Log in to search using one of your social media accounts:

 

Generic-reference and generic-generic bioequivalence of forty-two, randomly-selected, on-market generic products of fourteen immediate-release oral drugs.
CONCLUSIONS: On-market generic drug products continue to be reference-bioequivalent and are bioequivalent to each other based on AUCT, AUCI, and Cmax but not AUCReftmax. Average deviation of geometric mean ratios and intra-subject variations are similar between reference-generic and generic-generic comparisons. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01344070 (registered April 3, 2011). PMID: 29216899 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - December 9, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Improved drug safety through intensive pharmacovigilance in hospitalized pediatric patients.
Authors: Vázquez-Alvarez AO, Brennan-Bourdon LM, Rincón-Sánchez AR, Islas-Carbajal MC, Huerta-Olvera SG Abstract BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to detect and analyze Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) through Intensive Pharmacovigilance (IPV) in hospitalized pediatric patients to improve drug safety. METHODS: A prospective 6-month cross-sectional study was performed in the pediatric service of a regional hospital in Mexico in order to assess hospitalized children from 1 day to 18 years old. The inclusion criteria were: both genders, all hospitalization causes, and at least one p...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - December 9, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Effects of metamizole, MAA, and paracetamol on proliferation, apoptosis, and necrosis in the pancreatic cancer cell lines PaTu 8988  t and Panc-1.
CONCLUSION: The oncogenic potential of pancreatic adenocarcinoma is mainly characterized by its extreme growth rate. Non-opioid analgesics such as metamizole and paracetamol are given as general anesthetics and postoperative analgesics. The combination of metamizole or paracetamol with cytotoxic therapeutic approaches may achieve synergistic effects. Further studies are necessary to identify the underlying mechanisms so that new therapeutic options may be developed for the treatment of this aggressive tumor. PMID: 29208039 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - December 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

High prevalence of prescription of psychotropic drugs for older patients in a general hospital.
CONCLUSIONS: A high percentage of patients aged ≥ 65 years received psychotropic drugs. The chance that a potentially inappropriate psychotropic drug would be administered was highest in the surgical departments. Antidepressants, neuroleptics and Z-drugs were used surprisingly often in geriatric medicine. Educational strategies could reduce the use of psychotropic drugs and the prescription of potentially inappropriate medications. PMID: 29202811 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - December 6, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Frequency, characteristics and risk factors of QT interval prolonging drugs and drug-drug interactions in cancer patients: a multicenter study.
This study aimed to identify the prevalence of QT prolonging drugs, their TdP risk, QT prolonging drug-drug interactions (QT-DDIs), levels, predictors, and TdP risk of drugs involved in QT-DDIs. METHODS: This multicenter study included cancer patients from three major tertiary care hospitals of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Micromedex DrugReax® was used for identification of QT-DDIs. TdP risks were identified by AZCERT (Arizona Center for Education and Research on Therapeutics) classification. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of QT-DDIs. RESULTS: Of 555 patients, 51% were female...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - December 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Dose-dependent effect of daptomycin on the artificial prolongation of prothrombin time in coagulation abnormalities: in vitro verification.
Authors: Hashimoto H, Saito M, Kanda N, Yamamoto T, Mieno M, Hatakeyama S Abstract BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported that daptomycin induced artificial prolongation of prothrombin time (PT) in some test reagents, particularly in warfarin users. However, it remains unknown whether the artificial prolongation can be affected by coagulation abnormalities other than the use of warfarin. Thus, we investigated the effect of daptomycin on PT with two types of coagulation abnormalities. METHODS: Plasma samples were pooled by four groups: healthy volunteers (Plasma A), warfarin users with a PT-international norm...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - November 29, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic study of single- and multiple-dosing with metolazone tablets in healthy Chinese population.
CONCLUSIONS: Single dosing with 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg metolazone yielded linear plasma pharmacokinetic properties in healthy Chinese subjects. Multiple oral doses of metolazone did not display significantly different distributions or elimination characteristics from those observed for a single dose. Gender factors did not appear to influence the pharmacokinetic parameter variation of metolazone. The tmax of metolazone increased in the fed condition. Metolazone was well tolerated at the tested dose in this study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This investigation is retrospectively registered at chictr.org.cn (ChiCTR...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - November 19, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Methylxanthines induce structural and functional alterations of the cardiac system in zebrafish embryos.
Authors: Basnet RM, Zizioli D, Guarienti M, Finazzi D, Memo M Abstract BACKGROUND: Zebrafish embryos are emerging as a model for pharmacological and toxicological studies. We used zebrafish embryos to study the general toxicity and cardiovascular effects of eight methylxanthines: aminophylline, caffeine, diprophylline, doxofylline, etophylline, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), pentoxifylline and theophylline. METHODS: Microinjections of the eight methylxanthines were performed in 1-2 cell stage zebrafish embryos and the general toxicity and cardiovascular effects were analyzed at different time points. Embry...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - November 18, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Use of a trigger tool to detect adverse drug reactions in an emergency department.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of the trigger tool to identify adverse reactions in the emergency department was possible to identify a prevalence of 2.3%. It showed to be a viable method that can provide a better understanding of adverse drug reactions in this patient population. PMID: 29141696 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - November 18, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Exploring venlafaxine pharmacokinetic variability with a phenotyping approach, a multicentric french-swiss study (MARVEL study).
This study is a multicentre prospective non-randomized open trial. Eligible patients present a major depressive episode, MADRS over or equal to 20, treatment with VLX regardless of the dose during at least 4 weeks. The Phenotype Visit includes VLX and ODV concentration measurement. Following the oral absorption of low doses of omeprazole, midazolam, dextromethorphan, and fexofenadine, drug metabolizing enzymes activity is assessed by specific metabolite/probe concentration ratios from a sample taken 2 h after cocktail administration for CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP2D6; and by the determination of the limited area under t...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - November 9, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Assessment of utilization pattern of fixed dose drug combinations in primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare centers in Nepal: a cross-sectional study.
CONCLUSIONS: FDCs were used extensively at different health care centers. The number of prescription in private centers, following established guidelines and the essential drug list (EDL), was much lower. The cost associated with the utilization of FDCs was higher in private sectors compared to public health care centers. In certain cases, the use of FDCs was questionable, and this study found a low use of essential medicines. Education to improve prescription practices at different healthcare levels is recommended. PMID: 29096701 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - November 5, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Glucagon-like peptide receptor agonists attenuate advanced glycation end products-induced inflammation in rat mesangial cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that both GLP-1 receptor and PPARδ agonists have anti-inflammatory effect on AGE-treated rat mesangial cells. PMID: 29065926 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - October 28, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Prescription of potentially inappropriate medications among older people with intellectual disability: a register study.
CONCLUSIONS: Although prescription of potentially inappropriate medications overall is more common among people with ID than in the general population, the opposite pattern is found for medications for pain management. This may be a result of pain being under-recognized and under-treated in this population. Thus, there is a need for training as well as increased knowledge and awareness among care and health care professionals regarding signs of adverse effects and the need of continuous evaluation of treatment in this vulnerable group. PMID: 29070067 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - October 28, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Adverse drug effects observed with vildagliptin versus pioglitazone or rosiglitazone in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
CONCLUSION: Both vildagliptin and pioglitazone/rosiglitazone are acceptable for the treatment of patients with T2DM on the basis that they are not significantly different in terms of overall adverse drug events. However, weight gain and peripheral edema would have to be re-assessed in further larger randomized controlled trials. PMID: 29058622 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - October 25, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Abstracts from the 8th International Conference on cGMP Generators, Effectors and Therapeutic Implications : Bamberg, Germany. 23-25 June, 2017.
Authors: PMID: 29035170 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - October 18, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Haloperidol affects bones while clozapine alters metabolic parameters - sex specific effects in rats perinatally treated with phencyclidine.
CONCLUSION: Taken together our findings confirm that antipsychotics have complex influence on bone and metabolism. Evaluation of potential markers for individual risk of antipsychotics induced adverse effects could be valuable for improvement of therapy of this life-long lasting disease. PMID: 29020988 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - October 13, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Estrogen and soy isoflavonoids decrease sensitivity of medulloblastoma and central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor cells to chemotherapeutic cytotoxicity.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that E2 and environmental estrogens decrease sensitivity of MB to cytotoxic chemotherapeutics, and that ERβ selective and non-selective inhibition of estrogen receptor activity blocks these cytoprotective actions. These findings support the therapeutic potential of antiestrogen adjuvant therapies for MB, and findings that soy phytoestrogens also decrease sensitivity of MB cells to cytotoxic chemotherapeutics suggest that decreased exposure to environmental estrogens may benefit MB patient responses to chemotherapy. PMID: 28877739 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - September 9, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Rosiglitazone increases endothelial cell migration and vascular permeability through Akt phosphorylation.
CONCLUSIONS: Vascular endothelial cell migration and permeability change through Akt phosphorylation might be a mechanism of induced fluid retention and peripheral tissue edema by TZD. PMID: 28854981 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - September 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Short-term treatment with taurolidine is associated with liver injury.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that taurolidine caused liver injury after short-term use in in vitro and in vivo models probably due to direct toxic effects on hepatocytes. Therefore, the taurolidine dose should be titrated in further investigations regarding liver injury and inflammation. PMID: 28800748 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - August 13, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

β adrenergic receptor/cAMP/PKA signaling contributes to the intracellular Ca(2+) release by tentacle extract from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that β adrenergic receptor/cAMP/PKA signaling contributes to the intracellular Ca(2+) overload through intracellular Ca(2+) release by TE from the jellyfish C. capillata. PMID: 28743285 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 28, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Evaluation of pharmacotherapy complexity in residents of long-term care facilities: a cross-sectional descriptive study.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study evaluated some factors that complicate the pharmacotherapy of geriatric patients. Although polypharmacy was implicated as a factor directly related to complexity, other indicators such as drug interactions, potentially inappropriate medications, and therapeutic duplication can also make the use of pharmacotherapy in such patients more difficult. PMID: 28743294 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 28, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Astaxanthin mitigates cobalt cytotoxicity in the MG-63 cells by modulating the oxidative stress.
CONCLUSIONS: ASX mitigated cobalt cytotoxicity in the MG-63 cells by modulating the oxidative stress. And ASX could be a promising therapy against cobalt toxicity in the hip articulation surgery. PMID: 28738843 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 27, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

The inhibitory effect of Isoliquiritigenin on the proliferation of human arterial smooth muscle cell.
CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, we concluded that ISL inhibited the proliferation of HASMCs via attenuating oxidative stress and suppressing PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. The inhibitory effect of ISL on PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, at least partly, was mediated by ROS. PMID: 28716056 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 20, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Zinc as an adjunct treatment for reducing case fatality due to clinical severe infection in young infants: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
This study was not powered to detect an effect on case fatality, which this current study is. If the results are consistent with this earlier trial, we would have provided strong evidence for recommending zinc as an adjunct to standard therapy for clinical severe infection in young infants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Universal Trial Number: U1111-1187-6479, Clinical Trials Registry - India: CTRI/2017/02/007966 : Registered on February 27, 2017. PMID: 28693558 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 13, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Sema3A drastically suppresses tumor growth in oral cancer Xenograft model of mice.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that overexpression of Sema3A in oral cancer cells drastically suppressed tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis. Our findings provide a basis for the development of novel therapeutics in the management of oral cancer. PMID: 28683823 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of oral mitiglinide on glucose lowering in healthy Chinese volunteers.
CONCLUSIONS: A PK/PD model illustrates that the relationship between mitiglinide concentration in plasma and glucose lowering effect in healthy volunteers was established. The results of our experiment suggested that the model can be used reasonably to predict the relationship between PK and PD in mitiglinide, which could be used in diabetes mellitus dosage control in clinical trials and other fields. PMID: 28676080 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 7, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Actions of sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Moquiniastrum polymorphum subsp. floccosum in MCF7 cell line and their potentiating action on doxorubicin.
Authors: de Oliveira Mauro M, Matuo R, de David N, Strapasson RLB, Oliveira RJ, Stefanello MÉA, Kassuya CAL, de Cepa Matos MF, Faria FJC, Costa DS Abstract BACKGROUND: In order to obtain better clinical results in anticancer therapies, polychemotherapy or combination therapies are used. For this, the combinations are required to increase the efficacy and reduce the adverse reactions of the associated chemotherapies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, apoptotic and (anti)proliferative potential of two sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Moquiniastrum polymorphum, 11,13-diidrozaluzanin C (1)...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 1, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Erratum to: Analgesic use in a Norwegian general population: change over time and high-risk use - The Troms ø Study.
Erratum to: Analgesic use in a Norwegian general population: change over time and high-risk use - The Tromsø Study. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2017 Jun 27;18(1):51 Authors: Samuelsen PJ, Slørdal L, Mathisen UD, Eggen AE PMID: 28655329 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 30, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Drug-related problems and medication reviews among old people with dementia.
CONCLUSIONS: Drug-related problems are common among people with dementia and cognitive impairment. Comprehensive medication reviews conducted by clinical pharmacists as part of a health care team might be important to prevent, identify and solve these problems. PMID: 28655357 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 30, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Modulation of hepatic perfusion did not improve recovery from hepatic outflow obstruction.
CONCLUSION: Transient relative reduction of portal pressure did not result in a reduction of hepatic damage. This might be explained by the development of portal hyperperfusion which was accompanied by arterial hypoperfusion. PMID: 28651622 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 28, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Multifaceted interventions for improving spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions in a general hospital in China.
CONCLUSIONS: We found the SR compliance can be improved by multifaceted interventions. Drug usage patterns also influence ADR occurrence, so programs tailored for rational use are essential. These results could lead to further improvements in the SR system for ADRs in China, and provide guidance for establishing better methods of pharmacovigilance. PMID: 28651624 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 28, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

The albumin-exendin-4 recombinant protein E2HSA improves glycemic control and β-cell function in spontaneous diabetic KKAy mice.
CONCLUSIONS: E2HSA significantly reduced blood glucose levels over a prolonged duration, enhanced β-cell function, and ameliorated dyslipidemia and obesity in diabetic KKAy mice. Thus, E2HSA may be a new candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID: 28629388 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 23, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Knockdown of subunit 3 of the COP9 signalosome inhibits C2C12 myoblast differentiation via NF-KappaB signaling pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: This study clarifies the first step toward unrevealing the CSN3/CSN-mediated pathways that controls C2C12 differentiation and proliferation. Further in vivo characterization of CSN/CSN3 may lead to the discovery of novel therapeutic target of skeletal muscle diseases such as muscular dystrophies. PMID: 28623958 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 20, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Profound perturbation induced by triclosan exposure in mouse gut microbiome: a less resilient microbial community with elevated antibiotic and metal resistomes.
CONCLUSIONS: Triclosan exposure has a profound impact on the mouse gut microbiome by inducing perturbations at both compositional and functional levels. To our best knowledge, this is the first evidence regarding the functional alterations of gut microbiome induced by triclosan exposure, which may provide novel mechanistic insights into triclosan exposure and associated diseases. PMID: 28606169 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 14, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Data-driven prediction of adverse drug reactions induced by drug-drug interactions.
CONCLUSION: Almost all information on DDI-induced ADRs is generated after drug approval. This situation poses significant health risks for vulnerable patient populations with comorbidities. To help mitigate the risks, we developed a robust probabilistic approach to prospectively predict DDI-induced ADRs. Based on this approach, we developed prediction models for 1,096 ADRs and used them to predict the propensity of all pairwise combinations of nearly 800 drugs to be associated with these ADRs via DDIs. We made the predictions publicly available via internet access. PMID: 28595649 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Phar...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 11, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Pain sensitivity and analgesic use among 10,486 adults: the Troms ø study.
CONCLUSIONS: Increased pain sensitivity was associated with analgesic use in general, and reduced pain tolerance was found for both opioid and non-opioid analgesic users. The data suggest that hyperalgesia is an effect of analgesics, whereas pain tolerance has little impact on future analgesic use. PMID: 28599683 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 11, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of enzyme-replacement-therapy with agalsidase alfa in 36 treatment-na ïve Fabry disease patients.
Efficacy and safety of enzyme-replacement-therapy with agalsidase alfa in 36 treatment-naïve Fabry disease patients. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2017 Jun 07;18(1):43 Authors: Tsuboi K, Yamamoto H Abstract BACKGROUND: Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder resulting from the α-galactosidase A gene mutations. Enzyme-replacement-therapy (ERT) products for FD currently used include agalsidase alfa and agalsidase beta. There are many reports on efficacy and safety of ERT. However, most of the previous studies are done as a retrospective medical records analysis. METHODS: The ...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 10, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Tardive akathisia related to the anti-hypertensive agent Sevikar-a case report.
CONCLUSIONS: It is noteworthy that her TA developed before receiving any antidepressant medication, and that her TA improved after discontinuation of Sevikar. In light of these pharmacodynamic properties, it is therefore concluded that use of amlodipine and olmesartan might have caused TA in this patient. We reported this rare case to remind clinicians to be aware of possible akathisia when using amlodipine and olmesartan in combination as anti-hypertensive agents. PMID: 28583166 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Comparison of neurons derived from mouse P19, rat PC12 and human SH-SY5Y cells in the assessment of chemical- and toxin-induced neurotoxicity.
CONCLUSIONS: P19 neurons are more sensitive to detect cytotoxicity of MeHg, okadaic acid and acrylamide than retinoic acid-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells and nerve growth factor-treated PC12 cells. P19 neurons are at least as sensitive as differentiated SH-SY5Y cells to detect the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential produced by MeHg and the protective effects of extracellular GSH on MeHg toxicity. P19 neurons may be a useful model to study neurotoxic effects of chemicals. PMID: 28583171 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Inhibitors of ubiquitin E3 ligase as potential new antimalarial drug leads.
CONCLUSIONS: Interruption of trophozoites and schizont maturation by the antimalarial E3 ligase inhibitors suggest the role of ubiquitin/proteasome functions in the intraerythrocytic development of malaria parasite. The ubiquitin/proteasome functions may be critical for schizont maturation. Further investigations on the lead E3 ligase inhibitors shall provide better understanding regarding the importance of E3 ligase functions in the malaria parasite as a potential new antimalarial drug target and a new class of antimalarial drug leads. PMID: 28577368 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 4, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Hesperetin-5,7,3'-O-triacetate suppresses airway hyperresponsiveness in ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged mice without reversing xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia in normal mice.
CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to roflumilast, HTA may ameliorate COPD but induce few side effects of nausea, vomiting and gastric hypersecretion at an effective dose for treating COPD, because HTA did not reverse xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia in mice. PMID: 28558784 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 1, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Metformin is not associated with lactic acidosis in patients with diabetes undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a case control study.
This study aimed to determine if uninterrupted metformin administration in patients with diabetes undergoing CABG increases the risk of lactic acidosis. METHODS: Over a span of 12 months (2015-2016), 127 patients with type 2 diabetes underwent isolated CABG. Of those, 41 patients (32%) continued taking metformin and 86 patients (68%) took other antidiabetic agents. Patients taking metformin took the drug until the day of surgery and resumed taking it 3 h after extubation. RESULTS: There were no differences in clinical outcomes or complications between groups. Serial measurement of cardiac, liver, and kidn...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 1, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

A case report of zinc phosphide poisoning: complicated by acute renal failure and tubulo interstitial nephritis.
CONCLUSION: Run Rat® is a commonly used rodenticide and the toxic effects are mediated through conversion of phosphide to phosphine gas. The majority of the deaths had occurred in the first 12 to 24 h and the main causes identified are refractory hypotension and arrhythmias. The late deaths (beyond 24 h) had been commonly due to adult respiratory distress syndrome, liver and renal failure. The outcome is poorer with delayed presentation, development of coagulopathy, hyperglycaemia and multiorgan failure with elevated liver enzymes. In our patient, Zinc phosphide poisoning caused severe acute kidney injury, ab...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 28, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Psychotropic drug use and mortality in old people with dementia: investigating sex differences.
CONCLUSIONS: Among old people with dementia, ongoing psychotropic drug use at baseline was not associated with increased mortality in analyses adjusted for multiple confounders. Sex differences in mortality risk associated with antidepressant and benzodiazepine use were seen, highlighting the need for further investigation of the impact of sex. PMID: 28545507 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 28, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial resistance profile of staphylococcus aureus isolates isolated from ear discharges of patients at University of Hawassa comprehensive specialized hospital.
CONCLUSION: S. aureus has gotten frighteningly resistant to many of common antimicrobials. Resistance rate to vancomyin is terrifyingly high. It urges us to take measures to delay resistance. Emergence of resistance highlights the value of prudent prescribing of antimicrobials and avoiding their irrational use. Further researches focusing on identifying dynamics promoting resistance, identifying high risk strains and molecular basis of resistance are required. PMID: 28506250 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 18, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

A decade of adverse drug events in Portuguese hospitals: space-time clustering and spatial variation in temporal trends.
Authors: Scripcaru G, Mateus C, Nunes C Abstract BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to identify the distribution by municipalities of adverse drug events (ADE) in Portugal, including adverse drug reactions (ADR) and accidental poisoning by drugs (AP), on municipality/years ADE rate clustering. Also we identify areas with different trends in time. METHODS: We used a national dataset of public hospital discharges in Continental Portugal from 2004 to 2013. Events were identified based on codes: from E930 to E949.9 (ADR) and from E850 to E858.9 (AP). Space-time clustering and spatial variation in temporal trends ...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 12, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

The salvage therapy in lung adenocarcinoma initially harbored susceptible EGFR mutation and acquired resistance occurred to the first-line gefitinib and second-line cytotoxic chemotherapy.
Authors: Yang CJ, Hung JY, Tsai MJ, Wu KL, Liu TC, Chou SH, Lee JY, Hsu JS, Huang MS, Chong IW Abstract BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) such as gefitinib can provide better efficacy and prolonged progression free survival (PFS) than cytotoxic chemotherapy for metastatic lung non-squamous cell carcinoma harboring susceptible EGFR mutations when used as first-line therapy. Cytotoxic chemotherapy is regarded as being the standard therapy to overcome acquired resistance to an initial EGFR TKI. However, there is currently no consensus on how best to treat patients who ...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 12, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Effects of diacetyl-liensinine on electrophysiology in rabbit ventricular myocytes.
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that diacetyl-liensinine might be a potential anti-arrhythmic agent. PMID: 28476169 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 11, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Drug-transporter mediated interactions between anthelminthic and antiretroviral drugs across the Caco-2 cell monolayers.
Authors: Kigen G, Edwards G Abstract BACKGROUND: Drug interactions between antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) and anthelminthic drugs, ivermectin (IVM) and praziquantel (PZQ) were assessed by investigating their permeation through the Caco-2 cell monolayers in a transwell. The impact of anthelminthics on the transport of ARVs was determined by assessing the apical to basolateral (AP → BL) [passive] and basolateral to apical (BL → AP) [efflux] directions alone, and in presence of an anthelminthic. The reverse was conducted for the assessment of the influence of ARVs on anthelminthics. ...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 6, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Erroneous formulation of delayed-release omeprazole capsules: alert for importing countries.
CONCLUSIONS: Omeprazole capsules collected in Myanmar and Cambodia showed high failure rates in pharmacopoeial tests, especially dissolution tests. Some samples were found to have ineffective or absent enteric coating of the granules, resulting in premature dissolution and degradation in acidic conditions. This is a potentially serious public health issue that needs to be addressed by regulatory authorities in Cambodia and Myanmar, possibly through a collaborative initiative with manufacturers. PMID: 28468688 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 6, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research