Altered functional connectivity of the amygdala in Crohn ’s disease
This study mainly investigated altered functional connectivity (FC) of the amygdala in CD patients during resting-state. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 42 CD patients and 35 healthy controls (HCs). Whole amygdala bilaterally were selected as regions o f interest (ROIs). Voxel-based morphometry and FC methods were applied to investigate the differences of structure or intrinsic connectivity of the amygdala between the two groups, separately. Pearson correlations were performed to explore relationships between the clinical characteristics and neuro imaging findings in CD patients. Based on the whole...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - October 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

White matter microstructure in women with acute and remitted anorexia nervosa: an exploratory neuroimaging study
AbstractAnorexia nervosa (AN) is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder characterized by starvation and emaciation and associated with changes in brain structure. The precise nature of these changes remains unclear, as does their developmental time course and capacity for reversal with weight restoration. In this exploratory neuroimaging study, we sought to characterize changes in white matter microstructure in women with acute and remitted AN. Diffusion-weighted MRI data was collected from underweight women with a current diagnosis of AN (acAN:n = 23), weight-recovered women with a past diagnosis of AN (rec...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - October 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Brain glucose uptake during transcranial direct current stimulation measured with functional [ 18 F]FDG-PET
AbstractPrevious evidence indicates that transcranial direct stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory brain stimulation technique. Easy applicability, low side-effects and negligible costs facilitated its wide –spread application in efforts to modulate brain function, however neuronal mechanisms of tDCS are insufficiently understood. Hence, we investigated the immediate impact of tDCS on the brain’s glucose consumption in a continuous infusion protocol with the radioligand 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET). This novel functional PET (fPET) method is capable to reli...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - October 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Brain structural connectomes indicate shared neural circuitry involved in subjective experience of cognitive and physical fatigue in older adults
AbstractCumulative evidence suggests the existence of common processes underlying subjective experience of cognitive and physical fatigue. However, mechanistic understanding of the brain structural connections underlying the experience of fatigue in general, without the influence of clinical conditions, is limited. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between structural connectivity and perceived state fatigue in older adults. We enrolled cognitively and physically healthy older individuals (n = 52) and categorized them into three groups (low cognitive/low physical fatigue; low cognitive/h...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - September 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex hyperactivity during inhibitory control in children with ADHD in the antisaccade task
AbstractChildren with ADHD show significant deficits in response inhibition. A leading hypothesis suggests prefrontal hypoactivation as a possible cause, though, there is conflicting evidence. We tested the hypoactivation hypothesis by analyzing the response inhibition process within the oculomotor system. Twenty-two children diagnosed with ADHD and twenty control (CTRL) children performed the antisaccade task while undergoing an fMRI study with concurrent eye tracking. This task included a preparatory stage that cued a prosaccade (toward a stimuli) or an antisaccade (away from a stimuli) without an actual presentation of ...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - September 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association between personality and tau-PET binding in cognitively normal older adults
This study examined the cross-sectional relationship between personality traits and regional tau deposition using positron emission tomography (PET) in cognitively normal older adults. A cohort of CN (Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) 0,n = 128) older adults completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory to assess traits of Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness and underwent tau-PET and β-amyloid (Aβ)-PET imaging. We utilized linear regression models, adjusting for age, sex, geriatric depression sco re, and Aβ to evaluate the association between each of the personality t...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - September 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Frequency-dependent changes in fractional amplitude of low-frequency oscillations in Alzheimer ’s disease: a resting-state fMRI study
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease in elderly individuals. We conducted this study to examine whether alterations in the fractional amplitudes of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) in the AD spectrum were frequency-dependent and symptom-relevant. A total of 43 patients wi th subjective cognitive decline (SCD), 52 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), 44 with Alzheimer’s dementia (d-AD) and 55 well-matched controls participated in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scans. The amplitudes were measured using fALFF within the slow-4 (0...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - September 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Imaging cognitive fatigability in multiple sclerosis: objective quantification of cerebral blood flow during a task of sustained attention using ASL perfusion fMRI
AbstractCognitive fatigability (CF) can be defined as an inability to maintain performance throughout a sustained cognitive task. Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) are more susceptible to CF than healthy controls (HCs); however, the neural correlates underlying CF are still under investigation. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging provides a non-invasive method of objectively quantifying cerebral blood flow (CBF) during sustained attention tasks. To date, no study has yet evaluated CF in MS using this methodology. 10 MS and 10 HCs completed a 20-min psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). CF was evaluated by div...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Larger regional volume of the thalamus in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a cross-sectional study
AbstractAs a relay center between the cerebral cortex and various subcortical brain areas, the thalamus is repeatedly associated with the dysfunction of brain-gut interaction in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, the regional morphological alterations of the thalamus in IBS are not well defined. We acquired structural magnetic resonance data from 34 patients with IBS and 34 demographically similar healthy subjects. Data processing was performed using FMRIB ’s Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST). Volumetric analysis and surface-based vertex analysis were both carried out to charac...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The superior longitudinal fascicle: reconsidering the fronto-parietal neural network based on anatomy and function
AbstractDue primarily to the extensive disposition of fibers and secondarily to the methodological preferences of researchers, the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) subdivisions have multiple names, complicating SLF research. Here, we collected and reassessed existing knowledge regarding the SLF, which we used to propose a four-term classification of the SLF based mainly on function: dorsal SLF, ventral SLF, posterior SLF, and arcuate fasciculus (AF); these correspond to the traditional SLF II, SLF III or anterior AF, temporoparietal segment of the SLF or posterior AF, and AF or AF long segment, respectively. Each seg...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Task-evoked reconfiguration of the fronto-parietal network is associated with cognitive performance in brain tumor patients
AbstractIn healthy participants, the strength of task-evoked network reconfigurations is associated with cognitive performance across several cognitive domains. It is, however, unclear whether the capacity for network reconfiguration also plays a role in cognitive deficits in brain tumor patients. In the current study, we examined whether the level of reconfiguration of the fronto-parietal ( ‘FPN’) and default mode network (‘DMN’) during task execution is correlated with cognitive performance in patients with different types of brain tumors. For this purpose, we combined data from a resting state an...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

How do you perceive threat? It ’s all in your pattern of brain activity
AbstractWhether subtle differences in the emotional context during threat perception can be detected by multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) remains a topic of debate. To investigate this question, we compared the ability of pattern recognition analysis to discriminate between patterns of brain activity to a threatening versus a physically paired neutral stimulus in two different emotional contexts (the stimulus being directed towards or away from the viewer). The directionality of the stimuli is known to be an important factor in activating different defensive responses. Using multiple kernel learning (MKL) classification ...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

What can we learn from fMRI capture of visual hallucinations in Parkinson ’s disease?
This study aimed to describe the patterns of brain functional changes when VH occ ur in PD patients. Nine PD patients were enrolled because of their frequent and chronic VH (> 10/day). Patients with severe cognitive decline (MMSE
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Inconsistency between cortical reorganization and functional connectivity alteration in the sensorimotor cortex following incomplete cervical spinal cord injury
In conclusion, brain structural changes following ICSCI occur mainly in certain higher cognitive regions, such as the FG and OFC, rather than in the brain areas directly related to sensation or motor control. The functional areas of the brain that are r elated to cognitive processing may play an important role in sensorimotor dysfunction through the decreased FC with sensorimotor areas after ICSCI. Therefore, cognition-related functional training may play an important role in rehabilitation of sensorimotor function after ICSCI. (Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior)
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Brain asymmetry differences between Chinese and Caucasian populations: a surface-based morphometric comparison study
In this study, we performed a comprehensive surface-based morphometric (SBM) analysis of brain asymmetries in cortical thickness, volume and surface area in two well-matched groups of right-handed, Chinese (n = 45) and Caucasian (n = 45) young male adults (age = 22–29 years). Our results showed consistent inter-hemispheric asymmetries in the three brain morphological measures in multiple brain regions in the Chinese young adults, including the temporal, frontal, parietal, occipital, insular cortices and the cingulat e gyrus. Comparing with the Caucasians, the Chinese group s...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Altered amygdala resting-state functional connectivity following acupuncture stimulation at BaiHui (GV20) in first-episode drug-Na ïve major depressive disorder
This study is aimed to investigate whether acupuncture at GV20 could modulate the abnormal AN of patients with the first-episode, drug-na ïve MDD by using rs-fMRI combined with functional connectivity (FC) method. Thirty MDD patient underwent 6-min rs-fMRI scans respectively before and after 20-min electro-acupuncture stimulate(EAS) at GV20. Twenty-nine healthy subjects underwent only a 6-min rs-fMRI scan. Based on the amygdala as th e seed region, FC method was adopted to examine abnormal AN in patients by comparing with healthy subjects and to evaluate the influence of EAS on intrinsic connectivity within the AN in ...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Early prediction of donepezil cognitive response in Alzheimer ’s disease by brain perfusion single photon emission tomography
AbstractCurrently, there is no effective means to evaluate donepezil response. We evaluated brain perfusion change at 4  h after donepezil administration (4 h DNPZ) to predict cognitive responses after 6 months of medication. CERAD neuropsychological assessment battery was used to define cognitive response at 6 months. We compared 4 h DNPZ to baseline single photon emission tomography (SPECT) by statistical para metric mapping to identify perfusion changes in responders (N = 16) and non-responders (N = 7). In responders, there were significant relatively increase in perf...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Support vector machine based classification of smokers and nonsmokers using diffusion tensor imaging
In this study, we applied a support vector machine-based classification method to discriminate 70 young male smokers and 70 matched nonsmokers using their diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. The classification procedure achieved an average accuracy of 88.6% and an average area under the curve of 0.95. The most discriminative features that contributed to the classification were primarily located in the sagittal stratum (SS), external capsule (EC), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), anterior corona radiata (ACR) and inferior front-occipital fasciculus (IFOF). The following regression analysis showed a significant negat...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Attention control and its emotion-specific association with cognitive emotion regulation in depression
AbstractIndividuals with major depression show impaired control of attention and emotions. Both processes are conceptually similar and might share common mechanisms. The current study aims to examine attention control and its association with cognitive emotion regulation in depression. 26 patients with a history of major depression (14 females) and 26 healthy controls (14 females) performed an emotional face-word Stroop task and a cognitive emotion regulation task while undergoing fMRI. Patients and controls showed a similar behavioral performance in both tasks. Across groups, participants who were less distracted from hap...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Exploratory relationships between cognitive improvements and training induced plasticity in hippocampus and cingulum in a rat model of mild traumatic brain injury: a diffusion MRI study
AbstractTraumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of long-term cognitive deficits, even in mild TBI patients. Computerized cognitive training can help alleviate complaints and improve daily life functioning of TBI patients. However, the underlying biological mechanisms of cognitive training in TBI are not fully understood. In the present study, we utilised for the first time a touchscreen cognitive training system in a rat model of mild TBI. Moreover, we wanted to examine whether the beneficial effects of a cognitive training are task-dependent and selective in their target. Specifically, we examined the effect of two ...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cerebral glucose metabolism differs according to future weight change
In conclusion, subjects with future weight gain showed hypometabolism in left cerebellum, and percentage change of weight was positively associated with brain metabolism in right insula, and right caudate nucleus. This study raises the possibility that the brain glucose metabolism precedes the future weight change. (Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior)
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Voxel-based morphometry results in first-episode schizophrenia: a comparison of publicly available software packages
This study aims to investigate whether the inconsistent voxel-based morphometry (VBM) findings in schizophrenia are due to the use of different software packages. T1 MRI images were obtained from 86 first-episode schizophrenia (FESZ) patients and 86 age- and gender-matched Healthy controls (HCs). VBM analysis was carried out using FMRIB software library (FSL) 5.0 and statistical parametric mapping 8 (SPM8). All images were processed using the default parameter settings as provided by these software packages. FSL-VBM revealed widespread GM volume reductions in FESZ patients compared with HCs, however, for SPM-VBM, only incr...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Correction to: Age associated decline in the arcuate fasciculus and IQ
The author found a mistake in their published article. The sentence “The search region was limited within each side of the white matter.” should read as “The search regions was limited within each side of the white matter at and aboveZ=0. ” (Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior)
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Abnormal synchronization of functional and structural networks in schizophrenia
AbstractSynchronization is believed to play an important role in information processing of the brain. Mounting evidence supports the hypothesis that schizophrenia is related to impaired neural synchrony. However, most previous studies characterize brain synchronization from the perspective of temporal coordination of distributed neural activity, rather than network properties. Our aim was to investigate the network synchronization alterations in schizophrenia using publically available data. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed in 96 schizophrenia pati...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

White matter volume alterations in hair-pulling disorder (trichotillomania)
AbstractTrichotillomania (TTM) is a disorder characterized by repetitive hair-pulling resulting in hair loss. Key processes affected in TTM comprise affective, cognitive, and motor functions. Emerging evidence suggests that brain matter aberrations in fronto-striatal and fronto-limbic brain networks and the cerebellum may characterize the pathophysiology of TTM. The aim of the present voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study was to evaluate whole brain grey and white matter volume alteration in TTM and its correlation with hair-pulling severity. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (3  T) data were acquired from 29 T...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - August 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Amygdala connectivity mediates the association between anxiety and depression in patients with major depressive disorder
AbstractAnxiety is the most frequently co-occurring symptom with depression and subsequently contributes to increased severity and treatment resistance in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about how these two behaviors are linked or interact at the neural network level. Seventy-five unmedicated MDD patients and 42 cognitively normal (CN) subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) and neuropsychological testing. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the neural substrates of anxiety and depression, as well as their inter...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - July 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Internet gaming disorder: deficits in functional and structural connectivity in the ventral tegmental area-Accumbens pathway
This study examined the alteration of resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) -based structural connectivity of VTA/SN circuits in 61 young male participants (33 IGD and 28 healthy controls). Correlation analysis was carried out to investigate the relationship between the neuroimaging findings and the behavioral Internet Addiction Test (IAT). Both the NAc and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) showed lower RSFC with VTA in IGD subjects compared with controls. Moreover, the RSFC strength of VTA-right NAc and VTA-left mOFC correlated negatively with IAT in IGD subjects. The IGD subject...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - July 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

An investigation of the relationship between glutamate and resting state connectivity in chronic cannabis users
AbstractHuman and animal studies have shown that heavy cannabis (CB) use interacts with glutamatergic signaling. Additionally, recent studies have suggested that glutamate (Glu) may drive resting state functional connectivity (RSfc). The aims of the current preliminary study were to: 1) determine whether dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) Glu is related to RSfc between the dACC and two nodes of the reward network, the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and hippocampus (Hp); and 2) determine whether CB use interacts with the relationship between dACC Glu and RSfc. A group of 23 chronic CB users and 23 healthy controls participate...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - July 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Age associated decline in the arcuate fasciculus and IQ
This study demonstrates that the bilateral arcuate fasci culi are associated with IQ; left vs. right asymmetry is present in its aging and function. (Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior)
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - July 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Multimodal data revealed different neurobiological correlates of intelligence between males and females
AbstractIntelligence is a socially and scientifically interesting topic because of its prominence in human behavior, yet there is little clarity on how the neuroimaging and neurobiological correlates of intelligence differ between males and females, with most investigations limited to using either mass-univariate techniques or a single neuroimaging modality. Here we employed connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM) to predict the intelligence quotient (IQ) scores for 166 males and 160 females separately, using resting-state functional connectivity, grey matter cortical thickness or both. The identified multimodal, IQ-pre...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - July 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Aberrant brain gray matter in murderers
AbstractHomicide is a significant societal problem with economic costs in the billions of dollars annually and incalculable emotional impact on victims and society. Despite this high burden, we know very little about the neuroscience of individuals who commit homicide. Here we examine brain gray matter differences in incarcerated adult males who have committed homicide (n = 203) compared to other non-homicide offenders (n = 605; totaln = 808). Homicide offenders’ show reduced gray matter in brain areas critical for behavioral control and social cognition compared with subsets of ot...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - July 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Patterns of white matter hyperintensities associated with cognition in middle-aged cognitively healthy individuals
AbstractWhite matter hyperintensities (WMH) are commonly detected in the brain of elderly individuals and have been associated with a negative impact on multiple cognitive domains. We aim to investigate the impact of global and regional distribution of WMH on episodic memory and executive function in middle-aged cognitively unimpaired participants [N = 561 (45–75 years)] enriched for Alzheimer’s disease risk factors. WMH were automatically segmented from FLAIR, T1 and FSE MR images. WMH load was calculated both globally and regionally. At each cerebral lobe, regional WMH load was measured at ...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - July 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuroanatomical correlates of apathy and disinhibition in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia
In this study 45 participants (25 bvFTD patients and 20 controls) provided data on clinical, neuropsychological, behavioral (on Frontal Systems Behavior (FrSBe) Scale), cortical volume (on voxel-based morphometry (VBM)) and tract based spatial fractional anisotropy ((FA) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), allowing examination of the neural correlates of apathy and disinhibition. The patients with bvFTD had predominant grey matter loss and corresponding white matter fractional anisotropy reduction in the frontal and temporal lobe compared to the controls. Grey matter loss in frontal, temporal and limbic structures correla...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - July 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Iron-regulatory genes are associated with Neuroimaging measures in HIV infection
AbstractThe pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment (NCI) may involve iron dysregulation. In 243 HIV-seropositive adults without severe comorbidities, we therefore genotyped 250 variants in 20 iron-related genes and evaluated their associations with magnetic resonance imaging measures of brain structure and metabolites, including measures previously linked to NCI. Multivariable regression analyses examined associations between genetic variants and neuroimaging measures, adjusting for relevant covariates and multiple testing. Exploratory analyses stratified by NCI (Global Deficit Score  ≥ 0.5 vs.
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - July 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Directed functional connectivity of the hippocampus in patients with presbycusis
This study aimed to identify directed functional connectivity (FC) of the hippocampus in patients with presbycusis and to explore the causes if the directed functional connections of the hippocampus were disrupted. Presbycusis patients (n = 32) and age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls (n = 40) were included in this study. The seed regions of bilateral hippocampus were selected to identify directed FC in patients with presbycusis using Granger causality analysis (GCA) approach. Correlation analyses were conducted to detect the associations of disrupted directed FC of hippocampus wit...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - July 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Pre-symptomatic local brain activity and functional connectivity alterations in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients who developed radiation encephalopathy following radiotherapy
AbstractRadiation encephalopathy (RE) is a common complication in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who have received radiotherapy (RT), and recent neuroimaging studies have shown brain alterations in Post-RT patients prior to RE. However, whether there are functional alterations between those Post-RT patients who are proved to have RE in follow-up and those who do not develop it remains largely unknown. Here, we used resting state functional MRI to explore regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC) alterations in Post-RT patients with (Post-RTRE proved;n = 18) or without (Post-RT...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - July 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Volume and shape analysis of the Hippocampus and amygdala in veterans with traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder
AbstractThere is a need to improve the understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Individuals with TBI experience comorbidities such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with considerable symptom overlap including depression and hyperarousal, confounding the ability to identify specific TBI-related brain changes. The aims of the current study were to investigate hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in Veterans with TBI with (TBI  + PTSD,n = 32) and without (TBI - PTSD,n = 25) PTSD. Shape analysis was employed to reveal any relationship betwe...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - June 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association of LHPP genetic variation (rs35936514) with structural and functional connectivity of hippocampal-corticolimbic neural circuitry
AbstractA single nucleotide polymorphism at the LHPP gene (rs35936514) has been reported to be associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) in genome-wide association studies. We conducted a neuroimaging analysis to explore whether and which brain neural systems are affected by LHPP variation. Since LHPP variants seem to be associated with the hippocampus, we assessed the relationship between rs35936514 variation and structural –functional connectivity within a hippocampal–corticolimbic neural system implicated in MDD. A total of 122 Chinese subjects were divided into a CC homozygous group (CC genotype,n&nbs...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - June 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Coupling of cerebral blood flow and functional connectivity is decreased in healthy aging
AbstractAging leads to cerebral perfusion and functional connectivity changes that have been assessed using various neuroimaging techniques. In addition, a link between these two parameters has been demonstrated in healthy young adults. In this work, we employed arterial spin labeling (ASL) fMRI to measure global and voxel-wise differences in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and intrinsic connectivity contrast (ICC) in the resting state in a group of cognitively normal elderly subjects and a group of cognitively normal young subjects, in order to assess the effects of aging on CBF-ICC coupling, which had not been previously evalu...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - June 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Voxel-based morphometry analysis and machine learning based classification in pediatric mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis
AbstractMesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) is a common type of pediatric epilepsy. We sought to evaluate whether the combination of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and support vector machine (SVM), a machine learning method, was feasible for the classification of MTLE-HS. Three-dimensional T1-weighted MRI was acquired in 37 participants including 22 with MTLE-HS (16 left, 6 right) and 15 healthy controls (HCs). VBM was used to detect the regions of gray matter volume (GMV) abnormalities. The volumes of these regions were then calculated for each participant and used as the features in SVM. The...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - June 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Intrinsic functional connectivity of medial prefrontal cortex predicts the individual moral bias in economic valuation partially through the moral sensitivity trait
AbstractAn individual ’s economic valuation of a given object is biased by the moral status of the persons to whom the object is attached. The neural basis for how such “moral bias” occurs, especially how it is maintained in the resting state, are largely unknown. In the current study, we explored this question by correlating the functional connectivity with participants’ behavioral performance measured in a novel task which captured how the economic valuation was influenced by given moral information. Seed-based FC analysis showed that the functional connectivity between the mPFC and the orbital mP...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - June 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Relationship between androgenic alopecia and white matter hyperintensities in apparently healthy subjects
AbstractA healthy brain is essential for living a longer and fuller life. Detecting asymptomatic white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) may be clinically important in terms of treatment and prognostic evaluation. WMHs in brain may reflect brain aging. Androgenic alopecia (AGA) is associated with significant cardiovascular risk factors that also have a negative impact on brain aging. The main purpose of present study was to know whether alopecia might provide predictive information of WMHs that may be considered as a surrogate marker of cerebral small vessel disease which is related to arteriolosclerosis and vascular risk fac...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - June 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

FLAIR hyperintensities-DWI mismatch in acute stroke: associations with DWI volume and functional outcome
AbstractThe value of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery vascular hyperintensity (FVH)-diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)mismatch in predicting outcome with acute stroke is unclear. We assessed the association between FVH-DWI mismatch and functional outcome in patients with acute stroke patients receiving endovascular therapy. FVH-DWI mismatch, DWI volume, the functional outcome at 3  months (modified Rankin scale; mRS) and other clinical data were collected for 59 acute stroke patients receiving MRI within 6 h before endovascular therapy. Statistical analysis was performed to predict functional outcome after strok...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - June 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Perivascular spaces in the centrum semiovale at the beginning of the 8th decade of life: effect on cognition and associations with mineral deposition
We examined possible associations of CSO-PVS volume and count with brain IDs and cognitive abilities in 700 community-dwelling individuals from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 who underwent detailed cognitive testing and multimodal brain MRI at mean age 72.7  years. Brain IDs were assessed automatically followed by manual editing. PVS were automatically assessed in the centrum semiovale and deep corona radiata supraventricular. General factors of overall cognitive function (g), processing speed (g-speed) and memory (g-memory) were used in the analyses. Median (IQR) volumes of IDs and CSO-PVS expressed as a percentage of...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - June 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Errors in proprioceptive matching post-stroke are associated with impaired recruitment of parietal, supplementary motor, and temporal cortices
AbstractDeficits in proprioception, the ability to discriminate the relative position and movement of our limbs, affect ~50% of stroke patients and reduce functional outcomes. Our lack of knowledge of the anatomical correlates of proprioceptive processing limits our understanding of the impact that such deficits have on recovery. This research investigated the relationship between functional impairment in brain activity and proprioception post-stroke. We developed a novel device and task for arm position matching during functional MRI (fMRI), and investigated 16 subjects with recent stroke and nine healthy age-matched cont...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - June 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effects of computerized cognitive training as add-on treatment to stimulants in ADHD: a pilot fMRI study
AbstractThe neurofunctional effects of Cognitive training (CT) are poorly understood. Our main objective was to assess fMRI brain activation patterns in children with ADHD who received CT as an add-on treatment to stimulant medication. We included twenty children with ADHD from a clinical trial of stimulant medication and CT (10 in medication + CT and 10 in medication + non-active training). Between-group differences were assessed in performance and in brain activation during 3 fMRI paradigms of working memory (N-back: 0-back, 1-back, 2-back, 3-back), sustained attention (Sustained Attention Task - SAT: 2  s, 5 s...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - June 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cortical morphometry alterations in brain regions involved in emotional, motor-control and self-referential processing in patients with functional constipation
AbstractFunctional constipation (FC) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID). Neuroimaging studies on patients with FC showed brain functional abnormalities in regions involved in emotional process modulation, somatic and sensory processing and motor control. Brain structural imaging studies in patients with FGID have also shown disease-related alterations in cortical morphometry, but whether and how FC affects brain structure remains unclear. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging and surface-based morphometry analysis were used to investigate the impact of FC on cortical morphometry in 29 patients with FC ...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - June 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neural modifications in lower limb amputation: an fMRI study on action and non-action oriented body representations
AbstractThe loss of sensorimotor and visual information that follows limb amputation is known to affect both the action-oriented (body schema, BS) and non-action oriented (NA) body representations. However, the neural underpinnings of these effects have not yet been fully understood. We investigated the neural correlates of body representations in a group of 9 healthy right-handed individuals with left lower limb amputation (LLA) and 11 healthy age-matched controls (HC) by using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were scanned while performing mental rotation of body parts (i.e. hand, foot and...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - June 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Differential associations of engagement in physical activity and estimated cardiorespiratory fitness with brain volume in middle-aged to older adults
AbstractPrevious work has confirmed the benefits of aerobic exercise for brain aging, however mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. Two measures of exercise, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), may reflect different pathways linking activity to brain health. Using data from the UK Biobank, the largest sample combining neuroimaging and objectively measured MVPA available to date (n = 7148, nmale = 3062, nfemale = 4086; age = 62.14 ± 7.40 years), we found that, when adju...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - June 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Frequency-specific alterations in cortical rhythms and functional connectivity in trigeminal neuralgia
AbstractNeuroimaging studies have shown that chronic pain is maladaptive and influences brain function and behavior by altering the flexible cerebral information flow. We utilized power spectral analysis to investigate the impact of classic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) on the oscillation dynamics of intrinsic brain activity in humans. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF) were measured in 29 TN patients and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) via resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI). Two different frequency bands (slow-5: 0.01 –0.027 Hz; slow-4: 0.027–0.073...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - June 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research