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Recurrence of pericarditis after influenza vaccination: a case report and review of the literature.
CONCLUSIONS: Pericarditis following immunization for influenza is very rarely reported in the literature. In a few cases, influenza vaccination seems likely responsible. We suggest considering recent immunization in patient's history as part of the differential diagnosis in elderly with chest pain. PMID: 29728118 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of adding rivaroxaban to the anti-platelet regimen in patients with coronary artery disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
CONCLUSIONS: Addition of rivaroxaban to the anti-platelet regimen was effective in patients with coronary artery disease, but the safety outcomes were doubtful. Further future trials will be able to completely solve this issue. PMID: 29720261 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Prevalence of borrowing and sharing prescription medicines and associated socio-demographic factors: findings from COBERS health centres in northern Uganda.
Authors: Obol JH, Akera P, Atim PO, Awor S, Wanyama R, Moi KL, Bodo B, Odong PO, Omony EO, Oria H, Musoke D, Kaducu F Abstract BACKGROUND: The use of prescription medications without the involvement of medical professionals is a growing public health concern. Therefore this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of borrowing and sharing prescription medicines and associated socio-demographic factors among community members who had sought health care from COBERS health centres. METHODS: We conducted analytical cross - sectional study among former patients who sought treatment during the two months perio...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - April 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Classification and prediction of toxicity of chemicals using an automated phenotypic profiling of Caenorhabditis elegans.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the power of phenotypic profiling in C. elegans under different chemical environments. PMID: 29669598 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - April 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Characterization of serious adverse drug reactions as cause of emergency department visit in children: a 5-years active pharmacovigilance study.
CONCLUSION: Active surveillance in pharmacovigilance might represent the best strategy to estimate and characterize the clinical burden of ADRs in children. PMID: 29661234 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - April 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Self-medication practice and associated factors among adult household members in Meket district, Northeast Ethiopia, 2017.
CONCLUSION: More than one-third of the study participants practiced self-medication. Thus, strengthening communities awareness on drug side effects and integrated efforts of individuals, communities, health facilities, and regulatory bodies are highly necessary. PMID: 29636092 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - April 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Effect of CYP3 A4, CYP3 A5 and ABCB1 gene polymorphisms on the clinical efficacy of tacrolimus in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome.
CONCLUSIONS: ABCB1 C1236T, ABCB1 G2677 T/A genotype and BMI are probably the factors influencing the clinical efficacy of TAC in treating patients with NS. PMID: 29615122 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - April 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Sulforaphane attenuates pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
CONCLUSIONS: SFN showed a significant anti-fibrotic effect in TGF-β-treated cell lines and BLM-induced fibrosis in mice. These findings showed that SFN has anti-fibrotic activity that may be considered in the treatment of IPF. PMID: 29609658 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Rituximab impedes natural killer cell function in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis patients: A pilot in vitro investigation.
Authors: Eaton N, Cabanas H, Balinas C, Klein A, Staines D, Marshall-Gradisnik S Abstract BACKGROUND: A recent in vitro pilot investigation reported Rituximab significantly reduced natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in healthy donors. Chronic fatigue syndrome/Myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a debilitating disorder of unknown etiology. A consistent finding is a significant reduction in NK cell cytotoxicity. Rituximab has been reported having questionable potential therapeutic benefits for the treatment of CFS/ME, however, the potential effects of Rituximab on NK cell cytotoxicity in CFS/ME patients are yet ...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - March 29, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 study of the safety, tolerability and pharmacodynamics of volixibat in overweight and obese but otherwise healthy adults: implications for treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that maximal inhibition of bile acid reabsorption, as assessed by FBA excretion, occurs at volixibat doses of ≥20 mg/day in obese and overweight adults, without appreciable change in gastrointestinal tolerability. These findings guided dose selection for an ongoing phase 2 study in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02287779 (registration first received 6 November 2014). PMID: 29548345 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - March 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Involvement of methylation of MicroRNA-122, -125b and -106b in regulation of Cyclin G1, CAT-1 and STAT3 target genes in isoniazid-induced liver injury.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that DNA methylation probably regulates the expression of miRNA genes (miR-122, miR-125b, and miR-106b), affecting the expression of their gene targets (Cyclin G1, CAT-1, and STAT3) and participating in the process of INH-induced liver injury. PMID: 29554950 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - March 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Proteomic study revealed antipsychotics-induced nuclear protein regulations in B35 cells are similar to the regulations in C6 cells and rat cortex.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the proteomic analysis of APD-treated B35 cells were recapitulated in the APD-treated rat cortex. The expression of some proteins was altered by APDs in rat prefrontal cortex in a time-dependent manner. PMID: 29514709 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - March 9, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

A newly developed oxime K203 is the most effective reactivator of tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase.
DISCUSSION: According to these results and previous studies, using K203, it appears that oxime K203 is the most effective reactivator of tabun-inhibited cholinesterase in several species including humans and should be considered as a possible medical countermeasure to tabun exposure. PMID: 29467029 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - February 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Tomatidine and analog FC04-100 possess bactericidal activities against Listeria, Bacillus and Staphylococcus spp.
CONCLUSIONS: Chemical modifications of TO allowed improvement of its antibacterial activity against prototypical S. aureus and of its bactericidal activity against L. monocytogenes. Antibacterial activities against such prominent pathogens could be useful to prevent Listeria contamination in the food chain or as treatment for MRSA infections. PMID: 29439722 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - February 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

A case report of clonidine induced syncope: a review of central actions of an old cardiovascular drug.
CONCLUSIONS: While clonidine has fallen out of favor for its indication as an antihypertensive, it remains a viable option for the use of opioid withdrawal, chronic pain, and smoking cessation, necessitating the appropriate clinical and pharmacological competencies for a physician to prescribe. A discussion of the clinical effects of clonidine brainstem receptor activation follows. PMID: 29433586 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - February 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Dihydroisotanshinone I combined with radiation inhibits the migration ability of prostate cancer cells through DNA damage and CCL2 pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: DT displays radiosensitization and antimigration effects in prostate cancer cells by inducing DNA damage and inhibiting CCL2 secretion. We suggest that DT can be used as a novel antimetastatic cancer drug or radiosensitizer in the armamentarium of prostate cancer management. PMID: 29386061 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - February 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

A mechanism-based pharmacokinetic model of fenofibrate for explaining increased drug absorption after food consumption.
CONCLUSIONS: A mechanistic GI absorption model for quantitatively evaluating the effects of food on fenofibrate absorption was successfully developed, and acceptable parameters were obtained. The mechanism-based PK model of fenofibrate can quantify the effects of food on drug absorption by food type and calorie content. PMID: 29370865 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - January 27, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Enoxaparin attenuates doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in rats via interfering with oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these results describe a cardioprotective effect for ENX against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity which is likely facilitated via suppression of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. PMID: 29321061 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - January 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Antinociceptive tolerance to NSAIDs in the anterior cingulate cortex is mediated via endogenous opioid mechanism.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the concept that the development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effects of NSAIDs is mediated via an endogenous opioid system possibly involving descending pain modulatory systems. PMID: 29304875 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - January 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics comparison of two pegylated interferon alfa formulations in healthy volunteers.
CONCLUSION: BIP48 showed the expected pharmacokinetic profile for a pegylated product with a branched molecular structure. Compared to PEGASYS®, the magnitude absorption was similar, but time parameters were consistent with slower elimination. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the clinical implications of these findings. A phase II-III repeated-dose clinical trial is ongoing to study these findings in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered on the ClinicalTrials.gov platform (accession number NCT01889849 ). This trial was retrospectively register...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - January 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Identification of cryptolepine metabolites in rat and human hepatocytes and metabolism and pharmacokinetics of cryptolepine in Sprague Dawley rats.
CONCLUSIONS: Cryptolepine metabolism is similar in rat and human in vitro with the exception of direct glucuronidation in human. Clearance in rat and human is likely to include a significant metabolic contribution, with proposed primary human metabolism pathways hydroxylation, dihydrodiol formation and glucuronidation. Cryptolepine showed extensive distribution with a moderate half-life. PMID: 29273084 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - December 25, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Liraglutide modulates GABAergic signaling in rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons predominantly by presynaptic mechanism.
CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that liraglutide regulation of GABA signaling of CA3 pyramidal neurons is predominantly presynaptic and more limited than has been observed for GLP-1 and exendin-4 in hippocampal neurons. PMID: 29246184 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - December 19, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Head to head comparison of Prasugrel versus Ticagrelor in patients with acute coronary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.
CONCLUSION: In patients with ACS, both prasugrel and ticagrelor showed similar adverse cardiovascular outcomes and bleeding events. No significant difference was observed between these two newer antiplatelet agents during this head to head comparison. However, upcoming trials with long term follow up periods might be expected to completely solve this important clinical issue. PMID: 29233189 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - December 15, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Ibuprofen plasma concentration profile in deliberate ibuprofen overdose with circulatory depression treated with therapeutic plasma exchange: a case report.
CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first report of a severe ibuprofen-mono intoxication treated with TPE and providing serial IPCs over a period of five days, indicating an estimated fivefold overall-elimination half-life of 17.2 h. Despite TPE clinically improved persistent hemodynamic instability, this procedure was neither consistent with the observed IPC-profile nor correlated with a meaningful quantitative elimination of ibuprofen. PMID: 29233194 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - December 15, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

The clinical efficacy of Afatinib 30  mg daily as starting dose may not be inferior to Afatinib 40 mg daily in patients with stage IV lung Adenocarcinoma harboring exon 19 or exon 21 mutations.
The clinical efficacy of Afatinib 30 mg daily as starting dose may not be inferior to Afatinib 40 mg daily in patients with stage IV lung Adenocarcinoma harboring exon 19 or exon 21 mutations. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2017 Dec 13;18(1):82 Authors: Yang CJ, Tsai MJ, Hung JY, Lee MH, Tsai YM, Tsai YC, Hsu JF, Liu TC, Huang MS, Chong IW Abstract BACKGROUND: Afatinib is a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). Compared to cytotoxic chemotherapy, afatinib has been shown to have better efficacy in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer harborin...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - December 15, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Generic-reference and generic-generic bioequivalence of forty-two, randomly-selected, on-market generic products of fourteen immediate-release oral drugs.
CONCLUSIONS: On-market generic drug products continue to be reference-bioequivalent and are bioequivalent to each other based on AUCT, AUCI, and Cmax but not AUCReftmax. Average deviation of geometric mean ratios and intra-subject variations are similar between reference-generic and generic-generic comparisons. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01344070 (registered April 3, 2011). PMID: 29216899 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - December 9, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Improved drug safety through intensive pharmacovigilance in hospitalized pediatric patients.
Authors: Vázquez-Alvarez AO, Brennan-Bourdon LM, Rincón-Sánchez AR, Islas-Carbajal MC, Huerta-Olvera SG Abstract BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to detect and analyze Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) through Intensive Pharmacovigilance (IPV) in hospitalized pediatric patients to improve drug safety. METHODS: A prospective 6-month cross-sectional study was performed in the pediatric service of a regional hospital in Mexico in order to assess hospitalized children from 1 day to 18 years old. The inclusion criteria were: both genders, all hospitalization causes, and at least one p...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - December 9, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Effects of metamizole, MAA, and paracetamol on proliferation, apoptosis, and necrosis in the pancreatic cancer cell lines PaTu 8988  t and Panc-1.
CONCLUSION: The oncogenic potential of pancreatic adenocarcinoma is mainly characterized by its extreme growth rate. Non-opioid analgesics such as metamizole and paracetamol are given as general anesthetics and postoperative analgesics. The combination of metamizole or paracetamol with cytotoxic therapeutic approaches may achieve synergistic effects. Further studies are necessary to identify the underlying mechanisms so that new therapeutic options may be developed for the treatment of this aggressive tumor. PMID: 29208039 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - December 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

High prevalence of prescription of psychotropic drugs for older patients in a general hospital.
CONCLUSIONS: A high percentage of patients aged ≥ 65 years received psychotropic drugs. The chance that a potentially inappropriate psychotropic drug would be administered was highest in the surgical departments. Antidepressants, neuroleptics and Z-drugs were used surprisingly often in geriatric medicine. Educational strategies could reduce the use of psychotropic drugs and the prescription of potentially inappropriate medications. PMID: 29202811 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - December 6, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Frequency, characteristics and risk factors of QT interval prolonging drugs and drug-drug interactions in cancer patients: a multicenter study.
This study aimed to identify the prevalence of QT prolonging drugs, their TdP risk, QT prolonging drug-drug interactions (QT-DDIs), levels, predictors, and TdP risk of drugs involved in QT-DDIs. METHODS: This multicenter study included cancer patients from three major tertiary care hospitals of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Micromedex DrugReax® was used for identification of QT-DDIs. TdP risks were identified by AZCERT (Arizona Center for Education and Research on Therapeutics) classification. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of QT-DDIs. RESULTS: Of 555 patients, 51% were female...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - December 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Dose-dependent effect of daptomycin on the artificial prolongation of prothrombin time in coagulation abnormalities: in vitro verification.
Authors: Hashimoto H, Saito M, Kanda N, Yamamoto T, Mieno M, Hatakeyama S Abstract BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported that daptomycin induced artificial prolongation of prothrombin time (PT) in some test reagents, particularly in warfarin users. However, it remains unknown whether the artificial prolongation can be affected by coagulation abnormalities other than the use of warfarin. Thus, we investigated the effect of daptomycin on PT with two types of coagulation abnormalities. METHODS: Plasma samples were pooled by four groups: healthy volunteers (Plasma A), warfarin users with a PT-international norm...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - November 29, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic study of single- and multiple-dosing with metolazone tablets in healthy Chinese population.
CONCLUSIONS: Single dosing with 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg metolazone yielded linear plasma pharmacokinetic properties in healthy Chinese subjects. Multiple oral doses of metolazone did not display significantly different distributions or elimination characteristics from those observed for a single dose. Gender factors did not appear to influence the pharmacokinetic parameter variation of metolazone. The tmax of metolazone increased in the fed condition. Metolazone was well tolerated at the tested dose in this study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This investigation is retrospectively registered at chictr.org.cn (ChiCTR...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - November 19, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Methylxanthines induce structural and functional alterations of the cardiac system in zebrafish embryos.
Authors: Basnet RM, Zizioli D, Guarienti M, Finazzi D, Memo M Abstract BACKGROUND: Zebrafish embryos are emerging as a model for pharmacological and toxicological studies. We used zebrafish embryos to study the general toxicity and cardiovascular effects of eight methylxanthines: aminophylline, caffeine, diprophylline, doxofylline, etophylline, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), pentoxifylline and theophylline. METHODS: Microinjections of the eight methylxanthines were performed in 1-2 cell stage zebrafish embryos and the general toxicity and cardiovascular effects were analyzed at different time points. Embry...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - November 18, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Use of a trigger tool to detect adverse drug reactions in an emergency department.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of the trigger tool to identify adverse reactions in the emergency department was possible to identify a prevalence of 2.3%. It showed to be a viable method that can provide a better understanding of adverse drug reactions in this patient population. PMID: 29141696 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - November 18, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Exploring venlafaxine pharmacokinetic variability with a phenotyping approach, a multicentric french-swiss study (MARVEL study).
This study is a multicentre prospective non-randomized open trial. Eligible patients present a major depressive episode, MADRS over or equal to 20, treatment with VLX regardless of the dose during at least 4 weeks. The Phenotype Visit includes VLX and ODV concentration measurement. Following the oral absorption of low doses of omeprazole, midazolam, dextromethorphan, and fexofenadine, drug metabolizing enzymes activity is assessed by specific metabolite/probe concentration ratios from a sample taken 2 h after cocktail administration for CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP2D6; and by the determination of the limited area under t...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - November 9, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Assessment of utilization pattern of fixed dose drug combinations in primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare centers in Nepal: a cross-sectional study.
CONCLUSIONS: FDCs were used extensively at different health care centers. The number of prescription in private centers, following established guidelines and the essential drug list (EDL), was much lower. The cost associated with the utilization of FDCs was higher in private sectors compared to public health care centers. In certain cases, the use of FDCs was questionable, and this study found a low use of essential medicines. Education to improve prescription practices at different healthcare levels is recommended. PMID: 29096701 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - November 5, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Glucagon-like peptide receptor agonists attenuate advanced glycation end products-induced inflammation in rat mesangial cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that both GLP-1 receptor and PPARδ agonists have anti-inflammatory effect on AGE-treated rat mesangial cells. PMID: 29065926 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - October 28, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Prescription of potentially inappropriate medications among older people with intellectual disability: a register study.
CONCLUSIONS: Although prescription of potentially inappropriate medications overall is more common among people with ID than in the general population, the opposite pattern is found for medications for pain management. This may be a result of pain being under-recognized and under-treated in this population. Thus, there is a need for training as well as increased knowledge and awareness among care and health care professionals regarding signs of adverse effects and the need of continuous evaluation of treatment in this vulnerable group. PMID: 29070067 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - October 28, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Adverse drug effects observed with vildagliptin versus pioglitazone or rosiglitazone in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
CONCLUSION: Both vildagliptin and pioglitazone/rosiglitazone are acceptable for the treatment of patients with T2DM on the basis that they are not significantly different in terms of overall adverse drug events. However, weight gain and peripheral edema would have to be re-assessed in further larger randomized controlled trials. PMID: 29058622 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - October 25, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Abstracts from the 8th International Conference on cGMP Generators, Effectors and Therapeutic Implications : Bamberg, Germany. 23-25 June, 2017.
Authors: PMID: 29035170 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - October 18, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Haloperidol affects bones while clozapine alters metabolic parameters - sex specific effects in rats perinatally treated with phencyclidine.
CONCLUSION: Taken together our findings confirm that antipsychotics have complex influence on bone and metabolism. Evaluation of potential markers for individual risk of antipsychotics induced adverse effects could be valuable for improvement of therapy of this life-long lasting disease. PMID: 29020988 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - October 13, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Estrogen and soy isoflavonoids decrease sensitivity of medulloblastoma and central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor cells to chemotherapeutic cytotoxicity.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that E2 and environmental estrogens decrease sensitivity of MB to cytotoxic chemotherapeutics, and that ERβ selective and non-selective inhibition of estrogen receptor activity blocks these cytoprotective actions. These findings support the therapeutic potential of antiestrogen adjuvant therapies for MB, and findings that soy phytoestrogens also decrease sensitivity of MB cells to cytotoxic chemotherapeutics suggest that decreased exposure to environmental estrogens may benefit MB patient responses to chemotherapy. PMID: 28877739 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - September 9, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Rosiglitazone increases endothelial cell migration and vascular permeability through Akt phosphorylation.
CONCLUSIONS: Vascular endothelial cell migration and permeability change through Akt phosphorylation might be a mechanism of induced fluid retention and peripheral tissue edema by TZD. PMID: 28854981 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - September 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Short-term treatment with taurolidine is associated with liver injury.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that taurolidine caused liver injury after short-term use in in vitro and in vivo models probably due to direct toxic effects on hepatocytes. Therefore, the taurolidine dose should be titrated in further investigations regarding liver injury and inflammation. PMID: 28800748 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - August 13, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

β adrenergic receptor/cAMP/PKA signaling contributes to the intracellular Ca(2+) release by tentacle extract from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that β adrenergic receptor/cAMP/PKA signaling contributes to the intracellular Ca(2+) overload through intracellular Ca(2+) release by TE from the jellyfish C. capillata. PMID: 28743285 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 28, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Evaluation of pharmacotherapy complexity in residents of long-term care facilities: a cross-sectional descriptive study.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study evaluated some factors that complicate the pharmacotherapy of geriatric patients. Although polypharmacy was implicated as a factor directly related to complexity, other indicators such as drug interactions, potentially inappropriate medications, and therapeutic duplication can also make the use of pharmacotherapy in such patients more difficult. PMID: 28743294 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 28, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Astaxanthin mitigates cobalt cytotoxicity in the MG-63 cells by modulating the oxidative stress.
CONCLUSIONS: ASX mitigated cobalt cytotoxicity in the MG-63 cells by modulating the oxidative stress. And ASX could be a promising therapy against cobalt toxicity in the hip articulation surgery. PMID: 28738843 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 27, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

The inhibitory effect of Isoliquiritigenin on the proliferation of human arterial smooth muscle cell.
CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, we concluded that ISL inhibited the proliferation of HASMCs via attenuating oxidative stress and suppressing PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. The inhibitory effect of ISL on PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, at least partly, was mediated by ROS. PMID: 28716056 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 20, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Zinc as an adjunct treatment for reducing case fatality due to clinical severe infection in young infants: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
This study was not powered to detect an effect on case fatality, which this current study is. If the results are consistent with this earlier trial, we would have provided strong evidence for recommending zinc as an adjunct to standard therapy for clinical severe infection in young infants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Universal Trial Number: U1111-1187-6479, Clinical Trials Registry - India: CTRI/2017/02/007966 : Registered on February 27, 2017. PMID: 28693558 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 13, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Sema3A drastically suppresses tumor growth in oral cancer Xenograft model of mice.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that overexpression of Sema3A in oral cancer cells drastically suppressed tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis. Our findings provide a basis for the development of novel therapeutics in the management of oral cancer. PMID: 28683823 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research