How does a physical activity programme in elementary school affect fracture risk? A prospective controlled intervention study in Malmo, Sweden
Conclusions Introduction of the school-based intervention programme is associated with a higher fracture risk in the intervention group during the first year followed by a gradual reduction, so that during the eighth year, the fracture risk was lower in the intervention group. Trial registration number NCT00633828. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - February 22, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Cöster, M. E., Fritz, J., Nilsson, J.-A., Karlsson, C., Rosengren, B. E., Dencker, M., Karlsson, M. K. Tags: Open access, Public health, Sports and exercise medicine Research Source Type: research

Fatigue and its associated factors in liver transplant recipients in Beijing: a cross-sectional study
Objectives Fatigue is a highly prevalent symptom experienced by patients who underwent the liver transplantation. However, the influencing factors of fatigue are poorly understood by healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to examine the intensity, interference, duration and prevalence of fatigue in liver transplantation recipients and to explore the influencing factors of post-transplantation fatigue. Design A cross-sectional design was used in this study. Methods A convenience sample of liver transplant recipients was recruited at an outpatient transplant clinic of a general hospital in Beijing, China. Self...
Source: BMJ Open - February 22, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Lin, X.-H., Teng, S., Wang, L., Zhang, J., Shang, Y.-B., Liu, H.-X., Zang, Y.-J. Tags: Open access, Nursing, Public health, Surgery Research Source Type: research

Characteristics and prognoses of patients treated by an anaesthesiologist-manned prehospital emergency care unit. A retrospective cohort study
Conclusions Mortality following an incident requiring the assistance of a MECU was high in the first 2 years following the incident. MECU response time assessed as a continuous parameter was not associated with patient outcome. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - February 21, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Mikkelsen, S., Lossius, H. M., Toft, P., Lassen, A. T. Tags: Open access, Anaesthesia, Emergency medicine, Epidemiology Research Source Type: research

Internet-based cognitive-behavioural writing therapy for reducing post-traumatic stress after intensive care for sepsis in patients and their spouses (REPAIR): study protocol for a randomised-controlled trial
Introduction As a consequence of sepsis and intensive care, considerable proportions of patients but also of their spouses develop a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, only a very small number receive psychotherapeutic treatment. Internet-based cognitive–behavioural writing therapy (IB-CBWT) has proven to be an effective treatment option for PTSD. It seems to fit the specific needs of this cohort and to overcome treatment barriers. Aim of the REPAIR trial is to examine the efficacy, safety and applicability of IB-CBWT for PTSD in patients and their spouses after intensive care for sepsis. Methods and an...
Source: BMJ Open - February 21, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Gawlytta, R., Niemeyer, H., Böttche, M., Scherag, A., Knaevelsrud, C., Rosendahl, J. Tags: Open access, Intensive care, Mental health Protocol Source Type: research

Gene expression profiling in persons with multiple chemical sensitivity before and after a controlled n-butanol exposure session
Conclusions MCS participants and controls have similar gene expression levels at baseline and it was not possible to separate MCS participants from controls based on gene expression measured after the exposure. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - February 21, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Dantoft, T. M., Skovbjerg, S., Andersson, L., Claeson, A.-S., Engkilde, K., Lind, N., Nordin, S., Hellgren, L. I. Tags: Open access, Genetics and genomics, Occupational and environmental medicine, Public health Research Source Type: research

Factors influencing medical students' motivation to practise in rural areas in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review
Conclusions Medical school selection criteria focusing on a rural background factor and medical education curriculum focusing on rural area are more relevant factors in low-income and middle-income countries. The factors identified in this review may assist the planners, medical educators and policymakers in low-income and middle-income countries in designing relevant interventions to positively influence rural choices where the shortage of rural physicians is an ongoing and increasing concern. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - February 21, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Budhathoki, S. S., Zwanikken, P. A. C., Pokharel, P. K., Scherpbier, A. J. Tags: Open access, Health services research, Medical education and training Source Type: research

Correction
Lee SMK, Leem J, Park JH, et al. Close look at the experiences of patients enrolled in a clinical trial of acupuncture treatment for atrial fibrillation in Korea: a qualitative study nested within a randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open 2017;7:e013180. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013180 There should be two Corresponding authors. Both Sanghoon Lee and Weon Kim should be considered the Corresponding authors for this paper. The Correspondence section should read: Correspondence to Dr Sanghoon Lee; shlee777@gmail.com and Weon Kim; mylovekw@hanmail.net (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - February 21, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Tags: Open access Correction Source Type: research

Protocol for a scoping review of existing policies on the prevention and control of obesity across countries in Africa
Introduction The obesity epidemic is a public health challenge for all, including low-income countries. The behavioural patterns known to contribute to the rise in obesity prevalence occur in an environmental context which is not conducive for healthy choices. A policy approach to obesity prevention constitutes a form of public intervention in that it extends beyond individuals to influence entire populations and is a mechanism for creating healthier environments. Little is known about obesity prevention policies in Africa. This scoping review seeks to examine the nature, extent and range of policies covering obesity preve...
Source: BMJ Open - February 21, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Adom, T., Puoane, T., De Villiers, A., Kengne, A. P. Tags: Open access, Public health, Research methods Protocol Source Type: research

Study protocol for a natural experiment in a lower socioeconomic area to examine the health-related effects of refurbishment to parks including built-shade (ShadePlus)
This study was approved by Cancer Council Victoria's Human Research Ethics Committee. Studies such as ShadePlus can improve understanding of the broader effects of park refurbishments (including physical activity levels and sun protection behaviours, as well as social connectedness and psychological well-being). The study findings will be disseminated through established urban planning and parks and recreation networks, peer review publications and conference presentations. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - February 21, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Dobbinson, S. J., Veitch, J., Salmon, J., Wakefield, M., Staiger, P. K., MacInnis, R. J., Simmons, J. Tags: Open access, Public health Protocol Source Type: research

Assessing dose-response effects of national essential medicine policy in China: comparison of two methods for handling data with a stepped wedge-like design and hierarchical structure
Conclusions For examining dose–response effect based on data from multiple time points with hierarchical structure and the stepped wedge-like designs, multilevel RM models are more efficient, convenient and informative than the multilevel DID models. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - February 21, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Ren, Y., Yang, M., Li, Q., Pan, J., Chen, F., Li, X., Meng, Q. Tags: Open access, Health policy, Health services research, Public health, Research methods Source Type: research

Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda, its associated risk factors and relationship to ANC services attendance: a population-based study
Conclusions Intimate partner violence inquiry should be included in the standard antenatal care services package and professionals should be trained in giving support, advice and care to those exposed. Gender-based violence is criminalised behaviour in Rwanda; existing policies and laws must be followed and awareness raised in society for preventive purposes. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - February 21, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Rurangirwa, A. A., Mogren, I., Ntaganira, J., Krantz, G. Tags: Open access, Public health, Obgyn Research Source Type: research

Nurses' decision-making in ethically relevant clinical situations using the example of breathlessness: study protocol of a reflexive grounded theory integrating Goffman's framework analysis
Introduction Decision-making (DM) in healthcare can be understood as an interactive process addressing decision makers' reasoning as well as their visible behaviour after the decision is made. Other key elements of DM are ethical aspects and the role as well as the treatment options of the examined professions. Nurses' DM to choose interventions in situations of severe breathlessness is such interactions. They are also ethically relevant regarding the vulnerability of affected patients and possible restrictions or treatment options. The study aims to explore which factors influence nurses' DM to use nursing interventions i...
Source: BMJ Open - February 21, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Dunger, C., Schnell, M. W., Bausewein, C. Tags: Open access, Nursing, Research methods Protocol Source Type: research

Correction
Deighton J, Edbrooke-Childs J, Stapley E, et al. Realistic evaluation of Situation Awareness for Everyone (SAFE) on paediatric wards: study protocol. BMJ Open 2016;6:e014014. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014014 Peter Lachman should also be affiliated with ‘National Clinical Lead SAFE, Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health’.  The last sentence of the ‘Contributors’ section should read: "PL is the clinical lead on the implementation team for the project at the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (the lead organisation in the delivery of ...
Source: BMJ Open - February 21, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Tags: Open access Correction Source Type: research

Healthcare professionals views of the use and administration of two salvage therapy drugs for acute ulcerative colitis: a nested qualitative study within the CONSTRUCT trial
Conclusions Findings highlight healthcare professionals’ preference for the salvage treatment, infliximab in treating steroid-resistant UC, largely based on resource intensive nursing requirements of intravenous administration of ciclosporin. Not all doctors expressed this preference, being more equivocal, and all professionals were content to suspend preferences within the CONSTRUCT trial and recognised the importance of establishing relative effectiveness and safety. Trial registration number ISRCTN 22663589. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - February 21, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Clement, C., Rapport, F., Seagrove, A., Alrubaiy, L., Williams, J. Tags: Open access, Gastroenterology and hepatology, Qualitative research Source Type: research

Mortality, greenhouse gas emissions and consumer cost impacts of combined diet and physical activity scenarios: a health impact assessment study
Objective To quantify changes in mortality, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and consumer costs for physical activity and diet scenarios. Design For the physical activity scenarios, all car trips from
Source: BMJ Open - February 21, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Tainio, M., Monsivais, P., Jones, N. R., Brand, C., Woodcock, J. Tags: Open access, Nutrition and metabolism, Public health, Sports and exercise medicine Research Source Type: research

Is the effect of person-organisation fit on turnover intention mediated by job satisfaction? A survey of community health workers in China
This study aims to examine the mediation effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between P-O fit and turnover intention based on data from China. Design and methods This is a cross-sectional survey of community health workers (CHWs) in China in 2013. A questionnaire of P-O fit, job satisfaction and turnover intention was developed, and its validity and reliability were assessed. Multiple regression and structural equation modelling were used to examine the relationship among P-O fit, job satisfaction and turnover intention. Setting and participants Multistage sampling was applied. In total, 656 valid questionnaire...
Source: BMJ Open - February 21, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Zhang, M., Yan, F., Wang, W., Li, G. Tags: Open access, Global health, Health policy, Health services research Source Type: research

Patient experience with discharge instructions in postdischarge recovery: a qualitative study
Conclusions Despite concerted efforts to provide patient-centred instructions, the discharge instructions did not provide enough context to effectively guide postdischarge interactions with the healthcare system. Insufficient information on how to access and communicate with the most appropriate personnel in the healthcare system is an important barrier to patients receiving high-quality postdischarge care. Tools and strategies from team training programmes, such as team strategies and tools to enhance performance and patient safety, could be adapted to include patients and provide them with structured methods for communic...
Source: BMJ Open - February 21, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Horstman, M. J., Mills, W. L., Herman, L. I., Cai, C., Shelton, G., Qdaisat, T., Berger, D. H., Naik, A. D. Tags: Open access, Health services research, Patient-centred medicine, Surgery Source Type: research

Childhood academic ability in relation to cigarette, alcohol and cannabis use from adolescence into early adulthood: Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE)
Conclusions In a sample of over 6000 young people in England, high childhood academic at age 11 is associated with a reduced risk of cigarette smoking but an increased risk of drinking alcohol regularly and cannabis use. These associations persist into early adulthood, providing evidence against the hypothesis that high academic ability is associated with temporary ‘experimentation’ with substance use. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - February 21, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Williams, J., Hagger-Johnson, G. Tags: Open access, Press releases, Epidemiology, Public health Research Source Type: research

Protocol for the development of a core domain set for hidradenitis suppurativa trial outcomes
Introduction Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) should have well-defined primary and secondary outcomes to answer questions generated by the main hypotheses. However, for the chronic, inflammatory skin disease hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), the reported outcome measures are numerous and diverse. A recent systematic review found a total of 30 outcome measure instruments in 12 RCTs. This use of a broad range of outcome measures can increase difficulties in interpretation and comparison of results and may potentially obstruct appropriate evidence synthesis by causing reporting bias. One strategy for dealing with these proble...
Source: BMJ Open - February 19, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Thorlacius, L., Ingram, J. R., Garg, A., Villumsen, B., Esmann, S., Kirby, J. S., Gottlieb, A. B., Merola, J. F., Dellavalle, R., Christensen, R., Jemec, G. B. E. Tags: Open access, Dermatology, Patient-centred medicine, Qualitative research, Research methods Protocol Source Type: research

Comparison of substance use, subjective well-being and interpersonal relationships among young people in foster care and private households: a cross sectional analysis of the School Health Research Network survey in Wales
Conclusions Young people living in FC experience significantly worse outcomes than young people not in care, likely due to a range of care and precare factors, which impact adversely on subsequent social relationships. The analyses are consistent with the hypothesis that the associations of FC with substance use and life satisfaction are partially explained by poorer quality social relationships. Large scale, longitudinal studies are required to investigate the relationship between being in care and health, educational and social outcomes. Mental health interventions and interventions to reduce substance use and improve we...
Source: BMJ Open - February 19, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Long, S. J., Evans, R. E., Fletcher, A., Hewitt, G., Murphy, S., Young, H., Moore, G. F. Tags: Open access, Addiction, Public health Research Source Type: research

Interpretation and use of evidence in state policymaking: a qualitative analysis
Conclusions Past research has suggested multiple strategies to increase the use of evidence in policymaking, including the development of rapid-response research and policy-oriented summaries of data. Our findings suggest that these strategies may be most relevant to the policymaking stream, which develops policy alternatives. In addition, we identify several strategies that policymakers and researchers can apply to encourage evidence-informed policymaking. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - February 19, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Apollonio, D. E., Bero, L. A. Tags: Open access, Health policy, Public health, Qualitative research Source Type: research

Evaluating investment in quality improvement capacity building: a systematic review
Conclusions The literature on QI capacity building evaluation is limited in the number and scope of studies. Our findings, summarised in a Framework to Guide Evaluations of QI Capacity Building, can be used to start closing this knowledge gap. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - February 19, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Mery, G., Dobrow, M. J., Baker, G. R., Im, J., Brown, A. Tags: Open access, Health policy, Health services research Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of super selective bronchial artery coil embolisation for haemoptysis: a single-centre retrospective observational study
Conclusions We demonstrated the safety and long-term efficacy of elective ssBAE using platinum coils and established that it can be a valuable therapeutic option for treating patients with haemoptysis. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - February 16, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Ishikawa, H., Hara, M., Ryuge, M., Takafuji, J., Youmoto, M., Akira, M., Nagasaka, Y., Kabata, D., Yamamoto, K., Shintani, A. Tags: Open access, Radiology and imaging, Respiratory medicine Research Source Type: research

Women's experiences with cervical cancer screening in a colposcopy referral clinic in Cape Town, South Africa: a qualitative analysis
Conclusions There is a strong and urgent need to improve current knowledge about cervical cancer and Pap smears and the necessity and benefits of timely access to screening programmes, results and treatment. Strategies such as community health education programmes and mass media interventions could be employed to disseminate cervical cancer information and address negative community perceptions. Better training and support mechanisms to equip healthcare providers with the skills to convey cervical cancer information to women are needed. The use of short message service (SMS) to deliver Pap smear results and provide patient...
Source: BMJ Open - February 16, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Momberg, M., Botha, M. H., Van der Merwe, F. H., Moodley, J. Tags: Open access, Public health, Qualitative research, Obgyn Source Type: research

Understanding the epidemiology of avoidable significant harm in primary care: protocol for a retrospective cross-sectional study
Introduction Most patient safety research has focused on specialist-care settings where there is an appreciation of the frequency and causes of medical errors, and the resulting burden of adverse events. There have, however, been few large-scale robust studies that have investigated the extent and severity of avoidable harm in primary care. To address this, we will conduct a 12-month retrospective cross-sectional study involving case note review of primary care patients. Methods and analysis We will conduct electronic searches of general practice (GP) clinical computer systems to identify patients with avoidable significa...
Source: BMJ Open - February 16, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Bell, B. G., Campbell, S., Carson-Stevens, A., Evans, H. P., Cooper, A., Sheehan, C., Rodgers, S., Johnson, C., Edwards, A., Armstrong, S., Mehta, R., Chuter, A., Donnelly, A., Ashcroft, D. M., Lymn, J., Smith, P., Sheikh, A., Boyd, M., Avery, A. J. Tags: Open access, General practice / Family practice, Health policy, Health services research Protocol Source Type: research

Protocol for a scoping review of post-trial extensions of randomised controlled trials using individually linked administrative and registry data
Introduction Well-conducted randomised controlled trials (RCTs) provide the least biased estimates of intervention effects. However, RCTs are costly and time-consuming to perform and long-term follow-up of participants may be hampered by lost contacts and financial constraints. Advances in computing and population-based registries have created new possibilities for increasing the value of RCTs by post-trial extension using linkage to routinely collected administrative/registry data in order to determine long-term interventional effects. There have been recent important examples, including 20+ years follow-up studies of tri...
Source: BMJ Open - February 16, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Fitzpatrick, T., Perrier, L., Tricco, A. C., Straus, S. E., Jüni, P., Zwarenstein, M., Lix, L. M., Smith, M., Rosella, L. C., Henry, D. A. Tags: Open access, Epidemiology, Evidence based practice, Health informatics, Health services research, Pharmacology and therapeutics, Research methods Protocol Source Type: research

Caesarean sections and for-profit status of hospitals: systematic review and meta-analysis
Conclusions CS are more likely to be performed by for-profit hospitals as compared with non-profit hospitals. This holds true regardless of women's risk and contextual factors such as country, year or study design. Since financial incentives are likely to play an important role, we recommend examination of incentive structures of for-profit hospitals to identify strategies that encourage appropriate provision of CS. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - February 16, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Hoxha, I., Syrogiannouli, L., Luta, X., Tal, K., Goodman, D. C., da Costa, B. R., Jüni, P. Tags: Open access, Health economics, Health policy, Health services research, Obgyn Source Type: research

Health information needs, source preferences and engagement behaviours of women with metastatic breast cancer across the care continuum: protocol for a scoping review
Introduction The health information needs, information source preferences and engagement behaviours of women with metastatic breast cancer (mBC) depend on personal characteristics such as education level, prior knowledge, clinical complications, comorbidities and where they are in the cancer journey. A thorough understanding of the information behaviours of women living with mBC is essential to the provision of optimal care. A preliminary literature review suggests that there is little research on this topic, but that there may be lessons from a slightly broader literature. This review will identify what is known and what ...
Source: BMJ Open - February 16, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Tucker, C. A., Martin, M. P., Jones, R. B. Tags: Open access, Health informatics, Patient-centred medicine Protocol Source Type: research

Retrospective examination of lipid-lowering treatment patterns in a real-world high-risk cohort in the UK in 2014: comparison with the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) 2014 lipid modification guidelines
Conclusions A large proportion of UK individuals with ASCVD and high-risk non-ASCVD received statin treatment (79% and 62%, respectively) during the year of NICE 2014 guidelines release. Up to 94% of patients with ASCVD and 85% of high-risk non-ASCVD individuals, representing ~3 million individuals in each group, would require statin uptitration or initiation to achieve full concordance with updated guidelines. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - February 16, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Steen, D. L., Khan, I., Ansell, D., Sanchez, R. J., Ray, K. K. Tags: Open access, Cardiovascular medicine Research Source Type: research

White cell count in the normal range and short-term and long-term mortality: international comparisons of electronic health record cohorts in England and New Zealand
Conclusions Clinically recorded WBC within the range considered ‘normal’ is associated with mortality in ethnically different populations from two countries, particularly within the first 6 months. Large-scale international comparisons of electronic health record cohorts might yield new insights from widely performed clinical tests. Trial registration number NCT02014610. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - February 16, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Shah, A. D., Thornley, S., Chung, S.-C., Denaxas, S., Jackson, R., Hemingway, H. Tags: Open access, Epidemiology, Health informatics Research Source Type: research

Qualitative study of the BREATHER trial (Short Cycle antiretroviral therapy): is it acceptable to young people living with HIV?
Objectives A qualitative study of the BREATHER (PENTA 16) randomised clinical trial, which compared virological control of Short Cycle Therapy (SCT) (5 days on: 2 days off) with continuous efavirenz (EFV)-based antiretroviral therapy (CT) in children and young people (aged 8–24) living with HIV with viral load
Source: BMJ Open - February 16, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Bernays, S., Paparini, S., Seeley, J., Namukwaya Kihika, S., Gibb, D., Rhodes, T. Tags: Open access, Paediatrics, HIV AIDS Research Source Type: research

Brighter children? The association between seasonality of birth and child IQ in a population-based birth cohort
Conclusions Season of birth is an indicator of many underlying factors related to child IQ. The observed effects on IQ were small and therefore not of clinical significance. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - February 16, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Grootendorst-van Mil, N. H., Steegers-Theunissen, R. P. M., Hofman, A., Jaddoe, V. W. V., Verhulst, F. C., Tiemeier, H. Tags: Open access, Epidemiology, Occupational and environmental medicine, Paediatrics, Obgyn Research Source Type: research

Randomised, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of VVZ-149 injections for postoperative pain following laparoscopic colorectal surgery
We describe a prospective, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial testing the hypothesis that a novel analgesic drug, VVZ -149, is safe and effective in improving pain compared with providing opioid analgesia alone among adults undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Methods and analysis Based on sample size calculations for primary outcome, we plan to enrol 120 participants. Adult patients without significant medical comorbidities or ongoing opioid use and who are undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery will be enrolled. Participants are randomly assigned to receive either VVZ...
Source: BMJ Open - February 16, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Nedeljkovic, S. S., Correll, D. J., Bao, X., Zamor, N., Zeballos, J. L., Zhang, Y., Young, M. J., Ledley, J., Sorace, J., Eng, K., Hamsher, C. P., Maniam, R., Chin, J. W., Tsui, B., Cho, S., Lee, D. H. Tags: Open access, Anaesthesia, Pharmacology and therapeutics Protocol Source Type: research

Correction
Tsai T, Livneh H, Hung T, et al. Associations between prescribed Chinese herbal medicine and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis B: a nationwide population-based cohort study. BMJ Open 2017;7:e014571. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014571 Affiliation 6 Is incomplete. It should read "School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, 701 Jhongyang Road Section 3, Hualien 97004, Taiwan". (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - February 15, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Tags: Open access Correction Source Type: research

Parenting for Autism, Language, And Communication Evaluation Study (PALACES): protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial
This study will provide initial evidence of effectiveness for the newly developed IY-ASLD parenting programme. It will also add to the limited economic evidence for an intervention targeting parents of children with ASD and provide longer term data, an important component for evaluations of parenting programmes. Ethics and dissemination Approval for the study was granted by the Research Ethics Committee at the School of Psychology, Bangor University (reference number: 2016–15768) and the North Wales Research Ethics Committee, UK (reference number: 16/WA/0224). The findings will be disseminated through research confe...
Source: BMJ Open - February 15, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Williams, M. E., Hastings, R., Charles, J. M., Evans, S., Hutchings, J. Tags: Open access, Evidence based practice, Mental health, Paediatrics, Public health Protocol Source Type: research

Long-term experiences of Norwegian live kidney donors: qualitative in-depth interviews
Conclusions Live kidney donors seemed to possess resilient qualities that enabled them to address the long-term consequences of donation. The challenge is to provide more uniform information about long-term consequences. In future research, resilient qualities could be a topic to explore in live donation. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - February 15, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Meyer, K. B., Bjork, I. T., Wahl, A. K., Lennerling, A., Andersen, M. H. Tags: Open access, Qualitative research, Renal medicine Source Type: research

Do failures in non-technical skills contribute to fatal medical accidents in Japan? A review of the 2010-2013 national accident reports
Conclusions Poor non-technical skills were considered to be a significant cause of adverse events in nearly half of the fatal medical accidents examined. Improving non-technical skills may be effective for reducing accidents, and training in particular subcategories of non-technical skills may be especially relevant. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - February 15, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Uramatsu, M., Fujisawa, Y., Mizuno, S., Souma, T., Komatsubara, A., Miki, T. Tags: Open access, Medical education and training, Medical management Research Source Type: research

Birth size, risk factors across life and cognition in late life: protocol of prospective longitudinal follow-up of the MYNAH (MYsore studies of Natal effects on Ageing and Health) cohort
This study will specifically examine, if lower birth weight is associated with poorer cognitive functioning in late life in a south Indian population. Methods and analysis From 1934 onwards, the birth weight, length and head circumference of all babies born in the CSI Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India, were recorded in obstetric notes. Approximately 800 men and women from the Mysore Birth Records Cohort aged above 55 years, and a reliable informant for each, will be asked to participate in a single cross-sectional baseline assessment for cognitive function, mental health and cardiometabolic disorders. Parti...
Source: BMJ Open - February 15, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Krishna, M., Kumar, G. M., Veena, S. R., Krishnaveni, G. V., Kumaran, K., Karat, S. C., Coakley, P., Osmond, C., Copeland, J. R. M., Chandak, G., Bhat, D., Varghese, M., Prince, M., Fall, C. Tags: Open access, Epidemiology, Global health, Mental health, Neurology, Public health Protocol Source Type: research

Dietary phytochemical intake from foods and health outcomes: a systematic review protocol and preliminary scoping
Introduction Dietary phytochemicals are found in plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables and grains and may be categorised in a nested hierarchical manner with many hundred individual phytochemicals identified to date. To associate phytochemical intakes with positive health outcomes, a fundamental step is to accurately estimate the dietary phytochemical intake from foods reported. The purpose of this systematic review protocol is to describe the process to be undertaken to summarise the evidence for food-based dietary phytochemical intakes and health outcomes for adults. Methods and analysis The review will be undert...
Source: BMJ Open - February 14, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Probst, Y. C., Guan, V. X., Kent, K. Tags: Open access, Evidence based practice, Nutrition and metabolism, Public health, Research methods Protocol Source Type: research

CanWalk: a feasibility study with embedded randomised controlled trial pilot of a walking intervention for people with recurrent or metastatic cancer
Conclusions The intervention was acceptable, well tolerated and the study design was judged acceptable and feasible. Results are encouraging and demonstrate that exercise was popular and conveyed benefit to participants. Consequently, an effectiveness RCT is warranted, with some modifications to the intervention to include greater tailoring and more appropriate PROMs selected. Trial registration number ISRCTN42072606. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - February 14, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Tsianakas, V., Harris, J., Ream, E., Van Hemelrijck, M., Purushotham, A., Mucci, L., Green, J. S. A., Fewster, J., Armes, J. Tags: Open access, Oncology, Sports and exercise medicine Research Source Type: research

Prevalence and patterns of congenital heart diseases in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol
Introduction Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are common causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among young children and adolescents living in Africa. Accurate epidemiological data are needed in order to evaluate and improve preventive strategies. This review aims to determine the prevalence of CHD and their main patterns in Africa. Methods and analysis This systematic review and meta-analysis will include cross-sectional, case–control and cohort studies of populations residing inside African countries, which have reported the prevalence of CHD, confirmed by an echocardiographic examination and/or describin...
Source: BMJ Open - February 13, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Tankeu, A. T., Bigna, J. J. R., Nansseu, J. R. N., Aminde, L. N., Danwang, C., Temgoua, M. N., Noubiap, J. J. N. Tags: Open access, Cardiovascular medicine, Epidemiology Protocol Source Type: research

Revalidation and quality assurance: the application of the MUSIQ framework in independent verification visits to healthcare organisations
Conclusions Influencing teams whose prime responsibility is establishing processes and evaluating progress was crucial for internal quality improvement. Visits acted as a nudge, generating internal quality review, which was reinforced by visit teams with relevant expertise. Diverse team membership, knowledge transfer and timely feedback made visits more impactful. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - February 13, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Griffin, A., McKeown, A., Viney, R., Rich, A., Welland, T., Gafson, I., Woolf, K. Tags: Open access, Health services research, Medical education and training, Medical management, Qualitative research, Research methods Source Type: research

Understanding repeated non-attendance in health services: a pilot analysis of administrative data and full study protocol for a national retrospective cohort
Introduction Understanding the causes of low engagement in healthcare is a pre-requisite for improving health services’ contribution to tackling health inequalities. Low engagement includes missing healthcare appointments. Serially (having a pattern of) missing general practice (GP) appointments may provide a risk marker for vulnerability and poorer health outcomes. Methods and analysis A proof of concept pilot using GP appointment data and a focus group with GPs informed the development of missed appointment categories: patients can be classified based on the number of appointments missed each year. The full study,...
Source: BMJ Open - February 13, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Williamson, A. E., Ellis, D. A., Wilson, P., McQueenie, R., McConnachie, A. Tags: Open access, Epidemiology, General practice / Family practice, Health services research, Public health Protocol Source Type: research

What is the relationship between age and deprivation in influencing emergency hospital admissions? A model using data from a defined, comprehensive, all-age cohort in East Devon, UK
Objectives To clarify the relationship between social deprivation and age as two factors associated with emergency admissions to hospital. Design Emergency admissions for 12 months were analysed for patients in the NHS NEW Devon CCG. Social deprivation was measured by the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). Logistic regression models estimated the separate and combined effects of social deprivation and age on the risk of emergency admissions for people aged under and over 65. Setting East Devon, UK—area of the NEW Devon CCG. Population 765 861 patients in the CCG database. Main outcome measure Emergenc...
Source: BMJ Open - February 13, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Pereira Gray, D., Henley, W., Chenore, T., Sidaway-Lee, K., Evans, P. Tags: Open access, Emergency medicine, Geriatric medicine, Health policy, Health services research Source Type: research

Referral pathways for patients with TIA avoiding hospital admission: a scoping review
Conclusions Research literature has focused on assessment and referral by family doctors and ED physicians to reduce hospitalisation of patients with TIA. No pathways for paramedical use were reported. We will use results of this scoping review to inform development of a paramedical referral pathway to be tested in a feasibility trial. Trial registration number ISRCTN85516498. Stage: pre-results. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - February 13, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Evans, B. A., Ali, K., Bulger, J., Ford, G. A., Jones, M., Moore, C., Porter, A., Pryce, A. D., Quinn, T., Seagrove, A. C., Snooks, H., Whitman, S., Rees, N., on behalf of the TIER Trial Research Management Group Tags: Open access, Emergency medicine, Evidence based practice, Health services research Source Type: research

Medical students' opportunities to participate and learn from activities at an internal medicine ward: an ethnographic study
Conclusions This study shed light on how an acute internal medicine ward culture can facilitate medical students' possibilities to participate and learn. Medical students' learning situations were characterised by questions and answers rather than challenging dialogues related to the complexity of presented patient cases. Further, students experienced continuous transfers between learning situations where the potential to be involved differed in a wide variety of ways. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - February 13, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Hägg-Martinell, A., Hult, H., Henriksson, P., Kiessling, A. Tags: Open access, Medical education and training, Qualitative research Source Type: research

Individualised risk assessment for local recurrence and distant metastases in a retrospective transatlantic cohort of 687 patients with high-grade soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities: a multistate model
Conclusions This paper underlined the alternating effect of surgical margins and the use of neoadjuvant radiotherapy on oncological outcomes between patients with different baseline characteristics. The multistate model incorporates this essential information of a specific patient's history, tumour characteristics and adjuvant treatment modalities and allows a more comprehensive prediction of future events. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - February 13, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Willeumier, J. J., Rueten-Budde, A. J., Jeys, L. M., Laitinen, M., Pollock, R., Aston, W., Dijkstra, P. D. S., Ferguson, P. C., Griffin, A. M., Wunder, J. S., Fiocco, M., van de Sande, M. A. J. Tags: Open access, Oncology, Patient-centred medicine, Surgery Research Source Type: research

Association of passive and active smoking with self-rated health and life satisfaction in Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN IV study
Conclusions Adolescents with different smoking habits and exposure patterns have poorer SRH and LS than non-smokers. Both active and passive smoking status could affect LS and SRH in adolescents. Therefore, smoking prevention strategies should be considered as a health priority in school health services for promoting psychological well-being in children and adolescents. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - February 13, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Heshmat, R., Qorbani, M., Safiri, S., Eslami-Shahr Babaki, A., Matin, N., Motamed-Gorji, N., Motlagh, M.-E., Djalalinia, S., Ardalan, G., Mansourian, M., Asayesh, H., Kelishadi, R. Tags: Open access, Addiction, Epidemiology, Mental health, Paediatrics, Smoking and tobacco Research Source Type: research

Association between community management of pneumonia and diarrhoea in high-burden countries and the decline in under-five mortality rates: an ecological analysis
The objective of the paper is to explore if the adoption of national policies to use community-based health providers for the management of pneumonia and diarrhoea is associated with the decline in under-five mortality, including achievement of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG)4 target, in high-burden countries. Setting This country level analysis covers 75 high-burden low-income and middle-income countries which accounted for 98% of the 5.9 million global under-five deaths in 2015. One-fourth of these deaths were due to pneumonia and diarrhoea. Methods 2 tests and multiple regression analysis were used to examine th...
Source: BMJ Open - February 13, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Boschi-Pinto, C., Dilip, T. R., Costello, A. Tags: Open access, Global health, Health policy, Public health Research Source Type: research

Healthcare experiences of patients with age-related macular degeneration: have things improved? Cross-sectional survey responses of Macular Society members in 2013 compared with 1999
Objective To investigate healthcare experiences of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and determine whether a previous survey and Royal College of Ophthalmologists (RCOphth) management guidelines brought improvements. Design Cross-sectional survey of Macular Society members in 2013 compared with previous 1999 survey. Setting UK Postal Questionnaires. Participants 1169 respondents in 2013 (1187 in 1999). Intervention Publication of 1999 survey results (2002), and RCOphth AMD guidelines (2009). Main outcome measures Respondents answered questions about experiences at diagnosis. Five questions were repl...
Source: BMJ Open - February 13, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Boxell, E. M., Amoaku, W. M., Bradley, C. Tags: Open access, Communication, Health services research, Ophthalmology, Patient-centred medicine Source Type: research