Osteocytes reflect a pro-inflammatory state following spinal cord injury in a rodent model
Profound bone loss occurs following spinal cord injury (SCI) resulting in a high incidence of fractures. While likely caused in part by loss of weight-bearing, there is greater bone loss following SCI when compared to that observed in other disuse animal models. Patients with SCI have a protracted inflammatory response, with elevated circulating levels of pro-inflammatory markers. This chronic inflammation could compound the bone loss attributed to disuse and the loss of neural signaling. To assess this, we examined inflammatory markers and bone turnover regulators in osteocytes from rats with a moderate spinal contusion i...
Source: Bone - December 11, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Corinne E. Metzger, Sammy Gong, Miriam Aceves, Susan A. Bloomfield, Michelle A. Hook Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Potential role of senescence in radiation-induced damage of the aged skeleton
Human aging-related changes are exacerbated in cases of disease and cancer, and conversely aging is a catalyst for the occurrence of disease and multimorbidity. For example, old age is the most significant risk factor for cancer and among people who suffer from cancer,>60% are above the age of 65. Oxidative stress and DNA damage, leading to genomic instability and telomere dysfunction, are prevalent in aging and radiation-induced damage and are major cellular events that lead to senescence. Human exposures from nuclear fallout, cosmic radiation and clinical radiotherapy (RT) are some common sources of irradiation that a...
Source: Bone - December 10, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Abhishek Chandra, Sean S. Park, Robert J. Pignolo Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Sclerosing bone dysplasias with hallmarks of dysosteosclerosis in four patients carrying mutations in SLC29A3 and TCIRG1
We report on four patients from three families presenting with sandwich vertebrae and platyspondyly. The long bone phenotypes were discordant with one patient showing modeling defects and patchy osteosclerosis, while the second displayed only metaphyseal sclerotic bands, and the third and fourth had extreme metaphyseal flaring with uniform osteosclerosis. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - December 8, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Antonia Howaldt, Sheela Nampoothiri, Lisa-Marie Quell, Ayse Ozden, Bj örn Fischer-Zirnsak, Corinne Collet, Marie-Christine de Vernejoul, Hakan Döneray, Hülya Kayserili, Uwe Kornak Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Mid-calf skeletal muscle density and its associations with physical activity, bone health and incident 12-month falls in older adults: The Healthy Ageing Initiative
Lower skeletal muscle density, indicating greater infiltration of adipose tissue into muscles, is associated with higher fracture risk in older adults. We aimed to determine whether mid-calf muscle density is associated with falls risk and bone health in community-dwelling older adults. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - December 8, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: David Scott, Jonas Johansson, Lachlan B. McMillan, Peter R. Ebeling, Anna Nordstrom, Peter Nordstrom Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Spatially matching morphometric assessment of cartilage and subchondral bone in osteoarthritic human knee joint with micro-computed tomography
The objective of this study was to develop a reproducible and semi-automatic method based on micro computed tomography (microCT) to analyze cartilage and bone morphology of human osteoarthritic knee joints in spatially matching regions of interest. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - December 7, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Birgitta Gatenholm, Carl Lindahl, Mats Brittberg, Vincent A. Stadelmann Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Expression of concern
This is a note of a temporary expression of concern related to the publication titled “High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and reduced bone mass in elderly women with Alzheimer's disease” by Y. Sato, T. Asoh, K. Oizumi (Bone. 1998 December; 23(6): 555–557. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S8756-3282(98)00134-3). (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - December 6, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Expression of Concern Source Type: research

Expression of concern
This is a note of a temporary expression of concern related to the publication titled “Effect of immobilization upon renal synthesis of 1,25‑dihydroxyvitamin D in disabled elderly stroke patients” by Y Sato, K Oizumi, H Kuno, M Kaji (Bone. 1999 March; 24(3): 271–275. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S8756-3282(98)00185-9). (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - December 5, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Expression of Concern Source Type: research

Deletion of OPN in BSP knockout mice does not correct bone hypomineralization but results in high bone turnover
The two SIBLING (Small Integrin Binding Ligand N-linked Glycoproteins), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN) are expressed in osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In mature BSP knockout (KO, −/−) mice, both bone formation and resorption as well as mineralization are impaired. OPN−/− mice display impaired resorption, and OPN is described as an inhibitor of mineralization. However, OPN is overexpressed in BSP−/− mice, complicating the understanding of their phenotype. We have generated and characterized mice with a double KO (DKO) of OPN and BSP, to try and unravel their respective contri...
Source: Bone - December 4, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: W. Bouleftour, L. Juignet, L. Verdi ére, I. Machuca-Gayet, M. Thomas, N. Laroche, A. Vanden-Bossche, D. Farlay, C. Thomas, E. Gineyts, J.P. Concordet, J.B. Renaud, D. Aubert, M. Teixeira, O. Peyruchaud, L. Vico, M.H. Lafage-Proust, H. Follet, L. Malaval Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

miRNA-seq analysis of human vertebrae provides insight into the mechanism underlying GIOP
High-throughput sequencing (HTS) was recently applied to detect microRNA (miRNA) regulation in age-related osteoporosis. However, miRNA regulation has not been reported in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) patients and the mechanism of GIOP remains elusive. To comprehensively analyze the role of miRNA regulation in GIOP based on human vertebrae and to explore the molecular mechanism, a high-throughput sequencing strategy was employed to identify miRNAs involved in GIOP. Twenty-six patients undergoing spinal surgery were included in this study. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - November 29, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Hui Ren, Xiang Yu, Gengyang Shen, Zhida Zhang, Qi Shang, Wenhua Zhao, Jinjing Huang, Peiyuan Yu, Meiqi Zhan, Yongqiang Lu, Ziyang Liang, Jingjing Tang, De Liang, Zhensong Yao, Zhidong Yang, Xiaobing Jiang Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Microscopic markers of an infradian biorhythm in human juvenile ribs
Recent studies have indicated that there may be an infradian systemic biorhythm that coordinates aspects of human hard tissue growth and influences adult body size. Here we investigate if evidence of this biorhythm retained in human teeth as the periodicity of Retzius lines (RP) corresponds with the microstructural growth of a non-weight bearing bone, the rib, in a sample of 50 human juvenile skeletons. Using static histomorphometric methods, the RP of one permanent tooth from each skeleton was calculated and combined with measures of bone remodeling in a rib from the same individual. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - November 29, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Rosie Pitfield, Justyna J. Miszkiewicz, Patrick Mahoney Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

A new noninvasive mechanical bending test accurately predicts ulna bending strength in cadaveric human arms
High error rates in the prediction of fragility fractures by bone mineral density have motivated searches for better clinical indicators of bone strength, and the high incidence of non-hip, non-spine fractures has raised interest in cortical bone. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of Cortical Bone Mechanics Technology ™. CBMT is a new non-invasive 3-point bending technique for measuring the mechanical properties of cortical bone in the ulnas of living humans. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - November 26, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Lyn Bowman, Emily R. Ellerbrock, Gabrielle C. Hausfeld, Jennifer M. Neumeyer, Anne B. Loucks Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Alterations of the gut microbiome and plasma proteome in Chinese patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis
The etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the most common rotational deformity of the spine, is still unclear. Emerging evidence suggests that gut microbiota dysbiosis influences musculoskeletal diseases such as arthritis and osteoporosis. However, the alterations of the fecal microbiome in AIS remain unknown. Thus, the current study was conducted to explore the gut microbiota compositions of Chinese AIS patients. Microbiota communities in the feces of 51 AIS patients and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were investigated using 16S rRNA sequencing. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - November 24, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Nan Shen, Nan Chen, Xuan Zhou, Bing Zhao, Renxiu Huang, Juping Liang, Xiaoyan Yang, Meijia Chen, Yuanyuan Song, Qing Du Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Bone Marrow Adiposity- Special Edition
We are pleased to introduce a special edition of Bone that is focused on Bone Marrow Adiposity. The past decade has been marked by tremendous progress in our understanding of the bone marrow adipocyte origin and biology, and its importance in the bone marrow niche. The number of publications directly related to bone marrow adiposity has increased at a logarithmic rate, as has the investment from NIH and industry. Despite the plethora of papers, and the relative ease in extrapolating a deleterious role for a fat cell adjacent to a bone cell, it is not that simple, even though many papers report that low bone mass in mice, r...
Source: Bone - November 23, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Beata Lecka-Czernik, Clifford J Rosen Source Type: research

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(Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - November 23, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

SHP2 regulates intramembranous ossification by modifying the TGF β and BMP2 signaling pathway
SHP2 is a ubiquitously expressed protein tyrosine phosphatase, which is involved in many signaling pathways to regulate the skeletal development. In endochondral ossification, SHP2 is known to modify the osteogenic fate of osteochondroprogenitors and to impair the osteoblastic transdifferentiation of hypertrophic chondrocytes. However, how SHP2 regulates osteoblast differentiation in intramembranous ossification remains incompletely understood. To address this question, we generated a mouse model to ablate SHP2 in the Prrx1-expressing mesenchymal progenitors by using “Cre-loxP”-mediated gene excision and examin...
Source: Bone - November 21, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Lijun Wang, Jiahui Huang, Douglas C. Moore, Yueming Song, Michael G. Ehrlich, Wentian Yang Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Pregnancy supplementation of Gambian mothers with calcium carbonate alters mid-childhood IGF1 in a sex-specific manner
Sex-specific effects of pregnancy calcium carbonate supplementation have been reported in 8 –12 year old Gambian children, indicating faster growth in boys but slower growth in girls born to calcium-supplemented mothers. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - November 19, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Ann Prentice, Kate A. Ward, Shailja Nigdikar, Sophie Hawkesworth, Sophie E. Moore Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Skeletal Manifestations of Hypoparathyroidism
Chronic PTH deficiency has a marked effect on the skeleton, leading to characteristic decreases in bone remodeling and increases in bone mass. An effect on fracture risk has not been demonstrated, although biochemical, imaging, and histomorphometric data indicate abnormalities in skeletal properties1,21,21,21,2. Replacement with PTH leads to a new skeletal state that is maintained with long-term treatment. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - November 19, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Mishaela R. Rubin Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Bone remodeling following MR-guided focused ultrasound: Evaluation with HR-pQCT and FTIR
Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is a novel non-invasive ablation technique that uses focused sound energy to destroy focal tumors, primarily via heat deposition. It is widely used for palliation of pain from bone metastases and has also recently gained popularity as a technique for ablation of benign bone tumors and facet degenerative joint disease (rhizotomy). Clinically, in a subset of patients who have undergone MRgFUS of bone, a variety of treatment responses have been noted on follow-up imaging, including focal sclerosis within the target lesion or more exuberant proliferative changes associated ...
Source: Bone - November 16, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Matthew D. Bucknor, Harsh Goel, Courtney Pasco, Andrew E. Horvai, Galateia J. Kazakia Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Lamin B receptor-related disorder is associated with a spectrum of skeletal dysplasia phenotypes
LBR (Lamin B Receptor) encodes a bifunctional protein important for cholesterol biosynthesis and heterochromatin organization on the inner nuclear membrane. Pathogenic variants in LBR are associated with marked phenotypic variability, ranging from the benign Pelger-Hu ët anomaly to lethal Greenberg Dysplasia. We performed trio exome sequencing (ES) on two patients with atypical variants of skeletal dysplasia and their unaffected parents. Patient 1 exhibited frontal bossing, mid-face hypoplasia, short stature with rhizomelic limb shortening, and relative macrocep haly at birth. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - November 15, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Eliza Thompson, Ebtesam Abdalla, Andrea Superti-Furga, William McAlister, Lisa Kratz, Sheila Unger, Beryl Royer-Bertrand, Belinda Campos-Xavier, Laureane Mittaz-Crettol, Asmaa K. Amin, Cori DeSanto, David B. Wilson, Ganka Douglas, Beth Kozel, Marwan Shina Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Association of bone mineral density with hemoglobin and change in hemoglobin among older men and women: The cardiovascular health study
Osteoblasts and their precursors support hematopoiesis in the bone marrow. We hypothesized that declines in Hgb levels are associated with bone mineral density (BMD). (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - November 15, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Rodrigo J. Valderr ábano, Petra Buzkova, Po-Yin Chang, Neil A. Zakai, Howard A. Fink, John A. Robbins, Jennifer S. Lee, Joy Y. Wu, the Cardiovascular Health Study group Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Prediction of early metastatic disease in experimental breast cancer bone metastasis by combining PET/CT and MRI parameters to a Model-Averaged Neural Network
This study combined functional imaging parameters from FDG-PET/CT and MRI in a rat model of breast cancer bone metastases to a Model-averaged Neural Network (avNNet) for the detection of early metastatic disease and prediction of future macrometastases. Metastases were induced in 28 rats by injecting MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells into the right superficial epigastric artery, resulting in the growth of osseous metastases in the right hind leg of the animals. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - November 13, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Stephan Ellmann, Lisa Seyler, Jochen Evers, Henrik Heinen, Aline Bozec, Olaf Prante, Torsten Kuwert, Michael Uder, Tobias B äuerle Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Innervation of the tibial epiphysis through the intercondylar foramen
The periosteum and mineralized bone are innervated by nerves that sense pain. These include both myelinated and unmyelinated neurons with either free nerve endings or bearing nociceptors. Parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic nerves also innervate bone. However, little is known about the route sensory nerves take leaving the epiphyses of long bones at the adult knee joint. Here, we used transgenic mice that express fluorescent Venus protein in Schwann cells (Sox10-Venus mice) to visualize myelinated and unmyelinated nerves in the tibial epiphysis. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - November 12, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Koichi Matsuo, Ji Shuting, Ayako Miya, Masaki Yoda, Yuzuru Hamada, Tomoya Tanaka, Ryoko Takao-Kawabata, Katsuhiro Kawaai, Yukiko Kuroda, Shinsuke Shibata Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Correlations between gene expression and mineralization in the avian leg tendon
Certain avian tendons have been studied previously as a model system for normal mineralization of vertebrates in general. In this regard, the gastrocnemius tendon in the legs of turkeys mineralizes in a well-defined temporal and spatial manner such that changes in the initial and subsequent events of mineral formation can be associated with time and specific locations in the tissue. In the present investigation, these parameters and mineral deposition have been correlated with the expression of several genes and the synthesis and secretion of their related extracellular matrix proteins by the composite tenocytes of the tendon. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - November 9, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Ling Chen, Robin DiFeo Childs, William J. Landis Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Deletion of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha9 in mice resulted in altered bone structure
Alterations in bone strength and structure were found in knockout (KO) mouse strains with deletion of several acetylcholine receptors. Interestingly, the expression of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) subunit α10 was down-regulated in osteogenic differentiated mesenchymal stem cells of patients with osteoporosis whereas the expression of subunit α9 was not altered. Since nAChR subunits α9 and α10 are often combined in a functional receptor, we analyzed here the bone of adult female KO mice with singl e deletion of either nAChR alpha9 (α9KO) or alpha10 (α10KO). (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - November 7, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Lisa Baumann, Vivien Kauschke, Anna Vikman, Lutz D ürselen, Gabriela Krasteva-Christ, Marian Kampschulte, Christian Heiss, Kathleen T. Yee, Douglas E. Vetter, Katrin Susanne Lips Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Estrogen depletion alters mineralization regulation mechanisms in an ovariectomized monkey animal model
Ovariectomized animal models have been extensively used in osteoporosis research due to the resulting loss of bone mass. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that estrogen depletion alters mineralization regulation mechanisms in an ovariectomized monkey animal model. To achieve this we used Raman microspectroscopy to analyze humeri from monkeys that were either SHAM-operated or ovariectomized (N  = 10 for each group). Measurements were made as a function of tissue age and cortical surface (periosteal, osteonal, endosteal) based on the presence of calcein fluorescent double labels. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - November 7, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: E.P. Paschalis, S. Gamsjaeger, K. Condon, K. Klaushofer, D. Burr Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Phenotyping and genotyping of skeletal dysplasias: Evolution of a center and a decade of experience in India
We report 508 families (557 affected individuals) with the definitive molecular diagnosis of skeletal dysplasia. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - November 5, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Anusha Uttarilli, Hitesh Shah, Gandham SriLakshmi Bhavani, Priyanka Upadhyai, Anju Shukla, Katta M. Girisha Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Bone and muscle specific circulating microRNAs in postmenopausal women based on osteoporosis and sarcopenia status
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNA molecules that fine tune posttranscriptional protein expression. Aging is accompanied by progressive declines in muscle mass and strength, and in bone mineral density (BMD). Although miRNAs in pathology have been extensively studied, the role of circulating miRNAs (c-miRNAs) in osteoporosis and sarcopenia has to date not been well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in bone and muscle specific c-miRNAs in postmenopausal women based on their bone and muscle status, and to determine the associations between these specific c-miRNAs and muscle and bon...
Source: Bone - November 5, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Zhaojing Chen, Michael G. Bemben, Debra A. Bemben Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Use it or lose it to age: A review of bone and muscle communication
Until recently, it was assumed that the only interaction between muscle and bone is mechanical, that the muscle acts as a pulley and the bone as a lever to move the organism. A relatively new concept is that muscle, especially contracted muscle, acts as a secretory organ, regulating metabolism. An even newer concept is that bone, especially the osteocytes in bone, act as endocrine cells targeting other organs such as kidney and more recently, muscle. These two new concepts logically led to the third concept: that muscle and bone communicate via soluble factors. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - November 5, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Lynda Bonewald Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Sphenoid bone hypoplasia is a skeletal phenotype of cleidocranial dysplasia in a mouse model and patients
Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in RUNX2. Affected individuals exhibit delayed maturation or hypoplasia in various bones, mainly including those formed by intramembranous ossification. Although several reports described deformation of the sphenoid bone in CCD patients, details of the associated changes have not been well documented. Most parts of the sphenoid bone are formed by endochondral ossification; however, the medial pterygoid process is formed by intramembranous ossification associated with secondary cartilage. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - November 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Keisuke Mitomo, Satoru Matsunaga, Kei Kitamura, Takashi Nakamura, Akiko Saito, Toshihisa Komori, Takashi Muramatsu, Akira Yamaguchi Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Mouse polycomb group gene Cbx2 promotes osteoblastic but suppresses adipogenic differentiation in postnatal long bones
A set of key developmental genes is essential for skeletal growth from multipotent progenitor cells at weaning. Polycomb group proteins, which regulate such genes contributes to the cell lineage commitment and subsequent differentiation via epigenetic chromatin modification and remodeling. However, it is unclear which cell lineage and gene sets are targeted by polycomb proteins during skeletal growth. We now report that mice deficient in a polycomb group gene Cbx2cterm/cterm exhibited skeletal hypoplasia in the tibia, femur, and cranium. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - October 30, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Yuko Katoh-Fukui, Takashi Baba, Tetsuya Sato, Hiroyuki Otake, Yuko Nagakui-Noguchi, Miyuki Shindo, Mikita Suyama, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Hideki Tsumura, Ken-ichirou Morohashi, Maki Fukami Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

SF-deferoxamine, a bone-seeking angiogenic drug, prevents bone loss in estrogen-deficient mice
Deferoxamine (DFO) possesses a good chelating capability and is therefore used for the clinical treatment of ion deposition diseases. Increasing evidence shows that DFO can inhibit the activity of proline hydroxylase (PHD) by chelating iron, resulting in hypoxia-induced factor (HIF) signaling activation and angiogenesis promotion. However, clinical evidence indicates that a high concentration of DFO could be biotoxic due to its enrichment in related organs. Thus, we established a new compound by conjugating DFO with the bone-seeking agent iminodiacetic acid (IDA); the new agent is called SF-DFO, and we verified its promoti...
Source: Bone - October 30, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Changjun Guo, Kai Yang, Yufei Yan, Dongming Yan, Yifan Cheng, Xueming Yan, Niandong Qian, Qi Zhou, Bo Chen, Min Jiang, Hanbing Zhou, Changwei Li, Fei Wang, Jin Qi, Xiangyang Xu, Lianfu Deng Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Bone collagen network integrity and transverse fracture toughness of human cortical bone
In this study, we tested whether early observations that a strong correlation between bone collagen integrity measured by thermomechanical methods and work to fracture exist in a more general and heterogeneous sampling of the population. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - October 27, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Thomas L. Willett, Daniel Y. Dapaah, Sasidhar Uppuganti, Mathilde Granke, Jeffry S. Nyman Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Response to letter to the editor: The sole and combined effect of simvastatin and platelet rich fibrin as a filling material in induced bone defect in tibia of albino rats
Successful graft incorporation is defined as the ability of the graft and surrounding tissue to function and maintain mechanical integrity [1]. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - October 26, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Shereen Nader Raafat Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Induction of Lrp5 HBM-causing mutations in Cathepsin-K expressing cells alters bone metabolism
High-bone-mass (HBM)-causing missense mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-5 (Lrp5) are associated with increased osteoanabolic action and protection from disuse- and ovariectomy-induced osteopenia. These mutations (e.g., A214V and G171V) confer resistance to endogenous secreted Lrp5/6 inhibitors, such as sclerostin (SOST) and Dickkopf homolog-1 (DKK1). Cells in the osteoblast lineage are responsive to canonical Wnt stimulation, but recent work has indicated that osteoclasts exhibit both indirect and direct responsiveness to canonical Wnt. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - October 25, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Kyung Shin Kang, Jung Min Hong, Daniel J. Horan, Kyung-Eun Lim, Whitney A. Bullock, Angela Bruzzaniti, Steven Hann, Matthew L. Warman, Alexander G. Robling Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Aberrantly elevated Wnt signaling is responsible for cementum overgrowth and dental ankylosis
Vertebrate teeth are attached to the jawbones using a variety of methods but in mammals, a fibrous connection is the norm. This fibrous periodontal ligament (PDL) allows teeth to move in the jawbones in response to natural eruptive forces, mastication, and orthodontic tooth movement. In some disease states the PDL either calcifies or is replaced by a mineralized tissue and the result is ankylosis, where the tooth is fused to the alveolar bone. To understand how the PDL maintains this fibrous state we examined a strain of mice in which tooth movement is arrested. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - October 25, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Yan Wu, Xue Yuan, Kristy C. Perez, Sydnee Hyman, Liao Wang, Gretel Pellegrini, Benjamin Salmon, Teresita Bellido, Jill A. Helms Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: The sole and combined effect of simvastatin and platelet rich fibrin as a filling material in induced bone defect in tibia of albino rats
In this study, the authors compared the regenerative effect of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and simvastatin as a filli ng material to induce bone healing. They did a great job in the experimental design and result assessment. But their preparation method of PRF may be controversial. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - October 24, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Panxi Yu, Xiaonan Yang, Zuoliang Qi Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Bone mineral density response rates are greater in patients treated with abaloparatide compared with those treated with placebo or teriparatide: Results from the ACTIVE phase 3 trial
Abaloparatide is a 34 –amino acid peptide that selectively binds to the RG conformation of the parathyroid hormone receptor type 1. It was developed for the treatment of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis at high risk of fracture. In ACTIVE, an 18-month phase 3 study (NCT01343004), abaloparatide increased bone mine ral density (BMD), decreased the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures compared with placebo, and decreased the risk of major osteoporotic fractures compared with placebo and teriparatide. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - October 22, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: P.D. Miller, G. Hattersley, E. Lau, L.A. Fitzpatrick, A.G. Harris, G.C. Williams, M.-Y. Hu, B.J. Riis, L. Russo, C. Christiansen Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Editorial Board / Barcode
(Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - October 21, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Frequency and duration of vigorous physical activity bouts are associated with adolescent boys' bone mineral status: A cross-sectional study
Vigorous physical activity (VPA) has been proven to promote osteogenesis in adolescents; however the specifics of the optimal pattern of frequency and duration of VPA are unknown. The main goal of the present study was to analyze the associations of different length of VPA bouts with bone health. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - October 21, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Jorge Marin-Puyalto, Jarek M äestu, Alba Gómez-Cabello, Evelin Lätt, Liina Remmel, Priit Purge, German Vicente-Rodríguez, Jaak Jürimäe Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Administration of teriparatide for four years cyclically compared to two years daily in treatment na ïve and alendronate treated women
We evaluated if equivalent doses of TPTD given cyclically over 4-years could increase BMD>2-years of daily TPTD in 2 cohorts of women; previously untreated (Rx-Na ïve) and women previously treated with ALN (ALN-Rx). (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - October 21, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Felicia Cosman, Jeri W. Nieves, Catherine Roimisher, Simon Neubort, Donald J. McMahon, David W. Dempster, Robert Lindsay Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Abaloparatide, a novel osteoanabolic PTHrP analog, increases cortical and trabecular bone mass and architecture in orchiectomized rats by increasing bone formation without increasing bone resorption
Male osteoporosis can occur with advanced age and with hypogonadism, with increased bone resorption and/or inadequate bone formation contributing to reduced bone mass and increased fracture risk. Abaloparatide is a selective PTH receptor agonist that increases bone formation and bone mass in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and in estrogen-deficient animals. The current study evaluated the effects of abaloparatide in orchiectomized (ORX) rats, a model of male osteoporosis. Four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats underwent ORX or sham surgery; 8  weeks later the ORX groups exhibited relative osteopenia vs sham controls, ...
Source: Bone - October 18, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Heidi Chandler, Beate Lanske, Aurore Varela, Martin Guillot, Marilyne Boyer, Jeffrey Brown, Allen Pierce, Michael Ominsky, Bruce Mitlak, Roland Baron, Paul Kostenuik, Gary Hattersley Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase promotes calvarial progenitor cell cycle progression and cytokinesis via Erk1,2
Bone growth is dependent upon the presence of self-renewing progenitor cell populations. While the contribution of Tissue Nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase (TNAP) enzyme activity in promoting bone mineralization when expressed in differentiated bone forming cells is well understood, little is known regarding the role of TNAP in bone progenitor cells. We previously found diminished proliferation in the calvarial MC3T3E1 cell line upon suppression of TNAP by shRNA, and in calvarial cells and tissues of TNAP −/− mice. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - October 17, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Hwa Kyung Nam, Iva Vesela, Erica Siismets, Nan E. Hatch Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

QCT of the femur: Comparison between QCTPro CTXA and MIAF Femur
In this study we compared two analysis software options, QCTPro CTXA and MIAF-Femur, using CT scans of the semi-anthropometric European Proximal Femur Phantom (EPFP) and in vivo data from 130 Chinese elderly men and women aged 60 –80 years.Integral (Int), cortical (Cort) and trabecular (Trab) vBMD, volume, and BMC of the femur neck (FN), trochanter (TR), inter-trochanter (IT), and total hip (TH) VOIs were compared. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - October 17, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Ling Wang, Oleg Museyko, Yongbin Su, Keenan Brown, Ruopei Yang, Yong Zhang, Yangyang Duanmu, Zhe Guo, Wei Zhang, Dong Yan, Xiaoguang Cheng, Klaus Engelke Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Systemic bone loss, impaired osteogenic activity and type I muscle fiber atrophy in mice with elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema: Establishment of a COPD-related osteoporosis mouse model
Although it is suggested that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bone are related, almost all of the pathological mechanisms of COPD-related osteoporosis remain unknown. There is a mouse model showing a deterioration of bone quality after cigarette smoke exposure; however, in smoking exposure models, various factors exist that affect bone metabolism, such as smoking and body weight loss (muscle and fat mass loss). We considered it appropriate to use an elastase-induced emphysema model to exclude factors influencing bone metabolism and to investigate the influence of pulmonary emphysema on bone metabolism. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - October 17, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Manabu Tsukamoto, Toshiharu Mori, Ke-Yong Wang, Yasuaki Okada, Hokuto Fukuda, Keisuke Naito, Yoshiaki Yamanaka, Ken Sabanai, Eiichiro Nakamura, Kazuhiro Yatera, Akinori Sakai Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy improves the alveolar repair process and prevents the occurrence of osteonecrosis of the jaws after tooth extraction in senile rats treated with zoledronate
This study evaluated the effects of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in the alveolar repair of rats with major risk factors for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ). Senile rats received 0.45  mL of vehicle (VEH and VEH/aPDT) or 0.45 mL of zoledronate (ZOL and ZOL/aPDT) every three days for seven weeks. After three weeks of treatment, the first lower left molar was extracted. VEH/aPDT and ZOL/aPDT were submitted to aPDT on the extraction site at 0, 2 and 4 days postoperatively. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - October 16, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Edilson Ervolino, Cristian Statkievicz, Luan Felipe Toro, Jo ão Martins de Mello-Neto, Thamires Priscila Cavazana, João Paulo Mardegan Issa, Rita Cássia Menegati Dornelles, Juliano Milanezi de Almeida, Maria José Hitomi Nagata, Roberta Okamoto, Cláud Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Mendelian randomization in the bone field
Identification of causative risk factors amenable for modification is essential for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Observational studies have identified associations between several potentially modifiable risk factors and osteoporosis. However, observational studies are susceptible to confounding, reverse causation bias, and measurement error, all of which limit their ability to provide causal estimates of the effect of exposures on outcomes, thereby reducing their ability to inform prevention and treatment strategies against bone loss and fractures. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - October 12, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Susanna C. Larsson, Karl Micha ëlsson, Stephen Burgess Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

The genetics of vitamin D
Vitamin D plays an essential role in human health as it influences immune function, cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with numerous health outcomes, including bone disease, cancer, autoimmune disease, cardiovascular conditions and more. However, the causal role of vitamin D beyond its importance for bone health remains unclear and is under much debate. Twin and familial studies from past decades have demonstrated a nontrivial heritability of circulating vitamin D concentrations. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - October 11, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Xia Jiang, Douglas P. Kiel, Peter Kraft Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Bone matrix hypermineralization associated with low bone turnover in a case of Nasu-Hakola disease
Analysis of tissue from a 34-years-old male patient from Austrian origin with a history of multiple fractures associated with painful episodes over the carpal, tarsal and at the end of the long bones respectively is presented. Radiographic images and axial 3DCT scans showed widespread defects in trabecular bone architecture and ill-defined cortices over these skeletal sites in the form of discrete cystic-like lesions. Family history indicated two sisters (one half and one full biological sisters) also with a history of fractures. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - October 10, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Mohammad Shboul, Paul Roschger, Rudolf Ganger, Lefteris Paschalis, Stamatia Rokidi, Shahin Zandieh, Jana Behunova, Christian Muschitz, Astrid Fahrleitner-Pammer, Alvin Yu Jin Ng, Sumanty Tohari, Byrappa Venkatesh, Carine Bonnard, Bruno Reversade, Klaus Kl Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Findings as a starting point to unravel the underlying mechanisms of in vivo interactions involving Wnt10a in bone, fat and muscle
Wnt10a is a member of the WNT family. Although deficiency of this gene causes symptoms related to teeth, hair, nails, and skin, we recently demonstrated a new phenotype of Wnt10a knockout (KO) mice involving bone and fat. The in vivo effect of the Wnt10a gene on bone and fat is unclear, and the relationship between bone/fat and muscle in Wnt10a signaling is also interesting. We aimed to evaluate the tissue changes in Wnt10a KO mice compared to wild-type mice and show the findings as a starting point to unravel the underlying mechanisms of in vivo interactions involving Wnt10a in bone, fat and muscle. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - October 10, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Manabu Tsukamoto, Ke-Yong Wang, Takashi Tasaki, Yoichi Murata, Yasuaki Okada, Yoshiaki Yamanaka, Eiichiro Nakamura, Sohsuke Yamada, Hiroto Izumi, Qian Zhou, Kagaku Azuma, Yasuyuki Sasaguri, Kimitoshi Kohno, Akinori Sakai Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Changes in bone matrix properties with aging
It is well known that bone loss accompanies aging in both men and women and contributes to skeletal fragility in the older population, but changes that occur to the bone tissue matrix itself are less well known. These changes in bone quality aggravate the skeletal fragility associated with loss of bone mass. Bone tissue quality is affected by age-related changes in bone mineral, collagen and its cross-linking profiles, water compartments and even non-collagenous proteins. It is commonly assumed that greater tissue mineralization accompanies aging as bone turnover slows down in elderly individuals, but the data for this are...
Source: Bone - October 10, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: David B. Burr Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research