Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of psychological and medical treatments for binge-eating disorder (MetaBED): study protocol
Introduction Binge-eating disorder (BED) was included as its own diagnostic entity in the Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). An increasing number of treatment studies have been published, but an up-to-date comprehensive meta-analysis on diverse treatment approaches for BED is lacking. In an updated and extension of a previous meta-analysis, the goals of this study are to assess the short-term and long-term effectiveness of psychological and medical treatments for BED. Methods and analysis We will search bibliographic databases and study registries, including manual searches...
Source: BMJ Open - March 29, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Hilbert, A., Petroff, D., Herpertz, S., Kersting, A., Pietrowsky, R., Tuschen-Caffier, B., Vocks, S., Schmidt, R. Tags: Open access, Mental health Protocol Source Type: research

Instruments measuring the disease-specific quality of life of family carers of people with neurodegenerative diseases: a systematic review
Conclusions There are very few measures of carer QOL that are specific to particular neurodegenerative diseases. The findings of this review emphasise the importance of developing and validating psychometrically robust disease-specific measures of carer QOL. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - March 29, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Page, T. E., Farina, N., Brown, A., Daley, S., Bowling, A., Basset, T., Livingston, G., Knapp, M., Murray, J., Banerjee, S. Tags: Open access, Geriatric medicine, Mental health, Neurology, Research methods Source Type: research

Psychological and behavioural patterns of stigma among patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study
Objectives The aim of this study was to test the psychological and behavioural patterns of stigma (self-esteem and social participation) and their relationship to self-stigma, patient activation for engaging in self-care and glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Design A cross-sectional study. Setting 2 tertiary-level hospitals and 2 secondary-level hospitals in Japan. Participants A consecutive sample of 209 outpatients with T2DM. Inclusion criteria were as follows: presence of T2DM, age 20–74 years, no diagnosis of dementia and/or psychosis, and no need for urgent medical pr...
Source: BMJ Open - March 29, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Kato, A., Fujimaki, Y., Fujimori, S., Isogawa, A., Onishi, Y., Suzuki, R., Yamauchi, T., Ueki, K., Kadowaki, T., Hashimoto, H. Tags: Open access, Patient-centred medicine, Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Source Type: research

Developing a national dental education research strategy: priorities, barriers and enablers
Conclusions This priority setting exercise provides a necessary first step to developing a national DER strategy capturing multiple perspectives. Promoting DER requires improved resourcing alongside efforts to overcome peer stigma and lack of valuing and motivation. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - March 29, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Ajjawi, R., Barton, K. L., Dennis, A. A., Rees, C. E. Tags: Open access, Dentistry and oral medicine, Medical education and training Research Source Type: research

Spin in RCTs of anxiety medication with a positive primary outcome: a comparison of concerns expressed by the US FDA and in the published literature
Conclusions Results indicate the presence of substantial spin in the clinical trial literature on drugs for anxiety disorders. In papers describing RCTs on anxiety medication, the concerns raised by the authors differed from those raised by the FDA. Published papers mentioned a large number of generic concerns about RCTs, such as a lack of long-term research and limited generalisability, while they mentioned few concerns about drug efficacy. These results warrant the promotion of independent statistical review, reporting of patient-level data, more study of spin, and an increased expectation that authors report FDA concern...
Source: BMJ Open - March 29, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Beijers, L., Jeronimus, B. F., Turner, E. H., de Jonge, P., Roest, A. M. Tags: Open access, Ethics, Medical publishing and peer review, Mental health, Public health Research Source Type: research

Venous thromboembolism in adults screened for sickle cell trait: a population-based cohort study with nested case-control analysis
Conclusions Although absolute numbers are small, in a general population screened for sickle cell, carriers have a higher incidence and risk of VTE, particularly PE, than non-carriers. Clinicians should be aware of this elevated risk in the clinical care of sickle cell carriers, or when discussing carrier screening, and explicitly attend to modifiable risk factors for VTE in these individuals. More complete primary care coding of carrier status could improve analysis. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - March 29, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Little, I., Vinogradova, Y., Orton, E., Kai, J., Qureshi, N. Tags: Open access, Genetics and genomics, Public health Research Source Type: research

Linking medical and dental health record data: a partnership with the Rochester Epidemiology Project
Purpose The purpose of this project was to expand the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) medical records linkage infrastructure to include data from oral healthcare providers. The goal of this linkage is to facilitate research studies examining the role of oral health in overall health and quality of life. Participants Eight dental practices joined the REP between 2011 and 2015. The REP study team has linked oral healthcare information with medical record information from local healthcare providers for 31 750 participants who have resided in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Overall, 17 718 (56%) participants are wom...
Source: BMJ Open - March 29, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: St. Sauver, J. L., Carr, A. B., Yawn, B. P., Grossardt, B. R., Bock-Goodner, C. M., Klein, L. L., Pankratz, J. J., Finney Rutten, L. J., Rocca, W. A. Tags: Open access, Dentistry and oral medicine, Epidemiology, Health services research, Research methods Cohort profile Source Type: research

Secondary prevention and cognitive function after stroke: a study protocol for a 5-year follow-up of the ASPIRE-S cohort
Introduction Cognitive impairment is common following stroke and can increase disability and levels of dependency of patients, potentially leading to greater burden on carers and the healthcare system. Effective cardiovascular risk factor control through secondary preventive medications may reduce the risk of cognitive decline. However, adherence to medications is often poor and can be adversely affected by cognitive deficits. Suboptimal medication adherence negatively impacts secondary prevention targets, increasing the risk of recurrent stroke and further cognitive decline. The aim of this study is to profile cognitive f...
Source: BMJ Open - March 27, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Rohde, D., Williams, D., Gaynor, E., Bennett, K., Dolan, E., Callaly, E., Large, M., Hickey, A. Tags: Open access, Cardiovascular medicine, Epidemiology Protocol Source Type: research

Impact of the Early Start Denver Model on the cognitive level of children with autism spectrum disorder: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial using a two-stage Zelen design
Introduction Early intervention for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the European French-speaking countries is heterogeneous and poorly evaluated to date. Early intervention units applying the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) for toddlers and young children with ASD have been created in France and Belgium to improve this situation. It is essential to evaluate this intervention for the political decision-making process regarding ASD interventions in European French-speaking countries. We will evaluate the effectiveness of 12 hours per week ESDM intervention on the cognitive level of children with ASD, over a 2-year per...
Source: BMJ Open - March 27, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Touzet, S., Occelli, P., Schröder, C., Manificat, S., Gicquel, L., Stanciu, R., Schaer, M., Oreve, M.-J., Speranza, M., Denis, A., Zelmar, A., Falissard, B., Georgieff, N., Bahrami, S., Geoffray, M.-M., The IDEA Study Group, Grisi, Marignier, Useo Tags: Open access, Health services research, Mental health, Paediatrics Protocol Source Type: research

Cross-sectional observational assessment of quality of newborn care immediately after birth in health facilities across six sub-Saharan African countries
Conclusions The findings shared in this paper call attention to the critical need to improve health facility readiness to provide quality newborn care services and to ensure that service providers have the necessary equipment, supplies, knowledge and skills that are critical to save newborn lives. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - March 27, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: de Graft-Johnson, J., Vesel, L., Rosen, H. E., Rawlins, B., Abwao, S., Mazia, G., Bozsa, R., Mwebesa, W., Khadka, N., Kamunya, R., Getachew, A., Tibaijuka, G., Rakotovao, J. P., Tekleberhan, A. Tags: Open access, General practice / Family practice, Global health, Health services research, Nursing, Paediatrics, Public health Source Type: research

Determinants of second pregnancy among pregnant women: a hospital-based cross-sectional survey in China
Conclusions 1 in every 4 pregnant women is undergoing a second pregnancy. The benefits of the firstborn or the love of children were the key drivers of a second pregnancy. Low socioeconomic status was positively associated with a second pregnancy as well. The new 2-child policy will have an influence on China's demographics. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - March 27, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Xu, X., Zuo, H., Shi, Z., Rao, Y., Wang, L., Zeng, H., Zhang, L., Sharma, M., Reis, C., Zhao, Y. Tags: Open access, Epidemiology, Evidence based practice, Health policy, Public health Research Source Type: research

Surveillance Systems from Public Health Institutions and Scientific Societies for Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare-Associated Infections in Europe (SUSPIRE): protocol for a systematic review
Introduction The worldwide spread of antimicrobial resistance is now recognised as a global public health threat. Owing to the geographical heterogeneity, complexity and continuously evolving dynamics of resistant organisms and genes, surveillance is a key tool for understanding, measuring and informing actions in the fight against this problem. To date there is no harmonisation of key indicators or of methodologies used to obtain them. Methods and analysis The main objective of this project is to systematically review and analyse the current publicly available surveillance activities on antimicrobial resistance and healt...
Source: BMJ Open - March 27, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Nunez-Nunez, M., Navarro, M. D., Gkolia, P., Babu Rajendran, N., del Toro, M. D., Voss, A., Sharland, M., Sifakis, F., Tacconelli, E., Rodriguez-Bano, J., and Members of the EPI-NET group on behalf of COMBACTE-MAGNET Consortium Tags: Open access, Infectious diseases, Public health Protocol Source Type: research

Elucidating challenges that electronic cigarettes pose to tobacco control in Asia: a population-based national survey in Taiwan
Conclusions E-cigarette use was uncommon in the general population in Taiwan, but prevalence was high among smokers and young people. This study highlights challenges that e-cigarettes pose to tobacco control, which warrant high priority action by policymakers and public health professionals. E-cigarette regulations should focus on young people. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - March 27, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Chang, H.-C., Tsai, Y.-W., Shiu, M.-N., Wang, Y.-T., Chang, P.-Y. Tags: Open access, Health policy, Public health, Smoking and tobacco Research Source Type: research

Improving swallowing outcomes in patients with head and neck cancer using a theory-based pretreatment swallowing intervention package: protocol for a randomised feasibility study
This study was preceded by an intervention development phase to produce an optimised swallowing intervention package (SIP). The aim of the current study is to assess the feasibility of this new intervention and research processes within a National Health Service (NHS) setting. Method and analysis A two-arm non-blinded randomised controlled feasibility study will be carried out at one tertiary referral NHS centre providing specialist services in HNC. Patients newly diagnosed with stage III and IV disease undergoing planned surgery and/or chemoradiation treatments will be eligible. The SIP will be delivered pre treatment, a...
Source: BMJ Open - March 27, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Govender, R., Smith, C. H., Gardner, B., Barratt, H., Taylor, S. A. Tags: Open access, Health services research, Oncology Protocol Source Type: research

Global systematic review of Indigenous community-led legal interventions to control alcohol
Conclusions Indigenous-led policies that are developed or implemented by communities can be effective in improving health and social outcomes. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - March 27, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Muhunthan, J., Angell, B., Hackett, M. L., Wilson, A., Latimer, J., Eades, A.-M., Jan, S. Tags: Open access, Addiction, Global health, Health policy, Public health, Qualitative research Source Type: research

Influencing factors on compliance of timely visits among patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy in southern China: a qualitative study
Conclusions Although the reasons for low adherence involved social, emotional, cultural and economic factors, the key issue was the lack of awareness and knowledge of DR. Our findings have several practical implications for health policymakers and programme planners in China. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - March 27, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Duan, F., Liu, Y., Chen, X., Congdon, N., Zhang, J., Chen, Q., Chen, L., Chen, X., Zhang, X., Yu, C., Liu, Y. Tags: Open access, Ophthalmology, Qualitative research, Diabetes and Endocrinology Source Type: research

Protocol for systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent and control obesity in African learners
Introduction The increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight in childhood in developing countries is a public health concern to many governments. Schools play a significant role in the obesity epidemic as well as provide favourable environments for change in behaviours in childhood which can be carried on into adulthood. There is dearth of information on intervention studies in poor-resource settings. This review will summarise the available evidence on school-based interventions that focused on promoting healthy eating and physical activity among learners aged 6–15 years in Africa and to identify factors th...
Source: BMJ Open - March 27, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Adom, T., Puoane, T., De Villiers, A., Kengne, A. P. Tags: Open access, Evidence based practice, Paediatrics, Public health Protocol Source Type: research

Biological rationale and potential clinical use of gabapentin and pregabalin in bipolar disorder, insomnia and anxiety: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis
Introduction Gabapentin has been extensively prescribed off-label for psychiatric indications, with little established evidence of efficacy. Gabapentin and pregabalin, a very similar drug with the same mechanism of action, bind to a subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels which are implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of bipolar disorder, anxiety and insomnia. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to collect and critically appraise all the available evidence about the efficacy and tolerability of gabapentin and pregabalin in the treatment of bipolar disorder, insomnia and anxiety. Methods and analysis We will...
Source: BMJ Open - March 27, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Houghton, K. T., Forrest, A., Awad, A., Atkinson, L. Z., Stockton, S., Harrison, P. J., Geddes, J. R., Cipriani, A. Tags: Open access, Evidence based practice, Mental health, Pharmacology and therapeutics Protocol Source Type: research

Surgery for Type B Ankle Fracture Treatment: a Combined Randomised and Observational Study (CROSSBAT)
Conclusions Surgery is not superior to non-surgical management for 44-B1 ankle fractures in the short term, and is associated with increased adverse events. Trial registration number NCT01134094. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - March 27, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Mittal, R., Harris, I. A., Adie, S., Naylor, J. M., for the CROSSBAT Study Group, Allcock, Alttahir, Balogh, Bhimani, Bourne, Boyle, Broe, Bucknill, Chehade, Chin, Clout, Connon, Cooke, Dave, Dave, Dekkers, Drobetz, Farrugia, Fritsch, Gupta, Hoffman, Holt Tags: Open access, Surgery Research Source Type: research

Comparison of the prognostic values of inflammation markers in patients with acute pancreatitis: a retrospective cohort study
This study assessed their prognostic value in mortality and severity in acute pancreatitis (AP). Design A retrospective cohort study. Setting Patients with AP were recruited from the emergency department at our hospital. Participants A total of 359 patients with AP (31 non-survivors) were enrolled. Primary and secondary outcome measures Mortality and severity of AP were the primary and secondary outcome measures, respectively. Biochemistry and haematology results of the first test after admission were collected. Independent relationships between severe AP (SAP) and markers were assessed using multivariate logistic regr...
Source: BMJ Open - March 27, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Li, Y., Zhao, Y., Feng, L., Guo, R. Tags: Open access, Diagnostics, Gastroenterology and hepatology Research Source Type: research

Smartphone application for women with gestational diabetes mellitus: a study protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial
Introduction The promotion of a healthy diet, physical activity and measurement of blood glucose levels are essential components in the care for women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Smartphones offer a new way to promote health behaviour. The main aim is to investigate if the use of the Pregnant+ app, in addition to standard care, results in better blood glucose levels compared with current standard care only, for women with GDM. Methods and analysis This randomised controlled trial will include 230 pregnant women with GDM followed up at 5 outpatient departments (OPD) in the greater Oslo Region. Women with a 2-...
Source: BMJ Open - March 27, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Borgen, I., Garnweidner-Holme, L. M., Jacobsen, A. F., Bjerkan, K., Fayyad, S., Joranger, P., Lilleengen, A. M., Mosdol, A., Noll, J., Smastuen, M. C., Terragni, L., Torheim, L. E., Lukasse, M. Tags: Open access, Medical education and training, Diabetes and Endocrinology Protocol Source Type: research

Constraint choice in revision knee arthroplasty: study protocol of a randomised controlled trial assessing the effect of level of constraint on postoperative outcome
This study is a multicentre, randomised clinical trial including two groups of 85 patients. Patients will be randomised to a CCK knee design group or an RTH knee design group. Patients will be followed for 2 years. The study will be designed as an equivalence trial. The primary study outcome will be the postoperative functional outcome as measured by the self-administered Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. Secondary outcomes will be postoperative joint awareness during various activities of daily living as measured by the Forgotten Joint Score-12, the Knee Society Score, along with the incidence and locatio...
Source: BMJ Open - March 27, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Hommel, H., Wilke, K., Kunze, D., Hommel, P., Fennema, P. Tags: Open access, Evidence based practice, Patient-centred medicine, Surgery Protocol Source Type: research

Trajectories of CKD-MBD biochemical parameters over a 2-year period following diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism: a pharmacoepidemiological study
Objectives To define groups of patients according to the changes of biochemical parameters, that is, serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH), over a 2-year follow-up period using group-based multi-trajectory modeling (GBMM) among a cohort of dialysis patients with newly diagnosed secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) (ie, PTH≥500 ng/L for the first time) and to compare their patient characteristics and treatments. Design Pharmacoepidemiological study. Setting In the 12 dialysis units located in the French region of Lorraine. Participants A total of 269 dialysis patients with newly diagnosed SHPT we...
Source: BMJ Open - March 27, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Filipozzi, P., Ayav, C., Ngueyon Sime, W., Laurain, E., Kessler, M., Brunaud, L., Frimat, L. Tags: Open access, Epidemiology, Pharmacology and therapeutics, Renal medicine Research Source Type: research

Experience of miscarriage: an interpretative phenomenological analysis
Conclusions One of the key findings illustrates a need for increased awareness in relation to miscarriage. The study also indicates that the experience of miscarriage has a considerable impact on men and women. This study highlights that a thorough investigation of the underlying causes of miscarriage and continuity of care in subsequent pregnancies are priorities for those who experience miscarriage. Consideration should be given to the manner in which women who have not experienced recurrent miscarriage but have other potential risk factors for miscarriage could be followed up in clinical practice. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - March 27, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Meaney, S., Corcoran, P., Spillane, N., O'Donoghue, K. Tags: Open access, Qualitative research, Obgyn Source Type: research

'We both just wanted to be normal parents: a qualitative study of the experience of maternity care for women with learning disability
Conclusions With support from family and services, learning disabled women can become confident and successful parents. Maternity services should make reasonable adjustments when providing care to this group, including adapting to their individual communication and learning needs: allowing sufficient time in appointments, offering clear explanations of each aspect of care and sensitive support for autonomy and fully informed choice. Mothers who will be subject to a social care assessment of their parenting skills need clear information about the process, their choices and the level of skill they must demonstrate, as well a...
Source: BMJ Open - March 24, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Malouf, R., McLeish, J., Ryan, S., Gray, R., Redshaw, M. Tags: Open access, Health services research Source Type: research

Qualitative study to explore the health and well-being impacts on adults providing informal support to female domestic violence survivors
Conclusions Friends and relatives of DV survivors experience substantial impact on their own health and well-being. There are no direct services to support this group. These findings have practical and policy implications, so that the needs of informal supporters are legitimised and met. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - March 24, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Gregory, A., Feder, G., Taket, A., Williamson, E. Tags: Open access, Mental health, Qualitative research Source Type: research

Perspectives on procedure-based assessments: a thematic analysis of semistructured interviews with 10 UK surgical trainees
Conclusions The UK surgical trainees interviewed identified both limitations and benefits to PBAs; however, we would argue based on their responses and our experience that their use as a summative tool limits their formative use as an educational opportunity. PBAs should either be used exclusively to support learning or solely as a summative tool; if so, further work is needed to audit, validate and standardise them for this purpose. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - March 24, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Shalhoub, J., Marshall, D. C., Ippolito, K. Tags: Open access, Medical education and training, Surgery Research Source Type: research

Total volume and composition of fluid intake and mortality in older women: a cohort study
Conclusions Habitual higher intake of black tea may potentially improve long-term health outcomes, independent of treating traditional CVD risk factors, but validation of our study findings is essential. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - March 24, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Lim, W. H., Wong, G., Lewis, J. R., Lok, C. E., Polkinghorne, K. R., Hodgson, J., Lim, E. M., Prince, R. L. Tags: Open access, Cardiovascular medicine, Epidemiology, Geriatric medicine Research Source Type: research

Evaluating CollaboRATE in a clinical setting: analysis of mode effects on scores, response rates and costs of data collection
Background Shared decision-making (SDM) has become a policy priority, yet its implementation is not routinely assessed. To address this gap we tested the delivery of CollaboRATE, a 3-item patient reported experience measure of SDM, via multiple survey modes. Objective To assess CollaboRATE response rates and respondent characteristics across different modes of administration, impact of mode and patient characteristics on SDM performance and cost of administration per response in a real-world primary care practice. Design Observational study design, with repeated assessment of SDM performance using CollaboRATE in a primar...
Source: BMJ Open - March 24, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Barr, P. J., Forcino, R. C., Thompson, R., Ozanne, E. M., Arend, R., Castaldo, M. G., O'Malley, A. J., Elwyn, G. Tags: Open access, Health services research, Patient-centred medicine Source Type: research

Designing a physical activity intervention for children with asthma: a qualitative study of the views of healthcare professionals, parents and children with asthma
Conclusions There is a need to build on current asthma programmes to increase the support for children with asthma to be physically active. Future programmes could consider working more closely with schools, increasing parental knowledge and providing children with practical support to help be physically active. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - March 24, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Jago, R., Searle, A., Henderson, A. J., Turner, K. M. Tags: Open access, Paediatrics, Qualitative research Source Type: research

Global cardiovascular risk assessment in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in adults: systematic review of systematic reviews
Conclusions The quality of existing systematic reviews was generally poor and there is currently no evidence reported in these reviews that the prospective use of global cardiovascular risk assessment translates to reductions in CVD morbidity or mortality. There are reductions in SBP, cholesterol and smoking but they may not be clinically significant given their small effect size and short duration. Resources need to be directed to conduct high-quality systematic reviews focusing on hard patient outcomes, and likely further primary RCTs. Trial registration number CRD42015019821. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - March 24, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Collins, D. R. J., Tompson, A. C., Onakpoya, I. J., Roberts, N., Ward, A. M., Heneghan, C. J. Tags: Open access, Cardiovascular medicine, Evidence based practice Research Source Type: research

Incidental findings on brain MRI of cognitively normal first-degree descendants of patients with Alzheimer's disease: a cross-sectional analysis from the ALFA (Alzheimer and Families) project
Conclusions Brain MRIs of healthy middle-aged participants show a relatively high prevalence of IF even when study participants have been screened for subtle cognitive alterations. Most of our participants are first-degree descendants of patients with AD, and therefore these results are of special relevance for novel imaging studies in the context of AD prevention in cognitively healthy middle-aged participants. Trial registration number NCT02198586. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - March 24, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Brugulat-Serrat, A., Rojas, S., Bargallo, N., Conesa, G., Minguillon, C., Fauria, K., Gramunt, N., Molinuevo, J. L., Gispert, J. D. Tags: Open access, Neurology, Radiology and imaging Research Source Type: research

Use of a computerised decision aid (DA) to inform the decision process on adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage II colorectal cancer: development and preliminary evaluation
Conclusions Patients found the DA acceptable and useful in supporting their decision about whether or not to have adjuvant chemotherapy. Suggested improvements for the DA include: sequential presentation of treatment options (eg, no treatment vs 1 drug, 1 drug vs 2 drugs) to enhance patient understanding of the difference between combination and single therapy, diagrams to help patients understand the rationale for chemotherapy to prevent a recurrence and inbuilt checks on patient understanding of baseline risk of recurrence and net benefit of chemotherapy. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - March 24, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Miles, A., Chronakis, I., Fox, J., Mayer, A. Tags: Open access, Communication, Oncology Research Source Type: research

Association between physical activity and body fat percentage, with adjustment for BMI: a large cross-sectional analysis of UK Biobank
The objective of this study was to examine if, in the general population, physically active adults have less body fat after taking body mass index (BMI) into account. Design A cross-sectional analysis of participants recruited into UK Biobank in 2006–2010. Setting UK Biobank assessment centres throughout the UK. Participants 119 230 men and 140 578 women aged 40–69 years, with complete physical activity information, and without a self-reported long-term illness, disability or infirmity. Exposures Physical activity measured as excess metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours per week, estimated from a ...
Source: BMJ Open - March 24, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Bradbury, K. E., Guo, W., Cairns, B. J., Armstrong, M. E. G., Key, T. J. Tags: Open access, Epidemiology, Public health, Research methods, Sports and exercise medicine Source Type: research

Cross-sectional associations between dietary intake and carotid intima media thickness in type 2 diabetes: baseline data from a randomised trial
Conclusions Lower CIMT was significantly associated with greater consumption of dietary pulses and carbohydrates and lower total and saturated fat intake, suggesting a potential role for diet in CVD risk management in type 2 diabetes. Randomised controlled trials are anticipated to explore these associations further. Trial registration number NCT01063374. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - March 22, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Chiavaroli, L., Mirrahimi, A., Ireland, C., Mitchell, S., Sahye-Pudaruth, S., Coveney, J., Olowoyeye, O., Patel, D., de Souza, R. J., Augustin, L. S. A., Bashyam, B., Pichika, S. C., Blanco Mejia, S., Nishi, S. K., Leiter, L. A., Josse, R. G., McKeown-Eys Tags: Open access, Nutrition and metabolism, Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Source Type: research

Understanding Dutch practice nurses' adherence to evidence-based smoking cessation guidelines and their needs for web-based adherence support: results from semistructured interviews
Conclusions Sociocognitive determinants influence practice nurses' smoking cessation guideline adherence. To improve their adherence, web-based tailored adherence support can provide practice nurses with personally relevant feedback tailored to individually perceived barriers to smoking cessation guideline adherence. More specifically, low self-efficacy levels can be increased by peer modelling (eg, presenting narratives of colleagues) and up-to-date information can be presented online, enabling practice nurses to use it during patient consultations, resulting in more effective communication with their smoking patients. T...
Source: BMJ Open - March 22, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: de Ruijter, D., Smit, E. S., de Vries, H., Goossens, L., Hoving, C. Tags: Open access, Communication, Evidence based practice, General practice / Family practice, Nursing, Qualitative research, Smoking and tobacco Source Type: research

Sport and scholastic factors in relation to smoking and smoking initiation in older adolescents: a prospective cohort study in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Conclusions In developing accurate antismoking public health policies for older adolescents, the most vulnerable groups should be targeted. The results showed that most participants initiated smoking before 16 years of age. Therefore, further investigations should evaluate the predictors of smoking in younger ages. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - March 22, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Sekulic, D., Sisic, N., Terzic, A., Jasarevic, I., Ostojic, L., Pojskic, H., Zenic, N. Tags: Open access, Addiction, Epidemiology, Public health Research Source Type: research

Association of respiratory symptoms and asthma with occupational exposures: findings from a population-based cross-sectional survey in Telemark, Norway
Conclusions The observed prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was 11.5%. The ‘manual’ occupations were associated with respiratory symptoms. Occupational exposure to flour, diisocyanates, welding/soldering fumes and vehicle/motor exhaust was associated with respiratory symptoms in the past 12 months and use of asthma medication. However, prospective data are needed to confirm the observed associations. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - March 22, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Abrahamsen, R., Fell, A. K. M., Svendsen, M. V., Andersson, E., Toren, K., Henneberger, P. K., Kongerud, J. Tags: Open access, Epidemiology, Occupational and environmental medicine, Respiratory medicine Research Source Type: research

Is socioeconomic position associated with risk of attempted suicide in rural Sri Lanka? A cross-sectional study of 165 000 individuals
Conclusions We found that indicators of lower SEP are associated with increased risk of attempted suicide in rural Sri Lanka. Longitudinal studies with objective measures of suicide attempts are needed to confirm this association. Trial registration number NCT01146496; Pre-results. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - March 22, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Knipe, D. W., Gunnell, D., Pieris, R., Priyadarshana, C., Weerasinghe, M., Pearson, M., Jayamanne, S., Dawson, A. H., Mohamed, F., Gawarammana, I., Hawton, K., Konradsen, F., Eddleston, M., Metcalfe, C. Tags: Open access, Epidemiology, Global health, Mental health, Public health Research Source Type: research

Current and potential providers of blood pressure self-screening: a mixed methods study in Oxfordshire
Conclusions BP self-screening currently occurs in a minority of general practices. Any future development of community BP self-screening programmes will require (1) public promotion and (2) careful consideration of how best to support—and reward—the community hosts who currently perceive little if any benefit. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - March 22, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Tompson, A. C., Fleming, S. G., Heneghan, C. J., McManus, R. J., Greenfield, S. M., Hobbs, F. D. R., Ward, A. M. Tags: Open access, Cardiovascular medicine, General practice / Family practice, Public health Research Source Type: research

Differences between determinants of in-hospital mortality and hospitalisation costs for patients with acute heart failure: a nationwide observational study from Japan
Objectives Although current case-mix classifications in prospective payment systems were developed to estimate patient resource usage, whether these classifications reflect clinical outcomes remains unknown. The efficient management of acute heart failure (AHF) with high mortality is becoming more important in many countries as its prevalence and associated costs are rapidly increasing. Here, we investigate the determinants of in-hospital mortality and hospitalisation costs to clarify the impact of severity factors on these outcomes in patients with AHF, and examine the level of agreement between the predicted values of mo...
Source: BMJ Open - March 22, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Sasaki, N., Kunisawa, S., Ikai, H., Imanaka, Y. Tags: Open access, Cardiovascular medicine, Evidence based practice, Health economics, Health policy, Health services research, Medical management Source Type: research

Towards personalised intra-arterial treatment of patients with acute ischaemic stroke: a study protocol for development and validation of a clinical decision aid
Introduction Overall, intra-arterial treatment (IAT) proved to be beneficial in patients with acute ischaemic stroke due to a proximal occlusion in the anterior circulation. However, heterogeneity in treatment benefit may be relevant for personalised clinical decision-making. Our aim is to improve selection of patients for IAT by predicting individual treatment benefit or harm. Methods and analysis We will use data collected in the Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN) trial to analyse the effect of baseline characteristics on outcome and tr...
Source: BMJ Open - March 22, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Mulder, M. J. H. L., Venema, E., Roozenbeek, B., Broderick, J. P., Yeatts, S. D., Khatri, P., Berkhemer, O. A., Roos, Y. B. W. E. M., Majoie, C. B. L. M., van Oostenbrugge, R. J., van Zwam, W. H., van der Lugt, A., Steyerberg, E. W., Dippel, D. W. J., Lin Tags: Open access, Neurology, Radiology and imaging Protocol Source Type: research

Disparities between research attention and burden in liver diseases: implications on uneven advances in pharmacological therapies in Europe and the USA
Objectives Effective oral therapies for hepatitis B and C have recently been developed, while there are no approved pharmacological therapies for alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (ALD and NAFLD). We hypothesise that fewer advances in fatty liver diseases could be related to disparities in research attention. Methods We developed the Attention-to-Burden Index (ABI) that compares the research activities during 2010–2014, and an estimate of disease burden of these 4 major liver diseases. The resulting ratio reflects either overattention (positive value) or inadequate attention (negative value) compared ...
Source: BMJ Open - March 22, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Ndugga, N., Lightbourne, T. G., Javaherian, K., Cabezas, J., Verma, N., Barritt, A. S., Bataller, R. Tags: Open access, Global health, Health policy, Public health Research Source Type: research

Single-stage osseointegrated reconstruction and rehabilitation of lower limb amputees: the Osseointegration Group of Australia Accelerated Protocol-2 (OGAAP-2) for a prospective cohort study
This study has received ethics approval from the University of Notre Dame, Sydney, Australia (014153S). The study outcomes will be disseminated by publications in peer-reviewed academic journals and presentations at relevant clinical and orthopaedic conferences. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - March 22, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Al Muderis, M., Lu, W., Tetsworth, K., Bosley, B., Li, J. J. Tags: Open access, Rehabilitation medicine, Surgery Protocol Source Type: research

Comparative effectiveness of different wound dressings for patients with partial-thickness burns: study protocol of a systematic review and a Bayesian framework network meta-analysis
We report the protocol of a network meta-analysis designed to combine direct and indirect evidence of wound dressings in the management of PTB. Methods and analysis We will search for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the wound-healing effect of a wound dressing in the management of PTB. Searches will be conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register and CINAHL. A comprehensive search strategy is developed to retrieve articles reporting potentially eligible RCTs. Besides, we will contact the experts in the field and review the c...
Source: BMJ Open - March 22, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Jiang, Q., Chen, Z.-H., Wang, S.-B., Chen, X.-D. Tags: Open access, Dermatology, Evidence based practice, Medical management Protocol Source Type: research

Identifying possible reasons why female street sex workers have poor drug treatment outcomes: a qualitative study
Conclusions SSWs face many barriers to effective drug treatment. SSW-only treatment groups, continuity of care with treatment staff and contact with female staff, particularly individuals who have had similar lived experience, could improve the extent to which SSWs engage and benefit from drug treatment services. Service engagement and outcomes may also be improved by drug services that include identification and treatment of trauma-related symptoms. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - March 22, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Jeal, N., Macleod, J., Salisbury, C., Turner, K. Tags: Open access, Addiction, Health services research, Mental health Source Type: research

Risk of tuberculosis in patients treated with TNF-{alpha} antagonists: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
Conclusions Findings from our meta-analysis indicate that the risk of TB may be significantly increased in patients treated with TNF-α antagonists. However, further studies are needed to reveal the biological mechanism of the increased TB risk caused by TNF-α antagonists treatment. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - March 22, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Zhang, Z., Fan, W., Yang, G., Xu, Z., Wang, J., Cheng, Q., Yu, M. Tags: Open access, Evidence based practice, Infectious diseases, Pharmacology and therapeutics, Rheumatology Research Source Type: research

Time to publication for publicly funded clinical trials in Australia: an observational study
Conclusions Despite the widespread registration of clinical trials, there remain serious concerns of trial results not being published or being published with a long delay. We have found that these same concerns apply to protocol papers, which should be publishable soon after funding. Funding agencies could set a target of publishing the protocol paper within 18 months of funding. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - March 22, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Strand, L. B., Clarke, P., Graves, N., Barnett, A. G. Tags: Open access, Medical publishing and peer review, Research methods Source Type: research

Correction
Little P, Stuart B, Andreou P, et al. Primary care randomised controlled trial of a tailored interactive website for the selfmanagement of respiratory infections (Internet Doctor). BMJ Open 2016;6:e009769. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009769 There is a labeling mistake in the analysis of this paper. Although the mistake alters the estimates very slightly it does not alter the inferences. The misunderstanding was that the 24 week follow-up (the last data point) was thought to be 20 weeks, and the real 20 week data was then not included. The most complete use of the data is therefore to include both the 20 and 24 weeks data. If ...
Source: BMJ Open - March 20, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Tags: Open access Correction Source Type: research

Economic costs of automated and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in Taiwan: a combined survey and retrospective cohort analysis
This study aims to compare the economic costs between automated PD (APD) and continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) modalities from a societal perspective. Design and setting A retrospective cohort of patients receiving PD from the NHI Research Database was identified during 2004–2011. The 1:1 propensity score matched 1749 APD patients and 1749 CAPD patients who were analysed on their NHI-financed medical costs and utilisation. A multicentre study by face-to-face interviews on 117 APD and 129 CAPD patients from five hospitals located in four regions of Taiwan was further carried out to collect data on their out-of-pocket p...
Source: BMJ Open - March 20, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Tang, C.-H., Wu, Y.-T., Huang, S.-Y., Chen, H.-H., Wu, M.-J., Hsu, B.-G., Tsai, J.-C., Chen, T.-H., Sue, Y.-M. Tags: Open access, Health economics, Renal medicine Research Source Type: research