Brown adipose tissue activity is modulated in olanzapine-treated young rats by simvastatin.
CONCLUSIONS: Simvastatin is effective in ameliorating TC and TG elevated by olanzapine. Modulation of BAT activity by statins could be a partial mechanism in reducing metabolic side effects caused by SGAs in child and adolescent patients. PMID: 32605639 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

The effect of multidrug exposure on neurological manifestations in carbamazepine intoxication: a nested case-control study.
CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with carbamazepine intoxication, severe neurological symptoms are associated with exposure to benzodiazepines or antidepressants and with carbamazepine levels higher than 30 mcg/ml. PMID: 32600424 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Natural dietary compound naringin inhibits glioblastoma cancer neoangiogenesis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study has provided the first evidence on the antitumor effect of naringin, which is somehow due to the inhibition of invasion and angiogenesis. PMID: 32576255 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 26, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

A randomized single-dose, two-period crossover bioequivalence study of two fixed-dose Paracetamol/Orphenadrine combination preparations in healthy volunteers under fasted condition.
CONCLUSION: The test preparation is bioequivalent to the reference preparation and can be used interchangeably. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NMRR- 17-1266-36,001; registered and approved on 12 September 2017. PMID: 32576287 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 26, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

The effect of exenatide on fasting bile acids in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, a pilot study.
Authors: Li B, Hu Y, Wang G, Liu L Abstract BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) demonstrated good glycemic efficacy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) recent years, whereas studies on GLP-1 RAs' biliary effects were limited. Therefore, we aimed to assess the effect of exenatide on bile acids (BAs) and investigate the role of BAs in the glycemic control effect of exenatide. METHODS: Thirty-eight newly diagnosed T2DM participants without glucose-lowering drugs intake were recruited. Plasma total bile acids in fasting state (FTBAs) and other parameters were tested at bas...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Osteomalacia and renal failure due to Fanconi syndrome caused by long-term low-dose Adefovir Dipivoxil: a case report.
CONCLUSION: Fanconi syndrome with osteomalacia can develop in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection being treated with adefovir at a conventional low dosage of 10 mg/day. This case highlights the importance of ADR as a differential diagnosis and the need of pharmacists with drug safety expertise expert in the patient management. PMID: 32503675 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 8, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

18 β-Glycyrrhetinic acid induces human HaCaT keratinocytes apoptosis through ROS-mediated PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and ameliorates IMQ-induced psoriasis-like skin lesions in mice.
CONCLUSIONS: GA inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in HaCaT keratinocytes through ROS-mediated inhibition of PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, and ameliorates IMQ-induced psoriasis-like skin lesions in mice. PMID: 32493482 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Evaluation of disability in patients exposed to fluoroquinolones.
CONCLUSION: Comparative assessments are difficult to conduct in spontaneous reports. This examination of disability associated with adverse events in different system organ classes showed no difference between fluoroquinolones and azithromycin or sulfamethoxazole in administrative data. PMID: 32493505 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Effect of aerosolized nicotine on human bronchial epithelial cells is amplified after co-administration with cannabidiol (CBD): a pilot in vitro study.
CONCLUSIONS: This pilot in vitro study suggests independent and additive toxic effects of vaporized nicotine and CBD. Observed toxic effects are accentuated by flavorings. Future studies are needed to determine the potential long-term health consequences of concurrent use of vaporized nicotine and cannabis products. PMID: 32498718 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Aflatoxins as a risk factor for liver cirrhosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis suggests that aflatoxin exposure is associated with a higher risk of liver cirrhosis. PMID: 32487162 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 5, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Can we optimise doxorubicin treatment regimens for children with cancer? Pharmacokinetic simulations and a Delphi consensus procedure.
CONCLUSIONS: An approach to standardise current dose modification schemes in young children is proposed. The consented concept takes individual pharmacokinetic characteristics into account and involves adaptation of both the dose and the infusion duration potentially improving the safety of doxorubicin administration. PMID: 32466789 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 31, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Laboratory monitoring of rivaroxaban in Chinese patients with deep venous thrombosis: a preliminary study.
Authors: Li Y, Du L, Tang X, Chen Y, Mei D Abstract BACKGROUND: Rivaroxaban, a novel oral anticoagulant drug, is widely used in clinical practice. There is no standardized laboratory monitoring for rivaroxaban, and its plasma concentration in Chinese patients with deep vein thrombosis is unclear. The rivaroxaban concentrations in human plasma and determine the steady-state concentration of rivaroxaban in patients with deep vein thrombosis are needed. METHODS: An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection method was developed. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Wate...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 31, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Characteristics of pediatric adverse drug reaction reports in the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database.
Authors: Noda A, Sakai T, Obara T, Miyazaki M, Tsuchiya M, Oyanagi G, Murai Y, Mano N Abstract BACKGROUND: There are no reports on investigations of the characteristics of adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports for pediatric patients in the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database (JADER) and the utility of database for drug safety surveillance in these patients. METHOD: We aimed to evaluate ADR reports for pediatric patients in the JADER. We used spontaneous ADR reports included in the JADER since April 1, 2004, to December 31, 2017, which was downloaded in April 2018. In a total of 504,407 ADR reports, the nu...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Successful clozapine rechallenge following recurrent clozapine-associated pancreatitis: a case report.
CONCLUSIONS: This case demonstrates that patients who develop pancreatitis during clozapine treatment may be cautiously rechallenged with specialist gastroenterology support. PMID: 32434548 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 23, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Effects of coal-fired PM2.5 on the expression levels of atherosclerosis-related proteins and the phosphorylation level of MAPK in ApoE-/- mice.
CONCLUSION: Coal-derived PM2.5 exacerbated the formation of atherosclerosis in mice, increased the expression levels of atherosclerosis-related proteins in mice serum, and promoted the phosphorylation of proteins relevant to MAPK signaling pathway. Thus, MAPK signaling pathway may play a role in the atherosclerosis pathogenesis induced by Coal-derived PM2.5. PMID: 32384920 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 11, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Prospects of Indole derivatives as methyl transfer inhibitors: antimicrobial resistance managers.
CONCLUSIONS: We believe these molecules 3-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-6-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)piperazine-2,5-dione (ZINC04899565) and 1-[(3S)-3-[5-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]pyrrolidin-1-yl]ethanone (ZINC49171024) could be a starting point to help develop broad-spectrum antibiotics against infections caused by N. gonorrhoeae, A. baumannii, C. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. faecium, H. pylori, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and S. typhi. PMID: 32366298 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 7, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Inhibition of PI3K/AKT molecular pathway mediated by membrane estrogen receptor GPER accounts for cryptotanshinone induced antiproliferative effect on breast cancer SKBR-3 cells.
CONCLUSION: The current study showed that the antiproliferative action of CPT on SKBR-3 cells was realized by inhibition of GPER mediated PI3K/AKT pathway. These findings provide further validation of GPER serving as useful therapeutic target. PMID: 32357920 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Dual anti-platelet therapy following percutaneous coronary intervention in a population of patients with thrombocytopenia at baseline: a meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of this analysis, DAPT might have to be cautiously be used following PCI in a population of patients with thrombocytopenia at baseline due to the significantly higher bleeding rate including gastro-intestinal, intra-cranial bleeding and hemorrhagic stroke. Hence, special care might have to be taken when considering anti-platelet agents following PCI in these high risk patients. However, considering the present limitations of this analysis, this hypothesis will have to be confirmed in future trials. PMID: 32334636 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - April 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

The incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of rhabdomyolysis associated with fenoverine prescription: a retrospective study in South Korea (1999-2014).
Authors: Cho J, Na J, Bae E, Lee TW, Jang HN, Cho HS, Chang SH, Park DJ Abstract BACKGROUND: Fenoverine is a spasmolytic drug that has been used to treat abdominal pain. Although sporadic case reports or case series of rhabdomyolysis associated with fenoverine have been published, there are no studies evaluating the incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of rhabdomyolysis associated with fenoverine prescription. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 22 patients admitted with rhabdomyolysis associated with fenoverine from January 1999 to December 2014, while excluding other well-kno...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - April 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

In vitro and in vivo effects of flubendiamide and copper on cyto-genotoxicity, oxidative stress and spleen histology of rats and its modulation by resveratrol, catechin, curcumin and α-tocopherol.
In vitro and in vivo effects of flubendiamide and copper on cyto-genotoxicity, oxidative stress and spleen histology of rats and its modulation by resveratrol, catechin, curcumin and α-tocopherol. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2020 Apr 23;21(1):29 Authors: Mandil R, Prakash A, Rahal A, Singh SP, Sharma D, Kumar R, Garg SK Abstract BACKGROUND: Living organisms are frequently exposed to more than one xenobiotic at a time either by ingestion of contaminated food/fodder or due to house-hold practices, occupational hazards or through environment. These xenobiotics interact individually or in combination with...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - April 26, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Comparative effect of dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibitors on laboratory parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we showed the effect of five DPP-4 inhibitors on glycemic, renal, and lipid metabolism, and hepatic parameters. DPP-4 inhibitors are well-tolerated hypoglycemic drugs. PMID: 32317005 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - April 24, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Adverse drug reactions in older adults: a retrospective comparative analysis of spontaneous reports to the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices.
CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to further investigate ADRs in older adults since they occurred more frequently in older vs. younger adults and will likely increase in future. Physicians should be aware of different ADRs being attributed to the same drug substances which may be more prominent in older adults. Regular monitoring of older adults taking antithrombotics is recommended. PMID: 32293547 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - April 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

The chemotactic properties of various topical brimonidine tartrate ophthalmic preparations.
CONCLUSION: Commercial ophthalmic preparations of BT 0.2% with BAK 0.005% had higher chemotactic properties than the alternative of a lower concentration of BT and without the preservative BAK. Therefore, the latter should be considered for patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension in order to minimize iatrogenic ocular inflammation. PMID: 32293549 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - April 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Determination of parecoxib and valdecoxib in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetics studies.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated a simple, sensitive and applicable method for the quantification of parecoxib and its main pharmacologically active metabolite valdecoxib following sublingual vein administration of 5 mg/kg parecoxib in rats. PMID: 32264977 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - April 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Favorable response to pembrolizumab after durvalumab failure in a stage III sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung: a case report.
CONCLUSION: Here, we present what, to the best of our knowledge, is the first reported case in which durvarumab resistance after definitive chemoradiotherapy in a patient with stage III pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma was overcome by pembrolizumab. PMID: 32245391 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - April 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Intravenous calcium Gluconate alleviates Lead-induced abdominal pain, a randomized clinical trial.
CONCLUSION: Intravenous calcium gluconate administration along with morphine can improve abdominal pain in lead poisoning due to the ingestion of lead-contaminated opium. Further interventional studies are recommended to see if response to calcium salts in suspected lead-induced abdominal pain can rule in lead toxicity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: IRCT20171009036661N2. Registered 27 May 2018 - Retrospectively registered. PMID: 32188492 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - March 21, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Isoniazid causes heart looping disorder in zebrafish embryos by the induction of oxidative stress.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this study demonstrated that isoniazid led to heart looping disturbance by the downregulation of cardiac-specific transcription factors and induction of cardiomyocyte apoptosis. PMID: 32178728 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - March 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Investigating the potential effects of selective histone deacetylase 6 inhibitor ACY1215 on infarct size in rats with cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Authors: Lin CF, Hsu KC, HuangFu WC, Lin TE, Huang HL, Pan SL Abstract BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been tested to treat various cardiovascular diseases, the effects of selective HDAC6 inhibitor ACY1215 on infarct size during cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury still remain unknown. In the present study we aimed to investigate the effects of ACY1215 on infarct size in rats with cardiac IR injury, as well as to examine the association between HDAC6 inhibitors and the gene expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), a key regulator of cellular r...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - March 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Levofloxacin-ceftazidime administration regimens combat Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the hollow-fiber infection model simulating abnormal renal function in critically ill patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Combination therapy had greater bactericidal efficacy and resistance inhibition compared with monotherapy. Studying combination regimens in randomized clinical trials is warranted. PMID: 32131897 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - March 7, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Sub-chronic treatment with high doses of ascorbic acid reduces lead levels in hen eggs intentionally exposed to a concentrated source of lead: a pilot study.
The objective of this pilot study was to investigate if sub-chronic treatment with ascorbic acid can reduce lead levels in the different parts of hen eggs after intentionally exposing the laying hens to a concentrated source of lead. METHODS: Clinically normal mixed-breed egg laying hens (n = 18) were used in this pilot study. Hens were exposed to a concentrated source of lead (200 mg/kgbody weight/day lead acetate) for 1 week. Subsequently, egg laying hens were either treated with sub-chronic doses of ascorbic acid (500 mg/kgbody weight/day) or left untreated for 4 weeks. Lead...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - March 5, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

New uracil analog U-332 is an inhibitor of NF- κB in 5-fluorouracil-resistant human leukemia HL-60 cell line.
CONCLUSIONS: This finding indicates that c-Rel, RelA and NF-κB1 subunits are responsible for the resistance of HL-60/5FU cells to 5-FU and that U-332 is able to reverse this resistance. U-332 can be viewed as an important lead compound in the search for novel drug candidates that would not cause multidrug resistance in cancer cells. PMID: 32122395 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - March 5, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Risk factors for renal toxicity after inpatient cisplatin administration.
Authors: Galfetti E, Cerutti A, Ghielmini M, Zucca E, Wannesson L Abstract BACKGROUND: After several decades, cisplatin continues to be an essential drug for the treatment of several tumors, however, its potential nephrotoxicity is still a clinically relevant issue. Identification of predisposing factors for renal toxicity could be of value to warrant prophylactic measures. METHODS: We analyzed data from 198 patients with various tumor types, treated with cisplatin containing regimens in our regional cancer center in a two-years period. Assessed variables included age, gender, smoking status, alcohol consumptio...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - March 5, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Pregabalin induced visual hallucinations - a rare adverse reaction.
CONCLUSIONS: Acute visual hallucinations should be considered in the clinical spectrum of very rare side effects of pregabalin use, especially at higher doses. Tapered discontinuation of the medication can improve and resolve symptoms. PMID: 32111255 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - March 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Development of rosuvastatin flexible lipid-based nanoparticles: promising nanocarriers for improving intestinal cells cytotoxicity.
CONCLUSIONS: RSV loaded chitosomes nano-formulation could be considered as a promising nanocarrier system with a marked cytotoxic activity while, RSV loaded liposomal NPs are suitable nanocarrier to improve RSV activity in treatment of cardiovascular disorders. PMID: 32085802 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - February 24, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Effects of β1-adrenergic receptor blockade on the cerebral microcirculation in the normal state and during global brain ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbits.
CONCLUSIONS: The blockade of β1-adrenergic receptors induced significant vasodilation of pial arterioles during ischemia/reperfusion injury. By contrast, only a slight dilation of the arterioles was observed in the normal state, indicating that ischemic cerebral microvessels are more susceptible to the vasodilatory effect induced by selective blockade of β1-adrenergic receptors than normal microvessels. PMID: 32085806 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - February 24, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Are antibiotics substandard in Lebanon? Quantification of active pharmaceutical ingredients between brand and generics of selected antibiotics.
CONCLUSION: These findings raise safety and efficacy concerns, providing solid grounds for potential correlations of antibiotic resistance/substandard antibiotics. PMID: 32087736 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - February 24, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Antiviral treatment perspective against Borna disease virus 1 infection in major depression: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial.
Authors: Dietrich DE, Bode L, Spannhuth CW, Hecker H, Ludwig H, Emrich HM Abstract BACKGROUND: Whether Borna disease virus (BDV-1) is a human pathogen remained controversial until recent encephalitis cases showed BDV-1 infection could even be deadly. This called to mind previous evidence for an infectious contribution of BDV-1 to mental disorders. Pilot open trials suggested that BDV-1 infected depressed patients benefitted from antiviral therapy with a licensed drug (amantadine) which also tested sensitive in vitro. Here, we designed a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial (RCT) which cross-lin...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - February 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Protective and therapeutic effects of nanoliposomal quercetin on acute liver injury in rats.
CONCLUSION: Liposomal nanoparticles may improve the solubility and bioavailability of quercetin in liver. Furthermore, nanoliposomal quercetin could effectively protect rats against acute liver injury and may be a new hepatoprotective and therapeutic agent for patients with liver diseases. PMID: 32059743 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - February 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Impact of Lesinurad and allopurinol on experimental Hyperuricemia in mice: biochemical, molecular and Immunohistochemical study.
CONCLUSION: This study confirmed synergistic ameliorative hypouricemic impact of both lesinurad and allopurinol in the treatment of hyperuricemia in mice at the biochemical, molecular and cellular levels. PMID: 32041665 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - February 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Cyclosporine-a attenuates retinal inflammation by inhibiting HMGB-1 formation in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
CONCLUSIONS: Intravitreal administration of Cs-A showed a protective effect on retina. of diabetic rats, possibly by downregulating retinal expressions of IL-1β and TNF-α. via the suppression of HMGB-1. PMID: 32019593 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - February 7, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

In vitro and in situ study on characterization and mechanism of the intestinal absorption of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy-stilbene-2-O- β-D-glucoside.
CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that the gastrointestinal absorption the most unique active ingredient and considered as the mechanisms of TSG involved processes passive transport and the participation of efflux transporters. PMID: 31969193 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - January 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Silibinin attenuates adipose tissue inflammation and reverses obesity and its complications in diet-induced obesity model in mice.
CONCLUSION: In this study, we demonstrated that silibinin as an anti-inflammatory therapy is a potential alternative to manage obesity, as well as its related complications. Moreover, silibinin-based therapies could further evolve as a novel treatment to manage various inflammation-driven disorders. PMID: 31973745 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - January 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Comparison of metamizole and paracetamol effects on colonic anastomosis and fibroblast activities in Wistar rats.
CONCLUSION: Metamizole shows worse effects on the integrity of muscle layers, inhibition of granulation tissue formation, mucosal anastomosis, fibroblast proliferation, and migration, but not collagen synthesis, than paracetamol in Wistar rat intestines following colonic anastomosis. These findings might indicate that paracetamol is safer than metamizole as analgesic following colonic anastomosis. PMID: 31931882 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - January 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Severe intoxication caused by sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor overdose: a case report.
CONCLUSIONS: Our case showed that an overdose of an SGLT2 inhibitor caused toxic effects on renal function, but severe hypoglycemia was not observed. Additional cases of intoxication from SGLT2 inhibitors alone would be helpful to clarify the mechanism of intoxication. PMID: 31918741 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - January 11, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of repeated oral doses of 2-hydroxybenzylamine acetate in healthy volunteers: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
CONCLUSIONS: Repeated oral administration of 2-HOBA was found to be safe and well-tolerated. These results support continued development of 2-HOBA as a nutritional supplement. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Studies are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03555682 Registered 13 June 2018, NCT03554096 Registered 12 June 18). PMID: 31907026 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - January 8, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

The effects of oral administration of Cola nitida on the pharmacokinetic profile of metoclopramide in rabbits.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study reveal a possible herb-drug interaction between Cola nitida and metoclopramide. PMID: 31907041 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - January 8, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

The effect of Liv-52 on liver ischemia reperfusion damage in rats.
CONCLUSIONS: Liv-52 may be beneficial for preventing liver I/R damage in pre-surgery application. PMID: 31900219 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - January 5, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

The impact of cytochrome 450 and Paraoxonase polymorphisms on clopidogrel resistance and major adverse cardiac events in coronary heart disease patients after percutaneous coronary intervention.
CONCLUSION: Our study was first time to report on CYP2C19 and PON-1 polymorphisms in Jin Hua population in the middle of Zhe Jiang province in China. The carriage of CYP2C19*2 or *3 mutant allele significantly reduced the platelet response to clopidogrel and increase the MACE. The carriage of PON-1 mutant allele also significantly reduced the platelet response to clopidogrel, but would not increase the major adverse cardiac events after 1 year follow-up. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR, ChiCTR1800018316. Registered 11 September 2018 - prospective registered, http://www.chictr.org.cn/edit.aspx?pid=30927&htm=4. P...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - January 5, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

A phase 1, randomized, open-label, single-dose study to assess the relative bioavailability of a subcutaneous dose of FKB327 when administered using a prefilled syringe, a prefilled auto-injector, or a vial with disposable syringe in healthy subjects.
CONCLUSION: Among all 3 delivery methods, PK characteristics, safety profiles, and immunogenicity were similar. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EU Clinical Trials Registry EudraCTN2014-004469-26, registered October 14, 2014. PMID: 31888742 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - January 1, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

SBF-1 inhibits contact hypersensitivity in mice through down-regulation of T-cell-mediated responses.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that SBF-1 has an unique immunosuppressive activity both in vitro and in vivo mainly through inhibiting T cell proliferation and activation. Its mechanism appears to be related to the blockage of AKT signaling pathway. PMID: 31864413 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - December 24, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research