Unraveling the contributions to the neuromelanin-MRI contrast.
Abstract The Locus Coeruleus (LC) and the Substantia Nigra (SN) are small brainstem nuclei that change with aging and may be involved in the development of various neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. Magnetization Transfer (MT) MRI has been shown to facilitate LC and the SN visualization, and the observed contrast is assumed to be related to neuromelanin accumulation. Imaging these nuclei may have predictive value for the progression of various diseases, but interpretation of previous studies is hindered by the fact that the precise biological source of the contrast remains unclear, though several hypothes...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - October 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Priovoulos N, van Boxel SCJ, Jacobs HIL, Poser BA, Uludag K, Verhey FRJ, Ivanov D Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

A metric survey on the sagittal and coronal morphology of the precuneus in adult humans.
In this study, we analyse the correlation between its sagittal and coronal morphology to study the variation of its proportions along the three dimensions. Shape analysis was performed on magnetic resonance scans of 50 adult humans, through both traditional and geometric morphometrics. Results suggest that the degrees of longitudinal, vertical and lateral extension are independent, pointing at different factors involved, and concerning different cortical areas or specific connectivity pathways. This absence of correlation suggests that the individual and evolutionary morphological variations are probably due to actual brai...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - October 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bruner E, Pereira-Pedro S Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Auditory and frontal anatomic correlates of pitch discrimination in musicians, non-musicians, and children without musical training.
Villar-Rodríguez E, Ávila C PMID: 33029708 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Structure and Function)
Source: Brain Structure and Function - October 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Palomar-García MÁ, Hernández M, Olcina G, Adrián-Ventura J, Costumero V, Miró-Padilla A, Villar-Rodríguez E, Ávila C Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Multi-aspect testing and ranking inference to quantify dimorphism in the cytoarchitecture of cerebellum of male, female and intersex individuals: a model applied to bovine brains.
o A Abstract The dimorphism among male, female and freemartin intersex bovines, focusing on the vermal lobules VIII and IX, was analyzed using a novel data analytics approach to quantify morphometric differences in the cytoarchitecture of digitalized sections of the cerebellum. This methodology consists of multivariate and multi-aspect testing for cytoarchitecture-ranking, based on neuronal cell complexity among populations defined by factors, such as sex, age or pathology. In this context, we computed a set of shape descriptors of the neural cell morphology, categorized them into three domains named size, regular...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - September 27, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Corain L, Grisan E, Graïc JM, Carvajal-Schiaffino R, Cozzi B, Peruffo A Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Correction to: graph analysis of structural brain networks in Alzheimer's disease: beyond small world properties.
Abstract The original version of the article contained an error in the electronic supplementary material. The caption of the figure in the electronic supplementary material was omitted. PMID: 32979093 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Structure and Function)
Source: Brain Structure and Function - September 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: John M, Ikuta T, Ferbinteanu J Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

EHMT1 regulates Parvalbumin-positive interneuron development and GABAergic input in sensory cortical areas.
i N Abstract Mutations in the Euchromatic Histone Methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1) gene cause Kleefstra syndrome, a rare form of intellectual disability (ID) with strong autistic traits and sensory processing deficits. Proper development of inhibitory interneurons is crucial for sensory function. Here we report a timeline of Parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneuron development in the three most important sensory cortical areas in the Ehmt1+/- mouse. We find a hitherto unreported delay of PV+ neuron maturation early in sensory development, with layer- and region-specific variability later in development. The delayed PV+ m...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - September 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Negwer M, Piera K, Hesen R, Lütje L, Aarts L, Schubert D, Nadif Kasri N Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

GABA-glutamate supramammillary neurons control theta and gamma oscillations in the dentate gyrus during paradoxical (REM) sleep.
The objective of the present study is to characterize the anatomical, neurochemical and electrophysiological properties of the SuML-DG projection neurons and to determine how they control DG oscillations and neuronal activation during PS and other vigilance states. For this purpose, we combine structural connectivity techniques using neurotropic viral vectors (rabies virus, AAV), neurochemical anatomy (immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization) and imaging (light, electron and confocal microscopy) with in vitro (patch clamp) and in vivo (LFP, EEG) optogenetic and electrophysiological recordings performed in transgenic VG...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - September 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Billwiller F, Castillo L, Elseedy H, Ivanov AI, Scapula J, Ghestem A, Carponcy J, Libourel PA, Bras H, Abdelmeguid NE, Krook-Magnuson E, Soltesz I, Bernard C, Luppi PH, Esclapez M Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Neuroanatomical changes associated with age-related hearing loss and listening effort.
Abstract Age-related hearing loss is associated with a decrease in hearing abilities for high frequencies and therefore leads to impairments in understanding speech-in particular, under adverse listening conditions. Growing evidence suggests that age-related hearing loss is related to various neural changes, for instance, affecting auditory and frontal brain regions. How the decreased auditory input and the increased listening effort in daily life are associated with structural changes is less clear, since previous evidence is scarce and mostly involved low sample sizes. Hence, the aim of the current study was to ...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - September 21, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rosemann S, Thiel CM Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Neural expression of sorting nexin 25 and its regulation of tyrosine receptor kinase B trafficking.
Abstract Sorting nexin 25 (SNX25) belongs to the sorting nexin superfamily, whose members are responsible for membrane attachment to organelles of the endocytic system. Recent reports point to critical roles for SNX25 as a negative regulator of transforming growth factor β signaling, but the expression patterns of SNX25 in the central nervous system (CNS) remain almost uncharacterized. Here, we show widespread neuronal expression of SNX25 protein and Snx25 mRNA using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. As an exception, SNX25 was present in the Bergmann glia of the cerebellum. SNX25 immunoreactivit...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - September 20, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Takemura S, Isonishi A, Tanaka T, Okuda H, Tatsumi K, Yamano M, Wanaka A Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Chemical-neuroanatomical organization of peripheral sensory-efferent systems in the pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis).
N, Elekes K Abstract Perception and processing of chemical cues are crucial for aquatic gastropods, for proper elaboration of adaptive behavior. The pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is a model species of invertebrate neurobiology, in which peripheral sensory neurons with different morphology and transmitter content have partly been described, but we have little knowledge regarding their functional morphological organization, including their possible peripheral intercellular connections and networks. Therefore the aim of our study was to characterize the sensory system of the tentacles and the lip, as primary sensory...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - September 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Horváth R, Battonyai I, Maász G, Schmidt J, Fekete ZN, Elekes K Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Does size matter? The relationship between predictive power of single-subject morphometric networks to spatial scale and edge weight.
In this study, we present a histogram-based approach to construct subject-wise weighted networks that enable a principled comparison across different methods of network analysis. We design several weighted networks based on three large publicly available datasets and perform a robust evaluation of their predictive power under four levels of separability. An interesting insight generated is that changes in nodal size (spatial scale) have no significant impact on predictive power among the three classification experiments and two disease cohorts studied, i.e., mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease from ADNI, and ...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - September 17, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Raamana PR, Strother SC, Australian Imaging Biomarkers, Lifestyle flagship study of ageing, for The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Non-classical behavior of the default mode network regions during an information processing task.
In conclusion, we found that the activation and functional connectivity of the DMN is, in general, suppressed during the information processing. However, the left precuneus BA 7 presented a context-dependent modulatory behavior, working as a transient in-between hub connecting the DMN to task-positive areas. Such findings support studies that show increased activation and excitatory functional connectivity of DMN portions during goal-directed tasks. Moreover, our results may contribute to defining more precise functional correlates of IPS deficits in a wide range of clinical and neurological diseases. PMID: 32939584 [...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - September 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: da Silva PHR, Rondinoni C, Leoni RF Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Reproducing macaque lateral grasping and oculomotor networks using resting state functional connectivity and diffusion tractography.
Abstract Cortico-cortical networks involved in motor control have been well defined in the macaque using a range of invasive techniques. The advent of neuroimaging has enabled non-invasive study of these large-scale functionally specialized networks in the human brain; however, assessing its accuracy in reproducing genuine anatomy is more challenging. We set out to assess the similarities and differences between connections of macaque motor control networks defined using axonal tracing and those reproduced using structural and functional connectivity techniques. We processed a cohort of macaques scanned in vivo th...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - September 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Howells H, Simone L, Borra E, Fornia L, Cerri G, Luppino G Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Cyto- and myeloarchitectural brain atlas of the pale spear-nosed bat (Phyllostomus discolor) in CT Aided Stereotaxic Coordinates.
Abstract The pale spear-nosed bat Phyllostomus discolor, a microchiropteran bat, is well established as an animal model for research on the auditory system, echolocation and social communication of species-specific vocalizations. We have created a brain atlas of Phyllostomus discolor that provides high-quality histological material for identification of brain structures in reliable stereotaxic coordinates to strengthen neurobiological studies of this key species. The new atlas combines high-resolution images of frontal sections alternately stained for cell bodies (Nissl) and myelinated fibers (Gallyas) at 49 rostr...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - September 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Radtke-Schuller S, Fenzl T, Peremans H, Schuller G, Firzlaff U Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Minimizing shrinkage of acute brain slices using metal spacers during histological embedding.
Abstract The morphological structure of neurons provides the basis for their functions and is a major focus of contemporary neuroscience studies. Intracellular staining of single cells in acute slices is a well-established approach, offering high-resolution information on neuronal morphology, complementing their physiology. Despite major technical advances, however, a common histological artifact often precludes precise morphological analysis: shrinkage of the sampled tissue after embedding for microscopy. Here, we describe a new approach using a metal spacer, sandwiched between two coverslips to reduce shrinkage ...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - September 11, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bolduan F, Grosser S, Vida I Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Aerobic exercise increases sprouting angiogenesis in the male rat motor cortex.
Abstract Exercise is beneficial to brain health, and historically, the advantageous effects of exercise on the brain have been attributed to neuronal plasticity. However, it has also become clear that the brain vascular system also exhibits plasticity in response to exercise. This plasticity occurs in areas involved in movement, such as the motor cortex. This experiment aimed to further characterize the effects of exercise on structural vascular plasticity in the male rat motor cortex, by specifically identifying whether features of angiogenesis, the growth of new capillaries, or changes in vessel diameter were pr...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - September 11, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Stevenson ME, Miller CC, Owen HA, Swain RA Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Influences of age and pubertal status on number and intensity of perineuronal nets in the rat medial prefrontal cortex.
Abstract The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a late developing region of the cortex, and its protracted maturation during adolescence may confer a period of plasticity. Closure of critical, or sensitive, periods in sensory cortices coincides with perineuronal net (PNN) expression, leading to enhanced inhibitory function and synaptic stabilization. PNN density has been found to increase across adolescence in the male rat medial PFC (mPFC). Here, we examined both male and female rats at four time points spanning adolescent development to stereologically quantify the number and intensity of PNNs in the mPFC. Additionally,...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - September 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Drzewiecki CM, Willing J, Juraska JM Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Quantification of neurons in the hippocampal formation of chimpanzees: comparison to rhesus monkeys and humans.
Abstract The hippocampal formation is important for higher brain functions such as spatial navigation and the consolidation of memory, and it contributes to abilities thought to be uniquely human, yet little is known about how the human hippocampal formation compares to that of our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees. To gain insight into the comparative organization of the hippocampal formation in catarrhine primates, we quantified neurons stereologically in its major subdivisions-the granular layer of the dentate gyrus, CA4, CA2-3, CA1, and the subiculum-in archival brain tissue from six chimpanzees rangin...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - September 8, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rogers Flattery CN, Rosen RF, Farberg AS, Dooyema JM, Hof PR, Sherwood CC, Walker LC, Preuss TM Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Changes in auditory cortical thickness following music training in children: converging longitudinal and cross-sectional results.
Abstract Evidence is accumulating to suggest that music training is associated with structural brain differences in children and in adults. We used magnetic resonance imagining in two studies to investigate neuroanatomical correlates of music training in children. In study 1, we cross-sectionally compared a group of child musician (ages 9-11) matched to non-musicians and found that cortical thickness was greater in child musician in the posterior segment of the right-superior temporal gyrus (STG), an auditory association area that is involved in processing complex auditory stimuli, including pitch. We also found t...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - September 8, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Habibi A, Ilari B, Heine K, Damasio H Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Wide-field retinotopy reveals a new visuotopic cluster in macaque posterior parietal cortex.
nd JB Abstract We investigated the visuotopic organization of macaque posterior parietal cortex (PPC) by combining functional imaging (fMRI) and wide-field retinotopic mapping in two macaque monkeys. Whole brain blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal was recorded while monkeys maintained central fixation during the presentation of large rotating wedges and expending/contracting annulus of a "shaking" fruit basket, designed to maximize the recruitment of PPC neurons. Results of the surface-based population receptive field (pRF) analysis reveal a new cluster of four visuotopic areas at the confluence o...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - September 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rima S, Cottereau BR, Héjja-Brichard Y, Trotter Y, Durand JB Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Volumetric analysis and morphological assessment of the ascending olfactory pathway in an elasmobranch and a teleost using diceCT.
Abstract The size (volume or mass) of the olfactory bulbs in relation to the whole brain has been used as a neuroanatomical proxy for olfactory capability in a range of vertebrates, including fishes. Here, we use diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography (diceCT) to test the value of this novel bioimaging technique for generating accurate measurements of the relative volume of the main olfactory brain areas (olfactory bulbs, peduncles, and telencephalon) and to describe the morphological organisation of the ascending olfactory pathway in model fish species from two taxa, the brownbanded bamboo ...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - August 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Camilieri-Asch V, Shaw JA, Yopak KE, Chapuis L, Partridge JC, Collin SP Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

The role of the l-IPS in the comprehension of reversible and irreversible sentences: an rTMS study.
Abstract Thematic roles can be seen as semantic labels assigned to who/what is taking part in the event denoted by a verb. Encoding thematic relations is crucial for sentence interpretation since it relies on both syntactic and semantic aspects. In previous studies, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left inferior intraparietal sulcus (l-IPS) selectively influenced performance accuracy on reversible passive (but not active) sentences. The effect was attributed to the fact that in these sentences the assignment of the agent and theme roles requires re-analysis of the first-pass senten...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - August 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Vercesi L, Sabnis P, Finocchiaro C, Cattaneo L, Tonolli E, Miceli G Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Brain connections derived from diffusion MRI tractography can be highly anatomically accurate-if we know where white matter pathways start, where they end, and where they do not go.
Abstract MR Tractography, which is based on MRI measures of water diffusivity, is currently the only method available for noninvasive reconstruction of fiber pathways in the brain. However, it has several fundamental limitations that call into question its accuracy in many applications. Therefore, there has been intense interest in defining and mitigating the intrinsic limitations of the method. Recent studies have reported that tractography is inherently limited in its ability to accurately reconstruct the connections of the brain, when based on voxel-averaged estimates of local fiber orientation alone. Several v...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - August 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Schilling KG, Petit L, Rheault F, Remedios S, Pierpaoli C, Anderson AW, Landman BA, Descoteaux M Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Dissociable fronto-striatal functional networks predict choice impulsivity.
Abstract Fronto-striatal structural connectivity is associated with choice impulsivity. Yet, to date, whether distinct fronto-striatal functional coupling associates with impulsive choices are largely unknown. Using seed-based resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) combined with multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), the present study aimed to explore the predictions of dissociable frontal-striatal functional connectivity on choice impulsivity in a relatively large sample (N = 429). Adaptive delay-discounting task was utilized to assess choice impulsivity and the striatum was further divided into three...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - August 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang Q, Lv C, He Q, Xue G Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Network-behavior mapping of lasting executive impairments after low-grade glioma surgery.
Abstract Executive functions (EF) may be significantly impaired following low-grade glioma (LGG) surgery, especially in the event of white matter (WM) disruption. The aim of this study was to identify the connective tracts associated with EF impairments after LGG surgery, and to provide new insights into the WM network architecture of EF. EF measurements were collected in 270 patients at the chronic postoperative phase. This comprised cognitive flexibility, verbal inhibition and fluency abilities (phonological and categorical). The scores were z-corrected for age and educational level, and further submitted to a p...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - August 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cochereau J, Lemaitre AL, Wager M, Moritz-Gasser S, Duffau H, Herbet G Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Abnormal dynamic resting-state brain network organization in auditory verbal hallucination.
In this study, we used dynamic connectivity approaches including sliding window and k-means to examine dynamic interactions among brain networks in schizophrenia patients with and without a recent history of AVH. Dynamic brain network analysis revealed that patients with AVH spent less time in a 'network-antagonistic' brain state where the default mode network (DMN) and the language network were anti-correlated, and had lower probability to switch into this brain state. Moreover, patients with AVH showed a lower connectivity within the language network and the auditory network, and lower connectivity was observed betw...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - August 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Geng H, Xu P, Sommer IE, Luo YJ, Aleman A, Ćurčić-Blake B Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Effect of BDNF Val66Met on hippocampal subfields volumes and compensatory interaction with APOE- ε4 in middle-age cognitively unimpaired individuals from the ALFA study.
CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, the present study is the first to show that carrying the BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms partially compensates the decreased on HSv associated with APOE-ε4 in middle-age cognitively unimpaired individuals. PMID: 32804326 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Structure and Function)
Source: Brain Structure and Function - August 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Vilor-Tejedor N, Operto G, Evans TE, Falcon C, Crous-Bou M, Minguillón C, Cacciaglia R, Milà-Alomà M, Grau-Rivera O, Suárez-Calvet M, Garrido-Martín D, Morán S, Esteller M, Adams HH, Molinuevo JL, Guigó R, Gispert JD, ALFA Study Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Developmental score of the infant brain: characterizing diffusion MRI in term- and preterm-born infants.
Abstract Large-scale longitudinal neuroimaging studies of the infant brain allow us to map the spatiotemporal development of the brain in its early phase. While the postmenstrual age (PMA) is commonly used as a time index to analyze longitudinal MRI data, the nonlinear relationship between PMA and MRI data imposes challenges for downstream analyses. We propose a mathematical model that provides a Developmental Score (DevS) as a data-driven time index to characterize the brain development based on MRI features. 319 diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) datasets were collected from 87 term-born and 66 preterm-born infants ...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - August 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wu D, Chang L, Ernst TM, Caffo BS, Oishi K Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Association of γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamate/glutamine in the lateral prefrontal cortex with patterns of intrinsic functional connectivity in adults.
This study examined how levels of neurotransmitters in the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), a region underlying higher-order cognition, are related to the brain's intrinsic functional organization. Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), GABA+ and Glx (glutamate + glutamine) levels in the left dorsal (DLPFC) and left ventral (VLPFC) lateral prefrontal cortex were obtained in a sample of 64 female adults (mean age = 48.5). We measured intrinsic connectivity via resting-state fMRI in three ways: (a) via seed-based connectivity for each of the two spectroscopy voxels; (b) via the spati...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - August 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang K, Smolker HR, Brown MS, Snyder HR, Hankin BL, Banich MT Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Perinatal exposure to nicotine disrupts circadian locomotor and learning efficiency rhythms in juvenile mice.
In this study, we analyze the circadian locomotor activity and learning efficiency rhythms in the juvenile male offspring of mice exposed to nicotine through pregnancy and lactation. Attenuated rhythm amplitude and relative power of the circadian component were found in the nicotine exposed offspring (pN). The acrophase (the best performance during a 24-h cycle) of learning efficiency was delayed and the long-term memory consolidation task failed after 8 days of learning experience. The aforementioned results suggest nicotine exposure in uterus modifies the circadian modulation related to the memory consolid...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - August 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fuentes-Cano MA, Bustamante-Valdez DJ, Durán P Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Properties and temporal dynamics of choice- and action-predictive signals during item recognition decisions.
Abstract Decision-making is in the service of action regardless of whether the decision concerns perceptual information, goods or memories. Compared to recent advances in the neurobiology of perceptual or value-based decisions, however, the neural bases supporting the sampling of evidence in long-term memory, and the transformation of memory-based decisions into appropriate actions, are still poorly understood. In the present fMRI study, we used multivariate pattern analysis to investigate the temporal dynamics of choice- and action-predictive signals during an item recognition task that manipulated the associatio...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - August 8, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Guidotti R, Tosoni A, Sestieri C Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Male-specific features are reduced in Mecp2-null mice: analyses of vasopressinergic innervation, pheromone production and social behaviour.
cute;a F, Lanuza E, Santos M, Agustín-Pavón C Abstract Deficits in arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT), two neuropeptides closely implicated in the modulation of social behaviours, have been reported in some early developmental disorders and autism spectrum disorders. Mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene are associated to Rett syndrome and other neuropsychiatric conditions. Thus, we first analysed AVP and OT expression in the brain of Mecp2-mutant mice by immunohistochemistry. Our results revealed no significant differences in these systems in young adult Mecp2...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - August 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Martínez-Rodríguez E, Martín-Sánchez A, Kul E, Bose A, Martínez-Martínez FJ, Stork O, Martínez-García F, Lanuza E, Santos M, Agustín-Pavón C Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Proprioceptive thalamus receiving forelimb and neck muscle spindle inputs via the external cuneate nucleus in the rat.
Abstract Proprioceptive signals from body muscles have historically been considered to project to the rostrodorsal shell of the ventrobasal thalamic complex [the ventral posterolateral nucleus (VPL) and ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM)]. However, we have recently found that proprioception from rat jaw-closing muscle spindles (JCMSs) is conveyed via the supratrigeminal nucleus to the caudo-ventromedial edge of the VPM, but not to the rostrodorsal shell of the VPM. Therefore, proprioception from other body muscles may also project to thalamic regions other than the rostrodorsal shell of the VPL. We thus examined ...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - August 2, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Uemura Y, Haque T, Sato F, Tsutsumi Y, Ohara H, Oka A, Furuta T, Bae YC, Yamashiro T, Tachibana Y, Yoshida A Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Analysis of pallial/cortical interneurons in key vertebrate models of Testudines, Anurans and Polypteriform fishes.
e;lez A, Moreno N Abstract The organization of the pallial derivatives across vertebrates follows a comparable elementary arrangement, although not all of them possess a layered cortical structure as sophisticated as the cerebral cortex of mammals. However, its expansion along evolution has only been possible by the development and coevolution of the cellular networks formed by excitatory neurons and inhibitory interneurons. Thus, the comparative analysis of interneuron types in vertebrate models of key evolutionary significance will provide important information, due to the extraordinary anatomical sophistication...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - August 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jiménez S, López JM, Lozano D, Morona R, González A, Moreno N Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone axonal varicosities appear to innervate dopaminergic neurons in the human hypothalamus.
The objectives of this study were to map TRH-IR and TH-IR structures in the human hypothalamus with single-label light microscopic immunocytochemistry and study their interaction with double-label light microscopic immunocytochemistry. We show that TRH-IR nerve terminals densely surround TH-IR neurons (perikarya and dendrites) in the infundibulum of the human hypothalamus. The micrographs illustrating these juxtapositions were taken by Olympus BX45 microscope equipped with a digital camera and with 100X oil immersion objective. Composite images were created from the consecutive micrographs if the neurons were larger than t...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - July 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dudas B, Merchenthaler I Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Age-related change in episodic memory: role of functional and structural connectivity between the ventral posterior cingulate and the parietal cortex.
Abstract While the neural correlates of age-related episodic memory decline have been extensively studied, the precise involvement of the Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC) and posterior parietal cortex (the precuneus and the angular gyrus), remains unclear. The present study examined functional and structural neural correlates of age-related episodic memory change assessed over 12 years in 120 older adults (range 76-90 years). Episodic memory performance was measured using the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT); functional connectivity metrics were computed from resting-state fMRI images and s...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - July 28, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Edde M, Dilharreguy B, Theaud G, Chanraud S, Helmer C, Dartigues JF, Amieva H, Allard M, Descoteaux M, Catheline G Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Correction to: Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation of left and right inferior frontal gyrus on creative divergent thinking are moderated by changes in inhibition control.
Abstract The caption of Fig. 2 is incorrect. PMID: 32705345 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Structure and Function)
Source: Brain Structure and Function - July 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Khalil R, Karim AA, Kondinska A, Godde B Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Predicting intelligence from brain gray matter volume.
Abstract A positive association between brain size and intelligence is firmly established, but whether region-specific anatomical differences contribute to general intelligence remains an open question. Results from voxel-based morphometry (VBM) - one of the most widely used morphometric methods - have remained inconclusive so far. Here, we applied cross-validated machine learning-based predictive modeling to test whether out-of-sample prediction of individual intelligence scores is possible on the basis of voxel-wise gray matter volume. Features were derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging data (N&thin...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - July 20, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hilger K, Winter NR, Leenings R, Sassenhagen J, Hahn T, Basten U, Fiebach CJ Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

The effect of bilingualism on brain development from early childhood to young adulthood.
We examined the developmental patterns of both grey and white matter structures in a cross-sectional study of a large sample (n = 711 for grey matter, n = 637 for white matter) of bilingual and monolingual participants, aged 3-21 years. Metrics of grey matter (thickness, volume, and surface area) and white matter (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity) were examined across 41 cortical and subcortical brain structures and 20 tracts, respectively. We used generalized additive modelling to analyze whether, how, and where the developmental trajectories of bilinguals and monolinguals might ...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - July 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pliatsikas C, Meteyard L, Veríssimo J, DeLuca V, Shattuck K, Ullman MT Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Functional and structural correlates of the preterm infant's brain: relating developmental changes of auditory evoked responses to structural maturation.
Abstract Functional responses recorded during the last trimester of gestation reveal that human sensory activity begins before birth, allowing the brain to process the external environment. Along with the maturation of the brain, new cognitive skills emerge in the human infant's brain. The development of non-invasive techniques provides the opportunity to study the relationship between brain structural maturation and cognitive development in vivo. Here, we aimed to relate developmental changes of the latency of cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) to a structural maturation index, presumed to be representat...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - July 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Daneshvarfard F, Abrishami Moghaddam H, Kongolo G, Wallois F, Mahmoudzadeh M Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Expression of GPR55 and either cannabinoid CB1 or CB2 heteroreceptor complexes in the caudate, putamen, and accumbens nuclei of control, parkinsonian, and dyskinetic non-human primates.
nco R Abstract Endocannabinoids are neuromodulators acting on specific cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), representing potential therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases. Cannabinoids also regulate the activity of GPR55, a recently "deorphanized" GPCR that directly interacts with CB1 and with CB2 receptors. Our hypothesis is that these heteromers may be taken as potential targets for Parkinson's disease (PD). This work aims at assessing the expression of heteromers made of GPR55 and CB1/CB2 receptors in the striatum of control and parkinsonian macaques (with and withou...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - July 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Martínez-Pinilla E, Rico AJ, Rivas-Santisteban R, Lillo J, Roda E, Navarro G, Lanciego JL, Franco R Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

MRI spectroscopic and tractography studies indicate consequences of long-term ketogenic diet.
Abstract To maintain its functional abilities, the mature brain obtains energy from glucose produced in carbohydrate metabolism. When carbohydrates are eliminated from the diet, the energy comes from the oxidation of fatty acids. In this metabolic state called ketosis, ketone bodies are formed: β-hydroxybutyric acid (bHb), acetone, and acetoacetate as alternative source of energy passing through the blood-brain barrier easily. The ketosis state can be achieved through various strategies like caloric restriction, supplementation with medium-chain triglycerides, intense physical training, or ketogenic diet (KD)...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - July 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gzieło K, Janeczko K, Węglarz W, Jasiński K, Kłodowski K, Setkowicz Z Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Prelimbic cortical targets of ventromedial thalamic projections include inhibitory interneurons and corticostriatal pyramidal neurons in the rat.
Abstract Ventromedial thalamic axons innervate cortical layer I and make contacts onto the apical dendritic tuft of pyramidal neurons. Optical stimulation of ventromedial thalamic axon terminals in prefrontal cortical areas in mouse brain slices evokes responses in corticocortical, corticothalamic and layer I inhibitory interneurons. Using anterograde tracing techniques and immunohistochemistry in male Sprague-Dawley rats, we provide anatomical evidence that ventromedial thalamic axon terminals in prelimbic cortex make contacts onto pyramidal neurons and, in particular, onto corticostriatal neurons as we...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - July 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sieveritz B, Arbuthnott GW Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

A common neural substrate for processing scenes and egomotion-compatible visual motion.
Abstract Neuroimaging studies have revealed two separate classes of category-selective regions specialized in optic flow (egomotion-compatible) processing and in scene/place perception. Despite the importance of both optic flow and scene/place recognition to estimate changes in position and orientation within the environment during self-motion, the possible functional link between egomotion- and scene-selective regions has not yet been established. Here we reanalyzed functional magnetic resonance images from a large sample of participants performing two well-known "localizer" fMRI experiments, consisting...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - July 8, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sulpizio V, Galati G, Fattori P, Galletti C, Pitzalis S Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Involvement of the lateral habenula in fear memory.
Abstract Increasing evidence points to the engagement of the lateral habenula (LHb) in the selection of appropriate behavioral responses in aversive situations. However, very few data have been gathered with respect to its role in fear memory formation, especially in learning paradigms in which brain areas involved in cognitive processes like the hippocampus (HPC) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are required. A paradigm of this sort is trace fear conditioning, in which an aversive event is preceded by a discrete stimulus, generally a tone, but without the close temporal contiguity allowing for their associ...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - July 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Durieux L, Mathis V, Herbeaux K, Muller MA, Barbelivien A, Mathis C, Schlichter R, Hugel S, Majchrzak M, Lecourtier L Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Using the Allen gene expression atlas of the adult mouse brain to gain further insight into the physiological significance of TAG-1/Contactin-2.
Abstract The anatomic gene expression atlas (AGEA) of the adult mouse brain of the Allen Institute for Brain Science is a transcriptome-based atlas of the adult C57Bl/6 J mouse brain, based on the extensive in situ hybridization dataset of the Institute. This spatial mapping of the gene expression levels of mice under baseline conditions could assist in the formation of new, reasonable transcriptome-derived hypotheses on brain structure and underlying biochemistry, which could also have functional implications. The aim of this work is to use the data of the AGEA (in combination with Tabula Muris, a compendium...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - June 28, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kalafatakis I, Kalafatakis K, Tsimpolis A, Giannakeas N, Tsipouras M, Tzallas A, Karagogeos D Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Serotonergic treatment normalizes midbrain dopaminergic neuron increase after periaqueductal gray stimulation.
In this study, we further analysed our previous data on the effects of escitalopram (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, SSRI) and buspirone (a 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist) on dlPAG-induced anticipatory fear behaviour in a rat model using freezing as a measure. We then attempted to unravel some of the interactions with dopamine signalling using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry to probe the effects on dopaminergic neurons. We showed that acute treatment of escitalopram, but not buspirone, was effective in reducing anticipatory freezing behaviour, while chronic administrations of both drugs were effec...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - June 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tan SZK, Temel Y, Chan AY, Mok ATC, Perucho JAU, Blokland A, Aquili L, Lim WL, Lim LW Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Recursive music elucidates neural mechanisms supporting the generation and detection of melodic hierarchies.
Abstract The ability to generate complex hierarchical structures is a crucial component of human cognition which can be expressed in the musical domain in the form of hierarchical melodic relations. The neural underpinnings of this ability have been investigated by comparing the perception of well-formed melodies with unexpected sequences of tones. However, these contrasts do not target specifically the representation of rules generating hierarchical structure. Here, we present a novel paradigm in which identical melodic sequences are generated in four steps, according to three different rules: The Recursive rule,...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - June 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Martins MJD, Fischmeister FPS, Gingras B, Bianco R, Puig-Waldmueller E, Villringer A, Fitch WT, Beisteiner R Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Direct administration of ifenprodil and citalopram into the nucleus accumbens inhibits cue-induced nicotine seeking and associated glutamatergic plasticity.
on CD Abstract Nicotine use disorder has been associated with glutamatergic alterations within the basal ganglia that might contribute to relapse. Specifically, initiation of cue-induced nicotine seeking produces rapid, transient synaptic potentiation (t-SP) in nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) medium spiny neurons (MSNs), defined as increases in spine head diameter and AMPA to NMDA current ratios (A/N). Ifenprodil, which inhibits nicotine reinstatement when administered systemically, antagonizes GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors, has affinity for serotonin receptors, and blocks serotonin transporters (SERT). The mec...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - June 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Leyrer-Jackson JM, Piña JA, McCallum J, Foster Olive M, Gipson CD Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

Morphology of the criminal brain: gray matter reductions are linked to antisocial behavior in offenders.
Abstract Aggression and psychopathy are multifaceted conditions determined interpersonal and antisocial factors. Only a few studies analyze the link between these separate factors and specific brain morphology distinctively. A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was performed on 27 violent offenders and 27 controls aiming to associate sub-features of aggressive and psychopathic behavior with specific gray matter volumes. Trait aggression was assessed using two self-report tests (Aggression Questionnaire, AQ, and Reactive-Proactive-Aggression Questionnaire, RPQ) and psychopathy with the Psychopathy Checklist-Rev...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - June 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hofhansel L, Weidler C, Votinov M, Clemens B, Raine A, Habel U Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research