Personality traits and career choices among physicians in Finland: employment sector, clinical patient contact, specialty and change of specialty
Personality influences an individual ’s adaptation to a specific job or organization. Little is known about personality trait differences between medical career and specialty choices after graduating from medical ... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - March 27, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Sari Mullola, Christian Hakulinen, Justin Presseau, David Gimeno Ruiz de Porras, Markus Jokela, Taina Hintsa and Marko Elovainio Tags: Research article Source Type: research

A pilot randomised controlled study of the mental health first aid eLearning course with UK medical students
Medical students face many barriers to seeking out professional help for their mental health, including stigma relating to mental illness, and often prefer to seek support and advice from fellow students. Impr... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - March 21, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: E. Bethan Davies, Emmeline Beever and Cris Glazebrook Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession: a qualitative study
There is a growing recognition that training is not translated into performance and the ‘transfer problem’ exists in organization training today. Although factors contributing to training transfer have been id... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - March 20, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Fang Ma, Yangjing Bai, Yangjuan Bai, Weiguang Ma, Xiangyu Yang and Jiping Li Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Self-efficacy reduces the impact of social isolation on medical student ’s rural career intent
Social isolation in medical students is a subjective experience that may influence medical career decision making. Rural self-efficacy has been shown to influence rural career intentions following a rural clin... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - March 20, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Vivian Isaac, Sabrina Winona Pit and Craig S. McLachlan Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Evaluation of the utility of teaching joint relocations using cadaveric specimens
Like other procedural skills, the ability to relocate a joint is an important aspect of junior doctor education. Changes in the approach to teaching and learning from the traditional apprenticeship-style model... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - March 20, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: John Au, Edward Palmer, Ian Johnson and Mellick Chehade Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Clinical communication skills and professionalism education are required from the beginning of medical training - a point of view of family physicians
The Brazilian undergraduate medical course is six years long. As in other countries, a medical residency is not obligatory to practice as a doctor. In this context, this paper aims to clarify what and when com... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - March 20, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Camila Ament Giuliani dos Santos Franco, Renato Soleiman Franco, Jos é Mauro Ceratti Lopes, Milton Severo and Maria Amélia Ferreira Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Characteristics of two questionnaires used to assess interprofessional learning: psychometrics and expert panel evaluations
Interprofessional learning activities are included in many curricula but are difficult to assess. For languages that are not widely spoken such as Swedish, few validated questionnaires exist that relate to int... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - March 20, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Samuel Edelbring, Madeleine Abrandt Dahlgren and Desiree Wiegleb Edstr öm Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Specialty preference and intentions to study abroad of Syrian medical students during the crisis
Little research addresses how medical students develop their choice of specialty training in crisis and resource-poor settings. The newly graduated medical students determine the future of the healthcare syste... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - March 16, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Bisher Sawaf, Fatima Abbas, Amr Idris, Tareq Al Saadi and Nazir Ibrahim Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Smartphone learning as an adjunct to vascular teaching – a pilot project
M-learning is education using personal mobile electronic devices. Given the prevalence of these in society and amongst healthcare professionals, we aimed to assess their use and feasibility in improving the ed... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - March 15, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Nadeem A. Mughal, Eleanor R. Atkins, Darren Morrow and Wissam Al-Jundi Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Flipped classroom improves student learning in health professions education: a meta-analysis
The use of flipped classroom approach has become increasingly popular in health professions education. However, no meta-analysis has been published that specifically examines the effect of flipped classroom ve... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - March 15, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Khe Foon HEW and Chung Kwan LO Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Broadening the clinical spectrum for medical students towards primary care: a pre-post analysis of the effect of the implementation of a longitudinal clerkship in general practice
This study aimed to assess how many primary care-specific clinical pictures final-year medical students in tradit... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - March 14, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Roman Hari, Michael Harris, Peter Frey and Sven Streit Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Peer-assisted debriefing of multisource feedback: an exploratory qualitative study
The Manitoba Physician Achievement Review (MPAR) is a 360-degree feedback assessment that physicians undergo every 7 years to retain licensure. Deliberate reflection on feedback has been demonstrated to encour... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - March 14, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Jose Francois, Jeffrey Sisler and Stephanie Mowat Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Enhancing second-order empathy in medical practice by supplementing patients ’ narratives with certainties
Most scholars agree that empathy is one of the keys for medical education, but it is not yet clear precisely how this term should be defined. Currently, the predominant tendency in this area consists in consid... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - March 14, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Jos é María Ariso Tags: Debate Source Type: research

Positive predictive value of medical student specialty choices
Although medical school programs oriented toward postgraduate specialty training have the potential to reduce the duration and cost of medical school for US medical students, success depends on the ability of ... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - March 9, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: M. Douglas Jones Jr, Traci Yamashita, Randal G. Ross and Jennifer Gong Tags: Research article Source Type: research

What do medical students know about e-cigarettes? A cross-sectional survey from one U.S. medical school
This study examined medical students ’ experi... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - March 2, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Katie Hinderaker, David V. Power, Sharon Allen, Ellen Parker and Kolawole Okuyemi Tags: Research article Source Type: research

A searchable database of medical education objectives – creating a comparable gold standard
Medical school curricula strives to teach as much material as can be retained in a limited amount of time. A common “gold standard” resource used building curricula are medical objectives suggested by national... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - March 2, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Sam Brooks, Namita Biala and Sage Arbor Tags: Database Source Type: research

Effects of a work-based critical reflection program for novice nurses
Critical reflection is effective in improving students ’ communication abilities and confidence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a work-based critical reflection program to enhance no... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - February 27, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Yeon Hee Kim, Ja Min, Soon Hee Kim and Sujin Shin Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Perceived stress, reasons for and sources of stress among medical students at Rabigh Medical College, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Medical students have high levels of stress that could be due to the daily life stressors and the extra stress of academic burden. The present study investigated the perceived stress level as well as the reaso... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - February 23, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Zohair Jamil Gazzaz, Mukhtiar Baig, Bader Salem Mana Al Alhendi, Mohammed Mahdi Owiad Al Suliman, Awshaemah Salem Al Alhendi, Mana Saleh Hadi Al-Grad and Mohammed Abdullah Ali Qurayshah Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Correction to: An audit of clinical training exposure amongst junior doctors working in Trauma & Orthopaedic Surgery in 101 hospitals in the United Kingdom
Following publication of the original article [1], the corresponding author wrote to say that he had missed the names of some of the collaborators in the list he sent to the typesetters. In addition, there was... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - February 19, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Mustafa S. Rashid Tags: Correction Source Type: research

A randomised controlled trial to test the effectiveness of decision training on assessors ’ ability to determine optimal fitness-to-drive recommendations for older or disabled drivers
Driving licensing jurisdictions require detailed assessments of fitness-to-drive from occupational therapy driver assessors (OTDAs). We developed decision training based on the recommendations of expert OTDAs,... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - February 13, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Priscilla Harries, Carolyn Unsworth, Hulya Gokalp, Miranda Davies, Christopher Tomlinson and Luke Harries Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Correction to: Strengthening medical training programmes by focusing on professional transitions: a national bridging programme to prepare medical school graduates for their role as medical interns in Botswana
Following publication of the original article [1], one of the authors reported that prior to publication her surname had changed from ‘Kerlen’ to ‘van der Kruk’, but that this change had not been incorporated ... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - February 12, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Bunmi S. Malau-Aduli, Teresa O ’Connor, Robin A. Ray, Yolanda van der Kruk, Michelle Bellingan and Peta-Ann Teague Tags: Correction Source Type: research

Why nutrition education is inadequate in the medical curriculum: a qualitative study of students ’ perspectives on barriers and strategies
The provision of nutrition care by doctors is important in promoting healthy dietary habits, and such interventions can lead to reductions in disease morbidity, mortality, and medical costs. However, medical s... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - February 12, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Victor Mogre, Fred C. J. Stevens, Paul A. Aryee, Anthony Amalba and Albert J. J. A. Scherpbier Tags: Research article Source Type: research

How the study of online collaborative learning can guide teachers and predict students ’ performance in a medical course
Collaborative learning facilitates reflection, diversifies understanding and stimulates skills of critical and higher-order thinking. Although the benefits of collaborative learning have long been recognized, ... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - February 6, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Mohammed Saqr, Uno Fors and Matti Tedre Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Factors deterring dentistry, medical, pharmacy, and social science undergraduates from pursuing nursing as a healthcare career: a cross-sectional study in an Asian university
Globally more registered nurses need to be recruited to meet the needs of aging populations and increased co-morbidity. Nursing recruitment remains challenging when compared to other healthcare programs. Despi... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - January 26, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Ling Ting Wu, Wenru Wang, Eleanor Holroyd, Violeta Lopez and Sok Ying Liaw Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Changes in patient-centered attitude and confidence in communicating with patients: a longitudinal study of resident physicians
Patient-centered care has been one of the most frequently discussed principles in medical practice. However, there is a serious concern that the patient-centered attitudes of physicians diminish over the cours... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - January 25, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Hirono Ishikawa, Daisuke Son, Masato Eto, Kiyoshi Kitamura and Takahiro Kiuchi Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Cross-validation of a learning climate instrument in a non-western postgraduate clinical environment
In postgraduate training, there is a need to continuously assess the learning and working conditions to optimize learning. Students or trainees respond to the learning climate as they perceive it. The Dutch Re... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - January 25, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Jaime L. Pacifico, Cees P. M. van der Vleuten, Arno M. M. Muijtjens, Erlyn A. Sana and Sylvia Heeneman Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Multiple mini interview (MMI) for general practice training selection in Australia: interviewers ’ motivation
Multiple Mini Interviews (MMIs) are being used by a growing number of postgraduate training programs and medical schools as their interview process for selection entry. The Australian General Practice and Trai... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - January 25, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Annette Burgess, Chris Roberts, Premala Sureshkumar and Karyn Mossman Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Students ´ perception of interprofessional education in the bachelor programme “Interprofessional Health Care” in Heidelberg, Germany: an exploratory case study
Interprofessional education is receiving increased attention worldwide. This has led to the development of a bachelor programme “Interprofessional Health Care” at the University of Heidelberg, Germany beginnin... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - January 25, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Cornelia Mahler, Veronika Schwarzbeck, Johanna Mink and Katja Goetz Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Ethnic bias and clinical decision-making among New Zealand medical students: an observational study
Health professional racial/ethnic bias may impact on clinical decision-making and contribute to subsequent ethnic health inequities. However, limited research has been undertaken among medical students. This p... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - January 23, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Ricci Harris, Donna Cormack, James Stanley, Elana Curtis, Rhys Jones and Cameron Lacey Tags: Research article Source Type: research

The predominant learning approaches of medical students
By identifying medical students ’ learning approaches and the factors that influence students’ learning approaches, medical schools and health care institutions are better equipped to intervene and optimize the... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - January 18, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Sonali Prashant Chonkar, Tam Cam Ha, Sarah Shan Hang Chu, Ada Xinhui Ng, Melissa Li Shan Lim, Tat Xin Ee, Mor Jack Ng and Kok Hian Tan Tags: Research article Source Type: research

What motivates medical students to select medical studies: a systematic literature review
The objective of this study... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - January 17, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Sonu Goel, Federica Angeli, Nonita Dhirar, Neetu Singla and Dirk Ruwaard Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Training programmes to improve evidence uptake and utilisation by physiotherapists: a systematic scoping review
Research training programmes are a knowledge translation (KT) intervention which aim to improve research evidence uptake by clinicians. Whilst KT training programmes have been reported to significantly improve... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - January 15, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Jessica Stander, Karen Grimmer and Yolandi Brink Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Choosing a career in oncology: results of a nationwide cross-sectional study
Little information is currently available concerning young medical students desire to pursue a career in oncology, or their career expectations. (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - January 15, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: J. C. Faivre, J. E. Bibault, A. Bellesoeur, J. Salleron, M. Wack, J. Biau, M. Cervellera, G. Janoray, T. Leroy, N. Lescut, V. Martin, S. Molina, B. Pichon, C. Teyssier, S. Thureau, J. J. Mazeron & hellip; Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Resilience and well-being of university nursing students in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional study
University nursing students experience higher levels of academic stress than those of other disciplines. Academic stress leads to psychological distress and has detrimental effects on well-being. The ability t... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - January 12, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Ka Ming CHOW, Wing Ki Fiona TANG, Wing Han Carmen CHAN, Wing Hung Janet SIT, Kai Chow CHOI and Sally CHAN Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Interprofessional education in graduate medical education: survey study of residency program directors
The overarching purpose of this study is to examine the current trends in interprofessional education (IPE) within graduate medical education in the Unites States. (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - January 10, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Morhaf Al Achkar, Mathew Hanauer, Chantel Colavecchia and Dean A. Seehusen Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Psychosocial issues discovered through reflective group dialogue between medical students
The biopsychosocial model is a comprehensive approach emphasizing holistic medical care. However, medical curricula that incorporate narrative reflective writing and group dynamic discussion of psychosocial is... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - January 10, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Shao-Yin Chu, Chi-Wei Lin, Meei-Ju Lin and Chin-Chen Wen Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Enhancing the defensibility of examiners ’ marks in high stake OSCEs
Most assessments in health professions education consist of knowledge-based examinations as well as practical and clinical examinations. Among the most challenging aspects of clinical assessments is decision m... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - January 6, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Boaz Shulruf, Arvin Damodaran, Phil Jones, Sean Kennedy, George Mangos, Anthony J. O ’Sullivan, Joel Rhee, Silas Taylor, Gary Velan and Peter Harris Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Do senior medical students meet recommended emergency medicine curricula requirements?
Emergency departments (EDs) offer a variety of learning opportunities for undergraduate medical students. It is however, difficult to evaluate whether they are receiving recommended training during their emerg... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - January 5, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Sami Shaban, Arif Alper Cevik, Mustafa Emin Canakci, Caglar Kuas, Margret El Zubeir and Fikri Abu-Zidan Tags: Research article Source Type: research

The UK medical education database (UKMED) what is it? Why and how might you use it?
Educating doctors is expensive and poor performance by future graduates can literally cost lives. Whilst the practice of medicine is highly evidence based, medical education is much less so. Research on medica... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - January 5, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Jon Dowell, Jennifer Cleland, Siobhan Fitzpatrick, Chris McManus, Sandra Nicholson, Thomas Opp é, Katie Petty-Saphon, Olga Sierocinska King, Daniel Smith, Steve Thornton and Kirsty White Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Voluntary vs. compulsory student evaluation of clerkships: effect on validity and potential bias
Students evaluations of their learning experiences can provide a useful source of information about clerkship effectiveness in undergraduate medical education. However, low response rates in clerkship evaluati... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - January 5, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Sola Aoun Bahous, Pascale Salameh, Angelique Salloum, Wael Salameh, Yoon Soo Park and Ara Tekian Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Medical school clinical placements – the optimal method for assessing the clinical educational environment from a graduate entry perspective
Educational environment is a strong determinant of student satisfaction and achievement. The learning environments of medical students on clinical placements are busy workplaces, composed of many variables. Th... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - January 5, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Sarah Hyde, Ailish Hannigan, Tim Dornan and Deirdre McGrath Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Training the next generation of physician researchers – Vanderbilt Medical Scholars Program
As highlighted in recent reports published by the Physician-Scientist Workforce Working Group at the National Institutes of Health, the percentage of physicians conducting research has declined over the past d... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - January 4, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Abigail M. Brown, Teresa M. Chipps, Tebeb Gebretsadik, Lorraine B. Ware, Jessica Y. Islam, Luke R. Finck, Joey Barnett and Tina V. Hartert Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Experiences of pressure to conform in postgraduate medical education
Perception of pressure to conform prevents learners from actively participating in educational encounters. We expected that residents would report experiencing different amounts of pressure to conform in a var... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - January 3, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Jan Grendar, Tanya Beran and Elizabeth Oddone-Paolucci Tags: Research article Source Type: research

An audit of clinical training exposure amongst junior doctors working in Trauma & Orthopaedic Surgery in 101 hospitals in the United Kingdom
There are concerns regarding early years ’ training for junior doctors in Trauma& Orthopaedic Surgery (T&O) in the United Kingdom. Our primary objective was to audit the clinical activities undertaken by junio... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - January 2, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Mustafa S. Rashid Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Medical student experiences in prison health services and social cognitive career choice: a qualitative study
One of the purposes of undergraduate medical education is to assist students to consider their future career paths in medicine, alongside the needs of the societies in which they will serve. Amongst the most m... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - January 2, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Ron Brooker, Wendy Hu, Jennifer Reath and Penelope Abbott Tags: Research article Source Type: research

The GP tests of competence assessment: which part best predicts fitness to practise decisions?
The General Medical Council (GMC) conducts Tests of Competence (ToC) for doctors referred for Fitness to Practise (FtP) issues. GPs take a single best answer knowledge test, an Objective Structured Clinical Ex... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - January 2, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Hirosha Keshani Jayaweera, Henry W. W. Potts, Karim Keshwani, Chris Valerio, Magdalen Baker, Leila Mehdizadeh and Alison Sturrock Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Dental hygienists ’ perceptions of professionalism are multidimensional and context-dependent: a qualitative study in Japan
Due to the declining birth rate and aging of Japanese society, the roles and responsibilities of dental hygienists are continuously expanding. Medical professionalism needs to be pursued continuously throughou... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - December 29, 2017 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Yukiko Nagatani, Rintaro Imafuku, Toshinobu Takemoto, Tadayuki Waki, Taiji Obayashi and Tetsuji Ogawa Tags: Research article Source Type: research

A one-day surgical-skill training course for medical students ’ improved surgical skills and increased interest in surgery as a career
Despite many high-quality programs in basic surgical-skill education, the surgical skill of junior doctors varies widely. This, together with the waning interest in surgery as a career among medical students, ... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - December 28, 2017 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Ho Seok Seo, Yong Hwa Eom, Min Ki Kim, Young-Min Kim, Byung Joo Song and Kyo Young Song Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Risk factors associated with academic difficulty in an Australian regionally located medical school
Despite the highly selective admission processes utilised by medical schools, a significant cohort of medical students still face academic difficulties and are at a higher risk of delayed graduation or outrigh... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - December 28, 2017 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Bunmi S. Malau-Aduli, Teresa O ’Connor, Robin A. Ray, Yolanda Kerlen, Michelle Bellingan and Peta-Ann Teague Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Implementation of a novel population panel management curriculum among interprofessional health care trainees
Gaps in chronic disease management have led to calls for novel methods of interprofessional, team-based care. Population panel management (PPM), the process of continuous quality improvement across groups of p... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - December 22, 2017 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Catherine P. Kaminetzky, Lauren A. Beste, Anne P. Poppe, Daniel B. Doan, Howard K. Mun, Nancy Fugate Woods and Joyce E. Wipf Tags: Research article Source Type: research