Risk factors for readmission in patients discharged with outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy: a retrospective cohort study.
This study aimed to elucidate risk factors related to 30-day readmissions in patients who were discharged with OPAT at Mount Sinai Beth Israel (MSBI). METHODS: This IRB approved retrospective cohort study included patients who were at least 18 years or older, admitted to MSBI from August 2015 to March 2016, and discharged to receive OPAT. Patients with intravenous antibiotics prescribed for chronic suppression or planned readmission within 30 days were excluded. The main outcome was readmission to the hospital within 30 days from previous hospital discharge. Univariate and logistic regression analyses we...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - August 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Gender-differences of in vitro colonic motility after chemo- and radiotherapy in humans.
Authors: Maselli MA, Ignazzi A, Pezzolla F, Scirocco A, Lorusso D, De Ponti F, Severi C Abstract BACKGROUND: The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate, in different genders, motor responses in surgical colonic specimens from patients with rectal cancer undergoing and not undergoing chemotherapy with capecitabine and radiotherapy. METHODS: This in vitro study was conducted from October 2015 to August 2017 at the Experimental Pharmacology Laboratory at the National Institute "S. de Bellis" after collecting samples at the Department of Surgery. Segments of sigmoid colon were obtained ...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - August 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

The impact of vancomycin trough concentrations on outcomes in non-deep seated infections: a retrospective cohort study.
CONCLUSIONS: No difference in clinical or microbiological outcomes based on vancomycin trough concentrations were observed in patients with non-deep seated infections treated with vancomycin for ≤14 days. Targeting higher vancomycin trough concentrations of> 10 mg/L may be associated with increased workload with no corresponding benefit in clinical or microbiological outcomes in these patients. PMID: 30064515 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - August 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Potentiating effect of imidacloprid on arsenic-induced testicular toxicity in Wistar rats.
Authors: Mahajan L, Verma PK, Raina R, Sood S Abstract BACKGROUND: It is an established fact that humans and animals are exposed to more than one chemical concurrently from various sources such as food, air and water. In the past, much emphasis was laid on evaluating the toxic effects of a single chemical. Nowadays an increased attention is being paid to the interaction of xenobiotics with one another. Therefore, a study was aimed to evaluate the potentiating effect of imidacloprid (IMI) on arsenic-induced testicular toxicity in rats. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats randomly divided into eight groups with six i...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - August 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

"Appropriateness and adequacy of antibiotic prescription for upper respiratory tract infections in ambulatory health care centers in Ecuador".
CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study report a 90.25% of inappropriate prescription. The antibiotic prescription, appropriate prescription, and adequate prescription rates show the need for implementation of strategies in order to reduce them. Related aspects regarding prescriber's behavior and the patient's expectations should be analyzed. PMID: 30049281 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

An inhibitor of 11- β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (PF915275) alleviates nonylphenol-induced hyperadrenalism and adiposity in rat and human cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The effects of NP and PF915275 treatment in both rat and human cell models are similar. Rats may be an appropriate model to study the effects of NP in humans, especially during the developmental period. PMID: 30021644 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of DODAC/synthetic phosphoethanolamine on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
CONCLUSION: The overall results showed that DODAC/PHO-S liposomes were more effective than PHO-S alone, in promoting cytotoxicity Hepa1c1c7 tumor cells, activating the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of programmed cell death. PMID: 29996919 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Cationic liposomes induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 via regulation of lipid metabolism based on whole-transcriptome sequencing analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: These data are expected to provide deep insights into the molecular mechanism of CLs cytotoxicity. PMID: 29996945 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Structurally simple synthetic 1, 4-disubstituted piperidines with high selectivity for resistant Plasmodium falciparum.
CONCLUSIONS: The alcohol analogues were the most active and most selective for the parasite with three promising hit molecules identified among them, suggesting the hydroxyl group at C-7' in these alcohol analogues is contributing greatly to their antiplasmodial activity. Further exploration of the core structure using chemistry approaches and biological screening including in vivo studies in an animal model of malaria may yield important antimalarial leads. PMID: 29973275 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Sites of gastrointestinal lesion induced by mycophenolate mofetil: a comparison with enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium in rats.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggested that MMF might target jejunum and ileum and induce GI injury. EC-MPS causes less injury in GI tract than MMF, probably due to its kinetic property. PMID: 29973291 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Characterization of differential patient profiles and therapeutic responses of pharmacy customers for four ambroxol formulations.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that over-the-counter formulations of ambroxol exhibit comparable user profiles and efficacy. Differences in speed of onset of symptom relief may involve not only those in systemic pharmacokinetics but also local anesthetic effects of immediate release formulations. Differences between pediatric and adult syrup may in part reflect reporting bias. PMID: 29973292 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Polymyxin B-induced skin hyperpigmentation: a rare case report and literature review.
CONCLUSION: Both our case and the literature review highlight that PMB can give rise to SH indeed. Clinicians and pharmacists should attach great importance to this rare pigmentary disorder and further investigation is warranted. PMID: 29973293 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Prevalence of self-medication practice among health sciences students in Kermanshah, Iran.
CONCLUSION: Given the high prevalence of self-medication among the health sciences students, training courses about the self-medication risks, more supervision over prohibition of over-the-counter drugs and adequate facilities for students' access to medical services are suggested to be provided. PMID: 29970167 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 6, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Effect of Linagliptin and Voglibose on metabolic profile in patients with Type 2 Diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
This study examines the effect of linagliptin on insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in patients with well-controlled T2DM. METHODS: Thirty patients with T2DM of duration ≤5 years, and having HbA1c
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 6, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Comparison of topical tofacitinib and 0.1% hypochlorous acid in a murine atopic dermatitis model.
CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate a similar beneficial potential of topical high dose PR022 HOCl (0.1%) in gel and tofacitinib, in a translational murine model of atopic dermatitis. PMID: 29970189 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 6, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

The benefit of combinations of oximes for the ability of antidotal treatment to counteract sarin-induced brain damage in rats.
CONCLUSIONS: The oxime HI-6 in combination with K203 and atropine seems to be the most effective. Thus, both tested oxime combinations bring a small benefit in elimination of acute sarin-induced brain damage compared to single oxime antidotal therapy. PMID: 29954446 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 30, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Inflammation down-regulates CYP3A4-catalysed drug metabolism in hemodialysis patients.
CONCLUSIONS: The association between CYP3A4 activity and inflammatory biomarkers suggest that the activity of CYP3A4 is reduced by inflammation in HD patients. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding and to assess to what extent magnitude and duration of inflammation as well as the microbiota affect drug metabolism. PMID: 29941014 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 29, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Causality and preventability assessment of adverse drug events of antibiotics among inpatients having different lengths of hospital stay: a multicenter, cross-sectional study in Lahore, Pakistan.
Authors: Saqib A, Sarwar MR, Sarfraz M, Iftikhar S Abstract BACKGROUND: A large number of hospital admissions are attributed to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and they are the fifth leading cause of death worldwide. The present study aimed to assess the causality and preventability of adverse drug events (ADEs) of antibiotics among inpatients having different lengths of hospital stay. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was conducted in four tertiary-care public sector hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. Study population consisted of hospitalized patients who were prescribed one or more antibiotics. Data were...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 29, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Prescription opioid dispensing in New South Wales, Australia: spatial and temporal variation.
CONCLUSIONS: Given that over-use of opioids is a major public health problem and that long-term use has substantial side effects including dependence, it is important to understand spatial patterns of opioid prescribing to enable targeted interventions. Nationwide implementation of real-time drug-monitoring programs and access to monitoring databases from both doctor and pharmacy point-of-care sources may potentially reduce excessive and undue use of opioid. PMID: 29914572 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Stent thrombosis associated with drug eluting stents on addition of cilostazol to the standard dual antiplatelet therapy following percutaneous coronary intervention: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials.
CONCLUSIONS: This current analysis showed no significant difference in stent thrombosis with the addition of cilostazol to the standard dual antiplatelet therapy during any follow-up time period after PCI. PMID: 29914573 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Effect of β-Eudesmol on NQO1 suppression-enhanced sensitivity of cholangiocarcinoma cells to chemotherapeutic agents.
CONCLUSIONS: β-Eudesmol may serve as a potential anti-CCA candidate particularly when used in combination with conventional chemotherapeutics. The mechanisms involved may be mediated via NQO1 suppression-related apoptosis pathway. PMID: 29914576 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

The use of clonidine in elderly patients with delirium; pharmacokinetics and hemodynamic responses.
Authors: Hov KR, Neerland BE, Andersen AM, Undseth Ø, Wyller VB, MacLullich AMJ, Skovlund E, Qvigstad E, Wyller TB Abstract BACKGROUND: The Oslo Study of Clonidine in Elderly Patients with Delirium (LUCID) is an RCT investigating the effect of clonidine in medical patients> 65 years with delirium. To assess the dosage regimen and safety measures of this study protocol, we measured the plasma concentrations and hemodynamic effects of clonidine in the first 20 patients. METHODS: Patients were randomised to clonidine (n = 10) or placebo (n = 10). The treatment grou...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Determinants of anti-retroviral regimen changes among HIV/AIDS patients of east and west Wollega zone health institutions, Oromia region, west Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.
CONCLUSIONS: The number of patients who changed ARV drug in our resource constrained setting present a challenge to the restricted treatment choices that we currently own. Less toxic and better-tolerated HIV treatment options should be available and used more frequently. PMID: 29871665 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Assessment of the state of pharmacovigilance in the South-South zone of Nigeria using WHO pharmacovigilance indicators.
CONCLUSION: This study has shown an urgent need to strengthen the pharmacovigilance systems in the South-South zone of Nigeria. Improvement in medical record documentation as well as increased institutionalization of pharmacovigilance may be the first steps to improve pharmacovigilance activities in the tertiary hospitals. PMID: 29855348 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Absolute oral bioavailability and disposition kinetics of puerarin in female rats.
CONCLUSIONS: The absolute oral bioavailability of puerarin was approximately 7% at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg. Puerarin was widely distributed to several organs related to the diseases of aging, including the hippocampus, femur, tibia, and mammary gland. Glucuronides were the major metabolites of puerarin and were mainly excreted in the urine. These results are useful for the development of puerarin and Pueraria candollei var. mirifica as phytopharmaceutical products. PMID: 29801513 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 31, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Grifolic acid induces GH3 adenoma cell death by inhibiting ATP production through a GPR120-independent mechanism.
CONCLUSION: Grifolic acid induces GH3 cell death by decreasing MMP and inhibiting ATP production, which may be due to the inhibition of NADH production through a GPR120-independent mechanism. PMID: 29843779 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 31, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients with infection at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Authors: Tadesse S, Alemayehu H, Tenna A, Tadesse G, Tessema TS, Shibeshi W, Eguale T Abstract BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major pathogens of public health importance responsible for various forms of infection. Development of resistance to commonly used antimicrobials limited treatment options against infections due to this pathogen. Antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients with surgical site infection and ear infection and corresponding nasal swab was investigated in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: Wound and ...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 24, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Mineral trioxide aggregate affects cell viability and induces apoptosis of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth.
CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that direct contact with 1 week post-set MTA significantly decreases the viability of SHEDs and induced cell apoptosis. The results suggest that there is a possible cytotoxic effect of pulp tissue when there is direct contact with MTA. Different responses would be expected due to the strong alkaline characteristics of fresh mixed MTA. PMID: 29764492 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Association between β-blocker use and mortality in critically ill patients: a nested cohort study.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that β-blockers during the ICU stay had no significant association with mortality or morbidity. However, β-blocker therapy was associated with increased mortality in non-diabetic patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN07413772 ; (dated 13.07.2005). PMID: 29769112 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Adefovir dipivoxil induced hypophosphatemic osteomalacia in chronic hepatitis B: a comparative study of Chinese and foreign case series.
CONCLUSIONS: Sufficient attention is required for middle-aged males before and during exposure to long-term ADV therapy, regardless of nationality. The clinical picture, laboratory and radiograph alterations are important clues for those patients and are usually characterized by polyarthralgia, renal tubular dysfunction and mineralization defects. Implementation of an early renal tubular injury index is recommended for patients with higher risk, which would prevent further renal injury. PMID: 29769119 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Recurrence of pericarditis after influenza vaccination: a case report and review of the literature.
CONCLUSIONS: Pericarditis following immunization for influenza is very rarely reported in the literature. In a few cases, influenza vaccination seems likely responsible. We suggest considering recent immunization in patient's history as part of the differential diagnosis in elderly with chest pain. PMID: 29728118 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of adding rivaroxaban to the anti-platelet regimen in patients with coronary artery disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
CONCLUSIONS: Addition of rivaroxaban to the anti-platelet regimen was effective in patients with coronary artery disease, but the safety outcomes were doubtful. Further future trials will be able to completely solve this issue. PMID: 29720261 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Prevalence of borrowing and sharing prescription medicines and associated socio-demographic factors: findings from COBERS health centres in northern Uganda.
Authors: Obol JH, Akera P, Atim PO, Awor S, Wanyama R, Moi KL, Bodo B, Odong PO, Omony EO, Oria H, Musoke D, Kaducu F Abstract BACKGROUND: The use of prescription medications without the involvement of medical professionals is a growing public health concern. Therefore this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of borrowing and sharing prescription medicines and associated socio-demographic factors among community members who had sought health care from COBERS health centres. METHODS: We conducted analytical cross - sectional study among former patients who sought treatment during the two months perio...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - April 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Classification and prediction of toxicity of chemicals using an automated phenotypic profiling of Caenorhabditis elegans.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the power of phenotypic profiling in C. elegans under different chemical environments. PMID: 29669598 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - April 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Characterization of serious adverse drug reactions as cause of emergency department visit in children: a 5-years active pharmacovigilance study.
CONCLUSION: Active surveillance in pharmacovigilance might represent the best strategy to estimate and characterize the clinical burden of ADRs in children. PMID: 29661234 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - April 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Self-medication practice and associated factors among adult household members in Meket district, Northeast Ethiopia, 2017.
CONCLUSION: More than one-third of the study participants practiced self-medication. Thus, strengthening communities awareness on drug side effects and integrated efforts of individuals, communities, health facilities, and regulatory bodies are highly necessary. PMID: 29636092 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - April 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Effect of CYP3 A4, CYP3 A5 and ABCB1 gene polymorphisms on the clinical efficacy of tacrolimus in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome.
CONCLUSIONS: ABCB1 C1236T, ABCB1 G2677 T/A genotype and BMI are probably the factors influencing the clinical efficacy of TAC in treating patients with NS. PMID: 29615122 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - April 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Sulforaphane attenuates pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
CONCLUSIONS: SFN showed a significant anti-fibrotic effect in TGF-β-treated cell lines and BLM-induced fibrosis in mice. These findings showed that SFN has anti-fibrotic activity that may be considered in the treatment of IPF. PMID: 29609658 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Rituximab impedes natural killer cell function in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis patients: A pilot in vitro investigation.
Authors: Eaton N, Cabanas H, Balinas C, Klein A, Staines D, Marshall-Gradisnik S Abstract BACKGROUND: A recent in vitro pilot investigation reported Rituximab significantly reduced natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in healthy donors. Chronic fatigue syndrome/Myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a debilitating disorder of unknown etiology. A consistent finding is a significant reduction in NK cell cytotoxicity. Rituximab has been reported having questionable potential therapeutic benefits for the treatment of CFS/ME, however, the potential effects of Rituximab on NK cell cytotoxicity in CFS/ME patients are yet ...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - March 29, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 study of the safety, tolerability and pharmacodynamics of volixibat in overweight and obese but otherwise healthy adults: implications for treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that maximal inhibition of bile acid reabsorption, as assessed by FBA excretion, occurs at volixibat doses of ≥20 mg/day in obese and overweight adults, without appreciable change in gastrointestinal tolerability. These findings guided dose selection for an ongoing phase 2 study in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02287779 (registration first received 6 November 2014). PMID: 29548345 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - March 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Involvement of methylation of MicroRNA-122, -125b and -106b in regulation of Cyclin G1, CAT-1 and STAT3 target genes in isoniazid-induced liver injury.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that DNA methylation probably regulates the expression of miRNA genes (miR-122, miR-125b, and miR-106b), affecting the expression of their gene targets (Cyclin G1, CAT-1, and STAT3) and participating in the process of INH-induced liver injury. PMID: 29554950 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - March 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Proteomic study revealed antipsychotics-induced nuclear protein regulations in B35 cells are similar to the regulations in C6 cells and rat cortex.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the proteomic analysis of APD-treated B35 cells were recapitulated in the APD-treated rat cortex. The expression of some proteins was altered by APDs in rat prefrontal cortex in a time-dependent manner. PMID: 29514709 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - March 9, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

A newly developed oxime K203 is the most effective reactivator of tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase.
DISCUSSION: According to these results and previous studies, using K203, it appears that oxime K203 is the most effective reactivator of tabun-inhibited cholinesterase in several species including humans and should be considered as a possible medical countermeasure to tabun exposure. PMID: 29467029 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - February 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Tomatidine and analog FC04-100 possess bactericidal activities against Listeria, Bacillus and Staphylococcus spp.
CONCLUSIONS: Chemical modifications of TO allowed improvement of its antibacterial activity against prototypical S. aureus and of its bactericidal activity against L. monocytogenes. Antibacterial activities against such prominent pathogens could be useful to prevent Listeria contamination in the food chain or as treatment for MRSA infections. PMID: 29439722 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - February 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

A case report of clonidine induced syncope: a review of central actions of an old cardiovascular drug.
CONCLUSIONS: While clonidine has fallen out of favor for its indication as an antihypertensive, it remains a viable option for the use of opioid withdrawal, chronic pain, and smoking cessation, necessitating the appropriate clinical and pharmacological competencies for a physician to prescribe. A discussion of the clinical effects of clonidine brainstem receptor activation follows. PMID: 29433586 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - February 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Dihydroisotanshinone I combined with radiation inhibits the migration ability of prostate cancer cells through DNA damage and CCL2 pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: DT displays radiosensitization and antimigration effects in prostate cancer cells by inducing DNA damage and inhibiting CCL2 secretion. We suggest that DT can be used as a novel antimetastatic cancer drug or radiosensitizer in the armamentarium of prostate cancer management. PMID: 29386061 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - February 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

A mechanism-based pharmacokinetic model of fenofibrate for explaining increased drug absorption after food consumption.
CONCLUSIONS: A mechanistic GI absorption model for quantitatively evaluating the effects of food on fenofibrate absorption was successfully developed, and acceptable parameters were obtained. The mechanism-based PK model of fenofibrate can quantify the effects of food on drug absorption by food type and calorie content. PMID: 29370865 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - January 27, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Enoxaparin attenuates doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in rats via interfering with oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these results describe a cardioprotective effect for ENX against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity which is likely facilitated via suppression of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. PMID: 29321061 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - January 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Antinociceptive tolerance to NSAIDs in the anterior cingulate cortex is mediated via endogenous opioid mechanism.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the concept that the development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effects of NSAIDs is mediated via an endogenous opioid system possibly involving descending pain modulatory systems. PMID: 29304875 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - January 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics comparison of two pegylated interferon alfa formulations in healthy volunteers.
CONCLUSION: BIP48 showed the expected pharmacokinetic profile for a pegylated product with a branched molecular structure. Compared to PEGASYS®, the magnitude absorption was similar, but time parameters were consistent with slower elimination. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the clinical implications of these findings. A phase II-III repeated-dose clinical trial is ongoing to study these findings in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered on the ClinicalTrials.gov platform (accession number NCT01889849 ). This trial was retrospectively register...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - January 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research