One-year mortality among hospital survivors of cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning based on Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 2003 to 2012.
Authors: Chuang MC, Chang CH, Lee CS, Li SH, Hsiao CC, Fang YF, Hsieh MJ Abstract BACKGROUND: Acute cholinesterase inhibitor (CI) poisoning, including organophosphate and carbamate poisoning, is a crucial problem in developing countries. Acute intoxication results in a cholinergic crisis, neurological symptoms, or respiratory failure. However, the short-term and long-term outcomes of CI poisoning are seldom reported. METHODS: Data from the National Health Insurance Research Database were used to investigate the outcomes after organophosphate and carbamate poisoning. Patients who were hospitalized for a first ep...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - November 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

3,3'-Diindolylmethane protects cardiomyocytes from LPS-induced inflammatory response and apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS: DIM may have a protective effect for H9C2 cardiomyocytes against LPS-induced inflammatory response and apoptosis. DIM may be a new insight into the treatment of septic cardiomyopathy. PMID: 30413180 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - November 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Fractal properties and morphological investigation of Nano hydrochlorothiazide is used to treat hypertension.
CONCLUSIONS: In this research, the association between Hctz treatment effects with the point of view of the fractal dimension of the drug was demonstrated to prove the properties of the drug in the body. in the near future, drug fractal studies can improve the development of new drugs and treatments with minimal cost than clinical approaches by linking chemistry, mathematical sciences and pharmaceutical sciences. PMID: 30413182 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - November 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

A rare case report of heavy dose colchicine induced acute kidney injury.
CONCLUSION: We report a case of an acute kidney injury induced by an overdose of colchicine. CRRT and a series of related treatments were beneficial for the treatment of colchicine poisoning. PMID: 30376897 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - November 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Variability of efavirenz plasma concentrations among pediatric HIV patients treated with efavirenz based combination antiretroviral therapy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
This study is aimed at determining plasma efavirenz concentrations among Tanzanian pediatric HIV-1 patients on efavirenz-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and relating it to clinical, immunological and virologic treatment responses. METHODS: A cross sectional study involving pediatric HIV patients aged 5-15 years on efavirenz-based cART for ≥ 6 months were recruited in Dar es Salaam. Data on demographics, cART regimens, efavirenz dose and time of the last dose were collected using structured questionnaires and checklists. Venous blood samples were drawn at 10-19 h post-dosing for ...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - October 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Toxicological evaluation of therapeutic and supra-therapeutic doses of Cellgevity ® on reproductive function and biochemical indices in Wistar rats.
This study evaluated the effects of therapeutic and supra-therapeutic doses of CGV on reproductive function and biochemical indices in Wistar rats. METHODS: Seventy-two Wistar rats weighing 130 ± 15.8 g were grouped into two categories (male or female) of six rats per group. Control group received distilled water (10 ml/kg). Others received therapeutic (14.3 mg/kg or 28.6 mg/kg) and supra-therapeutic CGV doses (1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg) body weight per oral respectively. RESULTS: After 60 days, supra-therapeutic doses of CGV reduced sperm motility (p 
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - October 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Ceftriaxone-induced hemolytic anemia with severe renal failure: a case report and review of literature.
CONCLUSIONS: The case demonstrates the severity of ceftriaxone-induced immune hemolytic anemia, a rare, but immediately life-threatening condition of a frequently used antibiotic in clinical practice. Early and correct diagnosis of DIIHA is crucial, as immediate withdrawal of the causative drug is essential for the patient prognosis. Thus, awareness for this complication must be raised among treating physicians. PMID: 30359322 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - October 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Hesperidin alleviates zinc oxide nanoparticle induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress.
Authors: Ansar S, Abudawood M, Alaraj ASA, Hamed SS Abstract BACKGROUND: Nanoparticles are widely utilized in many products such as cosmetics and sunscreens. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of hesperidin (HSP) on nano zinc oxide particles (nZnO) induced oxidative stress in rat livers. METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each and exposed to single administration of nZnO intraperitoneally (600 mg/kg bwt) and HSP (100 mg/kg bwt) by gavage. Group I served as the control; group II was given nZnO only; groups III received HSP only and group IV received nZnO 1 ...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - October 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Artesunate may inhibit liver fibrosis via the FAK/Akt/ β-catenin pathway in LX-2 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our present study shows that ART could regulate the proliferation, apoptosis and activation of LX-2. Meanwhile, the anti-fibrogenic mechanisms of ART was correlated with FAK/Akt/β-catenin pathway. Future research should verify and extend these findings, as well as explore other molecules and therefore serve as useful therapeutic targets. PMID: 30326962 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - October 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Poisonings in Poland reported to the Polish National Health Fund in the years 2009-2011.
Authors: Świderska A, Wiśniewski M, Wiergowski M, Krakowiak A, Sein Anand J Abstract BACKGROUND: Poisonings constitute a significant medical, social and economic problem worldwide. In Poland there is no nationwide registry of poisonings, which results in a lack of accurate epidemiological data. Few publications dealing with the problem are based on data obtained from toxicology units and therefore do not include information about cases treated at emergency departments and other non-toxicology units. METHODS: We analyzed all admissions due to poisonings reported to the Polish National Health Fund by all hospit...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - October 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of the switch of Triumeq ® to generic (abacavir + lamivudine) + Tivicay®: data at 24 weeks.
CONCLUSIONS: The change from a regimen of abacavir + lamivudine + dolutegravir seems to be safe and effective at 24 weeks. PMID: 30305176 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - October 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Comparing lethal dose ratios using probit regression with arbitrary slopes.
CONCLUSION: This procedure yielded accurate estimates of lethal doses and 95% CLs at different significance levels as well as the lethal dose ratios and 95% CLs between two examples. The procedure could be used to assess differences in the toxicities of two examples without the assumption of parallelism between probit-log(dose) regression lines. PMID: 30290834 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - October 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

The critical interaction between valproate sodium and warfarin: case report and review.
CONCLUSION: By reviewing the literature and discussing the critical interaction between valproate sodium and warfarin, we conclude that intravenous VPA and the co-administrated warfarin may develop critical but underrecognized complications due to effects on the function of hepatic enzymes and displacement of protein binding sites. PMID: 30285858 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - October 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles to enhance bioavailability of quercetin in the intact rat brain.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study confirm that SPION as a targeted drug delivery system enhances the bioavailability of quercetin in the brain about ten folds higher than free quercetin and could be used for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID: 30253803 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - September 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled cardiovascular outcome trials with trial sequential analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis suggested that GLP1R agonists significantly reduced the risk for all-cause mortality and composite cardiovascular outcomes, but the reduction of cardiovascular mortality remains to be confirmed. PMID: 30223891 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - September 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Anesthetic-sensitive ion channel modulation is associated with a molar water solubility cut-off.
CONCLUSIONS: Water solubility cut-off responses were present for all anesthetic-sensitive ion channels; distinct cut-off effects may exist for all cell surface receptors that are sensitive to volatile anesthetics. Suggested is the presence of amphipathic receptor sites normally occupied by water molecules that have dissociation constants inversely related to the cut-off solubility value. Poorly soluble hydrocarbons unable to reach concentrations sufficient to out-compete water for binding site access fail to modulate the receptor. PMID: 30217234 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - September 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Epidemiology of self-medication in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.
CONCLUSION: Self-medication practice becomes a common phenomenon in Ethiopia. The use of prescription-only medications including antimicrobial agents without medical consult has become alarmingly high. This practice will come with potential health related hazards including emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, there must be a multitude of strategies for reversing the current worrying trends of self-medication. PMID: 30201045 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - September 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

From population to individuals: a new indicator for evaluating the appropriateness of clinical application of antibiotics.
CONCLUSIONS: The ratio UD/UR has great practical value and can serve as a reference for evaluating the appropriateness of clinical application of antibiotics. PMID: 30185217 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - September 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Effect of astragaloside IV on indoxyl sulfate-induced kidney injury in mice via attenuation of oxidative stress.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that astragaloside IV prevents IS-induced tubulointerstitial injury by ameliorating oxidative stress and may be a promising agent for the treatment of uremia toxin-induced injury. PMID: 30176914 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - September 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Adverse clinical outcomes associated with double dose clopidogrel compared to the other antiplatelet regimens in patients with coronary artery disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CAD, adverse clinical outcomes were not significantly different when DDC was compared to the other antiplatelet regimens. In addition, bleeding events were also similarly manifested when DDC was compared to DAPT, TAPT or ticagrelor/prasugrel. PMID: 30176938 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - September 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Survivability of hospitalized chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with moderate to severe estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after experiencing adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in a public healthcare center: a retrospective 3 year study.
Authors: Danial M, Hassali MA, Ong LM, Khan AH Abstract BACKGROUND: Accurate identification and routine preventive practices are crucial steps in lessening the incidence of medications and patients related adverse drug reactions (ADRs). METHODS: Three years retrospective study was conducted among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients at multi-wards in a tertiary healthcare center. Data collected included demographic characteristics, physical examination results, comorbid conditions, laboratory tests and medications taken. Only medication prescribed during the hospital stay were considered in this study. ...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Purification, characterization and immunogenicity assessment of glutaminase free L-asparaginase from Streptomyces brollosae NEAE-115.
CONCLUSIONS: The study reveals the excellent property of this enzyme which makes it highly valuable for development of chemotherapeutic drug. PMID: 30139388 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - August 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Risk factors for readmission in patients discharged with outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy: a retrospective cohort study.
This study aimed to elucidate risk factors related to 30-day readmissions in patients who were discharged with OPAT at Mount Sinai Beth Israel (MSBI). METHODS: This IRB approved retrospective cohort study included patients who were at least 18 years or older, admitted to MSBI from August 2015 to March 2016, and discharged to receive OPAT. Patients with intravenous antibiotics prescribed for chronic suppression or planned readmission within 30 days were excluded. The main outcome was readmission to the hospital within 30 days from previous hospital discharge. Univariate and logistic regression analyses we...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - August 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Gender-differences of in vitro colonic motility after chemo- and radiotherapy in humans.
Authors: Maselli MA, Ignazzi A, Pezzolla F, Scirocco A, Lorusso D, De Ponti F, Severi C Abstract BACKGROUND: The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate, in different genders, motor responses in surgical colonic specimens from patients with rectal cancer undergoing and not undergoing chemotherapy with capecitabine and radiotherapy. METHODS: This in vitro study was conducted from October 2015 to August 2017 at the Experimental Pharmacology Laboratory at the National Institute "S. de Bellis" after collecting samples at the Department of Surgery. Segments of sigmoid colon were obtained ...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - August 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

The impact of vancomycin trough concentrations on outcomes in non-deep seated infections: a retrospective cohort study.
CONCLUSIONS: No difference in clinical or microbiological outcomes based on vancomycin trough concentrations were observed in patients with non-deep seated infections treated with vancomycin for ≤14 days. Targeting higher vancomycin trough concentrations of> 10 mg/L may be associated with increased workload with no corresponding benefit in clinical or microbiological outcomes in these patients. PMID: 30064515 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - August 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Potentiating effect of imidacloprid on arsenic-induced testicular toxicity in Wistar rats.
Authors: Mahajan L, Verma PK, Raina R, Sood S Abstract BACKGROUND: It is an established fact that humans and animals are exposed to more than one chemical concurrently from various sources such as food, air and water. In the past, much emphasis was laid on evaluating the toxic effects of a single chemical. Nowadays an increased attention is being paid to the interaction of xenobiotics with one another. Therefore, a study was aimed to evaluate the potentiating effect of imidacloprid (IMI) on arsenic-induced testicular toxicity in rats. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats randomly divided into eight groups with six i...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - August 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

"Appropriateness and adequacy of antibiotic prescription for upper respiratory tract infections in ambulatory health care centers in Ecuador".
CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study report a 90.25% of inappropriate prescription. The antibiotic prescription, appropriate prescription, and adequate prescription rates show the need for implementation of strategies in order to reduce them. Related aspects regarding prescriber's behavior and the patient's expectations should be analyzed. PMID: 30049281 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

An inhibitor of 11- β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (PF915275) alleviates nonylphenol-induced hyperadrenalism and adiposity in rat and human cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The effects of NP and PF915275 treatment in both rat and human cell models are similar. Rats may be an appropriate model to study the effects of NP in humans, especially during the developmental period. PMID: 30021644 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of DODAC/synthetic phosphoethanolamine on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
CONCLUSION: The overall results showed that DODAC/PHO-S liposomes were more effective than PHO-S alone, in promoting cytotoxicity Hepa1c1c7 tumor cells, activating the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of programmed cell death. PMID: 29996919 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Cationic liposomes induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 via regulation of lipid metabolism based on whole-transcriptome sequencing analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: These data are expected to provide deep insights into the molecular mechanism of CLs cytotoxicity. PMID: 29996945 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Structurally simple synthetic 1, 4-disubstituted piperidines with high selectivity for resistant Plasmodium falciparum.
CONCLUSIONS: The alcohol analogues were the most active and most selective for the parasite with three promising hit molecules identified among them, suggesting the hydroxyl group at C-7' in these alcohol analogues is contributing greatly to their antiplasmodial activity. Further exploration of the core structure using chemistry approaches and biological screening including in vivo studies in an animal model of malaria may yield important antimalarial leads. PMID: 29973275 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Sites of gastrointestinal lesion induced by mycophenolate mofetil: a comparison with enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium in rats.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggested that MMF might target jejunum and ileum and induce GI injury. EC-MPS causes less injury in GI tract than MMF, probably due to its kinetic property. PMID: 29973291 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Characterization of differential patient profiles and therapeutic responses of pharmacy customers for four ambroxol formulations.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that over-the-counter formulations of ambroxol exhibit comparable user profiles and efficacy. Differences in speed of onset of symptom relief may involve not only those in systemic pharmacokinetics but also local anesthetic effects of immediate release formulations. Differences between pediatric and adult syrup may in part reflect reporting bias. PMID: 29973292 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Polymyxin B-induced skin hyperpigmentation: a rare case report and literature review.
CONCLUSION: Both our case and the literature review highlight that PMB can give rise to SH indeed. Clinicians and pharmacists should attach great importance to this rare pigmentary disorder and further investigation is warranted. PMID: 29973293 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Prevalence of self-medication practice among health sciences students in Kermanshah, Iran.
CONCLUSION: Given the high prevalence of self-medication among the health sciences students, training courses about the self-medication risks, more supervision over prohibition of over-the-counter drugs and adequate facilities for students' access to medical services are suggested to be provided. PMID: 29970167 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 6, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Effect of Linagliptin and Voglibose on metabolic profile in patients with Type 2 Diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
This study examines the effect of linagliptin on insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in patients with well-controlled T2DM. METHODS: Thirty patients with T2DM of duration ≤5 years, and having HbA1c
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 6, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Comparison of topical tofacitinib and 0.1% hypochlorous acid in a murine atopic dermatitis model.
CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate a similar beneficial potential of topical high dose PR022 HOCl (0.1%) in gel and tofacitinib, in a translational murine model of atopic dermatitis. PMID: 29970189 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 6, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

The benefit of combinations of oximes for the ability of antidotal treatment to counteract sarin-induced brain damage in rats.
CONCLUSIONS: The oxime HI-6 in combination with K203 and atropine seems to be the most effective. Thus, both tested oxime combinations bring a small benefit in elimination of acute sarin-induced brain damage compared to single oxime antidotal therapy. PMID: 29954446 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 30, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Inflammation down-regulates CYP3A4-catalysed drug metabolism in hemodialysis patients.
CONCLUSIONS: The association between CYP3A4 activity and inflammatory biomarkers suggest that the activity of CYP3A4 is reduced by inflammation in HD patients. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding and to assess to what extent magnitude and duration of inflammation as well as the microbiota affect drug metabolism. PMID: 29941014 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 29, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Causality and preventability assessment of adverse drug events of antibiotics among inpatients having different lengths of hospital stay: a multicenter, cross-sectional study in Lahore, Pakistan.
Authors: Saqib A, Sarwar MR, Sarfraz M, Iftikhar S Abstract BACKGROUND: A large number of hospital admissions are attributed to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and they are the fifth leading cause of death worldwide. The present study aimed to assess the causality and preventability of adverse drug events (ADEs) of antibiotics among inpatients having different lengths of hospital stay. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was conducted in four tertiary-care public sector hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. Study population consisted of hospitalized patients who were prescribed one or more antibiotics. Data were...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 29, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Prescription opioid dispensing in New South Wales, Australia: spatial and temporal variation.
CONCLUSIONS: Given that over-use of opioids is a major public health problem and that long-term use has substantial side effects including dependence, it is important to understand spatial patterns of opioid prescribing to enable targeted interventions. Nationwide implementation of real-time drug-monitoring programs and access to monitoring databases from both doctor and pharmacy point-of-care sources may potentially reduce excessive and undue use of opioid. PMID: 29914572 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Stent thrombosis associated with drug eluting stents on addition of cilostazol to the standard dual antiplatelet therapy following percutaneous coronary intervention: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials.
CONCLUSIONS: This current analysis showed no significant difference in stent thrombosis with the addition of cilostazol to the standard dual antiplatelet therapy during any follow-up time period after PCI. PMID: 29914573 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Effect of β-Eudesmol on NQO1 suppression-enhanced sensitivity of cholangiocarcinoma cells to chemotherapeutic agents.
CONCLUSIONS: β-Eudesmol may serve as a potential anti-CCA candidate particularly when used in combination with conventional chemotherapeutics. The mechanisms involved may be mediated via NQO1 suppression-related apoptosis pathway. PMID: 29914576 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

The use of clonidine in elderly patients with delirium; pharmacokinetics and hemodynamic responses.
Authors: Hov KR, Neerland BE, Andersen AM, Undseth Ø, Wyller VB, MacLullich AMJ, Skovlund E, Qvigstad E, Wyller TB Abstract BACKGROUND: The Oslo Study of Clonidine in Elderly Patients with Delirium (LUCID) is an RCT investigating the effect of clonidine in medical patients> 65 years with delirium. To assess the dosage regimen and safety measures of this study protocol, we measured the plasma concentrations and hemodynamic effects of clonidine in the first 20 patients. METHODS: Patients were randomised to clonidine (n = 10) or placebo (n = 10). The treatment grou...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Determinants of anti-retroviral regimen changes among HIV/AIDS patients of east and west Wollega zone health institutions, Oromia region, west Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.
CONCLUSIONS: The number of patients who changed ARV drug in our resource constrained setting present a challenge to the restricted treatment choices that we currently own. Less toxic and better-tolerated HIV treatment options should be available and used more frequently. PMID: 29871665 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Assessment of the state of pharmacovigilance in the South-South zone of Nigeria using WHO pharmacovigilance indicators.
CONCLUSION: This study has shown an urgent need to strengthen the pharmacovigilance systems in the South-South zone of Nigeria. Improvement in medical record documentation as well as increased institutionalization of pharmacovigilance may be the first steps to improve pharmacovigilance activities in the tertiary hospitals. PMID: 29855348 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Absolute oral bioavailability and disposition kinetics of puerarin in female rats.
CONCLUSIONS: The absolute oral bioavailability of puerarin was approximately 7% at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg. Puerarin was widely distributed to several organs related to the diseases of aging, including the hippocampus, femur, tibia, and mammary gland. Glucuronides were the major metabolites of puerarin and were mainly excreted in the urine. These results are useful for the development of puerarin and Pueraria candollei var. mirifica as phytopharmaceutical products. PMID: 29801513 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 31, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Grifolic acid induces GH3 adenoma cell death by inhibiting ATP production through a GPR120-independent mechanism.
CONCLUSION: Grifolic acid induces GH3 cell death by decreasing MMP and inhibiting ATP production, which may be due to the inhibition of NADH production through a GPR120-independent mechanism. PMID: 29843779 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 31, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients with infection at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Authors: Tadesse S, Alemayehu H, Tenna A, Tadesse G, Tessema TS, Shibeshi W, Eguale T Abstract BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major pathogens of public health importance responsible for various forms of infection. Development of resistance to commonly used antimicrobials limited treatment options against infections due to this pathogen. Antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients with surgical site infection and ear infection and corresponding nasal swab was investigated in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: Wound and ...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 24, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Mineral trioxide aggregate affects cell viability and induces apoptosis of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth.
CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that direct contact with 1 week post-set MTA significantly decreases the viability of SHEDs and induced cell apoptosis. The results suggest that there is a possible cytotoxic effect of pulp tissue when there is direct contact with MTA. Different responses would be expected due to the strong alkaline characteristics of fresh mixed MTA. PMID: 29764492 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - May 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research