain regions in an α-Syn-dependent manner. Also, both AQP4 and α-Sy...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - February 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hoddevik EH, Rao SB, Zahl S, Boldt HB, Ottersen OP, Amiry-Moghaddam M Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

The role of the posterior parietal cortex in saccadic error processing.
Abstract Ocular saccades rapidly displace the fovea from one point of interest to another, thus minimizing the loss of visual information and ensuring the seamless continuity of visual perception. However, because of intrinsic variability in sensory-motor processing, saccades often miss their intended target, necessitating a secondary corrective saccade. Behavioral evidence suggests that the oculomotor system estimates saccadic error by relying on two sources of information: the retinal feedback obtained post-saccadically and an internal extra-retinal signal obtained from efference copy or proprioception. However,...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - February 17, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Munuera J, Duhamel JR Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Elimination of galanin synthesis in noradrenergic neurons reduces galanin in select brain areas and promotes active coping behaviors.
Abstract Accumulating evidence indicates that disruption of galanin signaling is associated with neuropsychiatric disease, but the precise functions of this neuropeptide remain largely unresolved due to lack of tools for experimentally disrupting its transmission in a cell type-specific manner. To examine the function of galanin in the noradrenergic system, we generated and crossed two novel knock-in mouse lines to create animals lacking galanin specifically in noradrenergic neurons (GalcKO-Dbh). We observed reduced levels of galanin peptide in pons, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex of GalcKO-Dbh mice, indicatin...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - February 17, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tillage RP, Sciolino NR, Plummer NW, Lustberg D, Liles LC, Hsiang M, Powell JM, Smith KG, Jensen P, Weinshenker D Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Neuroanatomical tract-tracing techniques that did go viral.
Abstract Neuroanatomical tracing methods remain fundamental for elucidating the complexity of brain circuits. During the past decades, the technical arsenal at our disposal has been greatly enriched, with a steady supply of fresh arrivals. This paper provides a landscape view of classical and modern tools for tract-tracing purposes. Focus is placed on methods that have gone viral, i.e., became most widespread used and fully reliable. To keep an historical perspective, we start by reviewing one-dimensional, standalone transport-tracing tools; these including today's two most favorite anterograde neuroanatomical tra...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - February 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lanciego JL, Wouterlood FG Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Characterization of neurogenic niches in the telencephalon of juvenile and adult sharks.
acute;guez MA, Candal E Abstract Neurogenesis is a multistep process by which progenitor cells become terminally differentiated neurons. Adult neurogenesis has gathered increasing interest with the aim of developing new cell-based treatments for neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Active sites of adult neurogenesis exist from fish to mammals, although in the adult mammalian brain the number and extension of neurogenic areas is considerably reduced in comparison to non-mammalian vertebrates and they become mostly reduced to the telencephalon. Much of our understanding in this field is based in studies on mammals ...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - February 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Docampo-Seara A, Pereira-Guldrís S, Sánchez-Farías N, Mazan S, Rodríguez MA, Candal E Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Functional connectivity correlates of infant and early childhood cognitive development.
Abstract Childhood is defined by the development of cognitive abilities as well as brain growth and function. While prior neuroimaging studies have investigated early development fragmentally, we studied the typical development of functional network connectivity continuously from infancy to childhood (average of 24 months) in 196 singleton term born children, as well as their emergence with age and visual, motor, and language abilities as assessed using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. We demonstrate a cross-age shift to networks linked to higher-order cognitive processes, paralleling previous findings about d...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - February 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bruchhage MMK, Ngo GC, Schneider N, D'Sa V, Deoni SCL Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Changing phase relationship of the stepping rhythm to neuronal oscillatory theta activity in the septo-hippocampal network of mice.
Abstract Movement-related sensory and motor activity in the brain contributes to cognitive processes. We have observed that the frequency of stepping rhythm in head-fixed mice running on a jetball overlaps with the range of frequencies that characterize hippocampal rhythmic slow activity, including theta (~ 3 to 10 Hz). On average, step-cycle troughs (i.e. when the paw touches the ground) were weakly coupled to hippocampal theta oscillations. This weak coupling was sustained during a range of running speeds. In short temporal windows, step-cycle troughs were synchronous with hippocampal theta oscillato...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - February 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Joshi A, Somogyi P Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

White matter correlates of hemi-face dominance in happy and sad expression.
Abstract The neural underpinnings of human emotional expression are thought to be unevenly distributed among the two brain hemispheres. However, little is known on the anatomy supporting this claim, particularly in the cerebral white matter. Here, we explored the relationship between hemi-face dominance in emotional expression and cerebral white matter asymmetries in 33 healthy participants. Measures of emotional expression were derived from pictures of the participant's faces in a 'happy smiling' and a 'sad frowning' conditions. Chimeric faces were constructed by mirroring right and left hemi-faces, as done in pr...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - February 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ioannucci S, George N, Friedrich P, Cerliani L, Thiebaut de Schotten M Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

A positive influence of basal ganglia iron concentration on implicit sequence learning.
lpouzos G Abstract Iron homeostasis is important for maintaining normal physiological brain functioning. In two independent samples, we investigate the link between iron concentration in the basal ganglia (BG) and implicit sequence learning (ISL). In Study 1, we used quantitative susceptibility mapping and task-related fMRI to examine associations among regional iron concentration measurements, brain activation, and ISL in younger and older adults. In Study 2, we examined the link between brain iron and ISL using a metric derived from fMRI in an age-homogenous sample of older adults. Three main findings were obtai...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - February 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Persson J, Garzón B, Sitnikov R, Bäckman L, Kalpouzos G Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Correction to: Multi-scale account of the network structure of macaque visual cortex.
Abstract Unfortunately, some errors slipped into the manuscript, which we correct here. PMID: 32052112 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Structure and Function)
Source: Brain Structure and Function - February 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Schmidt M, Bakker R, Hilgetag CC, Diesmann M, van Albada SJ Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Blood total antioxidant status is associated with cortical glucose uptake and factors related to accelerated aging.
Abstract Identifying cerebral vulnerability in late life is of paramount importance to prevent pathological trajectories of aging before the onset of symptoms. Considerable evidence suggests that impaired antioxidant mechanisms are a fingerprint of aging-related conditions, but there is a lack of human research linking total antioxidant capacity (TAC) measured in peripheral blood to in vivo brain changes and other factors featuring accelerated aging. To address this issue, we have assessed in cognitively normal elderly subjects (N = 100) correlations between serum TAC, using the oxygen radical absorb...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - February 11, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Palomar-Bonet M, Atienza M, Cantero JL Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Rostral intralaminar thalamic deep brain stimulation ameliorates memory deficits and dendritic regression in β-amyloid-infused rats.
We examined whether rostral ILN-DBS can also attenuate memory deficits and impaired synaptic plasticity and protect glutamatergic transmission in the rat intraventricular β-amyloid (Aβ) infusion model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Spatial memory was tested in the Morris water maze (MWM), while structural synaptic plasticity and glutamatergic transmission strength were estimated by measuring dendritic spine densities in dye-injected neurons and tissue expression levels of postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus. All these assessments were compared among the na&ium...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - February 8, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tsai ST, Chen SY, Lin SZ, Tseng GF Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

A three-dimensional digital atlas of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) forebrain.
tröckens F Abstract The phylogenetic position of crocodilians in relation to birds and mammals makes them an interesting animal model for investigating the evolution of the nervous system in amniote vertebrates. A few neuroanatomical atlases are available for reptiles, but with a growing interest in these animals within the comparative neurosciences, a need for these anatomical reference templates is becoming apparent. With the advent of MRI being used more frequently in comparative neuroscience, the aim of this study was to create a three-dimensional MRI-based atlas of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticu...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - February 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Billings BK, Behroozi M, Helluy X, Bhagwandin A, Manger PR, Güntürkün O, Ströckens F Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Synaptic organisation and behaviour-dependent activity of mGluR8a-innervated GABAergic trilaminar cells projecting from the hippocampus to the subiculum.
Abstract In the hippocampal CA1 area, the GABAergic trilaminar cells have their axon distributed locally in three layers and also innervate the subiculum. Trilaminar cells have a high level of somato-dendritic muscarinic M2 acetylcholine receptor, lack somatostatin expression and their presynaptic inputs are enriched in mGluR8a. But the origin of their inputs and their behaviour-dependent activity remain to be characterised. Here we demonstrate that (1) GABAergic neurons with the molecular features of trilaminar cells are present in CA1 and CA3 in both rats and mice. (2) Trilaminar cells receive mGluR8a-enriched G...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - February 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Katona L, Hartwich K, Tomioka R, Somogyi J, Roberts JDB, Wagner K, Joshi A, Klausberger T, Rockland KS, Somogyi P Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Correction to: NR2A- and NR2B-NMDA receptors and drebrin within postsynaptic spines of the hippocampus correlate with hunger-evoked exercise.
Abstract The title of Fig. 6 in the original article was incorrectly published as "normalized cytoplasmic NR2A". PMID: 32006146 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Structure and Function)
Source: Brain Structure and Function - January 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen YW, Actor-Engel H, Sherpa AD, Klingensmith L, Chowdhury TG, Aoki C Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Investigating learning-related neural circuitry with chronic in vivo optical imaging.
Abstract Fundamental aspects of brain function, including development, plasticity, learning, and memory, can take place over time scales of days to years. Chronic in vivo imaging of neural activity with cellular resolution is a powerful method for tracking the long-term activity of neural circuits. We review recent advances in our understanding of neural circuit function from diverse brain regions that have been enabled by chronic in vivo cellular imaging. Insight into the neural basis of learning and decision-making, in particular, benefit from the ability to acquire longitudinal data from genetically identified ...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - January 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lee CR, Najafizadeh L, Margolis DJ Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Exclusive neuronal detection of KGDHC-specific subunits in the adult human brain cortex despite pancellular protein lysine succinylation.
Abstract The ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) consists of three different subunits encoded by OGDH (or OGDHL), DLST, and DLD, combined in different stoichiometries. DLD subunit is shared between KGDHC and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, and the glycine cleavage system. Despite KGDHC's implication in neurodegenerative diseases, cell-specific localization of its subunits in the adult human brain has never been investigated. Here, we show that immunoreactivity of all known isoforms of OGDHL, OGDH, and DLST was detected exclusively in neurons of surgical...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - January 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dobolyi A, Bago A, Palkovits M, Nemeria NS, Jordan F, Doczi J, Ambrus A, Adam-Vizi V, Chinopoulos C Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Dense projection of Stilling's nucleus spinocerebellar axons that convey tail proprioception to the midline area in lobule VIII of the mouse cerebellum.
Abstract The cerebellar cortex has dual somatotopic representation, broadly in the anterior lobules and narrowly in the posterior lobules. However, the somatotopy has not been well understood in vermal lobule VIII, located in the center of the posterior representation. Here, we examined the axonal projections and somatosensory representation of the midline area of vermal lobule VIII in mice, using the striped zebrin expression pattern as a landmark of intra-lobular compartmentalization. Retrograde tracer injection into this area (zebrin stripes 1+ and 1- in lobule VIII) labeled neuronal clusters, bilaterally, in t...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - January 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Luo Y, Onozato T, Wu X, Sasamura K, Sakimura K, Sugihara I Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Multimodal mapping and analysis of the cyto- and receptorarchitecture of the human hippocampus.
Abstract The human hippocampal formation is relevant for various aspects of memory and learning, and the different hippocampal regions are differentially affected by neuropsychiatric disorders. Therefore, the hippocampal formation has been subject of numerous cytoarchitectonic and other mapping studies, which resulted in divergent parcellation schemes. To understand the principles of hippocampal architecture, it is necessary to integrate different levels of hippocampal organisation, going beyond one modality. We here applied a multimodal mapping approach combining cyto- and multi-receptorarchitectonic analyses, an...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - January 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Palomero-Gallagher N, Kedo O, Mohlberg H, Zilles K, Amunts K Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Correction to: Neuroadaptations in the dentate gyrus following contextual cued reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking.
Abstract The author reports that data for electrophysiology findings reported in Figs. 4 and 5 for control group and Meth Rst group have been published previously (Galinato MH et al., J Neurosci. 2018 Feb 21; 38(8):2029-2042. PMID: 31938933 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Structure and Function)
Source: Brain Structure and Function - January 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Takashima Y, Fannon MJ, Galinato MH, Steiner NL, An M, Zemljic-Harpf AE, Somkuwar SS, Head BP, Mandyam CD Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Intrinsic prefrontal organization underlies associations between achievement motivation and delay discounting.
Abstract Achievement motivation is a core component of human decision making. However, neural mechanisms that link achievement motivation and intertemporal choice have not yet been elucidated. Here, we examined neural pathways underlying the relationship between achievement motivation and intertemporal choice using a delay discounting task and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging on 86 healthy subjects. Behaviorally, delay discounting rate was positively correlated with achievement motivation. Functional coupling of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) with the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC),...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - January 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xin Y, Xu P, Aleman A, Luo Y, Feng T Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

What we can learn from the complex architecture of single axons.
Abstract Anterogradely labeled connections at the single-axon level provide unparalleled spatial and quantitative data as well as a novel perspective on laminar, columnar, hierarchical and other aspects of cortical organization. Here, I briefly summarize single-axon results from representative examples of thalamocortical, corticocortical, callosal, and lateral intrinsic connections, with attention to implications for cortical organization. Particularly worth emphasizing is the intricate spatial configuration and striking morphometric heterogeneity of individual axons even within the same system of connections. A s...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - January 10, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rockland KS Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Longitudinal developmental analysis of prethalamic eminence derivatives in the chick by mapping of Tbr1 in situ expression.
In this report, we characterize in detail the ontogeny of the chicken PThE from 5 to 15 days of development, according to morphological criteria, and using Tbr1 as a molecular marker for this structure and its migratory cells. We show that initially the PThE contacts rostrally the medial pallium, the pallial amygdala and the paraventricular hypothalamic alar domain. Approximately from embryonic day 6 onwards, the PThE becomes progressively reduced in size and cell content due to massive tangential migration of many of its neuronal derivatives towards nearby subpallial and hypothalamic regions. Our analysis suppor...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - January 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Alonso A, Trujillo CM, Puelles L Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Robust emergence of sharply tuned place-cell responses in hippocampal neurons with structural and biophysical heterogeneities.
In this study, we demonstrate that sharp place-field tuning and several somatodendritic functional maps concomitantly emerge despite the presence of geometrical heterogeneities in these neurons. We establish this employing an unbiased stochastic search strategy involving thousands of models that spanned several morphologies and distinct profiles of dispersed synaptic localization and channel expression. Mechanistically, employing virtual knockout models (VKMs), we explored the impact of bidirectional modulation in dendritic spike prevalence on place-field tuning sharpness. Consistent with the prior literature, we found tha...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - January 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Basak R, Narayanan R Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Functional connectivity at rest captures individual differences in visual search.
A, Ávila C Abstract Brain functional connectivity is supposed to capture personal and lifetime learning experiences and contribute to generating individual differences in cognitive abilities. We tested this possibility using the visual search task as a measure of visual information processing and the functioning of the visual attention control system. Forty-two undergraduate students completed a functional MRI study with a resting-state session and a visual search task scan. The visual attention and control systems were studied by investigating the functional connectivity of the primary visual area, the pos...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - January 2, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bueichekú E, Miró-Padilla A, Ávila C Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Human menstrual cycle variation in subcortical functional brain connectivity: a multimodal analysis approach.
Abstract Increasing evidence suggests that endogenous sex steroid changes affect human brain functional connectivity, which could be obtained by resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI). Nevertheless, RS studies on the menstrual cycle (MC) are underrepresented and yield inconsistent results. We attribute these inconsistencies to the use of various methods in exploratory approaches and small sample sizes. Hormonal fluctuations along the MC likely elicit subtle changes that, however, may still have profound impact on network dynamics when affecting key brain nodes. To address these issues, we propose a ROI-based multimodal anal...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - January 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hidalgo-Lopez E, Mueller K, Harris T, Aichhorn M, Sacher J, Pletzer B Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Structural abnormalities in thalamo-prefrontal tracks revealed by high angular resolution diffusion imaging predict working memory scores in concussed children.
Abstract Because of their high prevalence, heterogeneous clinical presentation, and wide-ranging sequelae, concussions are a challenging neurological condition, especially in children. Shearing forces transmitted across the brain during concussions often result in white matter damage. The neuropathological impact of concussions has been discerned from animal studies and includes inflammation, demyelination, and axonal loss. These pathologies can overlap during the sub-acute stage of recovery. However, due to the challenges of accurately modeling complex white matter structure, these neuropathologies have not yet b...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - January 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Guberman GI, Houde JC, Ptito A, Gagnon I, Descoteaux M Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging-derived free water detects neurodegenerative pattern induced by interferon- γ.
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging-derived free water detects neurodegenerative pattern induced by interferon-γ. Brain Struct Funct. 2020 Jan 01;: Authors: Febo M, Perez PD, Ceballos-Diaz C, Colon-Perez LM, Zeng H, Ofori E, Golde TE, Vaillancourt DE, Chakrabarty P Abstract Imaging biomarkers for immune activation may be valuable for early-stage detection, therapeutic testing, and research on neurodegenerative conditions. In the present study, we determined whether diffusion magnetic resonance imaging-derived free water signal is a sensitive marker for neuroinflammatory effects of interferon-ga...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - January 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Febo M, Perez PD, Ceballos-Diaz C, Colon-Perez LM, Zeng H, Ofori E, Golde TE, Vaillancourt DE, Chakrabarty P Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Regions of white matter abnormalities in the arcuate fasciculus in veterans with anger and aggression problems.
Abstract Aggression after military deployment is a common occurrence in veterans. Neurobiological research has shown that aggression is associated with a dysfunction in a network connecting brain regions implicated in threat processing and emotion regulation. However, aggression may also be related to deficits in networks underlying communication and social cognition. The uncinate and arcuate fasciculi are integral to these networks, thus studying potential abnormalities in these white matter connections can further our understanding of anger and aggression problems in military veterans. Here, we use diffusion ten...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - December 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: David S, Heesink L, Geuze E, Gladwin T, van Honk J, Kleber R, Leemans A Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Pupillary light reflex circuits in the macaque monkey: the preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus.
Abstract The motor outflow for the pupillary light reflex originates in the preganglionic motoneuron subdivision of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWpg), which also mediates lens accommodation. Despite their importance for vision, the morphology, ultrastructure and luminance-related inputs of these motoneurons have not been fully described in primates. In macaque monkeys, we labeled EWpg motoneurons from ciliary ganglion and orbital injections. Both approaches indicated preganglionic motoneurons occupy an EWpg organized as a unitary, ipsilateral cell column. When tracers were placed in the pretectal complex, labele...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - December 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: May PJ, Sun W, Wright NF, Erichsen JT Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Somatostatin receptors (SSTR1-5) on inhibitory interneurons in the barrel cortex.
Abstract Inhibitory interneurons in the cerebral cortex contain specific proteins or peptides characteristic for a certain interneuron subtype. In mice, three biochemical markers constitute non-overlapping interneuron populations, which account for 80-90% of all inhibitory cells. These interneurons express parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SST), or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). SST is not only a marker of a specific interneuron subtype, but also an important neuropeptide that participates in numerous biochemical and signalling pathways in the brain via somatostatin receptors (SSTR1-5). In the nervous system, ...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - December 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lukomska A, Dobrzanski G, Liguz-Lecznar M, Kossut M Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Functional and structural correlates of working memory performance and stability in healthy older adults.
ute; N, Ros E, Bartrés-Faz D Abstract Despite the well-described deleterious effects of aging on cognition, some individuals are able to show stability. Here, we aimed to describe the functional and structural brain characteristics of older individuals, particularly focusing on those with stable working memory (WM) performance, as measured with a verbal N-back task across a 2-year follow-up interval. Forty-seven subjects were categorized as stables or decliners based on their WM change. Stables were further subdivided into high performers (SHP) and low performers (SLP), based on their baseline scores. At bo...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - December 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Vaqué-Alcázar L, Sala-Llonch R, Abellaneda-Pérez K, Coll-Padrós N, Valls-Pedret C, Bargalló N, Ros E, Bartrés-Faz D Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Resting-state network topology and planning ability in healthy adults.
This study also adds to a growing body of literature supporting a central role for the default-mode network in individual differences in cognitive performance. PMID: 31865409 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Structure and Function)
Source: Brain Structure and Function - December 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Vriend C, Wagenmakers MJ, van den Heuvel OA, van der Werf YD Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Brain aging and psychometric intelligence: a longitudinal study.
In this study, we examined a large sample of 231 generally healthy older adults across 4 years with regard to several brain anatomical measures (volumes of total grey matter volume: GM, normal appearing white matter: NAWM, lateral ventricle: LV, and white matter hypointensities: WMH) and psychometric intelligence (verbal and non-verbal). The dataset comprised four measurement occasions (baseline, 1-, 2-, and 4-year follow-ups). With this longitudinal data set, we evaluated level-level, level-change, and change-change relationships between the anatomical and psychometric measures using latent growth curve models. Our a...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - December 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jäncke L, Sele S, Liem F, Oschwald J, Merillat S Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Concurrent amygdalar and ventromedial prefrontal cortical responses during emotion processing: a meta-analysis of the effects of valence of emotion and passive exposure versus active regulation.
Abstract Anatomically interconnected, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and amygdala interact in emotion processing. However, no meta-analyses have focused on studies that reported concurrent vmPFC and amygdala activities. With activation likelihood estimation (ALE) we examined 100 experiments that reported concurrent vmPFC and amygdala activities, and distinguished responses to positive vs. negative emotions and to passive exposure to vs. active regulation of emotions. We also investigated whole-brain experiments for other regional activities. ALE and contrast analyses identified convergent anterior and ...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - December 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yang M, Tsai SJ, Li CR Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

The anatomo-functional organization of the hyperdirect cortical pathway to the subthalamic area using in vivo structural connectivity imaging in humans.
chi C Abstract The subthalamic nucleus (STN) receives direct cortical inputs which constitute the so-called hyperdirect pathway. In monkeys, motor cortices innervate the whole extent of the STN whereas limbic cortices innervate only its anteromedial part extending more medially outside the nucleus. Tractography studies in humans have also identified motor cortical inputs to the STN, but little is known about the associative and limbic cortical projections. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anatomo-functional organization of the cortical projections to the STN and to the adjacent medial subtha...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - December 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Temiz G, Sébille SB, Francois C, Bardinet E, Karachi C Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

A generic brain connectome map linked to different types of everyday decision-making in old age.
Abstract Making reasonable decisions related to financial and health scenarios is a crucial capacity that can be difficult for older adults to maintain as they age, yet few studies examine neurocognitive factors that are generalizable to different types of everyday decision-making capacity. Here we propose an innovative approach, based on individual risk-taking preference, to identify neural profiles that may help predict older adults' everyday decision-making capacity. Using performance and cognitive arousal information from two gambling tasks, we identified three decision-making preference groups: ambiguity prob...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - December 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rooks B, Anthony M, Chen Q, Lin Y, Baran T, Zhang Z, Lichtenberg PA, Lin F Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Distribution and classification of the extracellular matrix in the olfactory bulb.
I, Rácz É Abstract Extracellular matrix (ECM) became an important player over the last few decades when studying the plasticity and regeneration of the central nervous system. In spite of the established role of ECM in these processes throughout the central nervous system (CNS), only few papers were published on the ECM of the olfactory system, which shows a lifelong plasticity, synaptic remodeling and postnatal neurogenesis. In the present study, we have described the localization and organization of major ECM molecules, the hyaluronan, the lecticans, tenascin-R and HAPLN1 link protein in the olfact...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - December 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hunyadi A, Gaál B, Matesz C, Meszar Z, Morawski M, Reimann K, Lendvai D, Alpar A, Wéber I, Rácz É Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Pupillary light reflex circuits in the Macaque Monkey: the olivary pretectal nucleus.
This study investigated aspects of the morphology and connectivity of the olivary pretectal nucleus in macaque monkeys by use of anterograde and retrograde tracers. Within the pretectum, the vast majority of neurons projecting to the preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus were found within the olivary pretectal nucleus. Most of these neurons had somata located at the periphery of the nucleus and their heavily branched dendrites extended into the core of the nucleus. Retinal terminals were concentrated within the borders of the olivary pretectal nucleus. Ultrastructural examination of these terminals showed that they had cl...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - December 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: May PJ, Warren S Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Correction to: Cannabinoids, TRPV and nitric oxide: the three ring circus of neuronal excitability.
Abstract In the original publication of the article, the names of the authors were incorrectly swapped as Gambino Giuditta · Rizzo Valerio · Giglia Giuseppe · Ferraro Giuseppe · Sardo Pierangelo. PMID: 31828423 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Structure and Function)
Source: Brain Structure and Function - December 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gambino G, Rizzo V, Giglia G, Ferraro G, Sardo P Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Electrophysiology and distribution of oxytocin and vasopressin neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus: a study in male and female rats.
Abstract Magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) clustered in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus constitute a major source of oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) peptides, and are among the best described peptidergic neurons in the brain. OXT and AVP are involved in a range of homeostatic processes, social behaviours, emotional processes, and learning. Notably, their actions can be sex-specific, and several sex differences in the anatomies of the OXT and AVP systems have been reported. Nonetheless, possible sex differences in the detailed distributions of MNCs and in ...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - December 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kania A, Sambak P, Gugula A, Szlaga A, Soltys Z, Blasiak T, Hess G, Rajfur Z, Blasiak A Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Presence of substance P positive terminals on hypothalamic somatostatinergic neurons in humans: the possible morphological substrate of the substance P-modulated growth hormone secretion.
Abstract Substance P is an undecapeptide affecting the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and urinary systems. In the central nervous system, substance P participates in the regulation of pain, learning, memory, and sexual homeostasis. In addition to these effects, previous papers provided solid evidence that substance P exhibits regulatory effects on growth. Indeed, our previous study revealed that growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) neurons appear to be densely innervated by substance P fibers in humans. Since growth hormone secretion is regulated by the antagonistic actions of both GHRH and somatostatin, in ...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - December 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Luu A, Oberdoerster Z, Grignol G, Merchenthaler I, Dudas B Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Cholecystokinin in the central nervous system of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus: precursor identification and neuroanatomical relationships with other neuronal signalling systems.
In conclusion, this study provides important new information on the evolution of the cholecystokinergic system in vertebrates. PMID: 31807925 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Structure and Function)
Source: Brain Structure and Function - December 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sobrido-Cameán D, Yáñez-Guerra LA, Robledo D, López-Varela E, Rodicio MC, Elphick MR, Anadón R, Barreiro-Iglesias A Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

A mosaic of sex-related structural changes in the human brain following exposure to real-life stress.
Abstract Whereas sex differences in the brain's response to stress have been reported in both humans and animals, it is unknown whether they 'add up' consistently within individual brains. Here, we studied this question in a unique data set of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans obtained before and after exposure to extreme real-life stress in the form of combative military service in 34 (15 women) young (18-19 years old) healthy soldiers. Across two data sets, one of regional volume and one of cortical thickness, only a few regions (seven and three, respectively) showed sex/gender-specific changes (i.e., ...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - December 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shalev G, Admon R, Berman Z, Joel D Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Structural, morphometric and immunohistochemical study of the rabbit accessory olfactory bulb.
Abstract The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) is the first neural integrative centre of the vomeronasal system (VNS), which is associated primarily with the detection of semiochemicals. Although the rabbit is used as a model for the study of chemocommunication, these studies are hampered by the lack of knowledge regarding the topography, lamination, and neurochemical properties of the rabbit AOB. To fill this gap, we have employed histological stainings: lectin labelling with Ulex europaeus (UEA-I), Bandeiraea simplicifolia (BSI-B4), and Lycopersicon esculentum (LEA) agglutinins, and a range of immunohistochemical m...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - December 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Villamayor PR, Cifuentes JM, Quintela L, Barcia R, Sanchez-Quinteiro P Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research