Linkage into care among newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals tested through outreach and facility-based HIV testing models in Mbeya, Tanzania: a prospective mixed-method cohort study
Conclusions Linkage to care after testing HIV positive in rural Tanzania has increased markedly since 2014, across testing models. Individuals tested at facility-based sites linked in significantly higher proportion and modestly sooner than mobile/outreach tested individuals. Mobile/outreach testing models bring HIV testing services closer to people. Strategies to improve linkage from mobile/outreach models are needed. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 12, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Sanga, E. S., Lerebo, W., Mushi, A. K., Clowes, P., Olomi, W., Maboko, L., Zarowsky, C. Tags: Open access, Health services research, HIV AIDS Source Type: research

Hand exercises for patients with rheumatoid arthritis: an extended follow-up of the SARAH randomised controlled trial
Conclusions Participants undertaking the SARAH exercise programme had improved hand function compared with baseline>2 years after randomisation. This was not the case for the control group. However, scores were no longer statistically different between the groups indicating the effect of the programme had diminished over time. This reduction in hand function compared with earlier follow-up points coincided with a reduction in self-reported performance of hand exercises. Further intervention to promote long-term adherence may be warranted. Trial registration number ISRCTN89936343; Results. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 12, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Williamson, E., McConkey, C., Heine, P., Dosanjh, S., Williams, M., Lamb, S. E., Adams, Underwood, Lord, Rahman, Lowe, Campbell, Rattigan, Nichols, Lord, Crossan, Dritsaki, Glover, Neely, Gibson, Hotchkiss, Chilton, Thrush, Minns-Lowe, Birch, Webber, Clag Tags: Open access, Rehabilitation medicine, Rheumatology, Sports and exercise medicine Research Source Type: research

Moxibustion versus diclofenac sodium gel for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a study protocol for a double-blinded, double-placebo, randomised controlled trial
Introduction Knee osteoarthritis is a common form of arthritis in elderly patients that is characterised by pain and functional limitation. Moxibustion has been employed to relieve chronic pain as an alternative therapy for knee osteoarthritis. However, the evidence of its efficacy is equivocal due to the low methodological quality in most clinical studies. Therefore, we are performing a double-blinded, double-placebo, randomised controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of moxibustion in participants with knee osteoarthritis. Methods and analysis This is a multicentre, double-blinded, double-placebo, randomised controlle...
Source: BMJ Open - April 12, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Zhou, J.-Y., Luo, L., Zhu, L.-L., Yin, H.-y., Wu, Q., Peng, J.-x., Zhang, C.-s., Lv, P., Tang, Y., Yu, S.-g. Tags: Protocol Source Type: research

Risk factors of non-specific neck pain and low back pain in computer-using office workers in China: a cross-sectional study
Conclusions Not having the computer monitor located in front of the operator was found to be an important risk factor for NP and LBP in computer-using female workers. This information may not only enable the development of potential preventive strategies but may also provide new insights for designing appropriate workstations. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 11, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Ye, S., Jing, Q., Wei, C., Lu, J. Tags: Open access, Occupational and environmental medicine Research Source Type: research

Quitting patient care and career break intentions among general practitioners in South West England: findings of a census survey of general practitioners
Conclusions A substantial majority of GPs in South West England report low morale. Many are considering career intentions which, if implemented, would adversely impact GP workforce capacity within a short time period. Study registration NIHR HS&DR - 14/196/02, UKCRN ID 20700. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 11, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Fletcher, E., Abel, G. A., Anderson, R., Richards, S. H., Salisbury, C., Dean, S. G., Sansom, A., Warren, F. C., Campbell, J. L. Tags: Research Source Type: research

What drives the prescribing of growth hormone preparations in England? Prices versus patient preferences
Conclusions The price of growth hormone products was not the key factor influencing the prescribing of the biological medicines. The main driver for specific product selection was the ease of use and the number of steps in dose preparation. Prescribers appear to be taking into account patient preferences rather than cost in their prescribing decisions. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 11, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Chapman, S. R., Fitzpatrick, R. W., Aladul, M. I. Tags: Open access, Health policy, Health services research Source Type: research

Emergency nurse disaster preparedness during mass gatherings: a cross-sectional survey of emergency nurses' perceptions in hospitals in Mecca, Saudi Arabia
Conclusions Recommendations are suggested to help enhance clinical and educational efforts in disaster preparedness. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 11, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Alzahrani, F., Yiannis, K. Tags: Open access, Nursing Research Source Type: research

Diverging effects of diabetes mellitus in patients with peripheral artery disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm and the role of advanced glycation end-products: ARTERY study -- protocol for a multicentre cross-sectional study
This study is approved by the Medical Ethics committees of University Medical Center Groningen, Martini Hospital and Medisch Spectrum Twente, the Netherlands. Study results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and scientific events. Trial registration number trialregister.nl NTR 5363. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 11, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: de Vos, L. C., Boersema, J., Hillebrands, J. L., Schalkwijk, C. G., Meerwaldt, R., Breek, J. C., Smit, A. J., Zeebregts, C. J., Lefrandt, J. D. Tags: Open access, Cardiovascular medicine, Diabetes and Endocrinology Protocol Source Type: research

Direct costs of osteoporosis-related hip fractures: protocol for a cross-sectional analysis of a national database
Introduction It is estimated that Iran accounted for about 1% of hip fracture burden of the world in 2007, but these data are based on incomplete evidence. As the country’s population is ageing, it is expected that a dramatic rise in hip fracture incidence will result. There is no single national study that accurately estimates the incidence of all hip fractures in the country or identifies the direct costs for affected patients. To help fill this gap, the current study has been designed to determine the incidence of hip fracture associated with osteoporosis in the Iranian population and to assess the direct costs in...
Source: BMJ Open - April 11, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Maghbooli, Z., Hossein-nezhad, A., Jafarpour, M., Noursaadat, S., Ramezani, M., Hashemian, R., Moattari, S. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Investigating the relationship between precocious puberty and obesity: a cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China
Conclusions Earlier pubertal development was positively associated with obesity and central obesity in Chinese children. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 11, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Chen, C., Zhang, Y., Sun, W., Chen, Y., Jiang, Y., Song, Y., Lin, Q., Zhu, L., Zhu, Q., Wang, X., Liu, S., Jiang, F. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Correction
Blaschke S, O'Callaghan CC, Schofield P. Identifying opportunities for nature engagement in cancer care practice and design: protocol for four-round modified electronic Delphi. BMJ Open 2017;7:e013527. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013527 This paper has been corrected since it was first published. The first author’s name has been corrected from ‘Sarahg Blaschke’ to ‘Sarah Blaschke’. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 8, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Johnston, A. Tags: 1506 Source Type: research

Association between baseline vitamin D metabolite levels and long-term cardiovascular events in patients with rheumatoid arthritis from the CIMESTRA trial: protocol for a cohort study with patient-record evaluated outcomes
This study is a prospective, closed, blinded endpoint cohort study, based on secondary analyses from a previous randomised trial (CIMESTRA study; NCT00209859, approved September 1999) including 160 patients with an early diagnosis of RA from Danish University clinics. Primary outcome will be the proportion of patients with any cardiovascular event in the follow-up period, evaluated using systematic journal audits. Logistic regression models will test the hypothesis that there are more cardiovascular events in enrolled patients with a low level of vitamin D (
Source: BMJ Open - April 8, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Herly, M., Stengaard-Pedersen, K., Horslev-Petersen, K., Hetland, M. L., Ostergaard, M., Christensen, R., Logstrup, B. B., Vestergaard, P., Podenphant, J., Junker, P., Ellingsen, T. Tags: Open access, Cardiovascular medicine, Rheumatology Protocol Source Type: research

Study on the utility of a statewide counselling programme for improving mortality outcomes of patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in Thuringia (SUPPORT): a study protocol of a cluster-randomised crossover trial
Introduction Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) is a frequent infection with high mortality rates. It requires specific diagnostic and therapeutic management such as prolonged intravenous administration of antibiotics and aggressive search for and control of infectious sources. Underestimation of disease severity frequently results in delayed or inappropriate management of patients with SAB leading to increased mortality rates. According to observational studies, patient counselling by infectious disease consultants (IDC) improves survival and reduces the length of hospital stay as well as complication rates. In many ...
Source: BMJ Open - April 8, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Weis, S., Hagel, S., Schmitz, R. P. H., Scherag, A., Brunkhorst, F. M., Forstner, C., Löffler, B., Pletz, M. W. Tags: Open access, Evidence based practice, Infectious diseases Protocol Source Type: research

Is postoperative decrease of serum albumin an early predictor of complications after major abdominal surgery? A prospective cohort study in a European centre
Objective To test postoperative serum albumin drop (Alb) as a marker of surgical stress response and early predictor of clinical outcomes. Design Prospective cohort study (NCT02356484). Albumin was prospectively measured in 138 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Blood samples were collected before surgery and on postoperative days 0, 1 2 and 3. Alb was compared to the modified estimation of physiologic ability and surgical stress (mE-PASS) score and correlated to the performances of C reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and lactate (LCT). Postoperative outcomes were postoperative complications according ...
Source: BMJ Open - April 8, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Labgaa, I., Joliat, G.-R., Kefleyesus, A., Mantziari, S., Schäfer, M., Demartines, N., Hübner, M. Tags: Open access, Surgery Research Source Type: research

Association between neighbourhood walkability and metabolic risk factors influenced by physical activity: a cross-sectional study of adults in Toronto, Canada
Objective To determine whether neighbourhood walkability is associated with clinical measures of obesity, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemia in an urban adult population. Design Observational cross-sectional study. Setting Urban primary care patients. Participants 78 023 Toronto residents, aged 18 years and over, who were formally rostered or had at least 2 visits between 2012 and 2014 with a primary care physician participating in the University of Toronto Practice Based Research Network (UTOPIAN), within the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network (CPCSSN). Main outcome measures Difference...
Source: BMJ Open - April 8, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Loo, C. K. J., Greiver, M., Aliarzadeh, B., Lewis, D. Tags: Open access, Public health, Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Source Type: research

TAxonomy of Self-reported Sedentary behaviour Tools (TASST) framework for development, comparison and evaluation of self-report tools: content analysis and systematic review
Conclusions Despite the limited evidence, mapping existing SB tools onto the TASST framework has enabled informed recommendations to be made about the most promising features for a surveillance tool, identified aspects on which future research and development of SB surveillance tools should focus. Trial registration number International prospective register of systematic reviews (PROPSPERO)/CRD42014009851. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 8, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Dall, P., Coulter, E., Fitzsimons, C., Skelton, D., Chastin, S., on behalf of the Seniors USP Team, Cox, Cukic, Deary, Der, Dontje, Gale, Gill, Granat, Gray, Greig, Hindle, Laird, Mead, Mutrie, Palmer, Radakovic, Sattar, Shaw, Starr, Stewart, Wyke Tags: Open access, Epidemiology, Public health, Research methods, Sports and exercise medicine Source Type: research

Antibiotic prescriptions for inpatients having non-bacterial diagnosis at medicine departments of two private sector hospitals in Madhya Pradesh, India: a cross-sectional study
Objectives To present and compare antibiotic prescribing for inpatients among the most common non-bacterial diagnoses groups at medicine departments of a teaching (TH) and a non-teaching hospital (NTH) in central India. Setting An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at two tertiary care settings in Ujjain district, Madhya Pradesh, India. Data and participants The data were collected manually, using a customised form. Complete records of all inpatients, who were>15 years of age and had stayed for at least one night in either of the hospitals during 2008–2011, were analysed. Outcome measures In...
Source: BMJ Open - April 8, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Landstedt, K., Sharma, A., Johansson, F., Stalsby Lundborg, C., Sharma, M. Tags: Open access, Epidemiology, Global health, Health services research, Infectious diseases, Public health Source Type: research

Correction
Nguyen B, Ding D, Mihrshahi S. Fruit and vegetable consumption and psychological distress: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses based on a large Australian sample. BMJ Open 2017;7:e014201. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014201 In Table 1, the "K10 score at baseline ≥22" column, row "≤10 years of education", the percentage should read 38.7% and not 68.1%. French National Cancer InstituteFrench Ministry of Health. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 7, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Johnston, A. Tags: 1506 Source Type: research

Correction
Williams J, Hagger-Johnson G. Childhood academic ability in relation to cigarette, alcohol and cannabis use from adolescence into early adulthood: Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE). BMJ Open 2017;7:e012989. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012989 There are some errors in the RR and 95% CI values in the Results paragraph of the Abstract. This paragraph should read as follows: Results In multinomial logistic regression models adjusting for a range of covariates, the high (vs low) academic ability reduced the risk of persistent cigarette smoking (RR=0.62; CI 95% 0.48 to 0.81) in early adolescence. High (vs low) a...
Source: BMJ Open - April 7, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Johnston, A. Tags: 1506 Source Type: research

Correction
Khan I, Morris S, Hackshaw A, et al. Cost-effectiveness of first-line erlotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer unsuitable for chemotherapy. BMJ Open 2015;5:e006733. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006733 In figure 1, the top square currently reads ‘370 Randomised’. This should read ‘670 Randomised’ as mentioned earlier in the text. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 7, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Johnston, A. Tags: 1506 Source Type: research

The interaction of socioeconomic position and type 2 diabetes mellitus family history: a cross-sectional analysis of the Lifelines Cohort and Biobank Study
Conclusion Low SEP and family history of T2DM are associated with T2DM, but they also exacerbate each other’s impact in females but not in males. Behavioural and clinical risk factors partly explain these gender differences, as well as the associations underlying the interaction in females. The exacerbation by low SEP of T2DM risks in T2DM families deserves attention in prevention and community care. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 7, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: van Zon, S. K. R., Snieder, H., Bültmann, U., Reijneveld, S. A. Tags: 1692 Source Type: research

Are Jordanian primary healthcare practitioners fulfilling their potential in cancer prevention and community health? Findings from a cross-sectional survey
Conclusions Among Jordanian PHCPs, primary prevention services are underprovided, and data suggest ample room to improve PHCPs' skills and practices. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 7, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Obeidat, N. A., Habashneh, M. A., Shihab, R. A., Hawari, F. I. Tags: Open access, Global health, Medical education and training, Public health Research Source Type: research

Employment status and psychological distress in a population-based cross-sectional study in Sweden: the impact of migration
Conclusions The effect of unemployment on increased likelihood of poor psychological well-being overcomes gender-specific and migration-specific differences and is equally pronounced for Swedish-born, non-refugees and refugees. Exclusion from the labour market appears to be a major determinant of psychological health inequalities in contemporary Sweden. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 7, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Sidorchuk, A., Engström, K., Johnson, C. M., Kayser Leeoza, N., Möller, J. Tags: Open access, Epidemiology, Mental health, Public health Research Source Type: research

Learning outcomes for communication skills across the health professions: a systematic literature review and qualitative synthesis
Conclusions This study provides a list of 205 communication skills learning outcomes that provide a foundation for further research and educational design in communication education across the health professions. Areas for future investigation include greater patient involvement in communication skills education design and further identification of learning outcomes that target knowledge and perceptual skills. This work may also prompt educators to be cognisant of the quality and scope of the learning outcomes they design and their application as goals for learning. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 7, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Denniston, C., Molloy, E., Nestel, D., Woodward-Kron, R., Keating, J. L. Tags: Open access, Communication, Medical education and training, Qualitative research Source Type: research

External validation and extension of a diagnostic model for obstructive coronary artery disease: a cross-sectional predictive evaluation in 4888 patients of the Austrian Coronary Artery disease Risk Determination In Innsbruck by diaGnostic ANgiography (CARDIIGAN) cohort
Objective To externally validate and extend a recently proposed prediction model to diagnose obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), with the ultimate aim to better select patients for coronary angiography. Design Analysis of individual baseline data of a prospective cardiology cohort. Setting Single-centre secondary and tertiary cardiology clinic. Participants 4888 patients with suspected CAD, without known previous CAD or other heart diseases, who underwent an elective coronary angiography between 2004 and 2008 as part of the prospective Coronary Artery disease Risk Determination In Innsbruck by diaGnostic ANgiogra...
Source: BMJ Open - April 7, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Edlinger, M., Wanitschek, M., Dörler, J., Ulmer, H., Alber, H. F., Steyerberg, E. W. Tags: Open access, Cardiovascular medicine, Diagnostics, Epidemiology, Research methods Source Type: research

Prevalence-based, disease-specific estimate of the social cost of smoking in Singapore
Conclusions The social cost of smoking is smaller in Singapore than in other Asian countries. However, there is still cause for concern. A recently observed increase in smoking prevalence, particularly among adolescent men, is likely to result in rising total cost. Most significantly, our results suggest that a large share of the overall cost burden lies outside the healthcare system or may not be highly salient to the relevant decision makers. This is partly because of the nature of such costs (indirect or intangible costs such as productivity losses are often not salient) or data limitations (a potentially significant fr...
Source: BMJ Open - April 7, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Cher, B. P., Chen, C., Yoong, J. Tags: Open access, Health economics, Health policy, Public health, Smoking and tobacco Research Source Type: research

Diagnosis and repair of perineal injuries: knowledge before and after expert training--a multicentre observational study among Palestinian physicians and midwives
Objective To assess whether a 2 days training with experts teaching on diagnosis and repair of perineal injuries among Palestinian midwives and physicians could change their level of knowledge towards the correct diagnosis and treatment. Study design Multicentre observational study. Setting Obstetric departments in 6 government Palestinian hospitals. Participants All physicians and midwives who attended the training. Methods A questionnaire comprising of 14 questions on the diagnosis and repair of perineal tears was distributed to all participants before the training (n=150; 64 physicians and 86 midwives) and 3&nb...
Source: BMJ Open - April 7, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Zimmo, K., Laine, K., Vikanes, A., Fosse, E., Zimmo, M., Ali, H., Thakar, R., Sultan, A. H., Hassan, S. Tags: Open access, Medical education and training, Obgyn Research Source Type: research

Long-term effect of smartphone-delivered Interval Walking Training on physical activity in patients with type 2 diabetes: protocol for a parallel group single-blinded randomised controlled trial
The objective of the trial is to investigate whether mobile health support using the InterWalk application for smartphones is effective in increasing physical activity levels in persons with T2D over time compared with standard care. We investigate whether Interval Walking Training using the InterWalk application is superior to Danish municipality-based rehabilitation in increasing moderate-and-vigorous physical activity levels in patients with T2D across 52 weeks. Secondary, we hypothesise that a motivational programme added from end of intervention to 52 weeks further increases level of physical activity in eve...
Source: BMJ Open - April 7, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Valentiner, L. S., Ried-Larsen, M., Karstoft, K., Brinklov, C. F., Brons, C., Nielsen, R. O., Christensen, R., Nielsen, J. S., Vaag, A. A., Pedersen, B. K., Langberg, H. Tags: Open access, Evidence based practice, Rehabilitation medicine, Sports and exercise medicine, Diabetes and Endocrinology Protocol Source Type: research

Secular trends in the incidence of dementia in high-income countries: a protocol of a systematic review and a planned meta-analysis
Introduction A global dementia epidemic is projected for the year 2050 with an ever-rising number of individuals living with the syndrome worldwide. However, increasingly, studies are emerging from high-income countries (HIC) that show a positive trend towards a possible decrease in dementia occurrence. Therefore, we aim to systematically summarise evidence regarding secular trends in the incidence of dementia in HIC. Methods and analysis We will conduct a systematic review of the literature on secular trends in dementia incidence in HIC according to the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Revi...
Source: BMJ Open - April 7, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Roehr, S., Pabst, A., Luck, T., Riedel-Heller, S. G. Tags: Open access, Epidemiology, Global health, Health policy, Public health Protocol Source Type: research

What is the care pathway of patients who undergo thyroid surgery in France and its potential pitfalls? A national cohort
Conclusions This almost nationwide study demonstrates the suboptimal management of patients prior to thyroidectomy in France. It suggests overdiagnosis and potential harms to patients, and calls for a review of the relevance of thyroidectomy, particularly with regard to microcancers. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 7, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Mathonnet, M., Cuerq, A., Tresallet, C., Thalabard, J.-C., Fery-Lemonnier, E., Russ, G., Leenhardt, L., Bigorgne, C., Tuppin, P., Millat, B., Fagot-Campagna, A. Tags: Open access, Ear, nose and throat/otolaryngology, Epidemiology, Oncology, Public health, Surgery, Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Source Type: research

Social prescribing: less rhetoric and more reality. A systematic review of the evidence
Conclusions Social prescribing is being widely advocated and implemented but current evidence fails to provide sufficient detail to judge either success or value for money. If social prescribing is to realise its potential, future evaluations must be comparative by design and consider when, by whom, for whom, how well and at what cost. Trial registration number PROSPERO Registration: CRD42015023501. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 7, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Bickerdike, L., Booth, A., Wilson, P. M., Farley, K., Wright, K. Tags: Open access, General practice / Family practice, Health services research Source Type: research

Operational strategies to manage non-elective orthopaedic surgical flows: a simulation modelling study
Conclusions Healthcare managers who strive to improve the timelines of non-elective orthopaedic surgeries may benefit from using simulation modelling to analyse different strategies to support their decisions. In this specific case, the simulation results showed that the reduction of surgery turnover times could yield the same results as an extra OR. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 7, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Persson, M., Hvitfeldt-Forsberg, H., Unbeck, M., Sköldenberg, O. G., Stark, A., Kelly-Pettersson, P., Mazzocato, P. Tags: Open access, Health services research, Medical management Source Type: research

Long-term use benefits of personal frequency-modulated systems for speech in noise perception in patients with stroke with auditory processing deficits: a non-randomised controlled trial study
Conclusions 10-week use of FMs by adult patients with stroke may lead to benefits in unaided speech in noise perception. Our findings may indicate auditory plasticity type changes and require further investigation. Trial registration number Pre-results; NCT02889107. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 7, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Koohi, N., Vickers, D., Warren, J., Werring, D., Bamiou, D.-E. Tags: Open access, Ear, nose and throat/otolaryngology, Neurology Research Source Type: research

Epidemiology of rubella infection in Cameroon: a 7-year experience of measles and rubella case-based surveillance, 2008-2014
Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of rubella disease in a measles case-based surveillance in Cameroon prior to rubella vaccine introduction into the national immunisation programme. Design This was a cross-sectional study for rubella infection in Cameroon for the period 2008 to 2014. Setting Patients suspected with measles from the 10 regions of Cameroon were recruited according to the WHO measles case definition and were tested for rubella IgM antibodies accompanied with the case report/investigation forms. Participants All persons with rash and fever within 14 days of onset of rash accordi...
Source: BMJ Open - April 7, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Nimpa Mengouo, M., Ndze, V. N., Baonga, F., Kobela, M., Wiysonge, C. S. Tags: 1506 Source Type: research

What are the risks and benefits of temporarily discontinuing medications to prevent acute kidney injury? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Conclusions There is low-quality evidence that withdrawal of ACEI/ARBs prior to coronary angiography and cardiac surgery may reduce the incidence of AKI. There is no evidence of the impact of drug cessation interventions on AKI incidence during intercurrent illness in primary or secondary care. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42015023210. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 7, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Whiting, P., Morden, A., Tomlinson, L. A., Caskey, F., Blakeman, T., Tomson, C., Stone, T., Richards, A., Savovic, J., Horwood, J. Tags: Open access, Evidence based practice, Renal medicine Research Source Type: research

Relationship between uric acid and technique failure in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: a long-term observational cohort study
Conclusions UA was shown to be associated with all-cause and peritonitis-related technique failure in our study. Patients on CAPD with hyperuricaemia should be closely monitored and strategies of increasing survival on CAPD should be taken. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 7, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Hsieh, Y.-P., Chang, C.-C., Kor, C.-T., Yang, Y., Wen, Y.-K., Chiu, P.-F., Lin, C.-C. Tags: Open access, Medical management, Renal medicine Research Source Type: research

Translating concerns into action: a detailed qualitative evaluation of an interdisciplinary intervention on medical wards
Conclusions Prospective safety strategies relying on staff-volunteered data produce acceptable, negotiated accounts, subject to the many interdisciplinary tensions that characterise ward work. Nonetheless, these strategies give managers access to the realities of frontline cares, and support frontline staff to make incremental changes in their daily work. These are goals for learning healthcare organisations. Trial registration ISRCTN 34806867. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 5, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Pannick, S., Archer, S., Johnston, M. J., Beveridge, I., Long, S. J., Athanasiou, T., Sevdalis, N. Tags: Open access, Health services research Source Type: research

Risk factors associated with current intimate partner violence at individual and relationship levels: a cross-sectional study among married rural migrant women in Shanghai, China
Objective To identify individual and relationship risk factors associated with current intimate partner violence (IPV) against married rural migrant women in Shanghai, China. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Two subdistricts of one administrative district, Shanghai, China. Participants A total of 958 married rural migrant women of reproductive age were selected using a community-based two-stage cluster sampling method in April and May of 2010. Outcome measures Data were collected using a modified questionnaire based on an instrument from the WHO Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence ag...
Source: BMJ Open - April 5, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Tu, X., Lou, C. Tags: Open access, Global health, Public health Research Source Type: research

The 'weekend effect in acute medicine: a protocol for a team-based ethnography of weekend care for medical patients in acute hospital settings
Introduction It is now well-recognised that patients admitted to hospital on weekends are at higher risk of death than those admitted during weekdays. However, the causes of this ‘weekend effect’ are poorly understood. Some contend that there is a deficit of medical staff on weekends resulting in poorer quality care, whereas others find that patients admitted to hospital on weekends are sicker and therefore at higher risk of adverse outcomes. Clarifying the causal pathway is clearly important in order to identify effective solutions. In this article we describe an ethnographic approach to evaluating the organis...
Source: BMJ Open - April 5, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Tarrant, C., Sutton, E., Angell, E., Aldridge, C. P., Boyal, A., Bion, J., on behalf of the HiSLAC study Tags: Open access, Emergency medicine, Health services research Protocol Source Type: research

Continuum beliefs and stigmatising beliefs about mental illness: results from an Asian community survey
Objectives To establish the prevalence and correlates of continuum beliefs for five mental illnesses in a multiethnic population and to explore its association with stigma. Design A community-based, cross-sectional study. Setting A national study in a multiethnic Asian country. Participants A comprehensive study of 3006 Singapore residents (Singapore citizens and permanent residents) aged 18–65 years who were living in Singapore at the time of the survey. Outcome measures Parameters assessed included belief in a continuum of symptom experience, stigma dimensions and causal beliefs in mental illness. Statistical a...
Source: BMJ Open - April 5, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Subramaniam, M., Abdin, E., Picco, L., Shahwan, S., Jeyagurunathan, A., Vaingankar, J. A., Chong, S. A. Tags: 1712 Source Type: research

Environmental and nutrition impact of achieving new School Food Plan recommendations in the primary school meals sector in England
Conclusions The universal adoption of the new food-based standards, without reformulation would result in an increase in the GHGEs of school meals and improve some aspects of the nutritional quality, but it would not improve the average salt, sugar and saturated fat content levels. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 5, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Wickramasinghe, K., Rayner, M., Goldacre, M., Townsend, N., Scarborough, P. Tags: Open access, Press releases, Nutrition and metabolism, Public health Research Source Type: research

Experiences participating in a community-based exercise programme from the perspective of people living with HIV: a qualitative study
Conclusions CBEPs provide an opportunity to enhance physical activity, perceived health outcomes and knowledge about exercise for PLWH. Community-based exercise is a strategy that may be used by health providers to promote engagement in sustained physical activity for PLWH. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 4, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Montgomery, C. A., Henning, K. J., Kantarzhi, S. R., Kideckel, T. B., Yang, C. F. M., O'Brien, K. K. Tags: Open access, HIV AIDS Research Source Type: research

Optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy following percutaneous coronary intervention: protocol for an umbrella review
Introduction Although dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is routinely given to patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stenting, the optimal duration is unknown. Recent evidence indicates there may be benefits in extending the duration beyond 12 months but such decisions may increase the risk of bleeding. Our objective is to provide a comprehensive overview of the literature for clinicians and policymakers via an umbrella review assessing the optimal duration of DAPT. Methods and analysis We will perform a comprehensive search of the published and grey literature for systematic reviews involving ra...
Source: BMJ Open - April 4, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Elliott, J., Kelly, S. E., Bai, Z., Liu, W., Skidmore, B., Boucher, M., So, D. Y. F., Wells, G. A. Tags: Open access, Cardiovascular medicine, Evidence based practice Protocol Source Type: research

Integrated approach of nutritional and molecular epidemiology, mineralogical and chemical pollutant characterisation: the protocol of a cross-sectional study in women
The objective of the project is to evaluate the risk of DNA hypomethylation due to air pollution, Mediterranean diet adherence, folate intake, and demographic and socioeconomic factors, in healthy women living in the metropolitan area of Catania, Italy. Methods and analysis Non-pregnant healthy women will be enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary intake information will be collected. LINE-1 methylation will be measured by pyrosequencing. The participants' home addresses will be geocoded and each woman will be assigned to the closest monitoring station for particulate matter (PM) expos...
Source: BMJ Open - April 4, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Barchitta, M., Quattrocchi, A., Maugeri, A., Barone, G., Mazzoleni, P., Catalfo, A., De Guidi, G., Iemmolo, M., Crimi, N., Agodi, A. Tags: Open access, Epidemiology, Public health Protocol Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of suanzaoren decoction for chronic insomnia disorder in adults: study protocol for randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled trial
Background Insomnia disorder is defined as a combination of dissatisfaction with sleep quantity or quality and a significant negative impact on daytime functioning. Chronic insomnia disorder refers to clinical symptoms of persistent insomnia at least three nights a week for at least 3 months. Prevalence estimates of insomnia disorder range from 12% to 20% in the adult population, with approximately 50% having a chronic course. The potential side effects of hypnotic medications hinder their clinical application. Thus, traditional Chinese medicine is considered as an alternative option for treating insomnia. Objective ...
Source: BMJ Open - April 4, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Zhou, Q.-H., Wang, H.-L., Zhou, X.-L., Xu, M.-B., Zhang, H.-f., Huang, L.-b., Zheng, G.-q., Lin, Y. Tags: Open access, Complementary medicine, Neurology Protocol Source Type: research

Does a brief, behavioural intervention, delivered by paediatricians or psychologists improve sleep problems for children with ADHD? Protocol for a cluster-randomised, translational trial
Introduction Up to 70% of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience sleep problems. We have demonstrated the efficacy of a brief behavioural intervention for children with ADHD in a large randomised controlled trial (RCT) and now aim to examine whether this intervention is effective in real-life clinical settings when delivered by paediatricians or psychologists. We will also assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Methods and analysis Children aged 5–12 years with ADHD (n=320) are being recruited for this translational cluster RCT through paediatrician practices in Vic...
Source: BMJ Open - April 4, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Sciberras, E., Mulraney, M., Heussler, H., Rinehart, N., Schuster, T., Gold, L., Hayes, N., Hiscock, H. Tags: Open access, Mental health, Public health Protocol Source Type: research

Effects of Testosterone and Evoked Resistance Exercise after Spinal Cord Injury (TEREX-SCI): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial
This study will investigate the effects of evoked RT+TRT or TRT alone on body composition (muscle cross-sectional area, visceral adipose tissue, %FM) and metabolic profile (glucose and lipid metabolism) in individuals with motor complete SCI. Findings from this study may help in designing exercise therapies to alleviate the deterioration in body composition after SCI and decrease the incidence of metabolic disorders in this clinical population. Ethics and dissemination The study is currently approved by the McGuire VA Medical Center and Virginia Commonwealth University. All participants read and signed approved consent fo...
Source: BMJ Open - April 4, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Gorgey, A. S., Khalil, R. E., Gill, R., O'Brien, L. C., Lavis, T., Castillo, T., Cifu, D. X., Savas, J., Khan, R., Cardozo, C., Lesnefsky, E. J., Gater, D. R., Adler, R. A. Tags: Open access, Nutrition and metabolism, Rehabilitation medicine Protocol Source Type: research

Dietary assessment of British police force employees: a description of diet record coding procedures and cross-sectional evaluation of dietary energy intake reporting (The Airwave Health Monitoring Study)
Conclusions A reproducible dietary record coding procedure has been developed to minimise coding error in complex 7-day diet diaries. The prevalence of EI under-reporting is comparable with existing national UK cohorts and, in agreement with previous studies, classification of under-reporting was biased towards specific subgroups of participants. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 4, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Gibson, R., Eriksen, R., Lamb, K., McMeel, Y., Vergnaud, A.-C., Spear, J., Aresu, M., Chan, Q., Elliott, P., Frost, G. Tags: Open access, Epidemiology, Nutrition and metabolism Research Source Type: research

Translating the WHO 25x25 goals into a UK context: the PROMISE modelling study
Conclusions The global premature mortality targets are a potentially achievable goal for countries such as the UK that can capitalise on many decades of effort in prevention and treatment. High morbidity diseases and diseases in later life are not addressed in the Global NCD Action Plan and targets, but must also be considered a priority for prevention in the UK where the population is ageing and the costs of health and social care are rising. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 4, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Cobiac, L. J., Scarborough, P. Tags: Open access, Epidemiology, Health policy, Public health Research Source Type: research

Relative bioavailability of single doses of prolonged-release tacrolimus administered as a suspension, orally or via a nasogastric tube, compared with intact capsules: a phase 1 study in healthy participants
Conclusions Compared with intact capsules, the rate of absorption of prolonged-release tacrolimus from suspension was faster, leading to higher peak blood concentrations and shorter time to peak; relative bioavailability was similar with suspension administered orally. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - April 4, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Undre, N., Dickinson, J. Tags: Open access, Pharmacology and therapeutics, Qualitative research Source Type: research