Depressive symptom trajectories associated with standard and accelerated rTMS
ConclusionThe accelerated rTMS protocol in this study did not impact depressive symptom response trajectories. This work provides further confirmatory evidence that there are distinct depressive symptom response trajectories with rTMS delivered to the left DLPFC.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials RegistryACTRN12616000443493 and ACTRN12613000044729. (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - February 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Probing EEG activity in the targeted cortex after focal transcranial electrical stimulation
ConclusionThe hybrid TES-EEG approach can be used to probe after-effects of focal TES on neuronal activity in the targeted cortex. (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - February 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Treatment-emergent mania with psychosis in bipolar depression with left intermittent theta-burst rTMS
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Tyler S. Kaster, Yuliya Knyahnytska, Yoshihiro Noda, Jonathan Downar, Zafiris J. Daskalakis, Daniel M. Blumberger (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - February 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Benzodiazepine Use And Response To Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation In Major Depressive Disorder
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Paul B. Fitzgerald, Zafiris J. Daskalakis, Kate E. Hoy (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - February 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Brain PET metabolic substrate of TMS response in pharmaco-resistant depression
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Maud Tastevin, Raphaëlle Richieri, Laurent Boyer, Guillaume Fond, Christophe Lançon, Eric Guedj (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - February 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effectiveness of Cathodal tDCS of the Primary Motor or Sensory Cortex in Migraine: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Mohammad Dawood Rahimi, Javad Salehi Fadardi, Morteza Saeidi, Imanolla Bigdeli, Rohollah KashiriAbstractObjectivesTranscranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a new technology that is extensively used for migraine treatment. The present study aims to examine the effectiveness of cathodal-tDCS (c-tDCS) in decreasing migraine pain frequency, duration, and intensity at the right primary motor cortex (M1) or sensory cortex (S1) in individuals with episodic or chronic migraine.MethodsThe present study has a randomized, single-blind, and ...
Source: Brain Stimulation - February 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Significant influence of static magnetic field stimulation applied for 30 minutes over the human M1 on corticospinal excitability
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Michele Dileone, Laura Mordillo-Mateos, Antonio Oliviero, Guglielmo Foffani (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - February 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) At Home: A Guide for Clinical Research and Practice
ConclusionThese guidelines provide a reference and standard for practice when employing the use of tDCS outside of the clinic setting. (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - February 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Modeling Transcranial Electrical Stimulation in the Aging Brain
ConclusionsComputed field measures showed decreasing amount of tES current reaching the brain with increasing atrophy. Therefore, adjusting current dose by modifying tES stimulation parameter in older adults based on degree of atrophy may be necessary to achieve desired stimulation benefits. Results from this study may inform future tES application in healthy older adults. (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - February 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Bayesian statistics show a lack of change in excitability following bi-hemispheric HD-TDCS over the primary somatosensory cortices
Publication date: Available online 6 February 2020Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Gallo Selene, J. Baaijen Thijs, Suttrup Judith, Fernandes-Henriques Carolina, Paracampo Riccardo, Keysers Christian, Gazzola Valeria (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - February 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Early Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Treatment Exerts Neuroprotective Effects on 6-OHDA-Induced Parkinsonism in Rats
ConclusionsThese results suggest that early and long-term tDCS could exert neuroprotective effects and reduce the aggravation of motor dysfunctions in a 6-OHDA-induced PD rat model. Furthermore, this preclinical model may enhance the promising possibility of the potential use of tDCS and serve as a translational platform to further identify the therapeutic mechanism of tDCS for PD or other neurological disorders. (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - February 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Transcranial direct current stimulation effects on cognitive reappraisal: an unexpected result?
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2020Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Larissa Vieira, Déborah Marques, Lorena Melo, Rodrigo C. Marques, Kátia Monte-Silva, Amaury Cantilino (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - February 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Paired Associative Stimulation drives the emergence of motor resonance
ConclusionsThe present findings provide the first empirical evidence that Hebbian learning induced by a PAS protocol shapes the visual-motor matching properties of the Mirror Neuron System. (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - February 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens for treatment-refractory anorexia nervosa: A long-term follow-up study
ConclusionOur long-term follow-up study suggests that NAcc-DBS is safe and effective for improving the BMI and psychiatric symptoms of patients with refractory AN. Although NAcc-DBS appears to be more suitable for patients with R-AN, strict inclusion criteria must be applied considering surgery-related complications. (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - February 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dual Stimulation with tDCS-iTBS as add-on treatment in recurrent depressive disorder-a case report
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Sai SreeValli Sreepada, Sachin Pradeep Baliga, Shalini S. Naik, Sachin Nagendrappa, Nandhini Bojappen, Anushree Bose, Urvakhsh Meherwan Mehta, G. Venkatasubramanian, Sathyaprabha TN, Jagadisha Thirthalli, Kaviraja Udupa (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - February 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Spinal cord stimulation improves freezing of gait in a patient with multiple system atrophy with predominant parkinsonism
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Yuqing Zhang, Tianbin Song, Ping Zhuang, Yunpeng Wang, Xiaohua Zhang, Shanshan Mei, Jiping Li, Jinghong Ma (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - February 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Bilateral L2 Dorsal Root Ganglion-Stimulation Suppresses Lower Limb Spasticity Following Chronic Motor Complete Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Report
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Sadaf Soloukey, Judith Drenthen, Rutger Osterthun, Judith D. de Rooij, Chris I. De Zeeuw, Frank J.P.M. Huygen, Biswadjiet S. Harhangi (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - February 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Rapid motor cortical reorganization following subacute spinal cord dysfunction
ConclusionThe present case report thoroughly documents a rapid cortical reorganization within a few days after a transient spinal shock. Our data adds further evidence to the literature suggesting a posterior shift of motor cortical representation following spinal cord injury. For the first time, 52 cortical reorganization was shown idiosyncratically in a single patient arising from the fortuitous fact of having a pre - lesional nTMS map. (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - February 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A new, open-source 3D-printed transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coil tracker holder for double blind, sham-controlled neuronavigation studies
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Kevin A. Caulfield, James W. Lopez, Claire E. Cox, Donna R. Roberts, Lisa M. McTeague (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - February 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The differential roles of contralesional frontoparietal areas in cortical reorganization after stroke
ConclusionWe here highlight time-sensitive and region-specific effects of contralesional frontoparietal areas after left hemisphere stroke, which may influence on neuromodulation regimes aiming at supporting recovery of motor function post-stroke. (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - February 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation induced cognitive task-related decrease in activity of default mode network: an exploratory study
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Novakova Lubomira, Gajdos Martin, Rektorova Irena (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - February 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on altered perception of One’s own face
Publication date: May–June 2020Source: Brain Stimulation, Volume 13, Issue 3Author(s): Simple Futarmal Kothari, Lilja Kristin Dagsdóttir, Mohit Kothari, Jakob Udby Blicher, Abhishek Kumar, Poul Erik Buchholtz, Mahmoud Ashkanian, Peter SvenssonAbstractBackgroundChronic orofacial pain (COP) patients often perceive the painful face area as “swollen” without clinical signs; such self-reported illusions of the face are termed perceptual distortion (PD). The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PD remain elusive.ObjectiveTo test the neuromodulatory effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulati...
Source: Brain Stimulation - January 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Intensive HF-rTMS treatment in an ECT resistant bipolar I patient with mixed episode
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2010Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Dieter Zeeuws, Kim De Rycker, Rudi De Raedt, Matthieu De Beyne, Chris Baeken, Nathalie VanderbruggenAlthough electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT) remains a successful treatment strategy in medication-resistant bipolar disorder, not all patients respond well. Here, we report on a successful high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) therapy in a highly treatment-resistant bipolar I patient during a mixed episode. This case illustrates that “combative” HF-rTMS therapy could be a safe and valid treatm...
Source: Brain Stimulation - January 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Electrodes in the brain—Ethical criteria for research and treatment with deep brain stimulation for neuropsychiatric disorders
ConclusionsThese criteria can easily be applied to research and future clinical application of DBS in neuropsychiatric disorders. This will prepare the ground for ethically justified, empirically comprehensive DBS in this highly vulnerable population and allow stringent future societal discussions about its legitimation. (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - January 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Task-dependent effects of intracranial hippocampal stimulation on human memory and hippocampal theta power
ConclusionsWe show here for the first time that stimulation-induced associative memory enhancement was linked to increased theta power during retrieval. These results suggest that hippocampal stimulation enhances associative memory but not item memory because it engages more hippocampal theta activity and that, in general, increasing hippocampal theta may provide a neural mechanism for successful memory enhancement. (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - January 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: March–April 2020Source: Brain Stimulation, Volume 13, Issue 2Author(s): (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - January 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cover 1
Publication date: March–April 2020Source: Brain Stimulation, Volume 13, Issue 2Author(s): (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - January 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Masthead
Publication date: March–April 2020Source: Brain Stimulation, Volume 13, Issue 2Author(s): (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - January 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Deep brain stimulation and refractory freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease: Improvement with high-frequency current steering co-stimulation of subthalamic nucleus and substantia Nigra
Publication date: March–April 2020Source: Brain Stimulation, Volume 13, Issue 2Author(s): Nico Golfrè Andreasi, Vittorio Rispoli, Elena Contaldi, Fabiana Colucci, Lorenzo Mongardi, Michele Alessandro Cavallo, Mariachiara Sensi (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - January 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Acknowledgement to Reviewers 2019
Publication date: March–April 2020Source: Brain Stimulation, Volume 13, Issue 2Author(s): (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - January 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
Publication date: March–April 2020Source: Brain Stimulation, Volume 13, Issue 2Author(s): (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - January 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Transcranial direct current stimulation of the mouse prefrontal cortex modulates serotonergic neural activity of the dorsal raphe nucleus
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Marco Cambiaghi, Mario Buffelli, Laura Masin, Flavia Valtorta, Stefano Comai (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - January 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Pulse width biases the balance of excitation and inhibition recruited by transcranial magnetic stimulation
Publication date: Available online 14 January 2020Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Ricci Hannah, Lorenzo Rocchi, Sara Tremblay, Eleanor Wilson, John C. Rothwell (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - January 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Reliability of Targeting Methods in TMS for Depression: Beam F3 vs. 5.5 cm
ConclusionsBeam F3 targeting demonstrates greater precision and reliability than the 5.5 cm method and identifies a different anatomical target. (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - January 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Personalized TMS Helmets for Quick and Reliable TMS Administration Outside of a Laboratory Setting
Publication date: Available online 14 January 2020Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Bashar W. Badran, Kevin A. Caulfield, James W. Lopez, Claire Cox, Sasha Stomberg-Firestein, William H. DeVries, Lisa M. McTeague, Mark S. George, Donna Roberts (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - January 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Treatment of Executive Function Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder with Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A double-blind, sham-controlled, pilot trial
ConclusionsOur pilot RCT demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of using high frequency rTMS targeting DLPFC in youth and young adults with autism. No evidence for efficacy of active versus sham rTMS on EF performance was found. However, we found promising preliminary evidence of EF performance improvement following active versus sham rTMS in participants with ASD with more severe adaptive functioning deficits. Future work could focus on examining efficacy of rTMS in this higher-need population.Clinical Trial RegistrationRepetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) for Executive Function Deficits in Autism S...
Source: Brain Stimulation - January 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Reply to Letter to the Editor
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Mason Stilman, Yiftach Roth, Nicole Chandonnet, Lindsey Davis, Randall Buzan, Theodore Wirecki (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - January 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Theta burst stimulation: technical aspects about TMS devices
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2020Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Ane Miren Gutiérrez-Muto, Javier Castilla, Manuel Freire, Antonio Oliviero, Jesús Tornero (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - January 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Impact of galvanic vestibular stimulation-induced stochastic resonance on the output of the vestibular system: A systematic review
Publication date: Available online 10 January 2020Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Sebastian P. Stefani, Jorge M. Serrador, Paul P. Breen, Aaron J. Camp (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - January 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

NMDA receptor partial agonist, d-cycloserine, enhances 10 Hz rTMS-induced motor plasticity, suggesting long-term potentiation (LTP) as underlying mechanism
Publication date: Available online 8 January 2020Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Joshua C. Brown, William H. DeVries, Jeffrey E. Korte, Gregory L. Sahlem, Leonardo Bonilha, E. Baron Short, Mark S. George (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - January 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effect of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Altered Perception of One´s Own Face
Publication date: Available online 8 January 2020Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Simple Futarmal Kothari, Lilja Kristin Dagsdottir, Mohit Kothari, Jakob Udby Blicher, Abhishek Kumar, Poul Erik Buchholtz, Mahmoud Ashkanian, Peter SvenssonAbstractBackgroundChronic orofacial pain (COP) patients often perceive the painful face area as “swollen” without clinical signs; such self-reported illusions of the face are termed perceptual distortion (PD). The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PD remain elusive.ObjectiveTo test the neuromodulatory effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on PD...
Source: Brain Stimulation - January 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Case Study of an Amputee Regaining Sensation and Muscle Function in a Residual Limb after Peripheral Nerve Stimulation by Intense Focused Ultrasound
Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): C.K. Ezeokeke, M.S. Bobola, M. Selby, J.H. Ko, J.L. Friedly, P.D. Mourad (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - January 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Repeated stimulation of the dorsolateral-prefrontal cortex improves executive dysfunctions and craving in drug addiction: A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study
ConclusionsImprovement of cognitive control functions is closely associated with reduced craving. Repeated DLPFC stimulation in order to improve executive control could be a promising approach for therapeutic interventions in drug addiction. However, the observed findings require further confirmation by studies that measure relapse/consumption of the respective substances over longer follow-up measurements. (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - January 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Auricular transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation improves memory persistence in naïve mice and in an intellectual disability mouse model
ConclusionOur data show that atVNS improves memory persistence in naïve mice and in a model of intellectual disability and support further studies taking advantage of preclinical mouse models of cognitive disorders. (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - January 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Safety and tolerability of transcranial magnetic and direct current stimulation in children: Prospective single center evidence from 3.5 million stimulations
ConclusionsStandard non-invasive brain stimulation paradigms are safe and well-tolerated in children and should be considered minimal risk. Advancement of applications in the developing brain are warranted. (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - December 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Comparison of fiber tract low frequency stimulation to focal and ANT stimulation in an acute rat model of focal cortical seizures
ConclusionsLFS of the CC is the only method of stimulation to significantly reduce seizure frequency in this model of focal cortical seizures. These results support the hypothesis that LFS of fiber tracts has significant potential for seizure control. (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - December 30, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Safety of rTMS in patients with intracranial metallic objects
Publication date: Available online 28 December 2019Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Sameer C. Dhamne, Risto J. Ilmoniemi, Melissa Tsuboyama, Linda L. Carpenter, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Alexander Rotenberg (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - December 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Repeated anodal HD-tDCS stimulation might render silver chloride electrodes unreliable
Publication date: Available online 28 December 2019Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Benedikt P. Langenbach, Branislav Savic, Thomas Baumgartner, Daria Knoch (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - December 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Magstim 2002 and Bistim Mode maximum stimulus output values are not equivalent: Configuration selection is critical
Publication date: Available online 13 December 2019Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Michael Do, Gillian M. Clark, Ian Fuelscher, Melissa Kirkovski, Andris Cerins, Daniel T Corp, Hannah G.K. Bereznicki, Natalia Albein-Urios, Peter G. Enticott (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - December 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the ventromedial prefrontal cortex enhances fear extinction in healthy humans: A single blind sham-controlled study
Publication date: Available online 26 December 2019Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Carmelo M. Vicario, Michael A. Nitsche, Isabel Hoysted, Fatemeh Yavari, Alessio Avenanti, Mohammad A. Salehinejad, Kim L. Felmingham (Source: Brain Stimulation)
Source: Brain Stimulation - December 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research