Correction to: Interactive mapping of language and memory with the GE2REC protocol
The article Interactive mapping of language and memory with the GE2REC protocol, written by Sonja Banjac, Elise Roger, Emilie Cousin, Marcela Perrone-Bertolotti, C élise Haldin, Cédric Pichat, Laurent Lamalle, Lorella Minotti, Philippe Kahane, and Monica Baciu was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal on August 06, 2020 without open access. (Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior)
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - October 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Abnormal brain activity patterns during spatial working memory task in patients with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis: a fMRI study
AbstractHemodialysis (HD) is associated with cognitive impairment in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the neural mechanism of spatial working memory (SWM) impairment in HD-ESRD patients remains unclear. We investigated the abnormal alterations in SWM-associated brain activity patterns in HD-ESRD patients using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) technique during n-back tasks. Twenty-two HD-ESRD patients and 22 well-matched controls underwent an fMRI scan while undergoing a three-load n-back tasks with different difficulty levels. Cognitive and mental states w...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - September 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Flexible reconfiguration of functional brain networks as a potential neural mechanism of creativity
AbstractCreativity relies on the reorganizing of multimodal information and flexible switching between different modes of thinking, suggesting an association between creativity and the reconfiguration of functional brain networks. Here, we investigated global and regional brain dynamics in high-creative (HCG,N = 22) and a low-creative (LCG,N = 20) groups during a divergent creative thinking task. We found that during the creative thinking task, the HCG demonstrated higher global network flexibility, as compared to the LCG. In addition, creative thinking in the HCG was associated with significantly h...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - September 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The exploration of Parkinson ’s disease: a multi-modal data analysis of resting functional magnetic resonance imaging and gene data
AbstractParkinson ’s disease (PD) is the most universal chronic degenerative neurological dyskinesia and an important threat to elderly health. At present, the researches of PD are mainly based on single-modal data analysis, while the fusion research of multi-modal data may provide more meaningful information in th e aspect of comprehending the pathogenesis of PD. In this paper, 104 samples having resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) and gene data are from Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) and Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database to predict pathologi...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - September 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Experimental trauma rapidly modifies functional connectivity
AbstractTraumatic events can produce emotional, cognitive and autonomous physical responses. This may ultimately lead to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a psychiatric syndrome which requires comprehensive treatment. Trauma exposure alters functional connectivity; however, onset and nature of these changes are unknown. Here, we explore functional connectivity changes at rest directly after experimental trauma exposure. Seventy-three healthy subjects watched either a trauma or a control film. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging measurements were conducted before and directly after the film. Seed-based ...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - September 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Aberrant brain functional hubs and causal connectivity in presbycusis
AbstractTo investigate resting-state connectivity and further understand directional aspects of implicit alterations in presbycusis patients, we used degree centrality (DC) and Granger causality analysis (GCA) to detect functional hubs of the whole-brain network and then analyze directional connectivity. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans were performed on 40 presbycusis patients and 40 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and education. We used DC analysis and GCA to characterize abnormal brain networks in presbycusis patients. The associations of network centrality and directed function...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - September 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Abnormal white matter tracts of insula in smokers
This study is the first using probabilistic tractography to exclusively clarify the precise roles of insular WM tracts in smokers, which may provide new insights into the underlying neurobiology of nicotine addiction. (Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior)
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - September 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

MRI-based Parcellation and Morphometry of the Individual Rhesus Monkey Brain: the macaque Harvard-Oxford Atlas (mHOA), a translational system referencing a standardized ontology
AbstractInvestigations of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) brain have shed light on the function and organization of the primate brain at a scale and resolution not yet possible in humans. A cornerstone of the linkage between non-human primate and human studies of the brain is magnetic resonance imaging, which allows for an association to be made between the detailed structural and physiological analysis of the non-human primate and that of the human brain. To further this end, we present a novel parcellation method and system for the rhesus monkey brain, referred to as the macaque Harvard-Oxford Atlas (mHOA), which is b...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - September 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Modulation of visual processing of food by transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS)
AbstractPresent project is concerned with the possibility to modulate the neural regulation of food intake by non-invasive stimulation of the vagus nerve. This nerve carries viscero-afferent information from the gut and other internal organs and therefore serves an important role in ingestive behavior. The electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve (VNS) is a qualified procedure in the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy and depression. Since weight loss is a known common side effect of VNS treatment in patients with implanted devices, VNS is evaluated as a treatment of obesity. To investigate potential VNS-related changes...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - September 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Long-term tract-specific white matter microstructural changes after acute stress
In this study, we address this issue via diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty-two trauma-exposed individuals who did not meet post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria were recruited from the most affected area of Wenchuan earthquake and scanned twice (within twenty-five days and two years after the quake, respectively). Their emotional distress was evaluated with the Self-Rating Anxiety/Depression Scales (SAS/SDS) at both scans. Automatic fiber quantification was used to examine brain microstructure alterations. Correlation analyses were also conducted to investigate relationships between brain microstru...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - September 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cross-sectional exploration of brain functional connectivity in the triadic development model of adolescents
AbstractAdolescence represents a transitional stage with increased risk taking and mood dysregulation. These vulnerabilities are accountable by developmental dynamics in the triadic functional brain networks underlying reward seeking (REW), emotional avoidance (EMO), and cognitive regulation (COG). However, these triadic dynamics, though conceptually established, have yet been investigated directly. Capitalizing on public database of resting-state fMRI from 222 adolescents (8 –18 years old, 89F133M), this study examined cross-sectional development profiles of functional connectivity (FC) by jointly considering b...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - September 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Increased cerebral blood flow is correlated with neurocognitive impairment in long-term hemodialysis patients: an arterial spin labeling MRI study
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in hemodialysis patients with arterial spin labeling (ASL) and to correlate these changes with clinical risk factors and neurocognitive function. Thirty-two hemodialysis patients and 35 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited in this prospective study. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was performed to evaluate neurocognitive function. Pulsed ASL was performed to measure CBF. Two independent sample t-test was used to explore the CBF difference between the patients and HCs. Multiple stepwise regressi...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - September 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Abnormal degree centrality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with cognitive impairment: a resting-state functional MRI study
AbstractTo investigate functional connectivity (FC) changes in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with and without cognitive impairment (CI) by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Twenty-three ESRD patients with CI, 22 ESRD patients with non-CI (NCI) and 23 matched healthy controls (HC) were included. Rs-fMRI scans were performed in all subjects. Full-range, long-range, and short-range FC defined voxel-wise based degree centrality (DC) and seed based FC were computed and contrasted among the groups. Compared with HC, the DC value of short  functional connectivity (SFC), in ESRD pa...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - September 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neural representation of social concepts: a coordinate-based meta-analysis of f MRI studies
AbstractThe possible uniqueness of social stimuli constitutes a key topic for cognitive neuroscience. Growing evidence highlights graded contributions to their semantic processing by the anterior temporal lobe (ATL), where the omni-category response displayed by its ventrolateral sector might reflect the integration of information relayed from other regions. Among these, the superior polar ATL was specifically associated with representing social concepts. However, most previous studies neglected the close relationship between social and emotional semantic features, which might confound interpreting the degree of overlap vs...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - September 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effects of fingolimod, a sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist, on white matter microstructure, cognition and symptoms in schizophrenia
AbstractSeveral lines of evidence have implicated white matter (WM) deficits in schizophrenia, including microstructural alterations from diffusion tensor (DTI) brain imaging studies. It has been proposed that dysregulated inflammatory processes, including heightened activity of circulating lymphocytes, may contribute to WM pathology in this illness. Fingolimod is a sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist that is approved for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). Fingolimod robustly decreases the number of circulating lymphocytes through sequestration of these cells in lymph tissue. In addition, this a...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - September 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Intrinsic low-frequency oscillation changes in multiple-frequency bands in stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
AbstractAbnormal local spontaneous brain activity during the resting state has been observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, it is still largely unclear whether the abnormalities are related to specific frequency bands. Our purpose was to explore intrinsic neural activity changes in different frequency bands by using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method in stable COPD patients. Nineteen stable COPD patients and twenty gender-, age- and education-matched normal controls (NCs) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans, cognitive function tests and lung function tests....
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - September 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Altered gray matter structural covariance networks at both acute and chronic stages of mild traumatic brain injury
AbstractCognitive and emotional impairments observed in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients may reflect variances of brain connectivity within specific networks. Although previous studies found altered functional connectivity (FC) in mTBI patients, the alterations of brain structural properties remain unclear. In the present study, we analyzed structural covariance (SC) for the acute stages of mTBI (amTBI) patients, the chronic stages of mTBI (cmTBI) patients, and healthy controls. We first extracted the mean gray matter volume (GMV) of seed regions that are located in the default-mode network (DMN), executive cont...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - September 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Brain activation and connectivity in anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder when viewing bodies: relationships to clinical symptoms and perception of appearance
AbstractAnorexia nervosa (AN) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) are characterized by distorted perception of appearance, yet no studies have directly compared the neurobiology associated with body perception. We compared AN and BDD in brain activation and connectivity in relevant networks when viewing images of others ’ bodies and tested their relationships with clinical symptoms and subjective appearance evaluations. We acquired fMRI data from 64 unmedicated females (20 weight-restored AN, 23 BDD, 21 controls) during a matching task using unaltered or spatial-frequency filtered photos of others’ bodies. Usin ...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - September 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Brain function associated with reaction time after sport-related concussion
This study used blood-oxygenation-level-dependent function magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) to evaluate resting brain function of 45 university-level athletes with conc ussion in the first week post-injury, along with a control cohort of 102 athletes without recent concussion. We evaluated the main effects of concussion and RT on functional connectivity, along with concussion × RT interactions, using multivariate analysis techniques. Concussion was associated with reduced connectivity throughout the brain, whereas RT slowing was associated with elevated connectivity in parietal and temporal region...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Simultaneously decreased temporal variability and enhanced variability-strength coupling of emotional network connectivities are related to positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia
AbstractWe hypothesize that decreased temporal variability of emotional network connectivities, corresponding to a continual state of hyperactivity, may play a role in mediating symptoms in schizophrenia. Resting-state magnetic resonance data were collected from 64 subjects, including 21 positive symptom profile schizophrenia patients (PSZ group), 19 negative symptom profile schizophrenia patients (NSZ group), and 24 healthy controls. The emotional brain network was defined based on the coordinates obtained from multi-level kernel density analysis. The temporal variability of intra-network functional connectivities (FCs) w...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Endocytosis-pathway polygenic scores affects the hippocampal network connectivity and individualized identification across the high-risk of Alzheimer ’s disease
AbstractThe neural mechanisms underlying the polygenic effects of the endocytosis pathway on the brain function of Alzheimer ’s Disease (AD) remain unclear, especially in the prodromal stages of AD from early mild cognitive impairment (EMCI) to late mild cognitive impairment (LMCI). We used an imaging genetic approach to investigate the polygenic effects of the endocytosis pathway on the hippocampal network across the p rodromal stages of AD. The subjects’ data were selected from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Hippocampal volumes were examined in subjects of cognitive normal (CN), EMCI a...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Toward a global and reproducible science for brain imaging in neurotrauma: the ENIGMA adult moderate/severe traumatic brain injury working group
AbstractThe global burden of mortality and morbidity caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) is significant, and the heterogeneity of TBI patients and the relatively small sample sizes of most current neuroimaging studies is a major challenge for scientific advances and clinical translation. The ENIGMA (Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Adult moderate/severe TBI (AMS-TBI) working group aims to be a driving force for new discoveries in AMS-TBI by providing researchers world-wide with an effective framework and platform for large-scale cross-border collaboration and data sharing. Based on the principles o...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The clinical utility of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in traumatic brain injury: recommendations from the ENIGMA MRS working group
AbstractProton (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides a non-invasive and quantitative measure of brain metabolites. Traumatic brain injury impacts cerebral metabolism and a number of research groups have successfully used this technique as a biomarker of injury and/or outcome in both pediatric and adult TBI populations. However, this technique is underutilized, with studies being performed primarily at centers with access to MR research support. In this paper we present a technical introduction to the acquisition and analysis of in vivo1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy and review1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy f...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Diagnosis of early Alzheimer ’s disease based on dynamic high order networks
AbstractMachine learning methods have been widely used for early diagnosis of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) via functional connectivity networks (FCNs) analysis from neuroimaging data. The conventional low-order FCNs are obtained by time-series correlation of the whole brain based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI). However, FCNs overlook inter-region interac tions, which limits application to brain disease diagnosis. To overcome this drawback, we develop a novel framework to exploit the high-level dynamic interactions among brain regions for early AD diagnosis. Specifically, a sliding window...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effect of odor pleasantness on heat-induced pain: An fMRI study
In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which the brain modulates the pain experience under concurrent odorant stimulation. We conducted an fMRI study using a 2  × 3 factorial design, in which one of two temperatures (warm, hot) and one of three types of odors (pleasant, unpleasant, no odor) were presented simultaneously. “Hot” temperatures were individually determined as those perceived as painful (mean temperature = 46.9 °C). The non-painful “warm” temperature was set to 40 °C. Participants rated hot compared to warm stimuli as more intense and un...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Sensory Modulation Disorder and its Neural Circuitry in Adults with ADHD: A Pilot Study
AbstractCompared to healthy controls (HCs), individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit more symptoms of sensory processing disorder (SPD), which is associated with difficulties in educational and social activities. Most studies examining comorbid SPD-ADHD have been conducted with children and have not explored relations to brain volumes. In this pilot study, we assessed a subtype of SPD, sensory modulation disorder (SMD), and its relation to select brain volumes in adults with ADHD. We administered part of the Sensory Processing 3-Dimensions Scale (SP3D) to assess subtypes of SMD and collected...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Abnormalities in hemispheric lateralization of intra- and inter-hemispheric white matter connections in schizophrenia
AbstractHemispheric lateralization is a prominent feature of the human brain and is grounded into intra- and inter-hemispheric white matter (WM) connections. However, disruptions in hemispheric lateralization involving both intra- and inter-hemispheric WM connections in schizophrenia is still unclear. Hence, a quantitative measure of the hemispheric lateralization of intra- and inter-hemispheric WM connections could provide new insights into schizophrenia. This work performed diffusion tensor imaging on 50 patients and 58 matched healthy controls. Using graph theory, the global and nodal efficiencies were computed for both...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Long-lasting connectivity changes induced by intensive first-person shooter gaming
AbstractAction videogames have been shown to induce modifications in perceptual and cognitive systems, as well as in brain structure and function. Nevertheless, whether such changes are correlated with brain functional connectivity modifications outlasting the training period is not known. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used in order to quantify acute and long-lasting connectivity changes following a sustained gaming experience on a first-person shooter (FPS) game. Thirty-five healthy participants were assigned to either a gaming or a control group prior to the acquisition of resting state fMRI data and a...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

FMRI hemodynamic response function (HRF) as a novel marker of brain function: applications for understanding obsessive-compulsive disorder pathology and treatment response
AbstractThe hemodynamic response function (HRF) represents the transfer function linking neural activity with the functional MRI (fMRI) signal, modeling neurovascular coupling. Since HRF is influenced by non-neural factors, to date it has largely been considered as a confound or has been ignored in many analyses. However, underlying biophysics suggests that the HRF may contain meaningful correlates of neural activity, which might be unavailable through conventional fMRI metrics. Here, we estimated the HRF by performing deconvolution on resting-state fMRI data from a longitudinal sample of 25 healthy controls scanned twice ...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Interactive mapping of language and memory with the GE2REC protocol
In this study performed with healthy participants, we present a new protocol entitled GE2REC that interactively accesses the neural representation of language-and-memory network. This protocol consists of three runs related to each other, providing a link between tasks, in order to assure an interactive measure of linguistic and episodic memory processes. GE2REC consists of a sentence generation (GE) in the auditory modality and two recollecting (2REC) memory tasks, one recognition performed in the visual modality, and another one recall performed in the auditory modality. Its efficiency was evaluated in 20 healthy volunte...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Left amygdala volume and brain tissue pulsatility are associated with neuroticism: an MRI and ultrasound study
AbstractBrain changes associated with the personality trait of neuroticism have been partly elucidated. While subcortical brain volume changes, especially a larger amygdala, appear consistent in high neuroticism, functional changes, such as cerebral blood flow (CBF) differences, have shown conflicting results, possibly because of the limitations in methods of CBF measurement. In our study, we investigated changes in amygdala volume and CBF-related function associated with neuroticism in healthy and depressed subjects using both conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of brain volume and the innovative techni...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Depression and tryptophan metabolism in patients with primary brain tumors: Clinical and molecular imaging correlates
In conclusion, our results confirm pr evious data that depression affects more than ¼ of patients with primary brain tumors, it is largely independent of tumor characteristics and is associated with shorter survival in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas. On PET imaging, higher tryptophan metabolism in the frontal cortex and thal amus was found in those with brain tumor-associated depression and supports the role of dysregulated tryptophan/kynurenine metabolism in this condition. (Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior)
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Abnormal degree centrality in lifelong premature ejaculation patients: an fMRI study
This study tried to investigate the abnormal characteristics of brain functional networks of lifelong PE and to assess relationships of PE-related functional abnormalities with clinical symptoms. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data and clinical symptoms were collected from 45 lifelong PE patients and 37 healthy controls (HCs) since 2016, including disease and sexual life history, intravaginal ejaculatory latency time measured by stopwatch and other scales. The degree centrality (DC) approach were applied to distinguish altered brain functions between the two groups (p 
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dyad sex composition effect on inter-brain synchronization in face-to-face cooperation
AbstractHuman cooperation behavior based on reciprocal altruism has been a hallmark of ancient and modern societies. Prior studies have indicated that inter-brain synchronization (IBS) between partners could exist during cooperation. However, how the sex composition of dyads influences the neural synchronization is still poorly understood. Here, we adopted functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) based hyperscanning and a task of building blocks to investigate the sex composition effect on IBS in face-to-face cooperation in a natural situation, by evaluating brain-to-brain interactions of forty-five same-sex and mixed...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dynamic reconfiguration of functional brain networks supporting response inhibition in a stop-signal task
AbstractResponse inhibition is the ability to suppress automatic actions or behaviors that are not appropriate or are no longer adaptive to the situation. Although many studies have suggested regional brain activation, the nature of the reconfiguration of functional brain networks involved in response inhibition remains unknown. Here, we assessed brain changes associated with response inhibition using graph theoretical analysis applied to functional connectivity data acquired while subjects performed a simple stop-signal task. We identified several ways in which global network organization shifted to meet the demand for re...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The influence of contextual constraint on verbal selection mechanisms and its neural correlates in Parkinson ’s disease
AbstractA small number of studies have described verbal selection deficits in Parkinson ’s disease (PD) when selection must occur among competing alternatives. However, these studies have largely focused on single-word processing, or have utilised sentence stems that carry high contextual constraint, thus reducing selection demands. The present study aimed to determine the influence of variable contextual constraint on the selection of a verbal response in PD. This was achieved using an adaption of the Hayling Sentence Completion Task whereby PD participants and matched controls were required to provide a single word...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Patients with first-episode untreated schizophrenia who experience concomitant visual disturbances and auditory hallucinations exhibit co-impairment of the brain and retinas —a pilot study
AbstractThere are limited structural brain and retina alteration data from schizophrenia patients who experience visual disturbances (VDs) with or without auditory hallucinations (AHs). We compared brain and retina alterations between first-episode untreated schizophrenia patients with VDs (FUSCH-VDs) with versus without AHs, and between patients and healthy controls (HCs)(N = 30/group). VDs, AHs, gray matter volumes (GMVs), and retinal thicknesses were evaluated with the Bonn Scale for Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS) scale, the Auditory Hallucinations Rating Scale (AHRS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Alzheimer ’s disease pathology in a community-based sample of older adults without dementia: The MYHAT neuroimaging study
AbstractA true understanding of the distribution and functional correlates of Alzheimer ’s disease pathology in dementia-free older adults requires a population-based perspective. Here we report initial findings from a sample of 102 cognitively unimpaired participants (average age 77.2 years, 54.9% women, 13.7%APOE*4 carriers) recruited for neuroimaging from a larger representative population-based cohort participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of aging, the Monongahela-Youghiogheny Healthy Aging Team (MYHAT). All participants scored  
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Altered dynamics of functional connectivity density associated with early and advanced stages of motor training in tennis and table tennis athletes
AbstractUntil now, knowledge about the effects of motor training on the temporal dynamics of the brain functional organization is still limited. Here we combined dynamic functional connectivity density (dFCD) mapping andk-means clustering analyses to explore how early and advanced stages of motor training affected the brain dynamic FC architecture and dynamic states in little-ball athletes using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of student-athletes (SA), elite athletes (EA) and non-athlete healthy controls (NC). The ANOVA analysis demonstrated the levels of dFCD variability in the EA group had...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Altered resting-state network connectivity in panic disorder: an independent ComponentAnalysis
This study investigated changes in intra and internetwork FC in the whole brain of patients with PD using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. A voxel-wise data-driven independent component analysis was performed on 26 PD patients and 27 healthy controls (HCs).We compared the differences in the intra and internetwork FC between the two groups of subjects using statistical parametric mapping with two-samplet-tests. PD patients exhibited decreased intra-network FC in the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of the anterior default mode network, the left precentral and postcentral gyrus of the sensorimotor ne...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Abnormal connectivity of anterior-insular subdivisions and relationship with somatic symptom in depressive patients
AbstractDepressive patients frequently present with somatic complaints such as pain and fatigue. The anterior insula (AI) is a crucial region for somatic processing, but reported contributions of AI dysfunction to somatic symptoms have varied across studies. We speculated that functional heterogeneity among AI subdivisions may contribute to this inconsistency. To reveal the correlation between each subdivision and somatic symptoms, we investigated resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) based on seeds within distinct AI subdivisions in 45 depressive patients and 35 matched healthy controls (HCs). Depressive and somati...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Contiguity of proactive and reactive inhibitory brain areas: a cognitive model based on ALE meta-analyses
AbstractCognitive control is a critical feature in adapting our behavior to environmental and internal demands with two types of inhibition having been identified, namely the proactive and the reactive. Aiming to shed light on their respective neural correlates, we decided to focus on the cerebral activity before or after presentation of the target demanding a subject ’s stop as a way to separate the proactive from the reactive components associated with the tasks. Accordingly, we performed three Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analyses of fMRI studies exploring proactive and reactive inhibitory phases of...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

White matter correlates of slowed information processing speed in unimpaired multiple sclerosis patients with young age onset
AbstractSlowed information processing speed is among the earliest markers of cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) and has been associated with white matter (WM) structural integrity. Localization of WM tracts associated with slowing, but not significant impairment, on specific cognitive tasks in pediatric and young age onset MS can facilitate early and effective therapeutic intervention. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected on 25 MS patients and 24 controls who also underwent the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) and the computer-based Cogstate simple and choice reaction time tests. Fractional anisotro...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Structural covariance of the salience network associated with heart rate variability
AbstractThe salience network (SN) anchored by the anterior insula and cingulate is crucial for the autonomic control of body homeostasis. Resting-sate fMRI studies have linked intrinsic SN connectivity with multiple autonomic measures, but little is known about the structural organization of this system relating to cardiac vagal function. To address the above issue, the current study used covariance analysis of MRI-based gray matter volume (GMV) to map structural covariance of SN with two independent datasets, and then determined whether interregional structural connections within SN related to individual differences in va...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Plasma lipids are associated with white matter microstructural changes and axonal degeneration
AbstractDislipidemia is a risk factor for cognitive impairment. We studied the association between interindividual variability of plasma lipids and white matter (WM) microstructure, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 273 healthy adults. Special focus was placed on 7 regions of interest (ROI) which are structural components of cognitive neurocircuitry. We also investigated the effect of plasma lipids on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light chain (NfL), an axonal degeneration marker. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG) levels showed a negative association with axial diffusivity (AxD) in multiple...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effect of DAOA genetic variation on white matter alteration in corpus callosum in patients with first-episode schizophrenia
AbstractD-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA) gene, which plays a crucial role in the process of glutamatergic transmission and mitochondrial function, is frequently linked with the liability for schizophrenia. We aimed to investigate whether the variation of DAOA rs2391191 is associated with alterations in white matter integrity of first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients; and whether it influences the association between white matter integrity, cognitive function and clinical symptoms of schizophrenia. Forty-six patients with FES and forty-nine healthy controls underwent DTI and were genotyped for DAOA rs2391191. Psych...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Disrupted pathways from frontal-parietal cortex to basal ganglia and cerebellum in patients with unmedicated obsessive compulsive disorder as observed by whole-brain resting-state effective connectivity analysis – a small sample pilot study
ConclusionsThe results of the present study suggest disrupted communication of information from frontal-parietal cortex to basal ganglia and cerebellum in OCD patients. Using combined whole-brain rsEC and rsFC, multivariate pattern analysis revealed a classification accuracy as high as 80.5% for distinguishing patients from controls. The alterations observed in OCD patients could aid in identifying treatment mechanisms for OCD. (Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior)
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neural Modulation in Approach-Avoidance Conflicts in Externalizing Psychopathology
AbstractExternalizing psychopathology (EXT) is characterized by poor decision-making in situations that involve simultaneous cues for approach and avoidance behavior (i.e. approach-avoidance conflicts). Previous studies of EXT have examined these deficits primarily using tasks involving decisions between positive reward and negative punishment, suggesting that EXT is characterized by a general bias towards high salience (e.g. temporally proximal or reward) cues relative to low salience (e.g. temporally distal or loss) cues. However, in order to better characterize decision-making in approach-avoidance conflicts, the presen...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Specific occupational profiles as proxies of cognitive reserve induce neuroprotection in dementia with Lewy bodies
AbstractCognitive reserve (CR) delays cognitive decline due to neurodegeneration. Heterogeneous evidence suggests that education may act as CR in Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). No data, however, are currently available on the role of occupation as proxy of CR in this neuropathology. Thirty-three patients with probable DLB were retrospectively included. We performed regression analyses models (TFCEp 
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Disrupted brain functional network topology in unilateral acute brainstem ischemic stroke
This study aimed to investigate the topological properties of brain functional connectome in unilateral acute brainstem ischemic stroke using graph theory. Fifty-three acute brainstem ischemic stroke patients, consisted of 27 left-sided and 26 right-sided brainstem stroke patients, and 20 age, gender, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited to undergo a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scan in this study. Graph theory analyses were then used to examine the group-specific topological properties of the functional connectomes seperately. The unilateral acute brainstem stroke pa...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - July 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research