Post-Carnegie II curricular reform: a north American survey of emerging trends & challenges
In 2010, coincident with the 100th anniversary of Flexner ’s sentinel report, the Carnegie Foundation published an updated review of North American medical education and challenged medical schools to initiate f... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - July 12, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Arnyce R. Pock, Steven J. Durning, William R. Gilliland and Louis N. Pangaro Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Community-based educational design for undergraduate medical education: a grounded theory study
Community-based education (CBE) is strategically important to provide contextual learning for medical students. CBE is a priority for countries striving for better primary health care. However, the CBE literat... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - July 11, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Mora Claramita, Elsa Pudji Setiawati, Tri Nur Kristina, Ova Emilia and Cees van der Vleuten Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Methods for teaching evidence-based practice: a scoping review
This scoping review aims to gather and map inspiration, ideas and recommendations for teaching evidence-based practice across Professional Bachelor Degree healthcare programmes by mapping literature describing... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - July 11, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Camilla Marie Larsen, Anne Seneca Terkelsen, Anne-Marie Fiala Carlsen and Hanne Kaae Kristensen Tags: Research article Source Type: research

The implementation of the Japanese Dental English core curriculum: active learning based on peer-teaching and learning activities
Education in Japan and other Asian countries advocates the stereotypical passive learning style where students are limited in their breadth of knowledge dismissing anything not imparted by their teachers. With... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - July 10, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Omar M. M. Rodis and Rozzano C. Locsin Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Junior doctors ’ early career choices do not predict career destination in neurology: 40 years of surveys of UK medical graduates
We report trends in... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - July 10, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Atena Barat, Michael J. Goldacre and Trevor W. Lambert Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Evaluating a process of academic detailing in primary care: an educational programme for acute kidney injury
Primary care has a significant role in AKI management: two-thirds of AKI originates in the community. Through academic detailing (an evidence-based educational approach) we aimed to implement and measure the e... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - July 9, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Rebecca A. Noble, Joanna C. McKinnell, Sue Shaw, Sally Bassett, Lynn Woods, Mufaza Asrar, Nitin V. Kolhe and Nicholas M. Selby Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Professional socialisation of nursing students in a collectivist culture: a qualitative study
Beyond the formal curriculum of skill attainment, nursing students are able to undergo the professional socialisation process in clinical contexts and establish their identity as healthcare providers. However,... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - July 9, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Jung Jae Lee and Sook Ching Yang Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Proliferation of the WReN spider, an instrument to measure health professionals ’ experience of research: a bibliographic study
In 1997 the “Wessex Research Network (WReN) Spider” was developed and validated to assess the research experience of general practice based researchers. This bibliometric study traces the use and development o... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - July 9, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Lidia Luna Puerta, Christian Apfelbacher and Helen Smith Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Correction to: Exploring how medical students learn with the help of a digital presentation: a qualitative study
Following publication of the original article [1], the author reported that Table 3 was given the incorrect heading. (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - July 8, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Mary Hyll, Robert Schvarcz and Katri Manninen Tags: Correction Source Type: research

Doctoral students ’ perceived working environment, obstacles and opportunities at a Swedish medical faculty: a qualitative study
Investment in research is high on the agenda of many countries in recognition of the fact that research is important for the development of society. Doctoral students have a vital role and represent a substant... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - July 8, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Lena Ljungkrona Falk, Hanna Augustin, Kjell Tor én and Maria Magnusson Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Implementing and evaluating an e-portfolio for postgraduate family medicine training in the Western Cape, South Africa
In South Africa it is compulsory to submit a satisfactory portfolio of learning to gain entrance to the national exit examination of the College of Family Physicians and to qualify as a family physician. A pap... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - July 8, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Magdaleen De Swardt, Louis S. Jenkins, Klaus B. Von Pressentin and Robert Mash Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Impact of video feedback system on medical students ’ perception of their clinical performance assessment
This study compared students ’ perceptio... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - July 8, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Bee Sung Kam, So Jung Yune, Sang Yeoup Lee, Sun Ju Im and Sun Yong Baek Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Exploring burnout and the association with the educational climate in pediatric residents in Thailand
This study, undertaken in Bangkok, Thailand, explored the extent to which paediatric residents in a non-Western setting experienced burnout and the potential association with factors in the medical educational... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - July 5, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Pongtong Puranitee, Fred F. C. J. Stevens, Samart Pakakasama, Adisak Plitponkarnpim, Sakda Arj-OngVallibhakara, Jamiu O. Busari, Sylvia Heeneman and Walther N. K. A. van Mook Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Using a virtue ethics lens to develop a socially accountable community placement programme for medical students
This article... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - July 5, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Mpho S. Mogodi, Masego B. Kebaetse, Mmoloki C. Molwantwa, Detlef R. Prozesky and Dominic Griffiths Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Additional qualifications of trainees in specialist training programs in Australia
In Australia, the number of medical graduates per year has increased at a greater rate than the increase in the number of specialist training places. Consequently, competition for training positions is intensi... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - July 5, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Daniel Thompson, Colin Thompson, Natasha Nassar and Annette Katelaris Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Professional self-concept and burnout among medical school faculty in South Korea: a cross-sectional study
Medical school faculty members have been reported to be highly likely to suffer burnout. Research is being conducted on professional self-concepts as a factor that relieves burnout in many professions. However... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - July 5, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Jihye Yu, Sukyung Lee, Miran Kim, Kiyoung Lim, Kihong Chang and Sujin Chae Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Swedish doctors choice of medical speciality and associations with cultural capital and perceived status: a cross-sectional study
Many western countries have problems recruiting and retaining medical specialists. In Sweden there is a lack of primary care doctors and psychiatrists. Despite much research on the topic the shortage remains. ... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - July 4, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Caroline Olsson, Hans J ärnbert-Pettersson, Sari Ponzer, Marie Dahlin and Tomas Bexelius Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Exploring sociodemographic subgroup differences in multiple mini-interview (MMI) performance based on MMI station type and the implications for the predictive fairness of the Hamburg MMI
Sociodemographic subgroup differences in multiple mini-interview (MMI) performance have been extensively studied within the MMI research literature, but heterogeneous findings demand a closer look at how speci... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - July 3, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Mirjana Knorr, Hubertus Meyer, Susanne Sehner, Wolfgang Hampe and Stefan Zimmermann Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Immunization attitudes, opinions, and knowledge of healthcare professional students at two Midwestern universities in the United States
In addition to administering vaccinations, healthcare professionals (HCPs) also play a crucial role in providing education and advocacy to the public regarding immunizations. Yet, many current and future HCPs ... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - July 2, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Lauren L. Dybsand, Kylie J. Hall and Paul J. Carson Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Improving knowledge of doctors and paramedics through effective bone procurement workshop: A cognitive approach
Procurement of bone allograft must be performed by trained personnel. Improper handling and lack of knowledge during bone procurement will lead to contamination hence jeopardizing quality of the procured bones... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - July 1, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Suhaili Mohd, Norimah Yusof, Lee-Lee Lai, Md. Golam Hossain, Saravana Ramalingam, Suzina Sheikh AB Hamid, Wuey Min Ng and Azura Mansor Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Pre-clerkship medical students ’ perceptions of medical professionalism
Professionalism instruction and assessment is a core component of medical education, and essential for professional identity formation (PIF). Thus, understanding the socialization of medical students to the va... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - July 1, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Danielle Reimer, Ross Russell, Bertha Ben Khallouq, Christine Kauffman, Caridad Hernandez, Juan Cend án and Analia Castiglioni Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Role of community health service programs in navigating the medical ethical slippery slope —a 10-year retrospective study among medical students from southern China
For promoting autonomous learning motivation, the learning effect of community-oriented service is beneficial, because through community participation and service, students can transfer their implicit cognitio... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - July 1, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Guanhua Fan, Zhenhua Lin, Yizhen Luo, Maohuai Chen and Liping Li Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Student academic performance factors affecting matching into first-choice residency and competitive specialties
Although specific specialties and residency programs have investigated student performance factors affecting matching, there is a paucity of information from medical schools. Furthermore, factors contributing ... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - July 1, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Katherine Mitsouras, Fanglong Dong, Marian N. Safaoui and Scott C. Helf Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Do medical students believe the back pain myths? A cross-sectional study
Low back pain (LBP) is common, affecting 58 –84% of adults at some point. In benign cases, misinformation can lead to harmful coping strategies and prolonged recovery time. Deyo has identified seven ‘Myths of B... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 27, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Eva McCabe, Dima Jadaan, Sudharshan Munigangaiah, Navya Basavaraju and John P. McCabe Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Multi-material three dimensional printed models for simulation of bronchoscopy
Bronchoscopy involves exploration of a three-dimensional (3D) bronchial tree environment using just two-dimensional (2D) images, visual cues and haptic feedback. Sound knowledge and understanding of tracheobro... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 27, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Brian Han Khai Ho, Cecilia Jiayu Chen, Gerald Jit Shen Tan, Wai Yee Yeong, Heang Kuan Joel Tan, Albert Yick Hou Lim, Michael Alan Ferenczi and Sreenivasulu Reddy Mogali Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Intrinsic roles in the crosshair – strategic analysis of multi-site role implementation with an adapted matrix map approach
The implementation of competency-based intrinsic roles in undergraduate medical education remains a challenge. Faculties in transition need to be provided with generalizable curricular data in order to facilit... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 27, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Jan Griewatz and Maria Lammerding-Koeppel Tags: Research article Source Type: research

The art of observation: a qualitative analysis of medical students ’ experiences
Although the inclusion of arts in medical school curricula has garnered attention, little is known about the effect of arts-based interventions on the behaviors, attitudes, and technical skills of students. Th... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 26, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Bowen He, Smriti Prasad, Robin T. Higashi and Heather Woodworth Goff Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Turkish medical educators ’ TPACK components and characters: an analysis within the framework of simulation-based medical education
Nowadays, a comprehensive approach is needed to describe the current status of the technology integration process and the identification of the factors that affect it, because the description and frame of the ... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 25, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Engin Karadag Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Using Kahoot! as a formative assessment tool in medical education: a phenomenological study
Gamification is an increasingly common phenomenon in education. It is a technique to facilitate formative assessment and to promote student learning. It has been shown to be more effective than traditional met... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 25, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Muhd Al-Aarifin Ismail, Anisa Ahmad, Jamilah Al-Muhammady Mohammad, Nik Mohd Rizal Mohd Fakri, Mohd Zarawi Mat Nor and Mohamad Najib Mat Pa Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Group randomized trial of teaching tobacco-cessation counseling to senior medical students: a peer role-play module versus a standardized patient module
An important barrier to smoking-cessation counseling for physicians is a lack of education at the undergraduate level. Interactive methods such as peer role-play (RP) or modules utilizing standardized patients... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 25, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Kye-Yeung Park, Hoon-Ki Park and Hwan-Sik Hwang Tags: Research article Source Type: research

The co-design, implementation and evaluation of a serious board game ‘PlayDecide patient safety’ to educate junior doctors about patient safety and the importance of reporting safety concerns
We believe junior doctors are in a unique position in relation to reporting of incidents and safety culture. They are still in training and are also ‘fresh eyes’ on the system providing valuable insights into ... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 25, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Marie Ward, Éidín Ní Shé, Aoife De Brún, Christian Korpos, Moayed Hamza, Elaine Burke, Ann Duffy, Karen Egan, Una Geary, Catherine Holland, Julie O’Grady, Karen Robinson, Alan Smith, Alan Watson and Eilish McAuliffe Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Effect of virtual versus traditional education on theoretical knowledge and reporting skills of dental students in radiographic interpretation of bony lesions of the jaw
This study aimed to compare the effect of virtual and traditional education on theoretical knowledge and reporting skills of dental students in radiographic interpretation of bony lesions of the jaw. (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 25, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Elham Soltanimehr, Ehsan Bahrampour, Mohammad Moslem Imani, Farshad Rahimi, Banafsheh Almasi and Marzieh Moattari Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Effectiveness of a self-directed learning program using blended coaching among nursing students in clinical practice: a quasi-experimental research design
New educational approaches may be necessary to enhance competency in the new generation of students. Self-directed learning and blended coaching have been effective strategies to meet this challenge. However, ... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Gie-Ok Noh and Dong Hee Kim Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Is hybrid-PBL advancing teaching in biomedicine? A systematic review
The impact of instructional guidance on learning outcomes in higher biomedical education is subject of intense debate. There is the teacher-centered or traditional way of teaching (TT) and, on the other side, ... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Rodrigo Jim énez-Saiz and Domenico Rosace Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Changing medical students ’ attitudes to and knowledge of deafness: a mixed methods study
This study aimed to determine the impact dedicated deaf awareness training could have on medical student ’s attitudes to a... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Michelle Gilmore, Anna Sturgeon, Clare Thomson, David Bell, Sophie Ryan, James Bailey, Kieran McGlade and Jayne V. Woodside Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Construction and preliminary evaluation of the inpatient glycemic control questionnaire (IGCQ): a survey tool assessing perceptions and knowledge of resident physicians
Uncontrolled hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients, with or without diabetes mellitus, is associated with many adverse outcomes. Resident physicians are the primary managers of inpatient glycemic control (IGC... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: William B. Horton, Sidney Law, Monika Darji, Mark R. Conaway, Nancy T. Kubiak, Jennifer L. Kirby and S. Calvin Thigpen Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Interventions addressing student bullying in the clinical workplace: a narrative review
Student bullying in the clinical environment continues to have a substantial impact, despite numerous attempts to rectify the situation. However, there are significant gaps in the literature about intervention... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 21, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Althea Gamble Blakey, Kelby Smith-Han, Lynley Anderson, Emma Collins, Elizabeth Berryman and Tim J. Wilkinson Tags: Review Source Type: research

How postgraduate trainees from different health professions experience the learning climate within an operating theater: a mixed-methods study
The learning climate within a learning environment is a key factor to determine the potential quality of learning. There are different groups of postgraduate trainees who study primarily in the operating theat... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 21, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Kasana Raksamani and Ren ée E. Stalmeijer Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Refining the medical student safety attitudes and professionalism survey (MSSAPS): adaptation and assessment of patient safety perception of French medical residents
Implementing a patient safety curriculum for medical students requires to identify their needs and current awareness of the topic. Several tools have been developed to measure patient safety culture, but none ... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 21, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: St éphanie Larramendy-Magnin, Emmanuelle Anthoine, Barbara L’Heude, Brice Leclère and Leïla Moret Tags: Research article Source Type: research

The impact of a musculoskeletal training program on residents ’ recognition and treatment of osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is inadequately treated in primary care settings. Under-recognition of the condition among male Veterans may contribute to this problem. In order to improve understanding of bone health in older m... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 21, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Richard E. Nelson, Junjie Ma, Karla Miller, Phillip Lawrence, Joanne LaFleur, Marissa Grotzke, Andrea Barker, Grant W. Cannon and Michael J. Battistone Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Effectiveness of SNAPPS for improving clinical reasoning in postgraduates: randomized controlled trial
In-patient postgraduate teaching suffers with issues like long and unstructured presentations inclusive of a lot of historical information and time constraints due to increasing workload. A six-step pneumonic ... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 21, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Vishakha Jain, Siddharth Rao and Mariya Jinadani Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Unethical behavior and professionalism among medical students in a private medical university in Malaysia
This study proposes to determine... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 18, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Hematram Yadav, Ravindran Jegasothy, Sowmya Ramakrishnappa, Jaiprakash Mohanraj and Prathapa Senan Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Comparison of long-menu and single-best-answer multiple choice questions in computer-based summative assessments: a randomised controlled trial
Little is known regarding the psychometric properties of computerized long-menu formats in comparison to classic formats. We compared single-best-answer (Type A) and long-menu formats using identical question ... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 18, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Bernard Cerutti, Fabiola Stollar, Monica Escher, Katherine Blondon, Susanne Aujesky, Mathieu Nendaz and Annick Galetto-Lacour Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Standardized patient methodology in mainland China: a nationwide survey
To describe the current status of standardized patient (SP) practice in mainland China. (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 17, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Hua-Xia Yang, Yuan Xu, Nai-Xin Liang, Wei Chen, Xue-Min Yan, Ping Yang, Zhi-Yuan Guan, Carol A. Pfeiffer, Qi Li, Jun Zhao and Hui Pan Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Cuban medical training for South African students: a mixed methods study
Achieving universal health care coverage will require greater investment in primary health care, particularly in rural and underserved populations in low and middle-income countries. South Africa has invested ... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 17, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Xincheng Sui, Priscilla Reddy, Anam Nyembezi, Pamela Naidoo, Kalipso Chalkidou, Neil Squires and Shah Ebrahim Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Measuring change in knowledge acquisition of Rwandan residents: using the American Board of Pediatrics International In-Training Examination (I-ITE) as an independent tool to monitor individual and departmental improvements during the Human Resources for Health program: an observational study
The objectives of this study were to use the scores from the I-ITE to outline the baseline level of knowle... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 17, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Natalie McCall, Christian Umuhoza, Cliff O ’Callahan, Tanya Rogo, Diane Stafford, Aimable Kanyamuhunga and Peter T. Cartledge Tags: Research article Source Type: research

On-call transthoracic echocardiographic interpretation by first year cardiology fellows: comparison with attending cardiologists
Transthoracic echocardiograms (TTE) performed and interpreted by cardiology fellows during off-duty hours are critical to patient care, however limited data exist on their interpretive accuracy. Our aims were ... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 14, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Aferdita Spahillari, Ian McCormick, Jesse X. Yang, Gene R. Quinn and Warren J. Manning Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Does access to a portable ophthalmoscope improve skill acquisition in direct ophthalmoscopy? A method comparison study in undergraduate medical education
Direct ophthalmoscopy (DO) is an essential skill for medical graduates but there are multiple barriers to learning this. Medical students and junior doctors typically lack confidence in DO. Most students do no... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 13, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: J. A. Gilmour-White, A. Picton, A. Blaikie, A. K. Denniston, R. Blanch, J. Coleman and P. I. Murray Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Supervision and autonomy of ophthalmology residents in the outpatient clinic in the United States II: a survey of senior residents
In this study, we sought to determine whether the presence and level of supervision of ophthalmology resident outpati... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 13, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Eric L. Singman, Michael V. Boland, Jing Tian, Laura K. Green and Divya Srikumaran Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Preceptors ’ perception of their role as educators and professionals in a health system
This study a... (Source: BMC Medical Education)
Source: BMC Medical Education - June 13, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Let ícia Cabrini Girotto, Sylvia Claassen Enns, Marilda Siriani de Oliveira, Fernanda Brenneisen Mayer, Bruno Perotta, Itamar Souza Santos and Patricia Tempski Tags: Research article Source Type: research